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Finite Element Analysis of

MEMS

Balaji VRT

Introduction to MEMS

Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) is a technology that

combines computers with tiny mechanical devices such as sensors,

valves, gears, mirrors, and actuators embedded in semiconductor

chips.

mirrors, and actuators embedded in semiconductor chips. Courtesy: Poonwil1 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
mirrors, and actuators embedded in semiconductor chips. Courtesy: Poonwil1 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
mirrors, and actuators embedded in semiconductor chips. Courtesy: Poonwil1 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
mirrors, and actuators embedded in semiconductor chips. Courtesy: Poonwil1 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

Courtesy: Poonwil1 - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=23260794

Introduction to FEA

Architecture Design
Architecture Design
Feasibility analysis
Feasibility analysis
Engineering Design
Engineering Design

Basic Architecture

Interface Architecture

Architecture Feasibility Interface Feasibility

Environmental feasibility

Various parts, features

Part Interface Subassembly interface

Drawing to manufacture

Introduction to FEA

How can the FEM Help the Design Engineer?

Easily applied to

         

complex, irregular-

shaped objects

Applicable to

Can be coupled to CAD programs to facilitate solid

modeling and

composed

of several different

materials and

steady-state, time dependent and

eigenvalue

Applicable to

linear and

nonlinear

problems.

Can solve a wide variety of

problems

General-purpose

FEM software packages are

available

having complex boundary

problems.

mesh generation

conditions.

Discretization

Complicated shapes to simplified primitive shapes

Follow continuum

shapes to simplified primitive shapes • Follow continuum • Simply put, the various points of the

Simply put, the various points of the structure can be converted to closely placed points connected by

these primitive shaped ELEMENTS.

placed points connected by these primitive shaped ELEMENTS. • Formulating these elements to ensure continuum of

Formulating these elements to ensure continuum of

the degree required for the purpose

Need for FEM in Microsystems and MEMS

Development of micro systems takes between four and ten years

A lot of products or product ideas will never be produced

No sufficient tool support available

Traditional design methods take a long time and cost intensive

New methods and tools necessary

FEA is one of the tools that can be effectively used for MEMS /Micro system design

Behavioural •System Structural •Algorithm •Processors •Hardware modules •Register transfer •Boolean
Behavioural
•System
Structural
•Algorithm
•Processors
•Hardware modules
•Register transfer
•Boolean expressions
•Differential equations
•ALUs, Registers
•Gates
•Transistors
Physical/
Geometrical
•Boards, Complete
Systems
•MCMs, hybrids
•Floor Plans
•Cells, Modules
•Polygons
Geometrical •Boards, Complete Systems •MCMs, hybrids •Floor Plans •Cells, Modules •Polygons MEMS Process

MEMS Process

General MEMS Process

General MEMS Process

MEMS Require Multi Physics solutions

Out Thermal Electrical Electromagnetic Mechanical In Seeback effect, Radioactive heat Thermal Heat conduction
Out
Thermal
Electrical
Electromagnetic
Mechanical
In
Seeback effect,
Radioactive heat
Thermal
Heat conduction
Thermal Expansion
Pyroelectricity
transport
Joule Heating, Peltier
Electrical Conduction,
Electrical
Optical recombination
Piezo electricity
Effect
Polarization
Electromagnetic
Eddy Current heating,
radiation heat loss
Optical carrier
generation
Induction EM waves
Radiation pressure
Mechanical
Friction
Piezo-resistance
Photo Elasticity
Transfer forces

Micro tools for Surgery

Microneedles

Formulation systems

Implantable systems

Stent implant

Stent implant procedure is a widely used procedure that is performed

for patients with cardiovascular disease. The procedure involves

inserting a balloon into your heart to open the heart artery narrowed

by plaque. It also involve placement of a stent to keep the vessel

open.

into your heart to open the heart artery narrowed by plaque. It also involve placement of
into your heart to open the heart artery narrowed by plaque. It also involve placement of

Stent Implant procedure

An invasive procedure that starts with an angiography test to

determine the number and exact location of blockages

Stents are inserted through a catheter to the treatment site in the coronary artery

and exact location of blockages • Stents are inserted through a catheter to the treatment site
and exact location of blockages • Stents are inserted through a catheter to the treatment site

Stent Implant procedure

An invasive procedure that starts with an angiography test to determine the

number and exact location of blockages

Stents are inserted through a catheter to the treatment site in the coronary artery

A tiny deflated balloon is then inserted inside the blockage and once inside, will

is then inserted inside the blockage and once inside, will be inflated • Another tiny deflated
is then inserted inside the blockage and once inside, will be inflated • Another tiny deflated

be inflated

Another tiny deflated balloon with a stent mounted on it will be inserted to the

blockage. The balloon will be inflated and it will expand the stent that surrounds

it.

Most people are able to return to work and their normal routines after about a

week from the procedure. Stents help prevent arteries from becoming narrow or blocked again in the months or years after angioplasty. However, making lifestyle

changes can help prevent plaque/fatty material from building up in arteries again

Basic simulations on Stents

Basic simulations on Stents
Basic simulations on Stents
Basic simulations on Stents

FEA on Other MEMS

FEA on Other MEMS
FEA on Other MEMS

Structural analysis of membrane deformation

Structural analysis of membrane deformation Deflection of the 1 mm x 1 mm silicon membrane is

Deflection of the 1 mm x 1 mm silicon membrane is

predicted by structural analysis.

x 1 mm silicon membrane is predicted by structural analysis. Voltage distribution of a simple four

Voltage distribution of a simple four terminal

sensor under uniaxial stress

Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor

MPX100 series pressure sensors originally produced by the semiconductor products division of

Motorola Inc

produced by the semiconductor products division of Motorola Inc Model geometry. Detail showing the piezoresistor geometry

Model geometry.

produced by the semiconductor products division of Motorola Inc Model geometry. Detail showing the piezoresistor geometry

Detail showing the piezoresistor geometry

Diaphragm displacement as a result of a 100 kPa applied pressure. Shear stress, shown in
Diaphragm displacement as a result of a 100 kPa applied pressure. Shear stress, shown in

Diaphragm displacement as a result of a 100 kPa applied pressure.

Shear stress, shown in the local co-ordinate system of the

piezoresistor (rotated 45° about the z-axis of the global system). The shear stress is has its highest magnitude close to the

piezoresistor with a value of approximately -35 MPa.

Arrows: Current density, Contours: Electric Potential, for a device driven by a 3 V bias

Arrows: Current density, Contours: Electric Potential, for a device driven by a 3 V bias with an applied pressure of 100 kPa.

Difference in FEA of Micro and Macro scale products

Analysis procedure remains same

Approach and Methodologies Varies

Non Standard testing methodologies

Non Standard specimen Dimensions

Non Standard FEA verification methods

Conclusion

Simulation is important ingredient of MEMS

FEM is a Useful Simulation tool in the MEMS Design Process

Most MEMS Structures can be modeled as rods, beams or plates

The DOFS can be displacements, Velocities, Electric field, Magnetic field, Temperature etc.

Optimization coupled with FEM model helps to obtain the optimum

design