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UNIVERSIT DEGLI STUDI DI NAPOLI LORIENTALE

ANNALI
VOLUME
72

NAPOLI 2012

UNIVERSIT DEGLI STUDI DI NAPOLI LORIENTALE

ANNALI
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INDICE

Scritti in onore di Pietro Mander


a cura di Palmiro Notizia e Francesco Pomponio
Premessa

Profilo bio-bibliografico di Pietro Mander

LUCIANO ALBANESE, Adad e gli Oracoli caldaici

13

ODOARDO BULGARELLI, Larchivio paleo-babilonese di Ipqu-Sn e la collezione di


tavolette cuneiformi della Banca dItalia

27

FRANCO DAGOSTINO, Ti ricordi, Pietro? In margine alla prima campagna di scavi


ad Abu Tbeirah, Iraq meridionale

41

MANUEL MOLINA, PALMIRO NOTIZIA, Five Cuneiform Tablets from Private Collections

47

MASSIMILIANO NUZZOLO, Man Approaching God: Some Remarks on the Egyptian and
Mesopotamian Rituals of the Opening/Washing of the Mouth ..

65

ANTONIO P ANAINO, Nuove riflessioni sulla stella dei Magi tra fonti canoniche e
apocrife

77

FRANCESCO POMPONIO, Some Considerations on Rmu

99

ANNUNZIATA ROSITANI, The Role of the naditum of ama and of Some Officials
in Old Babylonian Sippar Organization of Agriculture Work

113

GABRIELLA SPADA, I modelli di contratto nelledubba paleo-babilonese. Un esempio di contratto di adozione

133

LORENZO VERDERAME, Sedie, troni e portantine nellantica Mesopotamia

149

GIUSEPPE VISICATO, Two Governors of Umma called Surus-kin in the Sargonic Period

169

Note e Discussioni
BRUNO GENITO, Archaeological History of Iran: the Post-Achaemenid and Hellenistic Time (Archaeological Horizon in Frs in Late Iron Age, or Iron Age IIIIV). A Review-Article...

177

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN, Aihole Revisited.

211

Recensioni
Robert Hillenbrand, Studies in the Islamic Arts of the Book (Maria Vittoria Fontana)...
Georg Bossong, Poesa en convivencia. Estudios sobre la lrica rabe, hebrea y
romance en la Espaa de las tres religiones (Francesca Bellino)..............................
El Libro de las Plantas. Seccin primera: de rboles y arbustos (al-Qazwn, S. XIII)
(Francesca Bellino).....................................................................................................
Barbara E. Barich, Antica Africa. Alle origini delle societ (Andrea Manzo).
Luciano Rocchi, Il dizionario turco-ottomano di Arcangelo Carradori (1650);
Luciano Rocchi, Il Dittionario della lingua turchesca di Pietro Ferraguto (1611)
(Luca Berardi).
Winnie Cheng, Exploring Corpus Linguistics: Language in Action (Patrizia Zotti)...

Libri ricevuti

223
230
232
234

236
240

243

NOTE E DISCUSSIONI

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN

Aihole Revisited

The present brief communication aims to integrate the literature bearing


on Aihole, in an effort to throw further light on its art historical viability and
conservation measures. It also outlines some hypotheses about the Buddhist
monuments of Aihole, Tamilnadu and Madhya-Bhrata in the light of recent
discoveries.
An overview of recent publications on Aihole shows serious gaps in the
knowledge of primary and secondary sources, which instead is vital to correctly put Aihole in its historical context and understand the relevance of its monuments and iconographies to specific Hindu, Jain and Buddhist schools. 1
However, one has to consider the objective reasons why such lapses occur. In
fact, the plight of Indian researchers is not encouraging due to the fact that the
libraries in India are not richly endowed with books and journals.2
Coming to Aihole, it is sad to find sculptures and architectural fragments
of incalculable value scattered all over the village and lay incomprehensibly
neglected. Some of these are illustrated in the present article in the hope that a
thorough conservation plan is designed to give a new life to the monuments of
Aihole (Map). If a good first step in this direction would be a comprehensive

