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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Exercises Question 13.1: have respective abundances of 7.5% and 92.5%. These isotopes
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Exercises Question 13.1: have respective abundances of 7.5% and 92.5%. These isotopes have
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Exercises Question 13.1: have respective abundances of 7.5% and 92.5%. These isotopes have

Exercises

Question 13.1:

have respective abundances of 7.5%( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Exercises Question 13.1: and 92.5%. These isotopes have masses 6.01512 u and 7.01600

and 92.5%. These isotopes have masses 6.01512 u and 7.01600 u, respectively. Find the atomic mass of lithium.

(a) Two stable isotopes of lithium

atomic mass of lithium. (a) Two stable isotopes of lithium . Their respective masses are 10.01294
atomic mass of lithium. (a) Two stable isotopes of lithium . Their respective masses are 10.01294

. Their respective masses are 10.01294atomic mass of lithium. (a) Two stable isotopes of lithium (b) Boron has two stable isotopes,

(b) Boron has two stable isotopes,

u and 11.00931 u, and the atomic mass of boron is 10.811 u. Find the abundances of

and .
and
.

Answer

(a) Mass of

(a) Mass of lithium isotope , m 1 = 6.01512 u

lithium isotope

, m 1 = 6.01512 u

Mass of

Mass of lithium isotope , m = 7.01600 u

lithium isotope

, m = 7.01600 u

 
   
 

Abundance of

,

η 1= 7.5%

 
,
,
 

Abundance of

η2= 92.5%

 

The atomic mass of lithium atom is given as:

92.5%   The atomic mass of lithium atom is given as: (b) Mass of boron isotope
(b) Mass of boron isotope
(b) Mass of boron isotope
Mass of boron isotope
Mass of boron isotope
Abundance of , η1 = x%
Abundance of
, η1 = x%
Abundance of
Abundance of
Mass of boron isotope Abundance of , η1 = x% Abundance of , η 2 =

, η2= (100 − x)%

, m = 10.01294 u

, m = 11.00931 u

1
1
of , η1 = x% Abundance of , η 2 = (100 − x) % ,

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Atomic mass of boron, m = 10.811 u The atomic mass of
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Atomic mass of boron, m = 10.811 u The atomic mass of boron
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Atomic mass of boron, m = 10.811 u The atomic mass of boron

Atomic mass of boron, m = 10.811 u The atomic mass of boron atom is given as:

m = 10.811 u The atomic mass of boron atom is given as: And 100 −

And 100 − x = 80.11%

Hence, the abundance of

is given as: And 100 − x = 80.11% Hence, the abundance of is 19.89% and

is 19.89% and that of

− x = 80.11% Hence, the abundance of is 19.89% and that of is 80.11%. Question

is 80.11%.

Question 13.2:

and
and

The three stable isotopes of neon:

90.51%, 0.27% and 9.22%. The atomic masses of the three isotopes are 19.99 u, 20.99

u and 21.99 u, respectively. Obtain the average atomic mass of neon. Answer

have respective abundances of

Atomic mass of

Atomic mass of , m 1 = 19.99 u

, m 1 = 19.99 u

Abundance of

Abundance of , η 1 = 90.51%

,

η 1 = 90.51%

Atomic mass of

Atomic mass of , m 2 = 20.99 u

,

m 2 = 20.99 u

Abundance of

Abundance of , η 2 = 0.27%

,

η 2 = 0.27%

Atomic mass of

Atomic mass of , m 3 = 21.99 u

,

m 3 = 21.99 u

Abundance of

Abundance of , η 3 = 9.22%

, η 3 = 9.22%

The average atomic mass of neon is given as:

2
2
u Abundance of , η 3 = 9.22% The average atomic mass of neon is given

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.3: Obtain the binding energy (in MeV) of a nitrogen nucleus
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.3: Obtain the binding energy (in MeV) of a nitrogen nucleus =14.00307
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.3: Obtain the binding energy (in MeV) of a nitrogen nucleus =14.00307
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.3: Obtain the binding energy (in MeV) of a nitrogen nucleus =14.00307

Question 13.3:

Obtain the binding energy (in MeV) of a nitrogen nucleus

=14.00307 uObtain the binding energy (in MeV) of a nitrogen nucleus , given Answer A t o

binding energy (in MeV) of a nitrogen nucleus =14.00307 u , given Answer A t o

, given

Answer

Atomic mass of

A t o m i c m a s s o f nitrogen, m = 14.00307

nitrogen, m = 14.00307 u

m i c m a s s o f nitrogen, m = 14.00307 u A nucleus

A nucleus of

Hence, the mass defect of this nucleus, ∆m = 7m H + 7m n − m Where,

Mass of a proton, m H = 1.007825 u Mass of a neutron, m n = 1.008665 u

∆m = 7 × 1.007825 + 7 × 1.008665 − 14.00307 = 7.054775 + 7.06055 − 14.00307m H = 1.007825 u Mass of a neutron, m n = 1.008665 u nitrogen contains

nitrogen contains 7 protons and 7 neutrons.

