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INFORMATION

RELATIVE HUMIDITY - SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE AIR TEMPERATURE


a four page issue

1650

June 2013
revision of 10-1999

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN (VENTILATION) AIR-TEMPERATURE, SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE


HUMIDITY
To achieve optimum results in coating work it is essential to ensure that no condensation occurs on the
substrate or in-between coats during the painting process. Air at a given temperature can only contain a
certain (maximum) amount of water vapour. This amount is lower at lower temperatures.
The maximum water content of air at different temperatures is given in the next table:
Degrees Centigrade

Maximum water content g/m

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

4,8
6,8
9,5
12,8
17,3
23,0
30,4
39,6
51,1
65,0

From these figures the relationship between dew point, air temperature and relative humidity can be
calculated. This relationship is given in the next table:
Relation between dew point, air temperature and relative humidity
Air
Temperature
C

50%

55%

60%

65%

70%

75%

80%

85%

90%

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

4.1
3.2
2.4
1.6
0.8
0.1
1.0
1.9
2.8
3.7
4.7

2.9
2.1
1.3
0.4
0.4
1.3
2.3
3.2
4.2
5.1
6.1

1.8
1.0
0.2
0.8
1.7
2.6
3.5
4.5
5.4
6.4
7.3

0.9
0.1
0.8
1.8
2.7
3.7
4.6
5.6
6.6
7.5
8.5

0.0
0.9
1.8
2.8
3.8
4.7
5.6
6.6
7.6
8.6
9.5

0.9
1.8
2.8
3.8
4.7
5.7
6.7
7.7
8.6
9.6
10.6

1.8
2.8
3.7
4.7
5.7
6.7
7.6
8.6
9.6
10.6
11.5

2.7
3.7
4.6
5.6
6.6
7.6
8.6
9.6
10.6
11.5
12.5

3.6
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.4
9.4
10.4
11.4
12.4
13.4

Dew point in C at a relative humidity of:

page 1/4

INFORMATION

RELATIVE HUMIDITY - SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE AIR TEMPERATURE

1650
June 2013

Air
Temperature
C

50%

55%

60%

65%

70%

75%

80%

85%

90%

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

5.6
6.5
7.4
8.3
9.3
10.2
11.1
12.0
12.9
13.8
14.8
15.7
16.6
17.5
18.4

7.0
7.9
8.8
9.7
10.7
11.6
12.5
13.5
14.4
15.3
16.2
17.2
18.1
19.1
20.0

8.3
9.2
10.2
11.1
12.0
12.9
13.8
14.8
15.7
16.7
17.6
18.6
19.5
20.5
21.4

9.5
10.4
11.4
12.3
13.3
14.2
15.2
16.1
17.0
17.9
18.8
19.8
20.8
21.7
22.7

10.5
11.5
12.4
13.4
14.4
15.3
16.3
17.2
18.2
19.1
20.1
21.1
22.0
22.9
23.9

11.6
12.5
13.5
14.5
15.4
16.4
17.4
18.4
19.3
20.3
21.2
22.2
23.2
24.1
25.1

12.5
13.5
14.5
15.5
16.4
17.4
18.4
19.4
20.3
21.3
22.3
23.2
24.2
25.2
26.2

13.5
14.5
15.4
16.4
17.4
18.4
19.4
20.3
21.3
22.3
23.3
24.3
25.2
26.2
27.2

14.4
15.3
16.3
17.3
18.3
19.3
20.3
21.3
22.3
23.2
24.2
25.2
26.2
27.2
28.2

Dew point in C at a relative humidity of:

Using these figures curves can be drawn which give the relationship between air temperature, relative
humidity and dew point. (See graph).
To allow a sensible safety margin normally the substrate temperature must be at least 3 degrees centigrade
above the dew point. The dew point is the temperature of a given air-water vapour mixture at which
condensation starts, since at that temperature the maximum water content of the air is reached.
Many important conclusions can be drawn from the graph, e.g.:
at a relative humidity of 85% the lowest acceptable substrate temperature is approximately equal to the
temperature of the (ventilation) air. For this reason outdoor paintwork must normally be carried out at a
relative humidity below 85%.
at a relative humidity of 90% the difference in temperature between substrate and dew point will be only
2C, which means that the safety margin is narrowed. This can be overcome by raising the substrate
temperature by approx. 1C.
at a relative humidity of 70% the relationship between the acceptable substrate temperature and the
temperature of the (ventilation) air is given by the following table:
air temperature C

10

20

30

dew point C

0,0

4,7

14,4

23,9

lowest acceptable substrate temperature C

3,0

7,7

17,4

26,9

page 2/4

INFORMATION

RELATIVE HUMIDITY - SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE AIR TEMPERATURE

1650
June 2013

Although the substrate temperatures given in this table are well below the temperature of the surrounding
air no condensation will occur under the stated prevailing conditions.
if the lowest acceptable substrate temperature is for example 5C and the temperature of the atmosphere
is also 5C than the ventilation air can be heated and relative humidity will then be reduced according to
the following table:
air temperature C

10

20

30

40

relative humidity %

85

60

32

18

11

In general reduction in temperature leads to risk of condensation.


For instance steel cooled down during the night will often show condensation and this will not evaporate
until the steel is heated up again by sunlight or other means.
Limitation of Liability - IN NO EVENT WILL PPG BE LIABLE UNDER ANY THEORY OF RECOVERY (WHETHER BASED
ON NEGLIGENCE OF ANY KIND, STRICT LIABILITY OR TORT) FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES IN ANY WAY RELATED TO, ARISING FROM, OR RESULTING FROM ANY USE MADE OF
THE PRODUCT. The information in this sheet is intended for guidance only and is based upon laboratory tests
that PPG believes to be reliable. PPG may modify the information contained herein at any time as a result of
practical experience and continuous product development. All recommendations or suggestions relating to the
use of the PPG product, whether in technical documentation, or in response to a specific inquiry, or otherwise,
are based on data, which to the best of PPGs knowledge, is reliable. The product and related information is
designed for users having the requisite knowledge and industrial skills in the industry and it is the end-users
responsibility to determine the suitability of the product for its own particular use and it shall be deemed that
Buyer has done so, as its sole discretion and risk. PPG has no control over either the quality or condition of the
substrate, or the many factors affecting the use and application of the product. Therefore, PPG does not accept
any liability arising from any loss, injury or damage resulting from such use or the contents of this information
(unless there are written agreements stating otherwise). Variations in the application environment, changes in
procedures of use, or extrapolation of data may cause unsatisfactory results. This sheet supersedes all previous
versions and it is the Buyers responsibility to ensure that this information is current prior to using the product.
Current sheets for all PPG Protective & Marine Coatings Products are maintained at www.ppgpmc.com. The
English text of this sheet shall prevail over any translation thereof.

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INFORMATION

RELATIVE HUMIDITY - SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE AIR TEMPERATURE

1650
June 2013

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