See for instance J. Soundararajan (2009), which misses a long list of relevant bibliographic
references, such as Spink (1967); Divakaran (1981); Bolon (1981); Rea (1986); Meister,
Dhaky (1986); Tartakov (1997); Michell (1975, 1978); Jeyapriya (2004a, 2004b); Kalidos
(2006: 253-68), and Rajarajan (2012). On the Clukyas of Badm, their history and art see the
following: Burgess (1874); Fleet (1884-1882); Cousens (1911); Gupte (1962); Tarr (1966);
Lippe (1967, 1969-70); Ritti, Gopal (1971); Gai, Asher (1981); Williams (1981); Ramesh
(1984); Tartakov, Dehejia (1984), and Buchanan (1985).

As Alexander von Humboldt post-doctoral Fellow in the Freie Universitt Berlin during 19992002, I collected enormous bibliographic data in the Berlin-based libraries. I had an occasion to
visit the British Museum and Library, which are true store-houses of master minds of the East
and West. Absence of books and journals in Indian libraries is the main hurdle in getting the latest information. To give a specific example, none of the universities of Tamilnadu has bibliographic materials on Xuanzang. I had to consult the sources collected in the German libraries.

AION, 72/1-4 (2012), 211-222

212

R.K.K. Rajarajan

study of these neglected archaeological remains on the model Tartakok (1997)


worked out for the so-called Durg temple, it is nonetheless a bounden duty of
the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) to come forward with a progressive
plan of lift-up programme. We visited the monuments around 2000. We are
not sure whether any progress was made since then.

Aihole site plan.

Aihole Revisited

213

Names of Aihole Temples


Aihole has been a nodal point of research on Clukyan art for the past
150 years. Now, it is open for discussion on several issues, especially with regard to the temples names (cf. Tartakov 1997). The original names of the
temples of Aihole seem to have been different as they are known today.3 An
inquiry into the contemporary names of temples (e.g. Hucchimalli-gui) is essential to understand their origin, which seems to trace back to local popular
traditions (cf. J. Soundararajan 2009: 23):
Gaur, Mallikrjuna, Jyotirliga and Rmaliga (not found in any inscriptional source) are names of gods and goddesses that were given by
the people (cf. Rajasekhara 1985: passim).
Basavaa (founder of Vraaivism) and Hucchapayya (maybe a local
dignitary) were names of saints that the folk associated with the temples.
Some names are drawn from the local caste system, such as Desayar
(desai), Gaudar (gaua), Ambigar (fisherman), Boyar (boya agricultural labourers; Nyaka/Naiu sect), and nadar barber (nr also
called cr or ava in Tamil). As reported by Minakshi (1977), the latter was an untouchable caste of those times. The members of this caste
climbed palms trees to extract ale. Minakshi (ibid.: 200) adds that they
were not permitted to touch the coconut trees in brhmaa-agrahras
due to the belief the trees may get polluted if touched by the ostracized
ava.
L Khn is likely to have been a Muslim dervish who stayed in the
temple before it was taken over by the ASI. Such occurrences are frequently reported in Tamilnadu. During the high tide of the Nyaka rule
in Maturai an Islamic fakr is said to have occupied the moaigopuram
in the Mnk temple (Rajarajan 2006: 8). The Maturaittalavaralu
adds that the local Hindus chased him away. The Pallvaram Pallava
rock-cut temple even today remains a darga, Maula-k-phahd (Srinivasan 1964: 51). Kumra Kampaa, who relieved Maturai from the
Sltns, is said to have rebuilt a temple to iva that had been converted
into a mosque (ARE 1940, no. 220; cf. Aiyangar n.d. [1921]: passim).
In the case of Aihole the Islamic fakr seems to have been forced to vacate by the local people. Today, no Muslim people are to be found in
the village though they live in large numbers in the neighboring townships, e.g. Hunugund and Amnga.

