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Introduction

This spreadsheet is designed as an aid in performing pressure vessel calculations in accordance with the
ASME Section VIII, Division 1 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The calculations contained in this program
are useful for rerating vessels, performing alterations, or for general design studies. The work sheets in the
program deal only with the most commonly used portions of the code. The program is not intended to include
all aspects of the code. Refer to the applicable sections of the code for restrictions. The calculations take into
consideration only stresses imposed as a result of pressure. Other superimposed loads such as piping or
equipment reactions, wind loading, fluid shock, etc. must be considered seperately. Including the introduction,
there are eleven work sheets in the program.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Introduction
Shell thickness
t for ellipsoidal head
t for torispherical head
t for hemispherical head
t for bolted flat head
Material properties
External pressure on shells
Stiffening ring
Reinforcement requirement with no added element
Reinforcement requirement with element added

Page 1

Shell thickness

Minumum shell thickness for vessel under internal pressure:


Calculation based on ASME Section VIII, Division 1 paragraph UG-27.
Where:

t = minimum required thickness of shell, inches


P = internal pressure, psi
R = inside radius of shell course under consideration, inches
S = maximum allowable stress value, psi. at design temperature.
E = joint efficiency. See UW-12 for welded shells. See UG-53 for ligaments between openings.

The minumum thickness will be the greater thickness of t = (PR)/(SE - 0.6P) for circumferential stress or
t = (PR)/(2SE + 0.4P) for longitudinal stress.
Enter Values:
P=
R=
S=
E=

35 psi
172 inches
17500 psi
0.85

Based on circumferential stress,


Based on longitudinal stress,

t=
t=

NOTE: The value of S is selected from the allowable stress tables and
in for the appropriste desig
Section 2D ot the ASME code. Do not use yield or tensile
stregnth values as in API 653 calculations.
0.405 inches
0.202 inches

Page 2

USE

t=

0.405 inches

t for Ellipsoidal Head

Formed vessel heads generally fall into one of three categories: ellipsoidal, torispherical, or hemispherical.
Ellipsoidal: Inside depth of the head minus the skirt is equal to one fourth of the inside diameter of the skirt.
These are also commonly refered to as 2:1 elliptical heads.
Torispherical: Inside crown radius is equal to the outside diameter of the skirt and the knuckle radius is 0.06 times
the inside crown radius.
It will not be readily apparent in the field whether a head is ellipsoidal or torispherical so it's best to consult vendor
drawings and data.
The calculations below are for pressure on the concave side.

Thickness calculation for ellipsoidal head. Based on ASME Section VIII, paragraph UG-32(d)
t=(PD)/(2SE - 0.2P)

Enter values:

Calculated thickness,

where

t = minimum required thickness of head, inches


D = inside diameter of head at skirt, inches
P = internal design pressure, psi
E = joint efficiency
S = maximum allowable stress value, psi

P=
D=
S=
E=
t

35 psi
162 inches
13800 psi
1
0.205 inches

Page 3

t for Torispherical Head

Formed vessel heads will generally fall into one of three categories: ellipsoidal, torispherical, or hemispherical.
Ellipsoidal: Inside depth of the head minus the skirt is equal to one fourth of the inside diameter of the skirt.
These are also commonly refered to as 2:1 elliptical heads.
Torispherical: Inside crown radius is equal to the outside diameter of the skirt and the knuckle radius is 0.06 times
the inside crown radius.
It will not be readily apparent in the field whether a head is ellipsoidal or torispherical so it's best to consult vendor
drawings and data.
The calculations below are for pressure on the concave side.

Thickness calculation for torispherical head. Based on ASME Section VIII, paragraph UG-32(e)
t = (.885PL)/(SE-0.1P)

Enter values:

Calculated thickness,

where t = minimum required thickness of head, inches


L = inside spherical or crown radius, inches
P = internal design pressure, psi
E = joint efficiency
S = maximum allowable stress value, psi
P=
L=
S=
E=

35 psi
146 inches
13800 psi
1

0.328 inches

Page 4

t for Torispherical Head

spherical.

he skirt.
is 0.06 times

onsult vendor

Page 5

t for Hemispherical Head

Formed vessel heads will generally fall into one of three categories: ellipsoidal, torispherical, or hemispherical.
Ellipsoidal: Inside depth of the head minus the skirt is equal to one fourth of the inside diameter of the skirt.
These are also commonly refered to as 2:1 elliptical heads.
Torispherical: Inside crown radius is equal to the outside diameter of the skirt and the knuckle radius is 0.06 times the
inside crown radius.
It will not be readily apparent in the field whether a head is ellipsoidal or torispherical so it's best to consult vendor
drawings and data.
The calculations below are for pressure on the concave side.