= 0.11236 u

But 1 u = 931.5 MeV/c 2

m = 0.11236 × 931.5 MeV/c 2 Hence, the binding energy of the nucleus is m = 0.11236 × 931.5 MeV/c 2 Hence, the binding energy of the nucleus is given as:

E b = ∆mc 2

Where, c = Speed of light

E b = 0.11236 × 931.5 b = 0.11236 × 931.5

is given as: E b = ∆mc 2 Where, c = Speed of light E b
3
3
is given as: E b = ∆mc 2 Where, c = Speed of light E b

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) = 104.66334 MeV Hence, the binding energy of a nitrogen nucleus is
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) = 104.66334 MeV Hence, the binding energy of a nitrogen nucleus is 104.66334
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) = 104.66334 MeV Hence, the binding energy of a nitrogen nucleus is 104.66334

= 104.66334 MeV

Hence, the binding energy of a nitrogen nucleus is 104.66334 MeV.

Question 13.4:

Obtain the binding energy of the nuclei data:

and
and
13.4: Obtain the binding energy of the nuclei data: and = 55.934939 u = 208.980388 u

= 55.934939 u

the binding energy of the nuclei data: and = 55.934939 u = 208.980388 u in units

= 208.980388 u

in units of MeV from the following

Answer

u = 208.980388 u in units of MeV from the following Answer Atomic mass of ,

Atomic mass of

, m 1 = 55.934939 u

the following Answer Atomic mass of , m 1 = 55.934939 u nucleus has 26 protons

nucleus has 26 protons and (56 − 26) = 30 neutrons Hence, the mass defect of the nucleus, ∆m = 26 × m H + 30 × m n − m 1 Where, Mass of a proton, m H = 1.007825 u Mass of a neutron, m n = 1.008665 u ∆m = 26 × 1.007825 + 30 × 1.008665 − 55.934939

= 26.20345 + 30.25995 − 55.934939

= 0.528461 u

But 1 u = 931.5 MeV/c 2 m = 0.528461 × 931.5 MeV/c 2 The binding energy of this nucleus is given as:

MeV/c 2 The binding energy of this nucleus is given as: E b 1 = ∆mc
MeV/c 2 The binding energy of this nucleus is given as: E b 1 = ∆mc

E b1 = ∆mc 2 Where, c = Speed of light

given as: E b 1 = ∆mc 2 Where, c = Speed of light E b

E b1 = 0.528461 × 931.5

as: E b 1 = ∆mc 2 Where, c = Speed of light E b 1
4
4
as: E b 1 = ∆mc 2 Where, c = Speed of light E b 1

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) = 492.26 MeV Average binding energy per nucleon Atomic mass of ,
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) = 492.26 MeV Average binding energy per nucleon Atomic mass of , m
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) = 492.26 MeV Average binding energy per nucleon Atomic mass of , m

= 492.26 MeV

Average binding energy per nucleon

) = 492.26 MeV Average binding energy per nucleon Atomic mass of , m 2 =
) = 492.26 MeV Average binding energy per nucleon Atomic mass of , m 2 =

Atomic mass of

, m 2 = 208.980388 u

energy per nucleon Atomic mass of , m 2 = 208.980388 u nucleus has 83 protons

nucleus has 83 protons and (209 − 83) 126 neutrons. Hence, the mass defect of this nucleus is given as:

m' = 83 × m H + 126 × m n − m 2 Where, Mass of a proton, m H = 1.007825 u Mass of a neutron, m n = 1.008665 u

∆m' = 83 × 1.007825 + 126 × 1.008665 − 208.980388 = 83.649475 + 127.091790 − 208.980388m H = 1.007825 u Mass of a neutron, m n = 1.008665 u = 1.760877

= 1.760877 u

But 1 u = 931.5 MeV/c 2 m' = 1.760877 × 931.5 MeV/c 2 Hence, the binding energy of this nucleus is given as:

E b2 = ∆m'c 2

of this nucleus is given as: E b 2 = ∆m'c 2 = 1.760877 × 931.5

= 1.760877 × 931.5

= 1640.26 MeV

E b 2 = ∆m'c 2 = 1.760877 × 931.5 = 1640.26 MeV Average bindingenergy per

Average bindingenergy per nucleon =

× 931.5 = 1640.26 MeV Average bindingenergy per nucleon = Question 13.5: A given coin has

Question 13.5:

A given coin has a mass of 3.0 g. Calculate the nuclear energy that would be required to separate all the neutrons and protons from each other. For simplicity assume that the

coin is entirely made of Answer

For simplicity assume that the coin is entirely made of Answer atoms (of mass 62.92960 u).

atoms (of mass 62.92960 u).

5
5
For simplicity assume that the coin is entirely made of Answer atoms (of mass 62.92960 u).

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Mass of a copper coin, m’ = 3 g Atomic mass of
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Mass of a copper coin, m’ = 3 g Atomic mass of atom,
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Mass of a copper coin, m’ = 3 g Atomic mass of atom,

Mass of a copper coin, m’ = 3 g

( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Mass of a copper coin, m’ = 3 g Atomic mass of atom,

Atomic mass of

atom, m = 62.92960 u

copper coin, m’ = 3 g Atomic mass of atom, m = 62.92960 u The total
copper coin, m’ = 3 g Atomic mass of atom, m = 62.92960 u The total