The same was the case with the Ellora caves. The Llcaritra, a 13th century Marhi work,
records Cave XV presently known as Davatra as Dhmevara, and Cave XVI (now
Kailsa) as Manakevara (Ranade 1988: 108-18).

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R.K.K. Rajarajan

Some of the names may have contextual implications: Cakra-gui (its


mlaka looks like a disc), 4 Kare and Bile (black and white?),
Mlina-gui (the upper temple on the hilltop), Konta-gui (konta in
Kaaa means trila; knti in Telugu is monkey), Veiyar-gui
(vei means river and refers to Gag).
Chikki-gui (chikki means star) may derive from the stellar architectural decorations.
Hucchimalli is a strange name (hucchi mad, malli jasmine); it is
likely to mean a mad woman, fond of jasmine flowers.5
The name of the Durg temple is still a mystery (for an early photo see
Fergusson 1972: 321, fig. 181), as it is said to have been originally dedicated to Srya, a magnificent Brahmanical temple that it is (Tartakov
1997: 41-43).6 Others consider it a temple for Nryaa (Michell 1975:
32-34), ditya-bhara, Srya (Rajasekhara 1985: 97) or Srya-Nryaa (K.V. Soundararajan in Meister, Dhaky 1986: 49-52). SryaNryaa seems to be more appropriate due to the presence of such cult
images in the surroundings. Another temple housing a mlabera of
Srya-Nryaa in its garbhagha (Kalidos 2006: I, pl. LVII.1) is found
close to the L Khan. Fallen architectural fragments are found in the
vicinity of the Durg temple, e.g. a krtimukha accommodating the image of Srya-Nryaa. However, Rajasekhara (1985: fig. 33) points
out an inscription on the adhihna of the Durg temple that reads r
Jnlaya. K.V. Soundararajan (1986: 51-52) quotes a foundation inscription in the same temple in favour of ditya, the ilpcrya being
Kumra. The iconographical apparatus on the bhii and other parts of
the temple relate to iva and Viu, as well as to episodes of the
Rmyaa. The overall evidence suggests that the Durg temple was
originally dedicated to Nryaa in his ditya/Srya aspect. The SryaNryaoaram ends with the invocation: r Srya Nryaasvmine nama.
An interesting aspect of the Karna and Tamil early medieval tradition is
the epigraphic record, which often registers the names of the temples as well
as the names of the sthapatis (donors). We know from inscriptions, for in-

Gui in Kaaa and Telugu means temple; e.g. Margui/Markui. The root may be
kui, which in Tamil means human habitation.

It might be the name of a devads (vestal temple dancing girl); picci (jasmine) is a flower
that might be the equal of malli in Hucchimalli (Rajarajan in press). This is however a mere
conjecture.

These ideas about the inscriptions in Paadakkal and the Pallava-Clukya interaction by way
of war and peace were conveyed to us by S. Rajasekhara during his visiting lectures on
Clukyan art in the Tamil University at the far end of the 20th century.

