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TERRAMARE PUBLICATIONS TARR ee Somes see tae med by Ricard Mons No.1 ADOLF HITLER ‘A SHORT SKETCH OF HIS LIFE wy PHILIP GOUHLER PUBLISHED BY TERRAMARE OFFICE, BERLIN ADOLF HITLER A SHORT SKETEH OF HIS UFE ey PHILIP BOUHLER oad of te Pik Posen Candery 1938 TERRAMARE OFFICE, BERLIN WS brary University of Teas Austin, Teas DOLE HITLER was born on April 9, 188% at Braunat in Upper Austria, elose to the Bavarian frontier, Because it i situated on the frontier that divided two branches of the German people, Hitler has spoken of Braunau a tepre- senting for him “The Symbol of a Great Task”, namely that ‘of uniting all Germans in one State. His father, who was the ton of poor peasants from the forest district, had worked himself upwards through his own study and perseverance until he became a civil servant. At the time that Adolf was born his father we Customs Officer at Braunau, Reing proud fof his own achievement and the statue he had reached, his dearest desire was that his son should also enter the civil service; but the son was entirely opposed to this idea. He would dhe an artist: When he was thirteen years old Hitler lst his father and four years later his mother dicd. So that he found himself alone in the world at the age of seventeen, He had attended the primary school and subsequently the grammer school at Ling; but poverty forced him to give up hie studies and earn is bread, He went to Vienna, with the intention of studying to be an architect but he had to work for his livelihood a ‘manual lahourer at the huilding trade, where he mixed the ‘mortar and served the carpenters and bricklayers. Later on he ‘earned daily pittance as an architectural draughtsuan. Hav~ ing to depend entirely on himseli, he experienced in his enn ‘person from his ezeliest years what poverty and hunger and privation meant, And so he shared the daly fate ofthe workers, the “proletariat” in the building trade, and felt where the sive Pinched. ‘Thus it came about that he began to think im term ‘of socal reform during his early yeas = Hee busied himself with the political question: of the day: Jn this study he was influenced by the peronafty of Schoenereh the leader of the Pan-Gerran Austrians, and Leger, who si the Vienna Buryomaster and founder of the Chrstin-Soclal any. Hitler conesived a great admiration for these two meth ‘He made an exhaustive study of the teachings of Kael Mars and bere came to the important conclusion thit one had know Judeism in order to have the key to am inner and red knowledge of what Social Democracy meant At the building site where he worked he came into cont with Social Democracy for the first times Me at once to make a careful study of the literature dealing with it thus aequited a detsiled knowledge of the Marxist progeam! and the ways and means whieh were proposed co put it i practice. This led to controversies with his fellow work And he refused to join their organization, At cha time he dl not believe in the idea thatthe tade-unions were an appropria means of protecting the interests of the working classes agi the arbitrary imporunitiee of the employers, He only saw the politcal attitide of the tridesunions was Marcst and considered the trade-unionist idea as definitly identical si tat of Marsism, while he looked on Marsism as somethi that would destroy all civilization His fellow workers threatened to fling him doven from: sealfolding. They succeeded in forcing him to give up his j Tr his next job he had to go through much the same exper ‘Butas he acquired a more thoroughtnderstandingofthecharac and tendencies of his opponents his intluence on the oth ‘workmen increased and he soon realized how they reacted his diferent view of things, He then saw-cleary that th worker was by no means a bad fellow in himself, dht he ‘not ant-national and that he was only the vietim of unserupule ‘agitators. 6 “Though the years spent in Vien na meant a hard and bitter struggle with Tif, the experience gained in this school was of inestimable value afterwards, Hitler was now yearne ing to live a8 a German in Germany itcel, fre rom the oppression under which the German element had to siller in that potpourri of nations which made up the Habsburg pir, So he left Vienna and came fh That was on v8 Munich wis the chief centre of artistic and cultural life in Germany, Still hoping to make a name for him= self as an architect, Adolf Titer nove devoted a3 much time Td coeng 9 posible tothe tay of arcitecor, whe at the sue time he had to ear hs dal read by designing and folowing plosards, Revnly he had xen doing ood deal of Teading or purposes of selreducaton, Hecutived the Uaing ib ati suds and work in Munich, making. Rory bis spedalty, which ad been his favourite sojet af school Bat Teneo father than thi, fr he erly dened inal ocd it ond to sve the money Jor vite to the thee and eating, Gran! Opera, expecil the musi Grama of Rishard Wasner, whom be reieel as a. German sat and reformer In the Fran OG) Te Wal pedal acy es yore tha ior tha th hupdations ofthat round knowlege which arises tverybody th whom be dace general questions toy. ‘igus 9, 1814 anhed, opis of fer But sclera enthuse ins tn hugh te wale sation, Wave ar wave of Corian youth rwhed emhusoaically to join the woknler repent Zid ocre battalions Mier, who had lve fee that he wan {German Bre and loro, presented Kamel at the Bede Guaners af ene of the Bavarian regiments and wunteced for the front, He regarded this act at a matter of course, Nor there any technical difficulties in the way; for in the Febri ‘of that year he hal been definitely exempted from rhe obliga of military service in Austria. On October 10, 1914, he left the font as a soldier in the Ich Bavarian Reserve: Inf Regiment Destiny seemed to have preotdaine:! that Titer shoul se in the old German Army, that organization which was « maga cent example of the folk community and whieh he hal lof long time envisaged as the kind of social formation tht which the German people vould finally reach its destined Adolf Hitler threw himself body and soul into the work new calling as 2 soldier. He reecived his baptism of fit Flanders, where he faced death in the ranks of that ref which was made up of German youth who stormed the tren and fought and fell while they sang Dewshland ster al During the attack on the Bayernwald and in the subse engagements around Wytschaete Hitler showed rema bravery; 80 much s0 that already on December 2, 1914, than two months after he had