The total number of

Where,

N A = Avogadro’s number = 6.023 × 10 23 atoms /g

Mass number = 63 g

atoms in the coin

× 10 2 3 atoms /g Mass number = 63 g atoms in the coin nucleus
× 10 2 3 atoms /g Mass number = 63 g atoms in the coin nucleus

nucleus has 29 protons and (63 − 29) 34 neutrons

Mass defect of this nucleus, ∆m' = 29 × m H + 34 × m n fect of this nucleus, ∆m' = 29 × m H + 34 × m n − m

Where,

Mass of a proton, m H = 1.007825 u

Mass of a neutron, m n = 1.008665 u

m H = 1.007825 u Mass of a neutron, m n = 1.008665 u ∆m' =

∆m' = 29 × 1.007825 + 34 × 1.008665 − 62.9296

= 0.591935 u

Mass defect of all the atoms present in the coin, ∆m = 0.591935 × 2.868 × 10 22

= 1.69766958 × 10 22 u

But 1 u = 931.5 MeV/c 2

m = 1.69766958 × 10 2 2 × 931.5 MeV/c 2 m = 1.69766958 × 10 22 × 931.5 MeV/c 2

Hence, the binding energy of the nuclei of the coin is given as:

E b = ∆mc 2

= 1.69766958 × 10 22 × 931.5

= 1.581 × 10 25 MeV

But 1 MeV = 1.6 × 10 13 J

× 10 2 5 MeV But 1 MeV = 1.6 × 10 − 1 3 J

E b = 1.581 × 10 25 × 1.6 × 10 13

= 2.5296 × 10 12 J

This much energy is required to separate all the neutrons and protons from the given

coin.

6
6
This much energy is required to separate all the neutrons and protons from the given coin.

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.6: Write nuclear reaction equations for (i) α -decay of (ii)
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.6: Write nuclear reaction equations for (i) α -decay of (ii) α
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.6: Write nuclear reaction equations for (i) α -decay of (ii) α

Question 13.6:

Write nuclear reaction equations for

(i) α-decay of

(i) α -decay of (ii) α -decay of

(ii) α-decay of

(i) α -decay of (ii) α -decay of

(iii) β -decay of

(iv) β -decay of -decay of

−
(iii) β − -decay of (iv) β -decay of −

(v) β + -decay of

(vi) β -decay of -decay of

+
+
(v) β + -decay of (vi) β -decay of +

(vii) Electron capture of Answer

(vi) β -decay of + (vii) Electron capture of Answer α is a nucleus of helium
(vi) β -decay of + (vii) Electron capture of Answer α is a nucleus of helium
(vi) β -decay of + (vii) Electron capture of Answer α is a nucleus of helium

α is a nucleus of helium and β is an electron (e for β and e + for β + ). In every

αdecay, there is a loss of 2 protons and 4 neutrons. In every β + -decay, there is a loss of

1 proton and a neutrino is emitted from the nucleus. In every β -decay, there is a gain

of 1 proton and an antineutrino is emitted from the nucleus.

For the given cases, the various nuclear reactions can be written as:

from the nucleus. For the given cases, the various nuclear reactions can be written as: 7
7
7
from the nucleus. For the given cases, the various nuclear reactions can be written as: 7

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.7: A radioactive isotope has a half-life of T years. How
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.7: A radioactive isotope has a half-life of T years. How long
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.7: A radioactive isotope has a half-life of T years. How long

Question 13.7:

A radioactive isotope has a half-life of T years. How long will it take the activity to reduce

to a) 3.125%, b) 1% of its original value? Answer Half-life of the radioactive isotope = T years Original amount of the radioactive isotope = N 0

(a) After decay, the amount of the radioactive isotope = N

It is given that only 3.125% of N 0 remains after decay. Hence, we can write:

3.125% of N 0 remains after decay. Hence, we can write: Where, λ = Decay constant

Where, λ = Decay constant t = Time

Hence, we can write: Where, λ = Decay constant t = Time Hence, the isotope will

Hence, the isotope will take about 5T years to reduce to 3.125% of its original value.

8
8
Hence, the isotope will take about 5T years to reduce to 3.125% of its original value.

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) (b) After decay, the amount of the radioactive isotope = N It
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) (b) After decay, the amount of the radioactive isotope = N It is
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) (b) After decay, the amount of the radioactive isotope = N It is

(b) After decay, the amount of the radioactive isotope = N It is given that only 1% of N 0 remains after decay. Hence, we can write:

only 1% of N 0 remains after decay. Hence, we can write: Since, λ = 0.693/T

Since, λ = 0.693/T

after decay. Hence, we can write: Since, λ = 0.693/T Hence, the isotope will take about

Hence, the isotope will take about 6.645T years to reduce to 1% of its original value.

Question 13.8:

The normal activity of living carbon-containing matter is found to be about 15 decays per minute for every gram of carbon. This activity arises from the small proportion of

of carbon. This activity arises from the small proportion of radioactive present with the stable carbon
of carbon. This activity arises from the small proportion of radioactive present with the stable carbon

radioactive present with the stable carbon isotope . When the organism is dead, its interaction with the atmosphere (which maintains the above equilibrium activity)

atmosphere (which maintains the above equilibrium activity) ceases and its activity begins to drop. From the

ceases and its activity begins to drop. From the known half-life (5730 years) of

the measured activity, the age of the specimen can be approximately estimated. This is

