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COURSE TITLE

THERMODYNAMICS LABORATORY

TOPIC

TWO-STAGE AIR COMPRESSOR

1.0

OBJECTIVE
Understanding the polytropic process in the two-stage air compressor
Determination of the polytropic efficiency of a compressor.

2.0

EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT
Air compressor Model PCB 100.

3.0

THEORY
An air compressor uses an electric motor to convert the electrical energy into
mechanical energy which is converted to thermodynamic energy in form of
compressed air. Air compressors are utilized to raise the pressure of a volume air. All
air compressors designs utilize at least the basic principles: Staging, Intercooling,
Compressor displacement and volumetric efficiency. Compressor is staged to reduce
the temperature rise and improve the compression efficiency. The temperature of the
air leaving each stage is cooled prior to entering the next stage (Intercooling).
An after-cooling should also be used to reduce the temperature of the air before it
enters the receiver (storage tank) and to discharge the cooling medium to the
surrounding at a low temperature (see figure 1).

Compressor
first stage

After-cooler

Compressor
second stage
Storage tank

Intercooler

3.1

Fig.1: Two-stage air compressor schematically


Compressor Outline
Referring to figure 2at page 9, the filtered free air is induced at the first
stage compressor intake (P0, T0) for the first compression. Before going into the
second stage compressor, this air is cooled by the heat exchanger to reduce the
high temperature after the first compression P1, T1). The intake condition of the
air for the second compressor is at P1 and T2. Before this last compressed air is
delivered into the storage tank, it is again cooled by the second heat exchanger
(after cooler) to reduce its temperature. The temperature of the cooling medium
also decreases after cooling process (T9).Water in use hereby as cooling

medium for both the heat exchangers. The mass flow rate shall be regulated in
the same level during the operation to prevent from unnecessary losses.
3.2

Theory and Equations


Air compression in the compressor usually undergoes a polytropic
process in form pv n const , where n is the polytropic coefficient. With
assumption that the real air is considered as ideal gas with its characteristic
equation pV / T const , then we can obtain a useful relationship between the
temperatures and pressure, or temperatures and volume for any point during the
process as follows:
pV n C

=>

(1)

p1V n 1 p 2V2n

And the property of the ideal gas follows the equation:


=>

pV
C
T

(2)

p1 V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2

From (2) it yields:

T2
pV
2 2
T1
p1V1

And together with equation (1) we obtain:

(3)

p2
T2


T1
p1

n 1
n

(4)

(Note: index 1 and 2 refers to the air condition at inlet and outlet of the
compressor, respectively).
The value for the thermodynamic properties p and T at the intake and
the outlet are measured.
3.2.1

Polytropic Compression
a. Work and efficiency
The work required to compress the air from the initial pressure p1 to
the delivery pressure p2 is given by the equation(5):

p2

Windicated

vdp

(5)

p1

Applying the equations (1) into (5) and using the ideal gas equation,
we get the equation for the indicated work:

Win

p1v1

n 1

p2

p1

n 1
n

For the two-stage compressor the total work done on the system is
the sum of the work done by each compressor.
Between Work and polytropic Power (Pp) is given by the relation:
.

(7)

Pp m Win

Equation (6) applied in (7) and using the ideal gas equation we get:

.
n
Pp
m RT1

n 1

p2

p1

n 1
n

(8)

The polytropic efficiency of the compressor p :

Pp
Ps

(9)

Where Ps is the motor shaft power.


To produce Ps, the compressor requires an electric power Pe:

Ps
Pe

(10)

Where m is the motor efficiency. The value for p 98% , m 80%


can be used.
b. Heat Loss in the heat exchanger
Heat produced in the air compressors is rejected into the heat
exchangers. The total heat absorbed by the cooling medium
(water):
Q Q1 Q2

(11)
4

Q m1 (hout ,1 hin,1 ) m2 ( hout , 2 hin , 2 )

Applied this equation to our compressor it becomes:


.