Thickness calculation for hemispherical heads. Based on ASME Section VIII, paragraph UG-32(f)
t = (PL)/(2SE-0.2P)

where

t = minimum required thickness of head, inches


L = inside spherical or crown radius, inches
P = internal design pressure, psi
E = joint efficiency
S = maximum allowable stress value, psi

Enter values:

P=
L=
S=
E=

4500 psi
6.8 inches
30000 psi
1

Calculated thickness,

t=

0.518 inches

t is less than 0.365L or P is less than 0.665SE; therefore, code formula is valid.

Page 6

t for Hemispherical Head

al, or hemispherical.

meter of the skirt.

kle radius is 0.06 times the

s best to consult vendor

Page 7

t for Bolted Flat Head

CALCULATION FOR THICKNESS OF BOLTED, FLAT UNSTAYED CIRCULAR HEADS, COVERS, AND BLIND FLANGES
Enter values:
Bolt circle diameter
Nominal bolt size
Number of bolts
Gasket Factor,
Seating stress,
Gasket O.D.,
Gasket I. D.,
Sealing Face O.D.,
Sealing Face I.D.,
Design pressure,

m=
y=
Go =
Gi =
Fo =
Fi =
P=

48.625
0.75
52
3.75
9000
47.375
46.375
47.375
44.5
115

inches
inches

NOTE:
1. This program calculates the minimum required thickness for bolted, flat
unstayed circular heads, covers, and blind flanges of the type shown in
Fig. UG-34, sketch (j) and sketch (k) of Part UG-34 in the ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1.

psi
inches
inches
inches
inches
psi

Allowable bolt stress at ambient


temperature,
Sb =

20000 psi

Allowable stress for head at design


temp,
S=

17500 psi

2. Enter the decimal equivalent of fractions for all dimensions.


3. Gasket Factor, m, and Seating Stress, y, for a given gasket material are
obtained from table 2-5.1 in Appendix 2 of the ASME Code or table UA49.1 in the Lamons Gasket Handbook.
4. The basic gasket seating width, bO, in cell C24 must be selected from
table 2-5.2 in Appendix 2 of the ASME Code or table UA-49.2 in the
Lamons Gasket Handbook and manually entered at the cell location.
5. All formulas and tables in the Lamons Handbook are taken from
Appendix 2 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section Vlll,
Division 1.

Calculated values:
Bolt area, single bolt
Total bolt area
Diameter at location of gasket load
reaction
Width used to determine basic seating
width, bo

A=
Ab =

0.334 in
17.368 in2
2

G=

46.88 inches

N=

0.50 inches
SCROLL DOWN

Basic seating width, table 2-5.2,


Appedix 2, ASME Sect. VIII
Effective gasket seating width, table 25.2, App. 2 ASME Sect VIII

bo =

0.25

b=

0.25

Initial bolt load for seating gasket

W m2 = 3.14bGy =

Bolt load required for operating


conditions

W m1 =

331340 lbs.

.785G2P + 6.28bGmP

Head thickness based on operating


conditions

t1 =

2.191 inches

Head thickness based on gasket seating

t2 =

0.8865659 inches

Operating conditions govern


therefore use t1

230212 lbs.