fist entered the trenches, he awarded the Iron Cross of the Second Clas. Hi himself resourceful and courageous, without heing foothan hhe was now given one of the most hazardous jobs in the sgiment, namely that of dispatch-runnes, for which only pi Soldiers are used. In carrying out this task he won a goo! af admiration, expecially hecause on more than one ove he voluntarily stepped in and took on himself a pieee of di ous work which othersise would have fallen to the lot of cl ‘men who had wives and families at home. On the whole it be said without any fear of contradiction that Hitke’s cond a a soldier won the unstinted admiration of hie super hile his companions in the trenches, no matter how appt their politcal views were to his, admired his courage and bi genuine spirit of comradeship ‘On Detober 6, 1018, he was wounded in the thigh by a shrpi splinter and had to be sent to one of the home hospitals 8 treatment. Within a few months he was on his feet again. He more for the front. During the grest offensive of 1918, while camying dispatches, he succeeded in ambushing a French officer and about fifteen men and brought them back prisoners. For this he was awarded the Iron Cross of the First Class. On the night of October 18/4, 1918, the British Taunched an altack with phosgene gas in the seetor south of Ypres Hitler's regiment suffered severely and the casualties were extremely heavy, Hitler himself enddenly felt an exeruczting pain in the eyes ot he was returning with « dispatch to his own Tines. He managed to struggle hack however and deliver his dispatch, After that he was sent to hocpital totally lind. While the German armies were stil fighting desperately on all fronts for the very existence of their native land, defeatism ‘vas at work behind the lines and at home. Under the evrreding influence of the propagandist poison spread by anti-national agencies at home, civilian morale was sveadly crumbling. This process of disintegration gradually reached the soldiers at the front, where it took on a graver character day after day. ‘he coming downfall east its darkening shadow even across the fighting ines, "The revole of the ealors at che naval base in [el was the signal for the revolution. On November 9 1918, the day of the general collapee had come, It was not merely the mone archical constitution in Germany that was overthrown. No, but ‘everything olse with ic — che Fatherland itself, faith in the Fatherland and in one’s fellow man, order and discipline, Hitler wos in hospital at Pasewall in Pomerania when he first heard the news, The pain in che eyes had gradually become, less severe, His sight began to return and he now had hopes: ‘of regaining his normal possers of vision. ‘The impression which the news then made was deseribed by him some years later in the following words: ‘So all ha been in vain. In ain all the sacrifices and privy fons, in vain che hunger and three for endless months, in val those hours that ste stuck to our posts when the fear of dally svipped our souls, and in vain the deaths of wo millions whi fell in the fullment of their duty. ‘Tink ofthese hundieds df thousands who set outwit hears fll of faith in their Fath and, and never retumed; ought not cher graves to open, Mi thatthe spits of those sos bespattered with mud andl bla some home and wreak their vengeance on those whi had despieably betrayed the greatest saerfice which a hull boeing ean make for his country. Was it For this tht the soe sgn their lives in August and September 1914, for thi thatthe nena followed the old comrades in the autut fof the same year? Was it for this that those boys of seventh sear of age sere mingled with the soit of Flanders? Was th meant to he the fits of the sacrifice which German muthetl mace for their Fatherland when, with heavy hears, they sal goodbye to their sons, who never returned ? Wes all this don se criminal to lay hanson in order to enable a gang of desp the Fatherknd Hitler now developed a burning hatred ayainst the perpet tors of wit ie considered to be & most dastardly crime and a the same time it became apparent to him that Fate had destin him fora certain tsk, On that day he decided to tae up polit wotk, GENESIS OF THE MOVEMENT In the summer of 1014, at Munich, six men st about forming «new political party, which they called the German Workers! Perty. They had befove their minds a vague idea of orgunizng 1 national party which would oppose the Markt Worker! Party, ‘These six men ecrainly meant well but they had ng resouress whatsoever and above all there wat obody amon them who could claim vo have the necessary qualities for Iealet= ship. And so they were helpless in face ofthe task to which they hha set themacves, History would have knowin nothing of this Title circle of six mien had not destiny presented it vith its seventh member. ‘This wis Adol? Hider At the end of November 1918, he was hack again in Munich and had rejoined the reserve batalion of his regiment; but this fell under the contol of the Soldiers Counc, which was hateful 10 itl. So he went to raumstein and remained there vntl thecamp was demobilized Then he returned toNMunich,in March ‘Shortly afterwards a Communist regime on Soviet lines was tablished there, On Aj forder of the Central Council of the Reds, on the eharge of having participated in anti-revolutionary activites. But the hree braves who eame w extry out the order for arvest rurned ‘sil and departed hen Hitler presented a bold face and showed thom his il 27, he was to have been arrested by Early n May the 2nd Infantry Regiment set up a Committee of Enguiry to investigate the events that led to the revolution, Lance-Corporsl Hitler rescived instructinns to. pasticpate the work ofthat Committee Tis was she practical star of Hil politcal career. Courses of instruction were established for tht purpose of teaching the duties of eitzenship to the soldiers inthe army. It was during one of the debates which followed a lect fon this topic that Hitler was given the frst opportunity of speaking in public, As a result of the impression which If speech made on that oceasion he was appointed, lew days lle led instruction officer to one ofthe regiments station in Munich at thar time. One day he received orders co make ‘enquiries about the German Workers’ Party”, an organizilill hitherto unknown, He attended « meeting of this pay in the former Sternecker Bes, &t which about twenty persons yer assembled, Towards the end of the meeting a representative the Separatist Movement