Q m1 (h8 h7 ) m 2 (h9 h7 )
.

(12)

For m we use m W
and W is the density and the mass flow rate of the water.
c.HeatLossinthecompressor
Fromthefirstlawofthermodynamicstheenergybalancepermassin
the compressor with an assumption that the kinetic and potential
energychangeisnegligibleitfollowstheequation:
q w h

(13)

Rearranging this equation we get the heat loss per unit mass in each
compressor:
q h w

(14)

4.0

ADDITIONAL THEORY

The original air compressor is the lung. When you take a deep breath to blow
out your birthday candles, for example, you're increasing the pressure of the air in
your lungs, which effectively is an air compressor containing pressurized air. You then
use the force of the air in your lungs to blow out the flames of your birthday candles.
Eventually, man-made air compressors were created. These falls generally fall
into one of two types, positive displacement or dynamic, defined by its mode of
operation. A positive displacement air compressor works by filling and then emptying
an air chamber. Three common types of positive displacement air compressors are:
reciprocating, rotary screw and rotary sliding vane. A dynamic air compressor, on the
other hand, uses a rotating device to accelerate and then decelerate air. This process
uses the speed or velocity of the air to increase the air's pressure. Centrifugal air
compressors are dynamic air compressors.
Compressed air can be used in a variety of ways. It can be used to alter the
chemical composition as in the case of making fertilizer or it can be used for
industrial purposes like production line manufacturing processes or it can be used to
maintain industrial plants. Perhaps the most well known use of the air compressor is
in the case of pneumatic tools like air powered nail guns, staplers, sanders, spray
guns, or ratchet wrenches. Air compressors can also be used to move debris. These
tools are commonly available at hardware stores for purchase or rental.

Another way to group air compressor types is by the number of stages it has.
A two-stage air compressor is usually used for heavy duty use. This type of unit
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offers a higher level of compression than smaller, single stage air compressors. A twostage air compressor can store air for future use, and is more energy efficient since it
produces more air per unit of horsepower than a single stage compressor. Also, less
heat is generated in a two-stage compressor, which means that wear on the unit is
reduced. Portable electric air compressors are also available for light-duty
applications.
Depending on the type of air compressor, operation costs can be high, as in the
case of plant maintenance. While air compressors can run on manual labour, like a
hand powered air compressors, most run on either electricity or natural gas. It's the
natural gas air compressor that is usually more cost-effective. If the air compressor is
used in a small, enclosed area, an electric model may be more desirable in order to
avoid gas fumes.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) attests to the quality
and protective features of air compressors. Their rating can be considered in
evaluating air compressors for purchase or rental. In some states, only ASMEcertified air compressors may be sold. Some safety features include a safety relief
valve, which lets air escape if the tank's pressure exceeds the maximum. The air
compressor should also have a belt guard for protection, and an enclosed air intake
filtration system.
4.1

Compressor Part
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.1.8
4.1.9
4.1.10

4.2

Valve Assembly
Suction Strainer
Cool Cylinder Heads
Cylinders
Rings.
Connecting Rods
Balanced Crankshafts
Crankcase
Balanced Ran Type Flywheel
Main Bearings

Comparison Two-Stage and Single-Stage


Stage refers to the number of times intake air is compressed in a pump. A single
stage compressor compresses intake air one time before sending the air into a
storage tank. Single stage compressors are the more common types of compressor

that consumers are used to using. Two stage compressors compress air two times
before sending air into a storage tank.

5.0

EXPERIMENT PROCEDURES
a) Make sure that the flow rate of cooling water is sufficient, approximately 100
L/H.
Adjust it using the valves. Then connect the water inlet and outlet properly.

b) Plug in the flexible cable into diaphragm D1 for compressing air at p4 = 2.5 bar
absolute.

c) Start the air compressor by turning on the main switch on the control panel.

d) Record the data for suction conditions into the table data sheet then wait for
about 10 minutes to get a steady-state condition.
e) Record the value of temperature and pressure as indicated in the column first
stage compression of the data sheet and wait again for 5 minutes.

f) Fill up the values in the column second state of compression and wait 5
minutes for final compression.

g) Record rest of the data in the data sheet.


h) Repeat step a until g for p4= 4 bar and p4 = 7 bar absolute by replacing the cable
flexible into diaphragm D2 and D3.

