Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

PHYSICS INVESTIGATORY

PROJECT
SOLAR CARS
Priyansh Shukla | XII - A | 04-11-2016

OBJECTIVE
In this project, the objective is to study the mechanism and
working of a solar car and to explore the application of
renewable energy in building model cars.

THEORY
Introduction
A solar car is an electric vehicle powered by solar energy
obtained from solar panels on the surface of the vehicle.
Solar cars combine technology typically used in the
aerospace, bicycle, alternative energy and automotive
industries. The design of a solar vehicle is severely limited
by the amount of energy input into the car.
Solar cars depend on a solar array that uses photovoltaic
cells (PV cells). The Solar Electric Vehicle system was
designed and engineered as an easy to install (2 to 3 hours)
integrated accessory system with a custom moulded low
profile solar module, supplemental battery pack and a
proven charge controlling system.
As an alternative, a battery-powered electric vehicle may use
a solar array to recharge; the array may be connected to the
general electrical distribution grid.

PAGE 1

Difference between Conventional Vehicle and Solar


Vehicle
a Solar vehicle operates in a significantly different fashion
from a regular vehicle. Regular cars use the internal
combustion engine. These engines, until very recently, used
gasoline or diesel fuel made from petroleum, a fossil fuel.
The engine works by literally burning the fuel, which creates
heat and causes expansion of gases, directly causing
movement of pistons in the engine.
A perfect combustion reaction would leave only carbon
dioxide and water. However, perfect combustion is
impossible, so these engines also emit carbon monoxide,
nitrogen oxides and particulate pollution--all of which
contribute to air pollution.
Solar cars depend on PV cells to convert sunlight into
electricity to drive electric motors. Unlike solar thermal
energy which converts solar energy to heat, PV cells directly
convert sunlight into electricity.

PAGE 2

Solar Car Schematics

PAGE 3

Components of a Solar Car


Solar Array
The solar array consists of hundreds of photovoltaic solar
cells converting light into electricity. The solar array is the
vehicles only source of power. The power from the array is
used either to power the electric motor or stored in the
battery pack for later use.

Power Trackers
Power trackers condition the electricity coming from the
solar array to maximize the power and deliver it either to the
batteries for storage or to the motor controller for
propulsion. When the solar array is charging the batteries,
the power trackers help to protect the batteries from being

PAGE 4

damaged by overcharging. Power trackers can be very


lightweight and commonly reach efficiencies above 95%.

Electric Motor
an electric motor is the basic and the most important part of
a solar car. It should work with optimal power and the
efficiency should be high. An electric motor is a device using
electrical energy to produce mechanical energy, nearly
always by the interaction of magnetic fields and currentcarrying conductors.

Speed Controller
The purpose of a motor speed controller is to take a signal
representing the demanded speed, and to drive a motor at
that speed.

PAGE 5

Chassis
The primary challenge in developing an effective solar car
chassis is to maximize the strength and safety, but minimize
the weight. However, safety is a primary concern and the
chassis must meet stringent strength and safety
requirements.

Battery
Battery is the main power supply of a vehicle , a battery is a
device that stores chemical energy and makes it available in
an electrical form.

Wheel
Span tyres are used as it is light and has low traction with
the road. The light tyre does not require greater force to
move faster.

PAGE 6

Advantages
Eco-friendly
One of the most significant benefits of a solar powered
vehicle is that it is highly nature-friendly. Solar powered
automobiles produce a negligible amount of greenhouse
gasses that are responsible for the depletion of the
protective ozone layer.

Renewable and Infinite Source of Energy


The sun is one of the biggest renewable sources of energy
and running solar powered vehicles does not require any
natural resources that are on the verge of extinction.

Gasoline Independence
A solar based car is gasoline independent. A traditional car
adds to the all ready high air pollution levels, whereas, a
solar powered car does not produce any harmful emissions.

PAGE 7

Solar Cars are Noiseless


A solar powered car is exceptionally quiet and runs
noiselessly, thereby, cutting the noise pollution that comes
complimentary with fuel-driven cars.

Longer Life Span


A solar car can easily last decades without any expensive
regular upkeep.

Low Maintenance
The solar vehicles are specially designed to be low
maintenance and can be easily maintained to last years with
general cleaning of the solar panels.

Applications
This concept can be utilized to build a single sitter four wheel
vehicles in practice. It can be extended to more commercial
form of four wheeler vehicle. In industry where small
vehicles are used to perform light weight conveys work from
one place to other place. It can be used in places where ,
fuel based vehicles are banned due to production of pollution
and noise In space exploration vehicles where conventional
source of energy cannot be used.

Bibliography
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_car
auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-efficiency
www.solarpoweredcar.org
www.miniscience.com/kits/SOLAR

PAGE 8

www.tafesa.edu.au/solarcar_works

PAGE 9