, and

the specimen can be approximately estimated. This is , and the principle of dating used in

the principle of dating used in archaeology. Suppose a specimen from Mohenjodaro gives an activity of 9 decays per minute per gram of carbon. Estimate the approximate age of the Indus-Valley civilisation. Answer Decay rate of living carbon-containing matter, R = 15 decay/min

9
9
civilisation. Answer Decay rate of living carbon-containing matter, R = 15 decay/min 9 Free web support

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Let N be the number of radioactive atoms present in a normal
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Let N be the number of radioactive atoms present in a normal carbon-
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Let N be the number of radioactive atoms present in a normal carbon-

Let N be the number of radioactive atoms present in a normal carbon- containing matter.

atoms present in a normal carbon- containing matter. , Half life of The decay rate of
,
,

Half life of

The decay rate of the specimen obtained from the Mohenjodaro site:

R' = 9 decays/min Let N' be the number of radioactive atoms present in the specimen during the Mohenjodaro period.

Therefore, we can relate the decay constant, λand time, t as:

= 5730 years

relate the decay constant, λand time, t as: = 5730 years Hence, the approximate age of

Hence, the approximate age of the Indus-Valley civilisation is 4223.5 years.

Question 13.9:

Obtain the amount of

is 4223.5 years. Question 13.9: Obtain the amount of necessary to provide a radioactive source of

necessary to provide a radioactive source of 8.0 mCi

of necessary to provide a radioactive source of 8.0 mCi strength. The half-life of Answer The

strength. The half-life of

Answer The strength of the radioactive source is given as:

is 5.3 years.

10
10
The half-life of Answer The strength of the radioactive source is given as: is 5.3 years.

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Where, N = Required number of atoms , Half-life of = 5.3
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Where, N = Required number of atoms , Half-life of = 5.3 years
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Where, N = Required number of atoms , Half-life of = 5.3 years
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Where, N = Required number of atoms , Half-life of = 5.3 years

Where,

N = Required number of atoms

,
,

Half-life of

= 5.3 years

= 5.3 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60

= 1.67 × 10 8 s

For decay constant λ, we have the rate of decay as:

8 s For decay constant λ, we have the rate of decay as: Where, λ For
Where, λ
Where, λ
decay constant λ, we have the rate of decay as: Where, λ For : Mass of
For :
For
:

Mass of 6.023 × 10 23 (Avogadro’s number) atoms = 60 g

Mass ofof 6.023 × 10 2 3 (Avogadro’s number) atoms = 60 g atoms Hence, the amount

× 10 2 3 (Avogadro’s number) atoms = 60 g Mass of atoms Hence, the amount

atoms

Hence, the amount of

number) atoms = 60 g Mass of atoms Hence, the amount of necessary for the purpose
number) atoms = 60 g Mass of atoms Hence, the amount of necessary for the purpose

necessary for the purpose is 7.106 × 10 6 g.

11
11
Mass of atoms Hence, the amount of necessary for the purpose is 7.106 × 10 −

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.10: The half-life of is 28 years. What is the disintegration

Question 13.10:

( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.10: The half-life of is 28 years. What is the disintegration rate
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.10: The half-life of is 28 years. What is the disintegration rate

The half-life of

The half-life of

is 28 years. What is the disintegration rate of 15 mg of this isotope?

Answer

Half life of

,
,
,

= 28 years

= 28 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60

= 8.83 × 10 8 s

Mass of the isotope, m = 15 mg

90 g of

= 8.83 × 10 8 s Mass of the isotope, m = 15 mg 90 g

atom contains 6.023 × 10 23 (Avogadro’s number) atoms.

Therefore, 15 mg of contains:
Therefore, 15 mg of
contains:
(Avogadro’s number) atoms. Therefore, 15 mg of contains: Rate of disintegration, Where, λ = Decay constant
Rate of disintegration,
Rate of disintegration,

Where,

15 mg of contains: Rate of disintegration, Where, λ = Decay constant Hence, the disintegration rate
λ = Decay constant
λ = Decay constant
contains: Rate of disintegration, Where, λ = Decay constant Hence, the disintegration rate of 15 mg

Hence, the disintegration rate of 15 mg of the given isotope is 7.878 × 10 10 atoms/s.

Question 13.11:

Obtain approximately the ratio of the nuclear radii of the gold isotope

silver isotope

Answer

.
.
12
12
the ratio of the nuclear radii of the gold isotope silver isotope Answer . 12 and
the ratio of the nuclear radii of the gold isotope silver isotope Answer . 12 and

and the

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Nuclear radius of the gold isotope = R A u Nuclear radius
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Nuclear radius of the gold isotope = R A u Nuclear radius of
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Nuclear radius of the gold isotope = R A u Nuclear radius of

Nuclear radius of the gold isotope

Nuclear radius of the gold isotope = R A u

= R Au

Nuclear radius of the silver isotope

Nuclear radius of the silver isotope = R A g

= R Ag

Mass number of gold, A Au = 197 Mass number of silver, A Ag = 107 The ratio of the radii of the two nuclei is related with their mass numbers as:

of the two nuclei is related with their mass numbers as: Hence, the ratio of the

Hence, the ratio of the nuclear radii of the gold and silver isotopes is about 1.23.

Question 13.12:

Find the Q-value and the kinetic energy of the emitted α-particle in the α-decay of (a)

energy of the emitted α -particle in the α -decay of (a) and (b) Given Answer
and (b)
and (b)
Given
Given
emitted α -particle in the α -decay of (a) and (b) Given Answer . = 226.02540

Answer

.