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6.0

DATA SHEET : AIR COMPRESSOR

Pressure

Ambient Air

First State of Compression

Final
Compression

Second State of Compression

p4

t0

p0

t1

p1

t1-t0

p1-p0

T1/T0

t2

t3

p2

t3-t2

p2-p1

T3/T2

t4

P3

2.5

28.6

0.05

133.3

2.1

104.7

2.05

4.661

42

35.5

79.9

2.3

44.4

0.2

2.251

32.1

1.5

28.1

0.05

133.3

2.1

105.2

2.05

4.744

42

51.1

85.8

2.6

34.7

0.5

1.679

30.2

2.4

29.6

0.05

136.8

2.1

107.2

2.05

4.621

42

38.4

125.9

6.0

87.5

3.9

3.279

30.7

5.8

Air flow rate

( m 3 / h)

Input power
(kW)

Air Supply

Exchange
water inlet

Exchange 1
water outlet

Exchange 2
water outlet

W2

Pe

t6

t7

t8

t9

78

78

6.5

3.4

30.8

36.0

37.0

32.0

30.0

90

86

2.0

3.6

31.8

28.7

35.0

39.6

44.2

100

90

0.5

4.0

32.2

29.4

38.0

39.2

Pressure

Air Tank

p4

t5

W1

2.5

31.3

4
7

P0
P1
P2

=
=
=

T0 =
T1 =
T2 =
T3 =

Air Inlet
Exchanger 1 Air Inlet
Exchanger 1 Air Outlet
Exchanger 2 Air Inlet

Water circuit

Aspiration
1st Step of Compression
2nd Step of Compression

P3
P4
T4 =
T5 =
T6 =
T7 =

=
=

Exchanger 1 Air Outlet


Tank Temperature
Air Supply
ExchangersWaterInlet

Tank
Air Network
T8 =
T9 =

Exchangers 1 Water Outlet


Exchangers 2 Water Outlet

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7.0

RESULT CALCULATION

Calculation for 1, 2, m1, m2;


P4 = 2.5 Bar
First state of compression
T1-To = 130.9-28.8 = 102.1oc
T1
T0

130.9 273
28.8 273

= 1.338
P1-p0 = 2.2-1.013=1.187bar
P1
1
=
P0

2.2
= 1.013 = 2.17
Second state of compression
T3-T2 = 77.8-34.1 = 43.7oc
T3
T2

79.7 273.15
34.9 273.15

= 1.145
P2-p1 = 2.2-2.0 = 0.2 bar
P2
2
=
P1
=

m1

2.2
= 1.10
2.0

= W1
= 1000 kg / m3 x (100 x 10 -3) m3 / s
3600
= 0.0277kg /s

12

m2

= W2
= 1000 kg / m3 x (75x 10 -3) m3 / s
3600
= 0.0208 kg /s

P4 = 4 Bar
T1
T0

135.8 273
31 273

= 1.345
P1-p0 = 2.18-2.0 = 0.2 bar

P1
P0

2.18
= 1.013
= 2.1520
T3
T2

96.3 273
34.9 273

= 1.1994

P2
P1

3.5
2.18

= 1.606

m1

= W1
= 1000 kg / m3 x (93 x 10 -3) m3 / s
3600
= 0.0258 kg /s

13

m2

= W2
= 1000 kg / m3 x (95 x 10 -3) m3 / s
3600
= 0.0264 kg / s

P4 = 7 Bar
T1
T0

139.8 273
29.9 273

= 1.352

P1
P0

2.10
= 1.013
= 2.0731
T3
T2

117 .7 273
34.7 273

= 1.2697

P2
P1

6.5
2.1

= 3.095

m1

= W1
= 1000 kg / m3 x (100 x 10 -3) m3 / s
3600
= 0.0278 kg / s
14

m2

= W2
= 1000 kg / m3 x (95 x 10 -3) m3 / s
3600
= 0.0292 kg / s

Calculation for Heat Loss, Q1 and Q2;


