Unit 1
Introduction
Mathematical Background
Concepts
Much of the work in Unit 1 is a review of key multiplication and division skills and concepts from Grade 3, including the following:
• Interpreting products and quotients of whole numbers
• Using multiplication and division within 100 to solve story problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities
• Determining the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation
• Applying properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide
• Fluently multiplying and dividing within 100
Even though students are required to know from memory all products of two 1digit numbers by the end of third grade, it’s probably not reasonable to expect that this will be the case for all incoming fourth graders without a few weeks to revisit the strategies and models. Also, basic fact strategies such as doubling to multiply by 2 or using a DoubleDoubles strategy to multiply by 4 can be extended to situations in which students are multiplying much larger numbers by single digits. For example, to solve 4 × 125, a student familiar with the DoubleDoubles strategy for singledigit multiplication might double 125 to get 250, and double it again to get 500. A student familiar with the HalfTens strategy might solve 5 × 68 by multiplying 10 × 68 and halving the result: 680 ÷ 2 = 340.
While multiplication and division were major topics in Grade 3, the transition from additive to multiplicative thinking is a journey of several years for most learners. To help students make the transition, the authors of the Common Core Standards stipulate that fourth graders learn to interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison. Students who learned to interpret the multiplication equation 4 × 6 = 24 as 4 groups of 6 is equal to 24 in Grade 3 are now expected to interpret that equation to mean 24 is 4 times as many as 6, and 6 times as many as 4. Although this sounds simple—perhaps just a matter of linguistics—understanding what it really means when we say that something is twice as big, three times as tall, or four times as much is not easy. Consider the following task and three responses you might see in a typical fourth grade classroom.
Draw a line that is exactly 2 inches long. Then draw a second line that is exactly 3 times as long as the f rst line.
Student A I made the line 5 inches long because 2 and then 3 more is 5.
^{2} ^{i}^{n}^{c}^{h}^{e}^{s}
5 inches
Student B I respectfully disagree with you. I think the line should be 6 inches long because that’s 3 times as many as 2 inches. It’s like 2 and 2 and 2.
2 inches
6 inches
Student C I said it was 8 inches long because you have 2 inches, right? And then if you make it 3 more times, like 2, and then 2 and 2 and 2, you get 8.
T e f rst and third responses above re f ect two of the most common misconceptions about multiplicative comparisons. Student A has made an additive comparison instead of a multiplica tive comparison, drawing a line that is 3 inches more than the f rst, rather than 3 times as many. Student C interprets 3 times as many to mean that you add 3 times more to the original length. Both of these students are still employing additive rather than multiplicative reasoning.
Central to understanding what it means to say that something is 4 times as much, many, tall, or long, than something else is the idea that 4 of the smaller amount, quantity, height, or length have to ft exactly into the larger amount, quantity, height, or length. T at is the idea shown in this illustration from Module 3:
Bridges in Mathematics Grade 4 Teachers Guide
ii © The Math Learning Center
 mathlearningcenter.org
duction
1 Sam says that the giant is 3 times as tall as Jim. Do you agree with Sam? Why or why not?
The giant is actually 4 times as tall as Jim.
The giant is the same as 4 Jims standing on top of each other.
Jim is onefourth as tall as the giant.
13
×
1
13
Twelve is a composite number because it has more factors than just itself and 1. I can see that the factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12. Thirteen is a prime number. No matter how hard you try, you can only build one rectangle with 13 tiles, so it only has two factors—1 and 13.
Strategies
T e ability to recall the singledigit multiplication facts is important to free up students’ mental energies for reasoning and problem solving. Students will use these facts as they advance to more complex mathematics, such as solving multidigit multiplication and division problems and working with fractions. T is automaticity can be accomplished in part by helping students use the facts they know to help them reason about those facts with which they are not yet fuent.
In this unit, students consider speci fc strategies for remembering di ferent categories of multiplica tion facts. Tey use a table of multiplication facts and the array model to review these strategies, which were f rst introduced in third grade Bridges. While some fourth graders may not yet have mastered all of their multiplication facts, many of your returning Bridges students will recall most, if not all, of these strategies. Review the table below so that you are familiar with the strategies as well.
Multiplication Strategies 

Factor 
Category 
Example 
How the strategy works 

× 0 
Zero facts 
0 
× 3 = 0 
The product of any number and 0 is 0. 

7 
× 0 = 0 

× 1 
Ones facts 
1 
× 4 = 4 
The product of any number and 1 is that number. 

8 
× 1 = 8 

× 2 
Doubles facts 
2 
× 6 = 12 
To multiply any number by 2, double that number. 

9 
× 2 = 18 

× 3 
Doubles Plus One facts 
3 
× 6 = 18 
To multiply any number by 3, double the 

9 
× 3 = 27 
number and then add the number. For example, 

3 
× 6 = (2 × 6) + 6 = 12 + 6 = 18. 

× 4 
DoubleDoubles facts 
4 
× 6 = 24 
To multiply any number by 4, double that 

9 
× 4 = 36 
number, and then double the result. For example, 

4 
× 6 = 2(2 × 6) = 2 × 12 = 24. 