Aihole Revisited

215

stance, that the original names of the two integral wings of the Kailsantha
temple of Kci are r-Nityavintevaragham and Mahndravarmevaragham (ARE 1888: nos. 4, 28). Also the names of the sthapatis who built the
temples at Aihole, Paadakkal and Badm are known from epigraphic
sources (Rajasekhara 1985: 203-7). In the case of Durg of Aihole Rajasekhara and K.V. Soundarrajan cite different inscriptions relating to the Jain
and Vaiava origins of the temple.
Aihole is a rich field for further explorations on which archaeologists and
art historians may have new interpretations to offer. Every new attempt in this
direction is expected to reveal something unknown of the historical and architectural heritage.
Town-plan on Religious Grounds
It is a point to consider whether Aihole originally had two specific sectors
for the Jain and the Hindu sects in its town plan. At about the same time,
Kcpuram was divided into four integral units such as iva-kci, Viukci, Jna-kci and Buddha-kci. One wonders whether there was also in
Aihole any compartmental layout of the city such as Jna-Aihole, BuddhistAihole and so on. The fact that the Jain temples are clustered below the
Mughti hill suggests that this might have been a specific Jain settlement. As
for Buddhist temples, though no visible evidence has so far come to light Settar (1969) hypothesizes the existence of a Buddhist vihra on the hilly slopes.
The situation in Aihole might be the same as in Kci. Xuanzang, who visited
Kcpuram during the time of Nsihavarma I (630-68 CE), speaks of 100
Buddhist vihras (Watters 1904: 214). Today, the only trace of Buddhism in
Kci is represented by a few stray images of Buddhas in Hindu temples (cf.
Samuel, Murthy, Nagarajan 1998: 149-56), but no extant evidence of any
Buddhist monastery is found. Thus, negative evidence in the present does not
disprove existence in the past. The case of the Buddhist vihra at
Ngapaiam is instructive in this regards, since the only trace of it is an old
documentation of its remains, which were still visible toward the middle of
19th century (Fergusson 1972: 206, fig. 116). Sch in Madhya-Bhrata is
rich in Buddhist monuments and ruins brought to light until recent times
(Shaw 2011). We observed some such ruins on top of the Udayagiri hill a few
years ago. It is on the foothills of Udayagiri that the Hindu bas reliefs and rockcut caves are found (Williams 1983: figs. 34-46, Rajarajan 2012: 3-6, 57).
It is a mystery why no Buddhist or Hindu temples of the pre-Pallava period have come to light in Tamilnadu when at the same time we get a panoramic
picture from ancient Tamil literature (Jeyapriya 2004b: 292-96). In Mmallapuram recent archaeological excavations have brought to light some brick
structures, probably belonging to a Muruka temple, that seem to match the

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R.K.K. Rajarajan

literary sources cited in Jeyapriya (2004b). Maritime archaeology has located


Buddhist ruins that submerged in the Bay of Bengal in a tsunami 2000 years
ago. These recent archaeological findings still unreported make us sure
that an overall survey of Buddhist and Hindu temples by about the 5th century,
which is still to be carried on, would certainly fill this inexplicable gap. Archaeological evidence in the Far South is scanty when compared with Madhya-Bhrata (e.g. Schi and Udayagiri). However, the recent findings of brick
structures in Mmallapuram, the stray Buddha images in Kci and the dilapidated vihra of Ngapaiam have to be chronologically examined in order to
trace the rise and fall of Buddhism in Tamilnadu. It is also worth noticing that
no rock-cut temples of the type we find in western India (Ajaa, Ellora caves
I to XIII, Nika) or even Afghanistan (Verardi 2012: 153-72) have been so
far reported in Tamilnadu. Also this lacuna appears strange if viewed in the
context of what Xuanzang observed in the 7th century CE (see supra).
Ecology and Temple Setting
The environmental set-up of the Aihole landscape and monuments has
not changed in any way with respect to some two decades ago. The site museums at Aihole and Badm are enchantingly set among lawns and charming
gardens (pls. Ia,b-IIa) but the temples in distant hillocks and plains on the
banks of the Malaprabh are sadly and badly neglected (pls. IIb-VIII). A visit
to the Jain cave on the other side of the Meghti is indeed an adventure. One is
compelled to walk or drive on a rugged road-like country pathway. That Jain
cave is the home of some wonderful carvings on three walls of its wombchamber. The presence here of a sculpted portrait of Polakei II is most likely
(see Kalidos 2001; Rajarajan 2010: 2, fig. BW 25), which means he must have
been the patron of the cave as it was the case with the Jain temple on top of
the Meghti hill with a prsasti of Ravikrti.7 It is our wish that the ASI may
turn its attention to distant places on the hill and the village around and take
care of the totally neglected temples that are slowly and steadily falling while
investigators are melancholically looking at them.