P4 = 2.5 Bar
w1 = 2.78 x 10-5 m3/s

m1 = 0.0277kg /s

w2 = 2.08 x 10-5 m3/s

m2 = 0.0208 kg /s

Q= m (h out h in)
From steam table, value of h is :
T7

= 29.3 C
T

29

121.5

29.3

30

125.7

T8

= 35.7 C
T

34

142.4

35.7

36

150.7

; h1 , in = 122.76kJ / kg

; h1, out = 149.455kJ / kg

15

T9

= 34.2 C

34

142.4

34.2

36

150.7

Q1

; h2,out = 143.23kJ / kg

= m1 (h1 out h1 in )
= 0.0277 (149.455 122.76)
= 0.7395 kJ / s

Q2

= m2 (h2 out h1 in )
= 0.0208 (143.23 122.76)
= 0.4258 kJ / s

P4 = 4 Bar
w1 = 2.58 x 10-5 m3/s

m1 = 0.0258 kg /s

w2 = 2.64 x 10-5 m3/s

m2 = 0.0264kg / s

Q= m (h out h in)
From steam table, value of h is :
T7

= 29.9 C
T

29

121.5

29.9

30

125.7

; h1 , in = 125.28kJ / kg

16

T8

T9

= 36.5 C

; h1, out = 152.8kJ / kg

36

150.7

36.5

38

159.1

= 33.8 C

; h2,out = 141.56kJ / kg

32

134.0

33.8

34

142.4

Q1

= m1 (h1 out h1 in )
= 0.0306 (203.49 124.07)
= 2.430 kJ / s

Q2

= m2 (h2 out h1 in )
= 0.0278 (137.44 124.07)
= 0.3717 kJ / s

P4 = 7 Bar
w1 = 2.64 x 10-5 m3/s

m1 = 0.0264 kg / s

w2 = 2.58 x 10-5 m3/s

m2 = 0.0258 kg / s

= m (h out h in)

From steam table, value of h is :


T7

= 29.6 C

; h1 , in = 124.07kJ / kg

T8

= 48.6 C

; h1, out = 203.49kJ / kg

T9

= 32.8 C

; h2,out = 137.44kJ / kg

Q1 = m1 (h1 out h1 in )
17

= 0.0264 (203.49 124.07)


= 2.097 kJ / s
Q2

= m2 (h2 out h1 in )
= 0.0258 (137.44 124.07)
= 0.345 kJ / s

8.0

EXPERIMENT RESULT
a. Draw the curve Q1 = f(1), where 1 = P1/P0
P4 (Bar)

2.5

Q1 (kJ/s)

2.097

2.430

2.097

2.073

1.974

1.1974

18

b. Draw the curve Q2 = f(2), where 2 = P2/P1


P4 (Bar)

2.5

Q2 (kJ/s)

0.3343

0.3717

0.345

1.095

1.900

3.250

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c. Calculate the polytropic coefficient n for this two-stage air compressor?


P4 = 2.5 Bar
T2
T1

p2
=( p )
1

n-1
n

20

34.9 273.15
2.3
=
(
130.2 273.15
2.1 )

In 0.764

n -1
n

ln 1.095

= - 2.966
n -1
n

= - 2.966n
= 0.25

P4 = 4 Bar
T2
T1

p2
=( p )
1

n-1
n

35.3 273.15
3 .8
=
(
133.1 273.15
2 .0 )

In 0.759

n -1
n

ln 1.9

= - 0.43
n -1
n

= - 0.43n
= 0.70

P4 = 7 Bar
T2
T1

p2
=( p )
1

n-1
n

33.6 273.15
6.5
=
(
139.5 273.15
2.0 )

In 0.743

n -1
n

ln 3.25

= - 0.252
n -1
n

= - 0.252n
= 0.80

d. Calculate the polytropic work for each P4 = 2.5, 4, 7 Bar?