spoke and that broght Hitler t0 hil feet His speceh in reply made a marked impresion on the audience, It was thus that he became aequainted withthe ail of this new workers’ party. Subsequently he was requested become a ember. After turing the problem over in hia mind for several days, Hitler agreed to join, one of the reasons fi doing s0 being that he had already thought of founding a party of hie ovsn, Moreover, this Tittle eociety, although it had na programme or fxed aims, had 2 sort of framework om which ie could build a working plan fur the realization of his own leah The chief iffelty which now presented itself was to get tit fittle movernent known. Ie was necessary to lif it out of abseurity and place it on a footing where it would atract and hol attention of the general ‘The process of doing so went forvard very slowly. Th first meeting was composed only of the original seven mei bey ‘with one oF to onloukers. So meagre sere che prnpacandld esouress thatthe number of people who altended subset meetings increased only to 11, 15, 17, 23 and #1 respectively At che meeting after that 111 persons were present, Hitler now spoke regularly at meetings and in that way became consis his oratorieal gifts. le induced the committee to entrust the Library University of Texas Austin, Texas ‘On Jemany 28,198 te fire ‘contol of the propaganda department to hie. On February 24, 92H, he was at last able to hold the frst mass meeting, inthe “Hofbriw Haus. Tt was on that oceasion that he promulgated and expounded the Programme of the Geeman National Socisist Workers’ Party. An attempt on the part of the communists to svteck the meeting was frustrated by « handil of Hitler's Former var commis, who hid taken on themeelves the responsibility for mintsining order. Hitle’s contention that the Marxist terror show not only be smashed by mental weapons, but also by physical force, was proved for the frst time at this meeting. enecfoth amon weck ater yeck the Monch hoardings displyed large red placards cling on te public to attend the tnt meting ofthe Geman Navona oct Worker ary trick Party Come dl ier would pea. "Thexe posters, Sich hada fntot ating: “fone ll ao be admit”, were Gisignod by Hider inet They ako depayed statements dealing with the pole questions of he da. In December, 1920, the Party took over the Valischel Beobachter and thus had a press orgun of ite own, At fist this paper appeared twice weekly. But early in 1923 was brought ue asa daily newspaper. Towards the end of Augustin that year first appeared in its present large see, Hitler was not yet chairman of the party, though in reality a sits Tender. Some members took part in an intrigue to get i of him; but the eontequence was that at a general mecting of all che members ofthe Party, held towards the end of July Hy the whole direction was entrusted to Adolf Hitler anda noi satute was enacted which invested him with special plenipaene Wiary posers. He as now able to go ahead with the work of reorganizing the party, whose meetings and decisions hod hitherto. heen conducted on partiamentary principles. In reorganizing theroves ‘ment he proved that he was not daly « ennvineing speaker and controversalst but that he was algo an excellent organizer. The soverning principle now adopted for the development of the movement was that it should first acquire for itself a position Power and influence in one centre before it started to spreal ‘out and form district branches. The party had to expand organi cally. For a long time, therefore, Hitler confined his activi exclusively to Munich, before taking in hand the tas of forming pe outside, loca At the sume time the foundations were sid on which the orm Detachment was subsequently extahlished, Tn the Bes ining this detachment was simply a body of men acting i hall guards for the maintenance of order at meeting; but i hal bbeen known as the Storm Detachment (Sdurm Abteilung, hence §.A.} ever since November 4, 192, On that day the Pari held a meeting in the banquet hall of the Munich Hof Hau The Red turmed up in foree forthe purpose of crushing out the new movement once and for all. But they met with « biter isappoimment. As the meeting progressed the opposition raised an ontery and a furious fight ensued, ‘Though the Marsist 4 disturbers were much superior in numbers, the Nation Socialist guards stormed the Red front again and again, beer rugs were flung from one side to the other and free hand-to Fhand fights raged, until finally the Maraists were cleared from the hall and many of them sent home with bleeding skulle ‘The National Socialists remained master of the hall. ‘They had show that they eowld Sight and hold their ground. Towards the end of the summer of 1022 a mase demo stration was held on the Kénigeplat in Munich by all the patriotic societies, ‘The Nasional Socialists offically ook part in the meeting, Inthe autumn ofthat year, Oezobor 14, a Cong twas held at Cobung which was entitled “German Day National Socialists took pert in it. Coburg had hitherto been Red stronghold. At the head of 800 Storm Troopers frum -Munieli Hslr entered Coburg and marched through its street with flags flying and bands playing, Several fights wok place ‘but the National Socialists succeeded i suppressing the Red forall in that city, This was practical demons stration of Hitler's statement: "We have dealt with Marsan in a way which shows that henceforth the masters of the str are the National Socialist, a they will one day be the master of the State.” (On January 28,1923, the frt National Socialist Party Congr held on the Margfld in Munich and it sas on this occas that the fist S.A. standarde were dedicated, which had bee <1 by Hitler himself. Soon afterwards, Flight Capit Hermann Goring became Chief of the 3.A. It was he Whi expanded and perfe des a their organization Am attempt was made to force che National Sociatis- Party int 4" United Front from Right to Left, but Hitler's determingll ‘opposition shattered the attempt. He sav eleatly that an unde Sanding with the “November Criminals” of 1918 would 1h nly be meaningless but also impossible “There were temporary working coalitions with other asec tions but they lasted nly fora shore time, In these cases Hides idea was elearly proved to he sight, namely thatthe strong is strongest when alone THE cour ETAT ‘On September 2, 1985, the fret great Congress of the German patriotic leagues was held in Niimberg. On that day the National Socialist Party formed a coliion with the Oberland League and the