=

226.02540 u,

= 222.01750 u,= 226.02540 u,

=

220.01137 u,

= 216.00189 u.= 220.01137 u,

(a) Alpha particle decay of

220.01137 u, = 216.00189 u. (a) Alpha particle decay of emits a helium nucleus. As a

emits a helium nucleus. As a result, its mass number

reduces to (226 − 4) 222 and its atomic number reduces to (88 − 2) 86. This is shown

in the following nuclear reaction.

− 2) 86. This i s shown in the following nuclear reaction. Q-value of emitted α

Q-value of

emitted α-particle = (Sum of initial mass − Sum of final mass) c 2 Where, c = Speed of light It is given that:

13
13
initial mass − Sum of final mass) c 2 Where, c = Speed of light It

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Q- value = [226.02540 − (222.01750 + 4.002603)] u c 2 =
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Q- value = [226.02540 − (222.01750 + 4.002603)] u c 2 = 0.005297
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Q- value = [226.02540 − (222.01750 + 4.002603)] u c 2 = 0.005297
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Q- value = [226.02540 − (222.01750 + 4.002603)] u c 2 = 0.005297

Q-value = [226.02540 − (222.01750 + 4.002603)] u c 2

= 0.005297 u c 2

But 1 u = 931.5 MeV/c 2

Q = 0.005297 × 931.5 ≈ 4.94 MeV4.002603)] u c 2 = 0.005297 u c 2 But 1 u = 931.5 MeV/c 2

Kinetic energy of the α-particle

× 931.5 ≈ 4.94 MeV Kinetic energy of the α -particle (b) Alpha particle decay of
× 931.5 ≈ 4.94 MeV Kinetic energy of the α -particle (b) Alpha particle decay of
(b) Alpha particle decay of
(b) Alpha particle decay of

It is given that:

Mass

of = 220.01137 uM a s s

Mass

of = 216.00189 uMass

Q-value =a s s of = 220.01137 u Mass of = 216.00189 u ≈ 641 MeV Kinetic

of = 220.01137 u Mass of = 216.00189 u Q-value = ≈ 641 MeV Kinetic energy

≈ 641 MeV

Kinetic energy of the α-particle

= 6.29 MeV

of = 216.00189 u Q-value = ≈ 641 MeV Kinetic energy of the α -particle =
14
14
of = 216.00189 u Q-value = ≈ 641 MeV Kinetic energy of the α -particle =

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.13: The radionuclide 1 1 C decays according to The maximum
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.13: The radionuclide 1 1 C decays according to The maximum energy
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.13: The radionuclide 1 1 C decays according to The maximum energy

Question 13.13:

The radionuclide 11 C decays according to

13.13: The radionuclide 1 1 C decays according to The maximum energy of the emitted positron

The maximum energy of the emitted positron is 0.960 MeV. Given the mass values:

of the emitted positron is 0.960 MeV. Given the mass values: calculate Q and compare it

calculate Q and compare it with the maximum energy of the positron emitted

Answer

The given nuclear reaction is:

the positron emitted Answer The given nuclear reaction is: = 11.011434 u Atomic mass of Atomic

= 11.011434 u

emitted Answer The given nuclear reaction is: = 11.011434 u Atomic mass of Atomic mass of
emitted Answer The given nuclear reaction is: = 11.011434 u Atomic mass of Atomic mass of

Atomic mass of

Atomic mass of Maximum energy possessed by the emitted positron = 0.960 MeV

The change in the Q-value (∆Q) of the nuclear masses of the
The change in the Q-value (∆Q) of the nuclear masses of the
change in the Q-value (∆Q) of the nuclear masses of the Where, m e = Mass

Where,

m

e = Mass of an electron or positron = 0.000548 u

c

= Speed of light

m’ = Respective nuclear masses

If atomic masses are used instead of nuclear masses, then we have to add 6 m e in the

case of

nuclear masses, then we have to add 6 m e in the case of and 5

and 5 m e in the

case of . 15
case of
.
15
masses, then we have to add 6 m e in the case of and 5 m

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Hence, equation (1) reduces to: ∆Q = [11.011434 − 11.009305 − 2
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Hence, equation (1) reduces to: ∆Q = [11.011434 − 11.009305 − 2 ×
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Hence, equation (1) reduces to: ∆Q = [11.011434 − 11.009305 − 2 ×

Hence, equation (1) reduces to:

( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Hence, equation (1) reduces to: ∆Q = [11.011434 − 11.009305 − 2 ×

∆Q = [11.011434 − 11.009305 − 2 × 0.000548] c 2 = (0.001033 c 2 ) u

11.009305 − 2 × 0.000548] c 2 = (0.001033 c 2 ) u But 1 u

But 1 u = 931.5 Mev/c 2

Q = 0. 001033 × 931.5 ≈ 0.962 MeV The value of Q is almost Q = 0.001033 × 931.5 ≈ 0.962 MeV The value of Q is almost comparable to the maximum energy of the emitted positron.