21

P4 = 2.5 Bar, n = 0.25


Win = Pp
m

RAir = 0.2871 kJ/kg.K

m = (m1 + m2)/2
= (0.0264 + 0.025)/2
= 0.0257 kg/s

Pp = (

P 2 (n-1/n)
n
) mRT1 [ (
)
1]
n -1
P1

= (-0.3333) x (0.0257) x (0.2871) x (130.2 + 273.15) x (1.0952(-3) 1)


= (-0.9919) x (-0.24)
= 0.2368 kJ/s
Win =

0.2368
0.0257

= 9.22 kJ/kg
P4 = 4 Bar, n = 0.70
Win = Pp
m

RAir = 0.2871 kJ/kg.K

m = (m1 + m2)/2
= (0.0306 + 0.0278)/2
= 0.0292 kg/s

Pp = (

P 2 (n-1/n)
n
) mRT1 [ (
)
1]
n -1
P1

= (-2.3333) x (0.0292) x (0.2871) x (133.1 + 273.15) x (1.9(-0.429) 1)


= (-7.947) x (-0.24)
= 1.913 kJ/s
Win =

1.913
0.0292

= 65.51 kJ/kg

22

P4 = 7 Bar, n = 0.80
Win = Pp
m

RAir = 0.2871 kJ/kg.K

m = (m1 + m2)/2
= (0.0264 + 0.0258)/2
= 0.0261 kg/s

P 2 (n-1/n)
n
) mRT1 [ (
)
1]
n -1
P1

Pp = (

= (-4) x (0.0261) x (0.2871) x (139.5 + 273.15) x (3.25(-0.25) 1)


= (-12.37) x (-0.26)
= 3.157 kJ/s
Win =

3.157
0.0261

= 120.96 kJ/kg

e. What is the polytropic efficiency of the air compressor, p ?


P4 = 2.5 Bar, Pe = 3.5 kW, nm = 80%
nm

Ps
Pe

Ps = 0.8 x 3.5
= 2.8 kJ/s
np

=
=

Pp
Ps
0.2368
2.8

= 0.085 x 100%
= 8.5 %

23

P4 = 4 Bar, Pe = 3.7 kW, nm = 80%


nm

Ps
Pe

Ps = 0.8 x 3.7
= 2.96 kJ/s
np

Pp
Ps

1.913
2.96

= 0.646 x 100%
= 64.6 %
P4 = 7 Bar, Pe = 4.2 kW, nm = 80%
nm

Ps
Pe

Ps = 0.8 x 4.2
= 3.36 kJ/s
np
=

Pp
Ps

3.157
3.36

= 0.94 x 100%
= 94 %

24

9.0

DISCUSSION
a)

Based on the value n at question 5(c) above, is it acceptable if we assume that


the compression process follows an adiabatic process? Give the reasonable
arguments.
Value of polytrophic coefficient, n for the two stage air compressor is 0.25,
0.70 and 0.80 for the pressure of 2.5, 4 and 7 bar. According to the value of
the coefficient, we can say that this process did not follow the adiabatic
process because there was heat been transfer to the environment while
process in running. Range for n is 1 < n < 1.4.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a c
process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid. The
term "adiabatic" literally means impassable in Greek, corresponding
here to an absence of heat transfer. Conversely, a process that involves
heat transfer (addition or loss of heat to the surroundings) is generally
called adiabatic.
One opposite extremeallowing heat transfer with the surroundings,
causing the temperature to remain constantis known as an isothermal
process. Since temperature is thermodynamically conjugate to entropy,
the isothermal process is conjugate to the adiabatic process for reversible
transformations.
A transformation of a thermodynamic system can be considered adiabatic
when it is quick enough that no significant heat is transferred between the
system and the outside. At the opposite extreme, a transformation of a
thermodynamic system can be considered isothermal if it is slow enough
so that the system's temperature remains constant by heat exchange with
the outside.