Reihsflagge League, with the general ttle "The German Fighting League” and under the politcal leadership of Adolf Hitler, ‘The fist manifexo & wed by this coalition stated Revolution and. Versailles ate inseparably hound together in the relation of eause and effect. We want to free out Father from slavery and disgrace. But ibery can be achieved only by the people themselves, working together in a national union, ste which was founded in Weimar cannot he movement for German liberty On September 26, 1988, the Government of Bavaria reisterel its reaction to the establishment ofthe German Fighting League On that date Herr von Kahr was appointed General State CCommisar. The conflict between Bavaria and the Reich became acute. The central f are in this conflict was General von Lossu Commander of the Davarian Army. ‘The signs of a separatist movement in Bavaria became more and more pronounced Currency inflation. reached fantastic were heading for catastrophic situation. Something had to he As the result of discussions that lasted for several weeks Mite igined the impression that thote who then held power in Davari ‘Kah, Loseow and von Sesser, who was Commander 0 the Bavarian Police — were realy to collaborate in the evi era On the fifth anniversary ofthe onthreak of the 1918 revolutio November 8, 1998—a meeting wat held in the Municl Biirgerbciu Haws at which Kahr was to have announced before the assembled patriotic associations what his future policy Wil to be At 845 p.m. Hitler appeared, at the head of his Sool ‘Troops, and delared that the Government of the Reich a therewith deposed and substituted by a National Government AM first the meeting accepted this proclamation with reserve) garding ito something directed against Kahr; but under the influence of Tite's m netic speech, the audience gave il enthusiastic consent, Kahr, Lostow and Selsser accepted the new Government and the porflios alloted co them Towards morning it was repeatedly rumoured that Ki Lossow and Seisser had withdrawn from the new Government As a matter of fae generale who 3 they were pritoners in the hands ofthe ary re deputiring for Lossowe, Entirely on their ow HB LATE PRESIDENT VON HINDENBURG. esponsibility theve generals had sounded the alam among tI semy and police forces. Hitler p. ‘There was intention to oppose the machinery of power in the hands of th Government and the iden wonld have been nonsensical, Tht ‘decided to take an extrem final move had to be male which would impress the public an change their whole attitude. On the morning of the ninth gf November Hitler end his comrades f started from the Burgerbey Keller and marched into the cele of the town, Hitler himself marched at the heal of, with Ludel doefl and other popular leaders. With flag ayinecthe pe ofthe nationalist way of thinking came ont to gece and ppl the procession Swastika flys were flying from the City Hall, Tn the Real denasrasse the crows were s0 great that the procession Ih Acthe Fe kept se street clear, ‘The prncession marched wits way through the Marieny The majority of the Munich inhabitants who wee i the poleg And dien the incredible happened. ‘The soldiers opene hi ws marching in the cause of G liserty he W Reidhscelr. A great number were wounded. Hitler himself suffered damage to his arm after being thrown on the road. THe coup dat had fled | by Hitler and the famous Quartermaster-General of ld War, Sisteen ofthe marchers were killed and two Whi died subsequently ia the barracks of the log ide Muth there he was arested a few days later od in of Land and impri Several of his comrades and fellow mene urested afterwards and imprisoned in the sail fortres. All those who belonged to the Fighting League wete ordered to surrender their arms. On the same date, November 9, 1923, the General State Commissar issued an order ditslving the German National Socialist Workers! Party and stipulating heavy penalties for anyone attempzing to carry the work ofthe party any further Dn the following day police ears appeared in front of the business headquarters of the Pery in the Cornelimeensse and conic vorythi hey could lay hands on. But they did not find able ofall documents, which was the roll conta he names of members Munich was ike an armed camp. ‘The people were furiows They joined in mass demonstrations which were scattered. by mounted police using their trunchions freely, Kahr eat safely behind his barbed wire entrenchment in the Government buildings and “liquidated” the movement syhil uch annoyance. The authorities eoneated all the property Delonging tothe party, which was now outtave The attempt to change the disastrous fate under w hha been sulfering forthe pat five years ened in fs had caused so for the time being. ‘The system which had been initiied in ‘November 1015 stil held the mastery to the detriment of the ‘whole nation, And yet the eflocts of Hitler and his fiends were not in vain. “A manifest sign that the Sih of November was succesful”, aid Titler in Court afterwards, “can be seen in the fact that in response to ic the youth rove ikea food-tide in storm and massed is forex together. The most important real fof November 8 was that it did not ease any depression ithe public spirit but helped to raise it considerably.” CRITICAL DAYS (On Febcwary 26, 1024, the trial of “Hitler and Companions! opened at Munich in the same building that was once che War Academy. ‘The esse was brought before what vas called the Vollgerict or People’s Court ‘The result was that Hitler was sentenced to be imprisoned in « forteas for five years and he svas given to understand that a term of probation would follow Soveral of his companions were sentenced to longer or shorter terms of fortress imprisonment. Tut the lea he prosecution fl himself obliged to declare in his summing-up hefore the Court that “Hitler's honest effort to reawaken faith i Germany among a downtrodden and disarmed people” mus certainly he regarded as an act of service, He called Hitler “1 highly gilted man who dough his own eflrts had risen counsel for from a modest stu in life w a foremost postion in publi ¢etimation, a man who had sacrificed himeelf for hie ideas and who had fullled his duties as a soldier in the most admirable manner.” He alo paid tribute tothe sincerity of Hitler’ meaning Hitler took upon himeelf she full and sole rexponsibiliy for everything that had happened. Speaking in hie own defence he stated in the course of brilliant apeech thatthe overthrow of “Marxism was his aim but that thi wes considered essentially a necestry pre-condition for the extablishment of German liberty. "Its not you, Gentlemen”, conclu Hitler, “who pas judgment on us. We shall be judged before the etemal bat of Bistory."