A stray sculpture, identified as a portrait of Polakei, was discovered among the debris and a
similar image was spotted on the left wall of the cella in the Jain cave temple. These images
should be studied in detail, in order to establish their possible connection with the patron of the
caves, who is likely to be Polakei II. Kalidos (2001) called on it the attention of the ASI when
the matter was first reported in the Deccan Herald. I do not know whether in the meanwhile
the huge slab from the hilltop has been moved to the site Museum.

Aihole Revisited

217

Sculptural Fragments
During field work we spotted stray images all over the hamlet. Many such
stray sculptures and architectural fragments have been removed to the site museum (J. Soundararajan 2009: fig. 46) and have already been the subjectmatter of brief communications in scholarly journals (Rajarajan 2002: 408-10
[Kalidos 2006: II, pl. LV.1]; Jeyapriya 2004a).8 The same should be done systematically for all the neglected artifacts found all over the village (pl. IVa-b).
In addition, a monograph on the stray images of Aihole would be most welcome. Small-scale excavations around the isolated temples scattered among
the agricultural fields may bring to light several fallen and broken sculptures.
Ten years ago the present author did spot a rare two-headed Agni in the
Rmaliga-devasthnam group that was taken to the museum due to our initiative (J. Soundararajan 2009: 75).9
The image of Naarja reported herein is of some interest for its rarity. An
instrument player as tall as Naarja himself is clapping hands while performing a dance enamoured of the King of Dancers (pl. VIIIa). It must be recalled
that instrument players are normally diminutive (see for instance the image of
Naea in Cave I of Badm). A miniature Gaapati (pl. VIIIb) appears within
the ku of a krtimukha (J. Soundararajan 2009: fig. 65). This was a common
motif in early medieval art (Kalidos 2006: II, pl. LXIX.1). Jeyapriya (2004a)
has worked on a stray image of this type, pointing out its unique features (cf.
Kalidos 2006: II, pl. LIII.2). The present author (Rajarajan 2002) has spotted a
rare Dakimrti close to the Tra Basappa temple, published in Kalidos
(2006: II, pl. LV.1). These stray images either in the museum or in situ have
not yet been published in any scholarly work. Writing on unreported monument is more important than writing on what is already published.

The image of Naarja examined by Jeyapriya (2004a) was so captivating to the editors of the
book that they decided to have it printed on the jacket-cover. My article was published in the
Proceedings of the South Indian History Congress that never publishes visual evidence. I may
add here that images of Dakimrti are rare in Clukyan art. We have Yogvara in the Elephanta/Ellora circle and some scholars suggest the possibility of a link between the two
(Mankodi 1988: 278-84). The Yogvara of Ellora (Kalidos 2006: II, pl. XXI), when compared
with the Dakimrti of the Pallava type (cf. Kalidos 2006: II, pl. LXXXV.2, CV), appears to
be a typological parallel. Images analogous to Yogvara are present in the temples of
Kcpuram, e.g. the Kailsantha (ibid.: II, pl. LXVIII.1). The Aihole image that I have reported conforms to the Pallava Dakimrti, seated in utkuiksana with a hand in cinmudr.
The vaavka and is are missing. The fallen sandstone image from the main temple is too
badly broken to identify the other lakaas (ibid.: II, pl. LV.1).
Anytime you go, this area is deserted and no one looks after the monuments. I remember we
lifted the broken two-headed Agni by hand all the way to the Museum.