25

b)

Assume that the compression process shall be adiabatic. Calculate the


adiabatic efficiency, a ?
P4 = 2.5 bar
Qin = 2.097 kJ/s

Qout = 0.3343 kJ/s

= 84.06 %
P4 = 4 bar
Qin = 2.430 kJ/s

Qout = 0.3717 kJ/s

= 84.70 %
P4 = 2.5 bar
Qin = 2.047 kJ/s

Qout = 0.345 kJ/s

= 83.15 %

26

c)

Mark and plot the thermodynamic process on the P-H diagram provided.

27

28

10.0

QUESTIONS
a) Is air compressor considered as a closed or open system? Explain it.
Compressor is considered as an open system because there is no addition
or reduction of it. An open system is a state of a system, in which a system
continuously interacts with its environment. Basic characteristics of an
open system are environment, input, throughput and output. And some
control systems with feedback.
b) Describe how a diaphragm works?
A diaphragm compressor consists of a gas and a hydraulic system
separated by a metal diaphragm group.

During the experiment,

diaphragm that we used to control intake of air is diaphragm valve. This


entire diaphragm D1, D2, and D3 has a same diameter but during the
experiment we gain a different output or discharge of pressure. First, the
gas compression system features three metal diaphragms, which are
clamped in between two cavity plates and which regulate the movement of
the gas through inlet and outlet check valves. Second, the hydraulic
system utilizes a motor-driven crankshaft and piston to pressurize
hydraulic fluid, which in turn moves the diaphragms through the cavity
that contains the gas.
Diaphragm valves can be manual or automated. Their
application is generally as shut-off valves in process
systems within the food and beverage, pharmaceutical
29

and biotech industries. The older generation of these


valves is not suited for regulating and controlling
process flows, however newer developments in this
area have successfully tackled this problem.

c) What is the function of the heat exchanger and give example of two industries
that use the equipment?
Heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid streams exchange
without mixing. Heat exchangers are widely used in various industries
and mostly their using water to cooling and reduce the heat, and they
come in various designs.
Heat exchanger used in chemical industries for the purpose of
petrochemical processing and in food industry and example of it is
pasteurization of milk. And other example used at power plant for an
industry for example methanol processing, their used intercooler and heat
exchanger to cooling down the methanol that go through in the pipe line
before it deliver the pure methanol to the save tank.
d) How can we exactly measure the rotation speed of the motor?
By using tachometer and dynamometers.

30

11.0

CONCLUSION

From this experiment, the objective of the experiment to understanding the polytropic
process in the two-stage air compressor and determination of the polytropic efficiency of a
compressor is achieved. Besides that, we get to know the air compression operation and how
to calculate the polytropic efficiency of compression.
Even if had a something wrong at the experiment device, the problem can be soft by
using the theory value at P1. At the pressure P4 = 2.5 Bar, the polytropic efficiency is 8.5%,
P4 = 4 Bar the polytropic efficiency is 64.4% and at the pressure P4 = 7 Bar.
The conclusion of the experiment is successfully and the objective is achived.

12.0

REFERENCE

1. Thermodynamics (An Engineering Approach Sixth Edition), Yunus A. Cengel,


Micheal A. Boles, Mc Graw Hill, Sixth Edition, 2007.
2. Termodinamik Gunaan (Masalah Dan Contoh Penyelesaian), J. Sutanto, Dewan
Bahasa Dan Pustaka KPM, 1988.
3. Internet,
http://www.maxustools.com/404.html
http://www.popularmechanics.com/home_journal/how_your_house_works/12
75131.html?page=1
http://www.sophocom.com.my/
http://www.abn-drucklufttechnik.de/

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