| ‘Through this trial Hitler's name became known fer beyond! te Bavarian fronties. He was rightly looked upon as the inspiring cause of the movement to abolish the system which had erste s0 much damage through the misman ement of public affie in Germany during the past five years, Is aide in Court enhanced his reputation and won sympathy for him in circles where he was hitherto more or les unknown. "They began to realize that this man was not a mere demagogue and that his associates were something better than a pack of row, (On December 20, 1924, his sentence was suspended and he Jeft the fortress in high spirits andl full of energy. One of hia frst visits was paid 10 the Bavarian Prime Minister, where his sole request was that his comrades might be released for the Christmas festivities, Hitler was convinced that there could be no question of ever wing the existing patriotic organizations as a pillar of support for his future policy, and so he decided to revestablish bis ol Geeman National Socialist Worker’ Party. He ascembled hil faithful comrades and on February 17, 1925, inthe Birgerbrty Keller at Munich, that movement came to life again In the mecting at which the movement was re-established Uitler announced that it would be conducted on constiutional tines but that the fight against the existing order of government ‘would be 2 severe one, ‘Tie Bavarian Government answered by. forbidding the Movement the right of public speech, astep which vas followed soon afterwards by most of the other federal governments. This prohibition lated for several years. And now a difficult and trying period set in for the young ‘movement. In the first place it had no business headquarters ofits own and not even a typenrite, to say nothing of bein os penniless. Many became wavering in their faith in the Move- ‘ment and in Hitler. Moreover it had to face goverment oppres- sion and dishonest treatment on the part of the officals, ‘Phen cme unbridled terror from the Left, on the atrcts and in the factories, together with boycotting in business life, Work on behalf of the National Sugilist idea demanded courage and strong ecnvetion and tnsual powers of exposition on the part of the individual members, But this was ako a benefit; foF i this way the party was winnovted and sieved. ‘The chalf is separated from the wheat Hitler’ politica line of eonduet was clear from the beginning, just as it had always been, In the sphere of foreign politics he ‘ought uncompromisingly against the Francophile attempt st aa ‘understanding and against the insane fulfilment palicy of the regime, which met with one defeat after another st the various interoational conferences that were held in rapid suceesion, Against this Hitler championed a poliey of alliances that would be beneficial to Germany. He considered that E would be the most likely and useful alles, and and lly In domestic politics the first important matter wes thes ion_of Marxism and then the aking over af political power, as a condition necessary to carry through the fight for German freedom, More nd more the National Socialist Party” became the “Prussia of the national movement in Ge The enforced silence consequent on prohibition of the ¢ of public speech gave Hitler the opportunity of complet ook, Meiv Kampj, for which his fortress impritonment ha afforded him the necessary time to prepare it and assemble th Inateral, The first volume, whieh dealt principally w Hider’ own development, was published at Christimss 1925; while the secon volume was completed the next year and dea with the foundation of the organization, THE, MOVEMENT ADVANCES Meanwhile Hitler. prom: tec his ideas among the masse Always accompanied by his i jutant, Rudo Hes al private seretary and politi ‘who hid also shared his company in the Fortress, he held meetings in Thuringia, Wirtemberg, Mecklam burg and Brunswick—the federaive states in which he still ‘enjoyed the right af publi speech, Hand in hand with this wor 3 of building up the organization #3 of North Germany the foundation for th establishment of sub-branches wat fist Jnid, A” constantly growing staff of sp: fre went hither and thither thr Germany, preaching Hitler's deetrines and bringing ther hove to the mind and h of the people. But still the Movement est in Tavaria, thowgh in Saxony al showed a nupid development, At the end of 2h) Dr Jou Goebbels was appointed Guaulaiter of Greater Berlin. With that continued to be str the struggle in the Capital of the Reich showed an important stage in its advance Besides the 8. A,, the 8, 8. (Sohute Stal — Defence Squad tof men who had been specially see hey wear blaek uniforms and aro entrusted with the task of tecting the movement as well as with propaganda work and her special duties. Since 1928 thie body of men the conieol of itt Reich Leader, Heinrich Himmler The Movemens founded a Youth Organization known a8 the Hitlee Youth, which spread rapidly especially among the hikiren of the working classes, Students soon began to crowd into the Movemest Socialist German Studer torday inthe hands of Baldur von Sehirach, Ins laced in charge of the Hitler Youth and the Nation nd were grouped under "The National p of which is Despite the manifest progress that had been made it mu ave seemed a daring step when Hitler summoned his fllowers toa Party Congress at Weimar in June, 1920, But this Congres S.A, and 8. nen took part in the marchepast and received @ tumult ception frum the general public. ‘They wore the browid uniforms on this ocetsion, instead of the waterproof jackal they had won in 128 ‘To a wider sphere of outsiders it was now proved onee agai that the Movement was not dead but very much alive ste wsing. And the Party members who attend tig sured the Nasional Sect Revolution b Congress stroggle. They felt that the Movement h new strength and new fsith for the eoming bringing the mover inten md since he 1 nove passed through ts most difieutt period and that the danger of stagnation wall er. At the end of 1025 the number of members had reach eae arb see 17, By December 1096 it had increased to 49,32, by De mt 27 to 72,080, by December 1928 to 108,717. In De umber 1020 the Party had a membership of 176,12, In 19 Bavaria. Prussia reatored it in 1995, ‘The federtive govern the righe of public speech was restored to Hitler tnd the