2.191 inches

Page 8

Bolt area req'd


for seating

Am2 = W m2/Sb =

16.57 in2

Bolt area req'd


for operating

Am1 = W m1/Sb =

11.51 in2

Bolt area
selected

16.567 in2

Material Properties

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS, KSI, FOR METAL TEMP. OF ===


MINIMUM
TENSILE,
psi

MINUMUM
YIELD, psi

plate, sheet

58,000

smls. pipe

60,000

smls. pipe

-20 to
100

150

200

300

400

500

36,000

14.5

14.5

14.5 14.5 14.5

14.5

14.5

35,000

15.0

15.0

15.0 15.0 15.0

15.0

15.0

60,000

35,000

15.0

15.0

15.0 15.0 15.0

15.0

15.0

smls. tube

47,000

26,000

11.8

11.8

11.8 11.8 11.8

11.8

11.8

B7

bolting (<2.5")

125,000

105,000

25.0

25.0

25.0 25.0 25.0

25.0

25.0

B8M2

bolting (<2")

95,000

75,000

18.8

18.8

18.8 18.8 18.8

18.8

18.8

wld. tube

47,000

26,000

10.0

10.0

10.0 10.0 10.0

10.0

10.0

WPB

fittings

60,000

35,000

15.0

15.0

15.0 15.0 15.0

15.0

15.0

304

plate

75,000

30,000

18.8

18.8

15.7 15.7 14.1

12.9

12.1

SA240

304H

plate

75,000

30,000

18.8

18.8

15.7 15.7 14.1

12.9

12.1

SA240

304L

plate

70,000

25,000

16.7

16.7

14.3 14.3 12.8

11.7

10.9

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo

SA240

316

plate

75,000

30,000

18.8

18.8

17.7 17.7 15.6

14.3

13.3

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo

SA240

316L

plate

70,000

25,000

16.7

16.7

14.1 14.1 12.7

11.7

10.9

SA283

plate

55,000

30,000

13.8

13.8

13.8 13.8 13.8

13.8

13.8

SA285

plate

55,000

30,000

13.8

13.8

13.8 13.8 13.8

13.8

13.8

18Cr-8Ni

SA312

TP304L

smls. pipe

70,000

25,000

16.3

16.3

14.3 14.3 12.8

11.7

10.9

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo
1Cr-1/5 Mo

SA312

TP316L

smls. pipe

70,000

25,000

16.7

16.7

14.1 14.1 12.7

11.7

10.9

SA320

L7

bolting

125,000

105,000

25.0

25.0

25.0 25.0 25.0

25.0

25.0

C-Mn-Si
11/4 Cr-1/2 Mo-Si

SA333

smls. pipe

60,000

35,000

15.0

15.0

15.0 15.0 15.0

15.0

15.0

SA335

P11

smls. pipe

60,000

30,000

15.0

15.0

15.0 15.0 15.0

15.0

15.0

1Cr-1/2 Mo

SA387

Gr12 Cl2 plate

65,000

40,000

16.3

16.3

16.3 16.3 16.3

16.3

16.3

C-Si

SA515

70

plate

70,000

38,000

17.5

17.5

17.5 17.5 17.5

17.5

17.5

C-Si

SA516

55

plate

55,000

30,000

13.8

13.8

13.8 13.8 13.8

13.8

13.8

C-Mn-Si

SA516

60

plate

60,000

32,000

15.0

15.0

15.0 15.0 15.0

15.0

15.0

C-Mn-Si

SA516

65

plate

65,000

35,000

16.3

16.3

16.3 16.3 16.3

16.3

16.3

C-Mn-Si

SA516

70

plate

70,000

38,000

17.5

17.5

17.5 17.5 17.5

17.5

17.5

plate

40,000

18,000

10.0

10.0

Nominal
Composition

SPEC
NO.