× 8 
DoubleDoubleDoubles facts 
8 
× 6 = 48 
To multiply any number by 8, double that number, 

9 
× 8 = 72 
double the result, and then double one more time. For example, 8 × 6 = 2(2(2 × 6)) = 2(2 × 12) = 2 × 24 = 48. 

× 5 
HalfTens facts 
5 
× 7 = 35 
To multiply any number by 5, it may be simples to 

8 
× 5 = 40 
f rst multiply that numbr by 10 and then divide the product by 2. For example, to solve 8 × 5, find 8 × 10 and divide 80 by 2 to get 40. 

× 6 
HalfTens Plus One Set facts 
6 
× 7 = 42 
To multiply any number by 6, f rst multiply the 

8 
× 6 = 48 
number by 5 and then add the number to the result. For example, 8 × 6 = (8 × 5) + 8 = 48. 

× 10 
Tens facts 
10 
× 8 = 80 
Multiplying by 10 comes naturally for students with a 

6 × 10 = 60 
solid grasp of skipcounting and place value concepts. 

× 9 
Tens Minus One Set facts 
9 
× 7 = 63 
To multiply any number by 9, think of the related 

9 
× 9 = 81 
Tens fact and then subtract the number. For example, 9 × 7 = (10 × 7) – 7 = 70 – 7 = 63. 
Bridges in Mathematics Grade 4 Teachers Guide
iv © The Math Learning Center
 mathlearningcenter.org
Unit 1
Introduction
As students shi f away from using additive reasoning (skipcounting) to f nd products, they begin to use multiplicative strategies like doubling (e.g., thinking of 8 × 2 as 8 doubled). T is can lead to use of the doubling and halving strategy (e.g., 12 × 4 = 6 × 8). Students can also use partial prod ucts with smaller “chunks” of numbers f rst and then use them with bigger chunks (e.g., 32 × 12 = 32 × 10 + 32 × 2). As they reason multiplicatively, they can also use “over strategies” for certain problems (e.g., 99 × 47 = 100 × 47 – 1 × 47). We want to help students build a repertoire of strate gies based on multiplicative reasoning that they can eventually apply to multidigit multiplication.
4 × 27 27, 54, 81, 108
SkipCounting
4 × 27 = 2 × 54
Doubling/Halving
4 × 27 = (4 × 10) + (4 × 10) + (4 × 7)
or
4 × 27 = (4 × 20) + (4 × 7)
4
108
Models
T e models and strategies that appear in Unit 1 serve to help students review and reaccess what they learned in Grade 3. T ese include the open number line, the array or area model, and the ratio table. All three will be extended and greatly expanded in fourth grade, especially the area model and the ratio table.
The Open Number Line
Because some of your students may be using additive thinking to solve multiplication problems, the open number line is used early in Unit 1 to show repeated addition as a bridge to the array, which encourages multiplicative thinking. T e open number line will resurface later in the year as a way to model addition and subtraction strategies as well.
0
3
6
9
12
15
The Array or Area Model
In the area model for multiplication, the total area of the rectangle represents the product, and the two dimensions represent the factors.
Bridges in Mathematics Grade 4 Teachers Guide
v © The Math Learning Center
 mathlearningcenter.org
Unit 1
Introduction
Because multiplication and division are inverse operations, the same model can be used to illustrate division.
divisor
The known 
The unknown 
dimension 
dimension 
represents 
represents 
the divisor. 
the quotient. 
3
4
1212
The area represents the dividend. 

Bridges helps students use the array model for multiplication by beginning with discrete models in third grade. Students progress over time, using closed arrays, base ten area pieces with linear pieces, and then open arrays. With closed arrays, they can count each square unit by 1s. With base ten area pieces and linear pieces, the area is now modeled in bigger chunks, tens and ones, and the dimensions are def ned with linear pieces, helping students di ferentiate between linear measures and area measures. With open arrays, students can chunk the arrays into pieces that are conve nient and efcient for the problem. With each model, students can chunk areas into bigger pieces, moving away from counting strategies, to repeated addition, and then to multiplicative thinking.
Closed Array
Linear Pieces and Base Ten Area Pieces
Open Array
While students will discover many ways to solve multiplication and division problems, the array model provides a way for them to discuss their strategies with one another, decompose the numbers, apply the distributive property, and identify partial products.
The Ratio Table
Te ratio table is used in Bridges to simultaneously build multiplicative thinking and proportional reasoning. Te model is introduced in Unit 1 to represent students’ strategies. Students will f ll in tables for situations with a constant ratio such as when one row in a box has 8 crayons and there are 4 rows. Later, the ratio table will become a tool for students to use in problem solving to compute multiplication, division, and fraction problems, as well as make conversions. T is model will also be used for many years to come in higher mathematics to model proportional situations.
Rows of 
Number 

crayons 
of crayons 

1 
8 

2 
16 

× 2 

3 
24 

× 2 
6 
48 
Bridges in Mathematics Grade 4 Teachers Guide
vi © The Math Learning Center
 mathlearningcenter.org
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