partes supporting them found it no longer possible maintain poi denicaltherightofpublicspeech, Morcovey ize thefaerthatthispolcy of throtingthe Mot ment, assisted by acts of terror on the part of the Marsist, dd not hinder the movement bur rather hastene its development With the election of von Hindenburg on April 20, 1935, a President of the Reich, certain people thought that this would bring 8 change inthe method of government and put an en { the stupid policy which favoured a Brancoptile understanding But chese people wore bitterly disillusioned. While the governs theyliad.o recog by every means to prevent sty movement of ational revival from raising its head in Germany their ow feckless attitude towards all decisions in foreign polities wi encouraged and all those factors were lacking which might pil some backbone into the conduet of public afsirs. Despite hit constantly repeated fai cs Stresemann saw “the silver lining fn the political horizon”, while unemployment and economig distress steal increased. ‘The consequences of the Dawes Phi of the year 1924, became apparent in all their bitter realty lthough a litle caler that Plan os hailed asthe salvation a the nation, « Plan thst would reinvigorate the national economig system and therewith furnish the conditions necessary {oF @ political resurgence. Against all this Hier abvays maintainell Aetermined stand, eleiming that no economic revival would Mi possible util politcal power bad been won back, His innumerable addresses to industria! and esonomie leders succeeded in spies ding his ideas more and more widely among these eitcles, "That was a constantly growing number of people who believed tha Fitler’s movement was not only the wellspring from which ti national dea was being revived but that tw also the sole meat of saving the nation from economic collapse. The Natio Socialist Party Congresses at Nerberg in 1927 and 1020 gayi striking proof of the development of the organization and the rowing influenee which Hitler as esercsing among the peopl xe ‘of Germany. On the occasion of the Party Congress in 1929 ‘well over 109,000 persons made a pilgrimage tothe old imperial city. Twenty-four new standards were presented to the S.A following a solemn commemoration service for the dead at the War Monument in the Luitpoldhain, ‘The march-past of the S.A. at the lose of the ceremony, when Hitler lasted close on four hours and formed an imposing. demon Inthe realm of higher politics Hitler was nowno longer looked ‘upon merely a6 a heater ofthe big drum, but an allround respect began to be shown for his statesmanlike qualities, His “Open Answer to Herv tnd stated his 0 {in which he replied to the French politician n opinions on disarmament and on how rela tions between France and Germany should est be established, brought Hitler before the eyes ofthe public also in foreign coun the Young Plan led to the plebiscite of million votes registered on that oceasion tries. The fight agin 1928, though the 6 i through, Krom that time onwards Hitler was accepted as the leading perton who represented in the most energetic fashion the fight against the policy of German enslavement. FROM Y 102, the National Socialists secured 810,100 votes and. sent 12 deputies to the Reichstag. On September 14, 130, the 1 the General Election of tmumbet of votes which they received increased to. 6,400,000, ‘The BrownShire deputies now numbered 107, which made them the second strongest group in the Reichstag. Only the Soci Democrats were numerically stronger, having 104 deputies was now out of the question for anyhody not to take the National Socialists seriously, On the one hand this fact became tnident by the rapid inereage in membership and, on the other ated by the extraordinary bitter opposition now put up by all sides against the Movement. 0 totalled 389,000. 04, On May 31, 1 7111, On the other terrorization increased at such an enormous rage that one i ‘abt in apeakng ofa civil war instigated by the Reds. Up tot ime that National Socialism took over supreme political powel ered members of the Party at the end December 191 this had inereaed ‘on March and the Marxist system a 200 members had been murdered and 25,000 wounded! in attac fon them by their opponents, ‘These martyrs. fumished! Speontestable proof ofthe faith and spirit of sacrifice given to thi worvice of the National Socialist teaching and its Fare. regular period of office was nearing its enl ss step was taken which brought Hither i ‘negotiations with certain persons in the Reich Government Chancellor Briining endeavoured to get Hitler to consent 1 » the foreground i the passing of «special measure in the Reichstag for the purpose or ralonging Hindenburg’ trm of office as President But the Seoning attempt failed, Therefore a new election eeame un svoiable. On February 26, 19 ihe civil service, with the rank of counselk Hitler was made a member of we (Regierungsrat), Jn the federative state of Brunswick, by the G vee ns act conferred on hit, ipso facto, the rights of German anship, ao that he now became eligible as candidate for the Presidency of the Reich. Shr 2 sorry chapter was closed in the story of German potest party bureavracy. Hier had been born of German Penson the German foes. He had [ought tough the Wat Pare ranks of the German Army. Hlis ie had been one Tong. cteaggle on Germany's behalf. And yet the right of G ‘Siizenship was sithield from him up t© now. Tisler tok port inthe presidential election of March 18, 12 asa candidate against von Hindenburg, He received 11,8 million wernment of that votes, whereas Hindenburg received 186 millon. ‘The result vas bby no means a defeat for Hitler but rather «significant sucess For this rewlt practically showed that during the previo cighteen month+—since the lst Reichstag election —the nutnbwe ‘of votes eas for him had nearly doubled The regime now used all possible means to hinder the National Socialist propagendla, which wa already seriously handicapped tional broadeasting system. By the preparatory period for the Dy a one-sided contrl of the proclaiming the "Easter Trice sceond election wae restricted to six days, But Hitler bunched what may be called « propaganda campaign of gigantic pro= portions such as had never been experienced belore. At the second clection, om April 10, he uot only retained hie votes bul increased them by 2 millon, to 1,4 milion, This tremendos success was mainly due to the wholehearted way in which Hitler ew himself into the fight Although Hindenburg