TYPE/
GRADE PRODUCT FORM

C-Mn-Si

SA36

C-Mn

SA53

S/B

C-Si

SA106

C
1Cr-1/5 Mo

SA179
SA193

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo

SA193

SA214

C-Si

SA234

18Cr-8Ni

SA240

18Cr-8Ni
18Cr-8Ni

250

Aluminum
Al

SB309

5083

Hastelloy G30
40Ni-29Cr-15Fe- SB582

N06030

plate,sheet,strip

85,000

35,000

21.3

21.3

20.0 20.0 18.3

17.2

16.4

40Ni-29Cr-15Fe- SB626

N06030

wld. tube

85,000

35,000

18.1

18.1

17.0 17.0 15.6

14.6

13.9

Hastelloy B2
65Ni-28Mo-2Fe

SB333

N10665

plate

110,000

51,000

27.5

27.5

27.5 27.5 27.5

27.5

27.5

65Ni-28Mo-2Fe

SB619

N10665

wld. pipe

110,000

51,000

23.4

23.4

23.4 23.4 23.4

23.4

23.4

65Ni-28Mo-2Fe

SB622

N10665

smls pipe

110,000

51,000

27.5

27.5

27.5 27.5 27.5

27.5

27.5
11.3

Zirconium
95.2Zr+Cb

SB550

R60705

bar

80,000

55,000

20.0

20.0

16.6 16.6 14.2

12.5

95.2Zr+Cb

SB551

R60702

plate

55,000

30,000

13.0

13.0

11.0 11.0

9.3

7.0

6.1

95.2Zr+Cb

SB551

R60705

plate

80,000

55,000

20.0

20.0

16.6 16.6 14.2

12.5

11.3

95.2Zr+Cb

SB658

R60702

wld. & smls. pipe

55,000

30,000

13.0

13.0

11.0 11.0

9.3

7.0

6.1

95.2Zr+Cb

SB658

R60705

wld. & smls. pipe

80,000

55,000

20.0

20.0

16.6 16.6 14.2

12.5

11.3

Page 9

Material Properties

SS, KSI, FOR METAL TEMP. OF ===>

600

650

14.5

14.5

15.0
15.0

cont'd ==>

700

750

800

850

900

950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

15.0

14.4

13.0

10.8

7.8

15.0

14.4

13.0

10.8

8.7

6.5

11.8

11.8

11.5

10.6

9.2

7.9

6.5

25.0

25.0

25.0

23.6

21.0

17.0

12.5

18.8

18.8

18.8

18.8

18.8

18.8

18.8 18.8 18.8

10.0

10.0

9.8

9.1

7.8

6.7

5.5

3.8

2.1

15.0

15.0

14.4

13.0

10.8

8.7

6.6

4.6

2.5

11.4

11.2

11.1

10.8

10.6

10.4

10.2 10.0

9.8

9.5

8.9

7.7

6.1

4.7

3.7

2.9.

2.3

1.8

1.4

10.4

10.2 10.0

9.8

9.5

8.9

7.7

6.1

4.7

3.7

2.9.

2.3

1.8

1.4

11.5

11.4

11.3

11.2

11.0

9.8

7.4

5.5

4.1

3.1

2.3

1.7

1.3

4.5

2.5

8.5

4.5

11.4

11.2

11.1

10.8

10.6

10.3

10.1

10.0

9.8

9.7

12.6

12.3

12.1

11.9

11.7

11.6

10.4

10.2

10.0

9.8

9.6

9.4

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.3

12.1

10.0

8.4

10.3

10.1

10.0

9.8

9.7

10.4

10.2

10.0

9.8

9.6

9.4

25.0

25.0

25.0

15.0

15.0

14.4

13.0

10.8

7.8

3.0

1.5

15.0

15.0

15.0

14.8

14.4

14

13.6

9.3

6.3

4.2

2.8

1.9

1.2

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

15.8

15.2

11.3

7.2

4.5

2.8

1.8

1.1

17.5

17.5

16.6

14.8

12.0

9.3

6.5

4.5

2.5

13.8

13.8

13.3

12.1

10.0

8.4

6.5

4.5

2.5

15.0

15.0

14.4

13.0

10.8

8.7

6.5

4.5

2.5

16.3

16.3

15.5

13.9

11.4

9.0

6.5

4.5

2.5

17.5

17.5

16.6

14.8

12.0

9.3

6.5

4.5

2.5

15.8

15.5

15.2

14.9

14.6

13.4

13.2

12.9

12.7

12.4

27.2

26.8

26.6

26.1

25.6

23.1

22.8

22.6

22.2

21.8

27.2

26.8

26.6

26.1

25.6

10.4

10.4

9.9

6.0

6.0

4.8

10.4

10.4

9.9

6.0

6.0

4.8

10.4

10.4

9.9

6.5

Page 10

Ext. Pres. on Shells

Thickness of cylindrical shells under external pressure. ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-28.
This work sheet calculates the allowable external pressure for a cylindrical vessel having a known outside
diameter, wall thickness, and length between lines of support. It is assumed that external stiffeners are
adequately designed.
Gather the following information and reference materials prior to using the worksheet.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Material designation for the vessel


Design temperature
Outside diameter
Vessel shell thickness
Section ll, Part D of the ASME Code opened to Subpart 3 (page 621)

Step 1. Enter known values.