Question 13.14:

the maximum energy of the emitted positron. Question 13.14: The nucleus determine the maximum kinetic energy
the maximum energy of the emitted positron. Question 13.14: The nucleus determine the maximum kinetic energy
the maximum energy of the emitted positron. Question 13.14: The nucleus determine the maximum kinetic energy

The nucleus

determine the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons emitted. Given that:

decays by

emission. Write down the

decay

equation

= 22.994466 u

= 22.994466 u

= 22.989770 u.

= 22.989770 u.

and

Answer

decay equation = 22.994466 u = 22.989770 u. and Answer In emission, the number of protons

In emission, the number of protons increases by 1, and one electron and an antineutrino are emitted from the parent nucleus.

and an antineutrino are emitted from the parent nucleus. emission of the nucleus It is given
emission of the nucleus
emission of the nucleus
are emitted from the parent nucleus. emission of the nucleus It is given that: Atomic mass

It is given that:

Atomic mass

of = 22.994466 uAtomic mass

Atomic mass

of = 22.989770 uAtomic mass

Mass of an electron, m e = 0.000548 u Q-value of the given reaction is given as:

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16
u Mass of an electron, m e = 0.000548 u Q-value of the given reaction is

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) There are 10 electrons in and 11 electrons in cancelled in the
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) There are 10 electrons in and 11 electrons in cancelled in the Q-value
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) There are 10 electrons in and 11 electrons in cancelled in the Q-value
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) There are 10 electrons in and 11 electrons in cancelled in the Q-value

There are 10 electrons in and 11 electrons in cancelled in the Q-value equation.

in and 11 electrons in cancelled in the Q-value equation. . Hence, the mass of the

. Hence, the mass of the electron is

the Q-value equation. . Hence, the mass of the electron is and . Hence, it carries
the Q-value equation. . Hence, the mass of the electron is and . Hence, it carries
the Q-value equation. . Hence, the mass of the electron is and . Hence, it carries

and . Hence, it carries negligible

energy. The kinetic energy of the antineutrino is nearly zero. Hence, the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is almost equal to the Q-value, i.e., 4.374 MeV.

The daughter nucleus is too heavy as compared to

Question 13.15:

The Q value of a nuclear reaction A + b C + d is defined by

Q = [ m A + m b m C m d ]c 2 where the masses refer to the respective nuclei. Determine from the given data the Q-value of the following reactions and state whether the reactions are exothermic or endothermic.

(i)

(ii)

the reactions are exothermic or endothermic. (i) (ii) Atomic masses are given to be 17 Free
the reactions are exothermic or endothermic. (i) (ii) Atomic masses are given to be 17 Free

Atomic masses are given to be

the reactions are exothermic or endothermic. (i) (ii) Atomic masses are given to be 17 Free
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17
the reactions are exothermic or endothermic. (i) (ii) Atomic masses are given to be 17 Free

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Answer (i) The given nuclear reaction is: It is given that: Atomic
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Answer (i) The given nuclear reaction is: It is given that: Atomic mass
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Answer (i) The given nuclear reaction is: It is given that: Atomic mass

Answer

(i) The given nuclear reaction is:

) Answer (i) The given nuclear reaction is: It is given that: Atomic mass Atomic mass

It is given that:

Atomic mass

Atomic mass

reaction is: It is given that: Atomic mass Atomic mass Atomic mass According to the question,
reaction is: It is given that: Atomic mass Atomic mass Atomic mass According to the question,
reaction is: It is given that: Atomic mass Atomic mass Atomic mass According to the question,

Atomic mass According to the question, the Q-value of the reaction can be written as:

the question, the Q-value of the reaction can be written as: The negative Q-value of the

The negative Q-value of the reaction shows that the reaction is endothermic.

(ii) The given nuclear reaction is:

reaction is endothermic. (ii) The given nuclear reaction is: It is given that: Atomic mass of

It is given that:

Atomic mass of

Atomic mass of

Atomic mass of

is given that: Atomic mass of Atomic mass of Atomic mass of The Q-value of this
is given that: Atomic mass of Atomic mass of Atomic mass of The Q-value of this
is given that: Atomic mass of Atomic mass of Atomic mass of The Q-value of this

The Q-value of this reaction is given as:

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18
Atomic mass of Atomic mass of Atomic mass of The Q-value of this reaction is given

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) The positive Q-value of the reaction shows that the reaction is exothermic.
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) The positive Q-value of the reaction shows that the reaction is exothermic. Question
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) The positive Q-value of the reaction shows that the reaction is exothermic. Question
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) The positive Q-value of the reaction shows that the reaction is exothermic. Question

The positive Q-value of the reaction shows that the reaction is exothermic.

Question 13.16:

shows that the reaction is exothermic. Question 13.16: Suppose, we think of fission of a fission
shows that the reaction is exothermic. Question 13.16: Suppose, we think of fission of a fission

Suppose, we think of fission of a

fission energetically possible? Argue by working out Q of the process. Given

nucleus into two equal fragments,

Q of the process. Given nucleus into two equal fragments, and . Answer The fission of
and
and
of the process. Given nucleus into two equal fragments, and . Answer The fission of can

.

Answer

The fission of

The fission of can be given as:

can be given as:

and . Answer The fission of can be given as: It is given that: Atomic mass

It is given that:

Atomic mass of

of can be given as: It is given that: Atomic mass of = 55.93494 u Atomic

= 55.93494 u

be given as: It is given that: Atomic mass of = 55.93494 u Atomic mass of

Atomic mass of The Q-value of this nuclear reaction is given as:

mass of The Q-value of this nuclear reaction is given as: . Is the The Q-value

. Is the

The Q-value of the fission is negative. Therefore, the fission is not possible energetically. For an energetically-possible fission reaction, the Q-value must be positive.