wasfinally elected the Rei Govern hhad not counted on Hitler eing able to obtain the large number of votes he actualy obtained. They then took a desperate step On April 13 the Government issued an Emergeney Onder immediatly dissolving the S.A. and §., the Hitler Youll the National Socialist Motor Corps and the Flying Corps The measure prohibiting the S.A. wax a failure, I broughil about the downfll of Geoener, the Reich Minister of the Interior, who resigned from the Cabinet. Hrining’s own. ses gation from the Chancellorship, together wth that of the ne ‘of his Cabine,fllowed. Von Papen now formed » Cabinet and declated 3 new General Hletion for July 31 In his third cles for purposes of rapid travel, Holer was the central figure of the bree and sient through the length and breadth of the conntey a8 2 triumphant hero. Within fortnight be spoke at 4) mage sv 13,701,000 votes for the National cal campaign, in which he used an aeroplane tings. The electorate Socialist candidates, with the result that the lt 4 230) seats in the Reichstag. ‘Thus the appeal which the Gover: ment had made to the country turned outa failure But the Government of the Reich did nat act on the logical ‘consequences of this expression of the popular will. They sill attempted to exelude what was nov by far the largest political party from the responsible government of the country. ‘The derogatory offer of a View-Chaneellorshi negative reply from received a dincet . He had not onganized and developed his movement for the purpose of lending his name 10 thy cemergeney decrees of a reactionary government When Hitler received the news of the Beuthner verdict sian S. A. men sere sentenced to death, li \ hereby fre 8 Vissued a stircing on behalf of his comrades, He scoffed at the boasted impartiality of a Government which could make no distinction between men sho represented the national sprit of the people and 2 canaille of scoundrels who were triton to the country. He now announced that he would fight tothe very bitter end to save the lives of these five men. HITLER IN POWER A fresh election was held on November 6, ‘This time the 500,000 of the votes cast in his favour. ‘Theve was a eorresponding reduction in the number of National Socialist deputies, from 280 to Ll Hitlers opponents were jubilant over the result Hitler obstinately refused to he satisfied with the Viee-Chancellorship and the result showed a reduction from 13,410,000 to Government adopted & dictatorial atte on the other side The situation which thus resulted ereated among many penple the impression that Hitler had missed his opportunity and his movement was weakening. But the jubilant eries of opponents were shortlived. Hitler had the eourage and finn ness of mind to wait. At the end of Janvary, 113, the them Chaneclior, General Schleicher, stood completely isolated, On January 28 his entire Cabinet resigned and on January 0 the President of the Reich entrusted Hitler with the tas of forming a new Cabinet. The formation of a new Reich Government and the abolition cated for the the dualism between the Reich and Prussi first time a hasis for conducting polities om unified national lines in Gerruany, as well as the poasbiliy of exterminating all clements of an anti-national character. 'Therewith the National Socialist Movement entered upon the second phose of ite igantic struggle; that is to say, cesponsible and constructive hip after twelve years of opposition. In an address nan people the Chancellor appesied for national Uiscipline and asked that the National Government be granted four years in which to build up the now Reich from the ruins ‘of fourteen years of iresponsible government and also be given authority to deal with the unemployment question and the urgent problem of suving the farming clases from total ruin, The assumption of power at lat enabled Hitler to throw: ff those shackles which had hitherto fettered his endeavours He as novr able to addreas the outlying districts through the radio. ‘The speeches he held at gigantic mass meetings and broadeasted to the whole nation expressed his determined German liberty and received an enthusiastic response from the public. This wave of enthusiasm reached its height on the eve of the new Reichstay election che Day of National Awakening when the Chancellor spoke from East Prussia to the whole nation. ‘The anpouneement of the firm will to victory, the determination to restore German freedom and the appeal for loyalty to the fatherland raised new hopes in the hearts of millions of Germans at home and abroad Chureh bells pealed joyounly. Liberty bonfires burned on the hilltops. Te streets in the towns and villages were gaily decorated with fags The magnitude of the victory won on Match 5 was um paralleled in German history. And it was a® unexpected as it was unparalleled. 17,307,000 people cast their votes for Hitler, whose name headed the list of candidates in every district throughout the country. 288 Reichstag seats were won by the National Socialist Party and this gave the Government a 52! majority in parliament, Although if the result had been different the Government were determined to follow the one and only road whieh svould lead to the res! ion of German liberty yet the actual reault made it possible to earry out the new policy on a stricly parliamentary hasis. Marxism and its sup: porters had received a severe blow, The Communists lose twenty seats and the Centre Party was deprived ofits key pesition THE THIRD REICH The heritage which Adolf Hitler took over on January 9, 1981, has been picturesquely described as a heap of ruins Fourteen years of party strife and mismanagement of national state of chaos. In relation to the outside world it was a affhirs hed reduced the once great and proud nation without arms and without rights, respected by no one and oppressed under a series of humiliating treaties which could not possibly be fulfilled Ti was a nation that ad sunk to the level of a vassal to foreign states, Marxist usurpers had bartered away the honour and property of the Reich. ‘The eonomic structure had totally collapsed and Germany was now bleeding herself to death in an effore to make reparation Payments Party strife and clas-hatred ran rot, ‘The separatist movement became aeute and threatened the dismemberment of Germ: The Gow maments of the federative states appropriated uli o such a degree a to impair seri of the Reich, In the Reichstag the representatives ofthe innumer- thle partes frittcred away time and energy with