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Chapter 9: Rotation of rigid bodies

Rotational kinematics
Linear VS Angular kinematics
Its really similar!
Definition of moments of inertia and determination of
rotational kinetic energy
Youve already done it in HMWK CH 6 (The kinetic
energy of a rotating bar, remember?)
Compare mass and moment of inertia
Calculation of the moment of inertia
Time to practice integral

Introduction
Real-world rotations can be very
complicated because of stretching
and twisting of the rotating object.
We start with the simple one: Rigid
body
Rigid body: An object with perfectly
definite and unchanging shape/size
Is spinning tennis ball a rigid
body?

A speedometer as our starting model


Examples of rotations
in our daily life are
abundant and
numerous:
DVD in use
Clock, etc
A cars analog
speedometer gives us a
very good example to
begin defining
rotational motion.

Where is the axis of rotation?

College students use radians, not degrees (for kids)


One complete cycle of
360 is one revolution.
One complete
revolution is 2
radians.
Relating the two, 360
= 2 radians or 1
radian = 57.3.
In degrees, what are

1 1 1 1
? ? ? ?
4
3 2 6

Angular displacement is the angle being swept out


Like a second hand sweeping around a clock, a radius
vector will travel through a displacement of degrees,
radians, or revolutions.
We denote angular displacement as (theta). It is the
angular equivalent of x or y in earlier chapters.

Angular velocity
The angular velocity is the angle swept out divided by the time it
took to sweep out the angular displacement.
Angular velocity is denoted by the symbol (omega).
Angular velocity is measured in radians per second (SI standard)
as well as other measures such as r.p.m. (revolutions per second).

d
=
dt

Example 9.1: flywheel test


= (2.0rad /s3 )t 3
r = 0.35m

From t=0 to 5s, what is average


Angular velocity? Instant at 5s?
How far did a point on the rim travel?

Angular velocity is a vector: defined by the rotation axis


You can visualize the position of the vector by sweeping out the
angle with the fingers of your right hand. The position of your
thumb will be the position of the angular velocity vector. This is
called the right-hand rule.
Why not left-hand-rule

Rotation around multiple axes: Earth rotation

Do you know the origin of seasons on earth?


Is it due to the distance from sun to earth?

Angular acceleration
The angular acceleration is the change of angular
velocity divided by the time interval during which the
change occurred.
Use the symbol (alpha) to denote radians2 per second.
d d
=
= 2
dt
dt

Back to example 9.1:


= (2.0rad /s3 )t 3
r = 0.35m

what is the angular acceleration

as a function of time?

Angular acceleration is a vector


The angular acceleration vector will be parallel or
antiparallel to the angular velocity vector (as
determined by the RHR).

linear motion VS angular motion with constant acceleration

If you mastered linear motion with constant acceleration,


you are home-free!
If not, now it is your chance to master both at the same time!

Example 9.3: Angular motion of a DVD slowing down


t =0:
= 27.5rad /s

= 10.0rad /s2

What is at the angular velocity t=0.3s?


What angle does the line PQ make with the +x axis?

Linear velocity vs angular velocity and circular motion


On a rotating rigid body,
all particles have the same
angular velocity.
What about the linear
velocity?
What is the acceleration of P
if there is no angular
acceleration?
v = r
What if is not 0? a = r
tan
arad = 2 r

Bicycle pedals and gears


How are the angular speeds of the two sprockets related to the
number of teeth (and their sizes of) on each sprocket?

Kinetic energy 2.0: Rotational energy


A rotating body has
kinetic energy. But
the speeds depends
on the positions
Just like linear
kinetic energy is
mv2, the angular
energy will be
determined by
I2.

Moments of inertia
K=

1
1
1
miv i2 = mi i2 ri2 = ( mi ri2 ) i2

2 i
2 i
2 i

I = mi ri2
i

1
K = I 2
2

Just like mass describes how resistant an object is to acceleration


Momentof inertia describes how resistant an object is to angular
acceleration
The distribution of mass matters!
The rotation axis matters too!
2
For a continuous body:

I=

(r )r dV

Rotational energy changes if parts shift and I changes


Even if the masses are
equal, rearranging the
components of a rotating
system can change the
moment of inertia and the
rotational energy.
Example 9.7:
A) What is I when axis goes through A
What is K if =4.0 rad/s

B) What is I when axis goes through B


and C

Finding the moment of inertia for common shapes

Finding the moment of inertia for common shapes

How to you obtain b) from a)? Hint: use parallel-axis theorem


If a) and b) are both rotating at the same angular velocity, which one has
the larger kinetic energy?

Unwinding cable: A classic example


Block (m) is released from rest at hight h. As it comes down, the
cylinder (M, R) will start to rotate. What is the angular speed of
the cylinder as the block hits the floor?

Center of mass and the Parallel Axis Theorem


CH8: center of mass

m x
=
m
i

x cm

P: (a, b)
Center of mass: (xcm, ycm)

rcm

m r
=
m

i i

Its always easier to rotate around the


axis trough the center of mass
Parallel Axis Theorem:
How?

I p = Icm + Md 2

I p = mi [(x i a) 2 + (y i b) 2 ]

Example: Knowing

, how to get I=? For

I=? For a rod rotating around any position


Instead of using integrals, could you use the
parallel axis theorem?
Or any other methods?

Rotation of a uniform disk about a center axis

How to get (f) from (g)?


Solid cylinder is the sum of a series of thin-walled hollow cylinder
One such segment (from r to r+dr, with mass dm) has dI as
dI = r 2 dm
M(2r)dr
dm =
R 2
I =

dI =

r2

M(2r)dr 2M
= 2
2
R
R

r dr
3

Summary
Rotational kinematics: Angular velocity, angular acceleration (vector!)
Linear VS angular
kinematics

v = r
a = r

Moment of inertia: I

I = mi ri2 I =

(r)r dV
2

1 2
1
K = mv
K = I 2

2
2

Rotational kinetic energy:

When potential energy can be converted


to kinetic energy, which also
Includes Rotational kinetic energy!

Calculating the moment of inertia:


Application of Parallel Axis Theorem!
Icm is also the smallest

I p = Icm + Md 2