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19
For an energetically-possible fission reaction, the Q-value must be positive. 19 Free web support in Education

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.17: . The fission properties of The average energy released per
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.17: . The fission properties of The average energy released per fission
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.17: . The fission properties of The average energy released per fission

Question 13.17:

( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.17: . The fission properties of The average energy released per fission
.
.

The fission properties of

The average energy released per fission is 180 MeV. How much energy, in MeV, is

are very similar to those of

released if all the atoms in 1 kg of pure Answer

to those of released if all the atoms in 1 kg of pure Answer undergo fission?

undergo fission?

if all the atoms in 1 kg of pure Answer undergo fission? Average energy released per

Average energy released per fission of

, m = 1 kg = 1000 gundergo fission? Average energy released per fission of Amount of pure N A = Avogadro number

Amount of pure

N A = Avogadro number = 6.023 × 10 23

,
,

Mass number of

A = Avogadro number = 6.023 × 10 2 3 , Mass number of = 239

= 239 g

1 mole of

= 6.023 × 10 2 3 , Mass number of = 239 g 1 mole of

contains N A atoms.

mg of3 , Mass number of = 239 g 1 mole of contains N A atoms. contains

number of = 239 g 1 mole of contains N A atoms. mg of contains Total

contains

of = 239 g 1 mole of contains N A atoms. mg of contains Total energy
of = 239 g 1 mole of contains N A atoms. mg of contains Total energy
of = 239 g 1 mole of contains N A atoms. mg of contains Total energy

Total energy released during the fission of 1 kg ofof = 239 g 1 mole of contains N A atoms. mg of contains is calculated

is calculated as:

released during the fission of 1 kg of is calculated as: Hence, fission. is released if

Hence,

fission.

the fission of 1 kg of is calculated as: Hence, fission. is released if all the

is released if all the atoms in 1 kg of pure

of is calculated as: Hence, fission. is released if all the atoms in 1 kg of

undergo

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20
of is calculated as: Hence, fission. is released if all the atoms in 1 kg of

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.18: A 1000 MW fission reactor consumes half of its fuel
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.18: A 1000 MW fission reactor consumes half of its fuel in
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.18: A 1000 MW fission reactor consumes half of its fuel in

Question 13.18:

( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.18: A 1000 MW fission reactor consumes half of its fuel in

A 1000 MW fission reactor consumes half of its fuel in 5.00 y. How much

did it contain

initially? Assume that the reactor operates 80% of the time, that all the energy generated

arises from the fission of process. Answer

and that this nuclide is consumed only by the fissionenergy generated arises from the fission of process. Answer Half life of the fuel of the

Half life of the fuel of the fission reactor,

= 5 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 s

fuel of the fission reactor, = 5 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 s

years

We know that in the fission of 1 g of MeV.

60 × 60 s years We know that in the fission of 1 g of MeV.

nucleus, the energy released is equal to 200

1 mole, i.e., 235 g of

contains 6.023 × 10 2 3 atoms. 23 atoms.

1 mole, i.e., 235 g of contains 6.023 × 10 2 3 atoms. 1 g contains
1 mole, i.e., 235 g of contains 6.023 × 10 2 3 atoms. 1 g contains

1 g1 mole, i.e., 235 g of contains 6.023 × 10 2 3 atoms. contains The total

contains

The total energy generated per gram of is calculated as:
The total energy generated per gram of
is calculated as:
The total energy generated per gram of is calculated as: The reactor operates only 80% of

The reactor operates only 80% of the time.

Hence, the amount of calculated as:

only 80% of the time. Hence, the amount of calculated as: consumed in 5 years by

consumed in 5 years by the 1000 MW fission reactor is

as: consumed in 5 years by the 1000 MW fission reactor is Initial amount of =

Initial amount ofas: consumed in 5 years by the 1000 MW fission reactor is = 2 × 1538

in 5 years by the 1000 MW fission reactor is Initial amount of = 2 ×

= 2 × 1538 = 3076 kg

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21
in 5 years by the 1000 MW fission reactor is Initial amount of = 2 ×

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.19: How long can an electric lamp of 100W be kept
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.19: How long can an electric lamp of 100W be kept glowing
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.19: How long can an electric lamp of 100W be kept glowing

Question 13.19:

How long can an electric lamp of 100W be kept glowing by fusion of 2.0 kg of deuterium?

Take the fusion reaction as

fusion of 2.0 kg of deuterium? Take the fusion reaction as Answer The given fusion reaction

Answer

The given fusion reaction is:

the fusion reaction as Answer The given fusion reaction is: Amount of deuterium, m = 2

Amount of deuterium, m = 2 kg

1 mole, i.e., 2 g of deuterium contains 6.023 × 10 23 atoms.

2.0 kg of deuterium containsi.e., 2 g of deuterium contains 6.023 × 10 2 3 atoms. It can be inferred

6.023 × 10 2 3 atoms. 2.0 kg of deuterium contains It can be inferred from

It can be inferred from the given reaction that when two atoms of deuterium fuse, 3.27 MeV energy is released.