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R.K.K. Rajarajan

Conservation Plans
As for conservation, much attention is paid to the museum site and already well protected monuments (pls. Ia,b-IIa), while those in the distant areas
are neglected (pls. IIb, V-VII). The betrayed images that lay all around are to
be moved to the site museum. There are several treasures in Aihole that perish
or go into the bowels of the earth unwept, unhonoured and unsung. A day
should come when scholars of our standing shall be able to see the neglected
Aihole masterpieces in museums.
I was told that the ASI was considering a plan to shift the entire village to
a safe area away from the monuments. It is a good idea. Why it could not materialize is a mystery. Today the entire village lies within an area below the
Meghti hill extending up to the edge of the Malaprabh River at the far end
of the monuments in the north. Within the congested huts and cowsheds of the
village lay the temples called Kont-gui, Hucchapayya-maha and most of the
Jain temples.10 The temples and the nearby huts present a strange blend of archaeological remains and human/cattle habitation. 11 Restoration is beyond
reach as far as the huts remain therein. I am of the strong conviction that in
those days of the Clukya temple building activity there would have been no
residential quarters so close to the temples; cf. what the Tacvr inscriptions
note about the houses of temple girls in all four cardinal and intermediary directions away from the temple. Therefore, it would be better to build houses
for the village folk to the west close to Rmaliga-devasthnam, north or east
of the temple complex, where there is plenty of no-mans land which might be
used for building a new village. I am sure that this kind of shifting the village
is also possible in the case of the Vijayanagaras Virpka temple complex.12

10

The cattle population in Aihole, mostly consisting of buffaloes, cows and lambs, is equal to
that of the humans. Fortunately, the village-folk are so proud and respectful of their monuments that they do not allow their cattle-brothers to get into the monuments or the lawns, at
least in the Durg temple complex.

11

Tartakov (1997: 104) notes that a temple named gi-maha was enclosed within the structure of an adjacent house.

12

R.K. Parthiban (Director, Cheran School of Architecture, K. Paramatthi, Karur), a student of


the Regional Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli and the Brandenburg Technological University, Cottbus, is of the opinion that such a kind of shifting the village is possible. He is a
specialist in World Heritage Studies, UNESCO sponsored at Cottbus. He wrote on this aspect
with regard to Hampi and Petra. These reports are still pending publication. We must also note
the UNESCO thought of disqualifying Hampi from the World Heritage List when locally influential politicians tried to erect a bridge across the Tugabhadr in order to build 5-star hotels. Who knows one such effort may not be taken at Aihole in the distant future?

Aihole Revisited

219

Design for Future


More than one hundred years have gone since Alexander Rea wrote on
the temples and some 30-40 years since George Michell drew the plans of the
temples. The Encyclopaedia edited by M.W. Meister and M.A. Dhaky has
provided a commendable architectural documentation with the help of architects recruited from the Mmallapuram School of Temple Architecture. Several scholars such as K.V. Soundararajan and K.R. Srinivasan have rendered
yeoman service to make it a successful accomplishment. Recently, the iconological analysis of the monuments by Kalidos (2006) has been termed an Encyclopaedia by the publisher. In spite of all these norm-setting projects a huge
amount of work awaits art historians and archaeologists. The future programme should include the following agenda:
Redraw the architectural plans of the temples, including those in ruins
(conjectural reconstructions could be made in such cases) without neglecting any, following the model established by Michell (1975; see his
plans, elevations and sections. Cf. also J. Soundararajan 2009: fig. 9).
Ensure a thorough iconographical documentation of pillars and ceilings in each and every temple; these are unreported yet.
Produce a report on the museum exhibits.
Re-examine the monuments vis--vis the regional literature (early
Kaaa if any) and inscriptions on the model established for the
Tamil sources (Kalidos 2006).
Examine the impact of non-Karna elements or the inter-mixture of
styles.
Isolate the non-Clukya elements, e.g. devakohas accommodating
parivradevats on the bhii or pda and new elements such as
Dakimrti (Rajarajan 2002), typically Pallava (Kalidos 1997).
Investigate why the mukhabhadra on the ikhara as in the
Virpka of Paadakkal or the monolithic Kailsa of Ellora is
missing in Aihole.
Redraw an isometric plan of the village and locations of the temples
excluding modern private houses within the temple site; these houses
should be placed at the far end of the west, north or east.
Above all, a monograph on the Site Museum exhibits and the stray images found all over Aihole (see e.g. Rajarajan 2002; Jeyapriya 2004a)
is very much needed.
To be brief we need to view a new Ayyavole/ryapura/Aihole as it was
1400 years ago during the heyday of the Western Clukyas of Badm. Where
was the original Clukyan palace and where did the people live? Will archaeo-