interminable controversies and hartering for ministerial posts, Meanwhile fone industrial factory after another liad to close down, Concein after eoricern went into bankruptey. Farmers had to forfeit their cattle and crops because they were unable to pay the interes on mortgages. The ominous spectre of seven millions unemployed atalked the roads and streets The criminal clas increased at an a ‘The number of votes cast for the Communist Party increased to a portentious degree fi 1m one general clection to another Indeed it seemed only a question of months belore Bolshevism would set up its rule of terror in Germany, unless the National Socialists eueceeded in taking over supreme control ofthe State When they did succeed however and wher at the lst moment the venerahle President of the Reich em usted Hitler with the formation of a new Government —after all che other cabinets had filed the most decisive turning point in German history had been taken, On Mareh 28, 198 he could we Fuhrer asked for four years in which 1 into prictice his measures for the restoration of the German nation. ‘The law which gave him unlimited porrens {or this purpose was constitutionally passed by Parliamen Alter the expiry of 1 is period, when he had given 4 public ” In Hidher's Statio nt Obecsalzbere account of what had been done and called for a plebiscite, the nation applauded his efforts unanimously and sanctioned his ving {99% of the total electoral vote in his stewardship. by favour. No democracy throughout the world or through the f feonfidence, ‘This overwhelming unanimity in giving judgment fer was the deserved fruit of the tireless le on behalf of the course of history has ever given a statesman a similar vote fon the poliey of the Ful land successful efforts which he had m: the voice of the people country and the people. Here, i could indeed be called the voiee of God. ‘One of the first measures which the Fuhrer enacted was that rnd administrative unity throughout he varions federative whieh established legislative the government by a strong central Government i the Reich, replacin states and their legislatu Berlin. At the same time parliamentary parties wore dissolved and the National Socialist Party remained the sole trustee of the political will of the people. For the first time in German ” L Germany. ‘The Fbrer enacted laws against rac Jogenerat of the unfit ntally deficient or unhealthy, who were costing the {100,001 marks annusaly for support and attendance definitively prevent the further propaga +] tay was also passed to prevent the further mong 1¢ German people through intermixture with the of a totally different racial stock A fu regulations for her series of Las, «5 cially those laying down pric products and the lay establishing cultural hereditary farms, improved the position of the times, Trade classes and prepared the way for more prosp unions, sith their clas-war and policy of clas-hatred, were German Labour Front, an corganization which embraces every worke the aegis of Unc ideal of work asa factor that raises the dignity dissolved and replaced by th in Germany uncer of human natufe tather than lowers it. ‘The National Socialist Welfare Organization, already founded by the National Socialist 2d supreme politica Party before it had acqu wer, has been greatly enlarged. In conjunction with the Winter Help, it has Hecate an eloquent expression of the spirit of ready sacrifice hich inspires the whole nation in dealing with problems the poor and those who need help of one kind the youth, the Reich Labour Service and “Strength through Joy” are now standing institutions which have been established in response to the creative will of the Fuhrer. A cultural policy has been adopted whereby a cleansing: \ process has not only abolished every distorted and degenerative Jt about a Kind of Bolshevie art but has at the same time bron renival of genuine German art and foetered its development in very direction. German artists have again come into ther rightful place, The Fuhrer, himeelf an enthusiast for architecture, ha ‘not only planned various gigantic building projects but has also largely designed and supervid their erection personslly "Those acquainted with the intentions which Adolf Hitler ad in mind knew that he would not rest content with, merely estoring order in the German domestic situation, He regarded man prestige abroad. Having personally experienced to the full the lozrors fof modern warfate, he bas lost no opportunity of emphasizing it as one of his paramount tasks to re-establish G his absolute love for peace and his desire for an understanding ith Germany's former enemies, But at the same time he has tome forward as the unllinching champion of German honour land freedom. For Adolf Hitler therefore there could be no question of rest or contentment until the shackles of dis honourable ates were shattered and until Germany once again resumed her rightful position of equality among the tations, supported by a powerful army; not only that but also maintaining peace and in readiness to defend ana strong fact European culture a wt the destructive forces of Bolshevism, When we eonsider the changes which have taken place in Germany since Janvary 90, 1935, and review the pr ae sill being resolutely a lama «bal iked and solved for the benefit is no exaggeration to say that we are confronted with a veritable miracle, which ie the product of ‘great and indestruccible of the whole eoun ith, For its this faith in Germany's as inspired the soul of Adolf Hitler —the unknown soldier of the Great War-and itis this same faith which has ature whic given life and slape and purpose to the National Socialist Party ‘An unknown individual founde: ‘and from this small band of men, enduring many trials and tribulations, there sprang a people's movement and finally a new German Reid To understand allthis one must understand! and appreciate the character and personality of Adolf Hitler himself, Broat! “ minded and bigshearted and just, capable o bringing iron fogie to the support of his arguments, jdicious and evurageous in making decisions, and yet at ve same time ahvays prepared to share the sorrows and jovs which fall to the lot of his co wworkers—these are the qualities that link men inseparably t0 bie He has the magnetic peal of the genuine orator and has the power of making his audience feel that he is voicing their and speaking for them. ‘That probebly és because he himself bas come from the people and is able to think and feel with them.