Outside diameter, Do =
Shell thickness,

90 inches

t =

1 inches

Section length between


lines of support,
L=

920 inches

Note: For definition of a line of support, see


ASME Section VIII, paragraph UG-28(b).

Do / t =

Step 2. Calculate ratios.

90

L / Do =

10.222

Step 3. Determine factor A


a. Go to ASME Section II, Part D, Subpart 3, Figure G (page 622 & 623).
b. Enter Figure G at the value of L / Do in Step 2 above. If L / Do is greater than 50, enter the chart
at L / Do = 50. If L / Do is less than 0.05, enter the chart at L / Do = 0.05.
c. Move horizontally to the line for the value of Do / t calculated above. From this point of intersection,
move vertically downward to determine the value of factor A.
d. Enter the value for factor A at cell B29 below. (scroll down)
Value of factor A =

0.00015

Step 4. Determine factor B


a. Using the value of A from step 3, enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3
for the material being considered. The material charts start on page 624.
b. Move vertically upward to an intersection with the material/temperature line for the design
temperature. If A falls to left of the material/temperature line, skip this step and scroll down to step 6.
If A falls past the right end of a material/temperature line, use the horizontal projection of the end of
the line as the point of intersection.
c. From the point of intersection in step b, move horizontally to the right and read the value for B.
Enter this value in cell B41 below. (scroll down)
Value of factor B =

2000

Step 5. Maximum allowable external pressure using factor B.


Pa = (4B) / 3(Do/t) =

29.63 psi

Step 6. Select modulus of elasticity, E. No factor B.


If factor A falls to the left of the material/temperature line, P a is calculated using the modulus of elasticity, E, at
the design temperature. Select the modulus of elasticity and enter its value in cell B52 below.
E=

2.90E+07

Step 7. Maximum allowable external pressure using modulus of elasticity.


Pa = (2AE) / 3(Do / t) =

32.22 psi

Page 11

Stiffening Ring

This worksheet calculates the required moment of inertia for a stiffening ring attached to a cylindrical
shell under external pressure. The calculated moment of inertia can be compared to the moment of
inertia of a corroded or damaged stiffening ring.The calculation is performed in accordance to ASME
Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-29.
Information and reference material needed to perform this calculation include:
* ASME Section II, Part D, Subpart 3
* modulus of elasticity, E, for stiffening ring material at design temperature
* outside diameter of shell
* shell thickness
* distance between lines of support (see ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-28(b))
* cross sectional area of existing stiffening ring

Step 1. Enter known values.


Shell O.D.
Do =
Shell thickness
t=
External pressure
P=
Modulus of elasticity for
material
E=

169 inches
0.3125 inches
15 psi

2.45E+07 psi

Cross sectional area of


stiffener,
As =
Ls=

2.39 in2
40 inches

L s is defined as one half the distance from the stiffener


center line to the next line of support above plus one
half the distance from the stiffener center line to the next
line of support below. (ASME VIII, UG-29)

Step 2. Factor B calculated


B=

5107

Step 3. Determine factor A


a. Open ASME Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 to the applicable chart for the stiffener material under
consideration. The charts begin on page 624.
b. Enter the right hand side of the applicable chart at the value of B determined in step 2 above.
c. Move left horizontally to the material/temperature line for the design metal temperature. For values
of B falling below the left end of the chart, go to step 5.
d. At the point of intersection, move down vertically for the value of A. Enter that value in cell B38
below.
Factor A =

0.0004

Step 4. Determine the required moment of inertia.


Is=

12.15 in4

Step 5. Calculated value of factor A for factor B below chart.


A=

0.00042

Step 6. Required moment of inertia using A from step 5.


Is=

12.67 in4

Page 12

reinforcement, no element

Reinforcement requirement for openings in shells without reinforcing elements. Reference ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-37. Calculations
in this work sheet are valid only for circular openings in cylindrical shells or formed heads (flat heads excluded). See paragraphs UG-36
through UG-43.
Enter values:

0 in.