Total energy per nucleus released in the fusion reaction:two atoms of deuterium fuse, 3.27 MeV energy is released. Power of the electric lamp, P

Total energy per nucleus released in the fusion reaction: Power of the electric lamp, P =

Power of the electric lamp, P = 100 W = 100 J/s

Hence, the energy consumed by the lamp per second = 100 J

The total time for which the electric lamp will glow is calculated as:

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22
per second = 100 J The total time for which the electric lamp will glow is

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.20: Calculate the height of the potential barrier for a head
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.20: Calculate the height of the potential barrier for a head on
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.20: Calculate the height of the potential barrier for a head on
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.20: Calculate the height of the potential barrier for a head on

Question 13.20:

Calculate the height of the potential barrier for a head on collision of two deuterons. (Hint:

The height of the potential barrier is given by the Coulomb repulsion between the two deuterons when they just touch each other. Assume that they can be taken as hard spheres of radius 2.0 fm.) Answer When two deuterons collide head-on, the distance between their centres, d is given as:

Radius of 1 st deuteron + Radius of 2 nd deuteron

Radius of a deuteron nucleus = 2 fm = 2 × 10 15 m

d = 2 × 10 − 1 5 + 2 × 10 − 1 5 = 4 × 10 − 15 + 2 × 10 15 = 4 × 10 15 m Charge on a deuteron nucleus = Charge on an electron = e = 1.6 × 10 19 C

Potential energy of the two-deuteron system:

− 1 9 C Potential energy of the two-deuteron system: Where, = Permittivity of free space

Where,

= Permittivity of free space

the two-deuteron system: Where, = Permittivity of free space Hence, the height of the potential barrier

Hence, the height of the potential barrier of the two-deuteron system is 360 keV.

23
23
space Hence, the height of the potential barrier of the two-deuteron system is 360 keV. 23

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.21: From the relation R = R 0 A 1 /
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.21: From the relation R = R 0 A 1 / 3
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Question 13.21: From the relation R = R 0 A 1 / 3

Question 13.21:

From the relation R = R 0 A 1 / 3 , where R 0 is a constant and A is the mass number of a

nucleus, show that the nuclear matter density is nearly constant (i.e. independent of A).

Answer

We have the expression for nuclear radius as:

R = R 0 A 1 / 3

Where,

R 0 = Constant.

A = Mass number of the nucleus

3 Where, R 0 = Constant. A = Mass number of the nucleus Nuclear matter density,

Nuclear matter density, Let m be the average mass of the nucleus. Hence, mass of the nucleus = mA

average mass of the nucleus. Hence, mass of the nucleus = mA Hence, the nuclear matter

Hence, the nuclear matter density is independent of A. It is nearly constant.

Question 13.22:

is independent of A. It is nearly constant. Question 13.22: For the (positron) emission from a

For the (positron) emission from a nucleus, there is another competing process known as electron capture (electron from an inner orbit, say, the K−shell, is captured by the nucleus and a neutrino is emitted).

is captured by the nucleus and a neutrino is emitted). Show that if allowed but not

Show that if

allowed but not vice−versa.

Answer

Let the amount of energy released during the electron capture process be Q 1 . The

nuclear reaction can be written as:

process be Q 1 . The nuclear reaction can be written as: emission is energetically allowed,

emission is energetically allowed, electron capture is necessarily

can be written as: emission is energetically allowed, electron capture is necessarily 24 Free web support
24
24
can be written as: emission is energetically allowed, electron capture is necessarily 24 Free web support

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Let the amount of energy released during the positron capture process be
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Let the amount of energy released during the positron capture process be Q
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) Let the amount of energy released during the positron capture process be Q

Let the amount of energy released during the positron capture process be Q 2 . The nuclear reaction can be written as:

= Nuclear mass of
= Nuclear mass of
. The nuclear reaction can be written as: = Nuclear mass of = Nuclear mass of
= Nuclear mass of
= Nuclear mass of
can be written as: = Nuclear mass of = Nuclear mass of = Atomic mass of
= Atomic mass of
= Atomic mass of

Atomic mass ofas: = Nuclear mass of = Nuclear mass of = Atomic mass of m e =

mass of = Nuclear mass of = Atomic mass of Atomic mass of m e =

m e = Mass of an electron c = Speed of light Q-value of the electron capture reaction is given as:

light Q-value of the electron capture reaction is given as: Q-value of the positron capture reaction

Q-value of the positron capture reaction is given as:

as: Q-value of the positron capture reaction is given as: It can be inferred that if

It can be inferred that if Q 2 > 0, then Q 1 > 0; Also, if Q 1 > 0, it does not necessarily mean that Q 2 > 0.

25
25
> 0; Also, if Q 1 > 0, it does not necessarily mean that Q 2

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( www.tiwariacademy.com ) In other words, this means that if emission is energetically allowed, then
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) In other words, this means that if emission is energetically allowed, then the
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) In other words, this means that if emission is energetically allowed, then the
( www.tiwariacademy.com ) In other words, this means that if emission is energetically allowed, then the

In other words, this means that if emission is energetically allowed, then the electron capture process is necessarily allowed, but not vice-versa. This is because the Q-value must be positive for an energetically-allowed nuclear reaction.

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is because the Q-value must be positive for an energetically-allowed nuclear reaction. 26 Free web support

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