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R.K.K. Rajarajan

logical exploration help in locating these sites? These are questions that hang
behind the curtain of history: a task left to art historians for tomorrow. If Naples could bring to light the Roman monuments of Herculaneum and Pompeii
(palaces, cathedrals, chapels, temples shops, marble altars, bathing chambers
both hot and warm, inns for erotic plays, fertility symbols and so on, which
survived the fall of volcanic ash of Mount Vesuvius) why is that not possible
in Aihole and Badm where the great Clukyan emperors lived? The avowed
ambition of an Indian scholar is that he must be able to see an Aihole that
could stand on equal footing with the several archaeological sites unearthed on
the foothill of Vesuvius in Naples.
R.K.K. Rajarajan
Gandhigram Rural University
Gandhigram (TN)
rkkrajarajan@yahoo.com

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York.
Buchanan, S. Locher (1985) Calukya Temples: History and Iconography (Ph.D. thesis, Ohio
State University). Columbus.
Burgess, J. (1874) Report on the First Seasons Operation in the Belgaum and Kaladgi Districts
[ASI Western India]. London.
Cousens, H. (1911) The Ancient Temples of Aihole. Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report 1907-1908, 189-204.
Divakaran, O. (1981) The Beginnings of Early Western Cukya Art. Chhavi 2, 59-66.
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SUMMARY

Sometime around 2000 I happened to be in Aihole and stayed there for more than three
weeks, studying the monuments. The callous neglect of monuments all over this temple-city, the

222

R.K.K. Rajarajan

early metropolis of the Clukyas, is the main purpose of the article. The monuments that are at
walkable distance in Aihole are maintained with enchanting lawns amidst an artificial lush green
while those in the distant Meghti hill, the agricultural fields around and the Rmaligadevasthanam are utterly neglected and perish under the scorching mid-summer. Several precious
stray images found all over the village should be moved to the museum. It is indeed quite odd to
find the living huts of the villagers amidst the temples, particularly around the site Museum and
the L Khn temple. Conservation measures are suggested to bring Aihole to life again.

Keywords: Aihole, Clukya, Hucchimalli, Rmaliga, Durg, Polakei II, Naarja, archaeological conservation

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN, Aihole Revisited

a) Site Museum, Badm.


(Photo by the author).

b) Site Museum, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

PLATE I

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN, Aihole Revisited

PLATE II

a) Enchanting lawn, Lad Khan Temple Complex, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

b) Bush behind the Chikki-gui complex and the ruined apsidal Liga shrine, Aihole.
(Photo by the author).

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN, Aihole Revisited

PLATE III

a) View of the village infested with thorny bushes and Malaprabh at a distance, Aihole.
(Photo by the author).

b) View of the Village from Meghti hill top, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN, Aihole Revisited

a) Neglected sculptural masterpieces, Meghuti hill, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

b) Neglected Sapta Mtkas, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

PLATE IV

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN, Aihole Revisited

a) Uncared Boyar-gui, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

b) Neglected temple on Meghti hill.


(Photo by the author).

PLATE V

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN, Aihole Revisited

a) Neglected temple on Meghti hill, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

b) Neglected temples on Meghti hill, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

PLATE VI

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN, Aihole Revisited

PLATE VII

a) Gauar-gui amidst a prickly bushes, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

b) Full view of the Gauar-gui observed by a melancholic investigator, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN, Aihole Revisited

a) Ngarja and Naea. Stray piece, Aihole.


(Photo by the author).

b) Gaapati within kuu of a krtimukha, Aihole Site Museum.


(Photo by the author).

PLATE VIII

Stampa: Tipolito: Istituto Salesiano Pio XI Via Umbertide, 11 00181 Roma tel. 067827819 fax 067848333
Finito di stampare: Aprile 2014