Inside diameter of
vessel,
Nominal thickness of
shell,
t =
Nominal thickness of
nozzle wall,
tn =

16600 psi

Finished diameter of
opening,
d=

14300 psi

Leg length of outward


nozzle weld,
li =

Design pressure

250 psi

Design temperature

150

Corrosion allowance
Allowable stress for
nozzle mat'l
Sn =
Allowable stress for
shell mat'l
Sv =
Correction factor for
nozzle orientation, F=
required shell
thickness

tr =

60 in.
0.75 in.
0.5 in.

Shell joint efficiency


Nozzle inserted through shell, y
or n

Nozzle abutting shell,


or n

11.75 in.

Distance nozzle projects beyond


inner wall,
h=

0.375 in.

Leg length of inward nozzle weld,


lo =

1 See figure UG-37 for determining the value of F


Obtain the required shell or head thickness for cell B12 from calculations performed using the
appropriate worksheet in this program.

0.530 in.

Calculated values:
strength reduction
factor,
f r1 =
Required nozzle
thickness

strength recuction
factor,
f r2 =

1.00

Reinforcing area
required,
A=

0.089 in.

1.00
6.228 in2

Area available in shell

A1 =

2.585

or

A1 =

0.550

Use larger value, A1 =

2.585

Area available in
nozzle projecting
outward

A2 =

1.540

or

A2 =

1.03

Use smaller value, A2 =

1.03

Area available in
nozzle projecting
inward
A3 =

Area available in
outward weld, A41 =

0.141

Area available in inward nozzle


weld,
A43 =

Total available area =


3.752 in2
Available area is less than area required. Opening is not adequately reinforced. Reinforcing elements
must be added or thicknesses must be increased.

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reinforcement with element

Reinforcement requirement for openings in shells with reinforcing elements. Reference ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-37. Calculations in
this work sheet are valid only for circular openings in straight cylindrical shells and formed heads. See paragraphs UG-36 through UG-43.
Enter values:

700 O F

Inside diameter of
vessel,
Nominal thickness of
shell,
t =

0.75 in.

0 in.

Nominal thickness of
nozzle wall,
tn =

0.5 in.

16600 psi

Finished diameter of
opening,
d=

11.75 in.

Distance nozzle projects beyond


inner wall,
h=

14300 psi

Leg length of outward


nozzle weld,
li =

0.250 in.

Leg length of inward nozzle weld,


lo =

14300 psi

Thickness or height of
element,
te =

0.500 in.

Outside diameter or reinforcing


element,
Dp =

Design pressure

250 psi

Design temperature
Corrosion allowance
Allowable stress for
nozzle mat'l
Sn =
Allowable stress for
shell mat'l
Sv =
Allowable stress for
element mat'l,
Sp =
Joint efficiency at
opening location, E1=
Correction factor for
nozzle orientation, F=
Required shell or head
thickness, tr =

0.85

60 in.

Shell joint efficiency,


E=
Nozzle inserted through shell, y
or n

Nozzle abutting shell,


or n

0
0
18.75

Note: E1=1 when opening is in solid plate or in Category B butt weld. Use efficiency obtained from
Table UW-12 when opening passes through any other weld.
Leg length of outer element
weld,
le =

1 See figure UG-37 for determining the value of F


0.53

0.5

Obtain the required shell or head thickness for cell B14 from calculations performed using the
appropriate worksheet in this program.

Calculated values:

Required nozzle
thickness

0.089 in.

strength reduction
factor,
f r1 =

1.00

strength recuction factor, fr2 =

1.00

strength reduction
factor,
f r3 =

1.00

strength recuction factor, fr4 =

1.00

Reinforcing area
required,
A=

6.228 in2

Area available in shell

A1 =

1.263

or

A1 =

0.269

Use larger value, A1 =

1.263

Area available in
nozzle projecting
outward

A2 =

1.540

or

A2 =

1.438

Use smaller value, A2 =

1.44

Area available in
nozzle projecting
inward
A3 =
Area in outer element
weld
A42 =

Area available in
outward nozzle weld,
A41 =

0.25

Area available in
element,
A5

0.063

Area available in inward nozzle


weld,
A43 =

3.000

Total available area =


6.013 in2
Available area is less than area required. Opening is not adequately reinforced. Reinforcing elements
must be added or thicknesses must be increased.

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