Sei sulla pagina 1di 18

Organelles

Label the organelles and their function. Which letter represents them in
the diagram?
1. E. nucleus- contains the dna and runs the processes of the cell
2. ribosome- makes proteins
3. C. cytoplasm- holds organelles in place
4. A. cell membrane- allows molecules to enter and exit the cell
5. B. cell wall- support and structure in plant cell
6. J. golgi apparatus- modifies proteins
7. I. smooth ER- transports proteins
8. I. rough ER- ribosomes attached, transports proteins
9. H. mitochondria- turns sugar and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water
and releases oxygen
10. F. chloroplast- does photosynthesis, turns sunlight into food
11. D. vacuole- stores food and water for cell, larger in plants
12. G. lysosome- gets rid of waste for the cell, more in animals

Cell Theory
What are the 3 parts to the Cell Theory?

1. All living things are made up of cells

2. Cells are the basic building blocks of life

3. All cells come from pre-existing cells

Who helped create the Cell Theory?


Shleiden, Schwann, Virchow
Who named the cell and wrote a book called Micrographia?

Robert Hooke
Who made a better microscope?
Leeuwenhoek

Mitochondria
Explain the steps of Cellular Respiration.
Duringcellularrespiration,aglucosemoleculeisgraduallybrokendownintocarbondioxide
andwater.Alongtheway,someATPisproduceddirectlyinthereactionsthattransform
glucose.

What is the equation?

C6H1206 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (ATP).

Which are the reactants and which are the products?


Reactants- sugar, oxygen Products- Carbon dioxide, water and energy
Below is an molecule of Adenosine TriphosPhate. What is this? ATP

How does mitochondria rely on the cell membrane?


To bring things into and out of the cell for cellular respiration
What 3 things does it need?
It relies on it to bring in sugar and oxygen and take out carbon dioxide.

Chloroplast
What are the steps to photosynthesis?
Water and CO2 enter the plant and are transformed into sugar and O2.

What is the equation? Which are the reactants and which are the
products?

6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2


When will photosynthesis occur the least?
At night
What is chlorophyll?
A chemical that is responsible for collecting light

What color does it reflect?


Green

What are the 4 macromolecules?


Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids

Which one is a product of photosynthesis?


Carbohydrates

Is it simple or complex?
Simple

Diffusion
What are the 3 different kinds of diffusion?
1. Facilitated diffusion
2. Active Transport
3. Osmosis

Which one only moves water?


Osmosis
Which one requires energy?
Active Transport
Which ones go from a high to low concentration?

Osmosis and Diffusion

Which one can go from a low to a high concentration?


Active Transport

What does semi-permeable or selectively permeable mean?


Only some things can cross through the membrane
How would a body cell (which contains many minerals and salts) maintain
homeostasis when placed in a fresh water environment?
It will pump out fresh water using active transport
Which are considered passive processes (requiring no energy)?
Osmosis and diffusion

Osmosis

Define Osmosis
The diffusion of water
What are the three different types of solutions? What do they mean?
1. Hypotonic- water will go into the cell in this type of solution
2. Hypertonic-water will leave the cell in this type of solution
3. Isotonic- water will move in and out of the cell at equal rates

What do you think the cell will try to do if placed in a different type of
solution than it came from?

Try to maintain homeostasis using active transport

If you soak your hands in dishwater, you may notice that your skin
absorbs water and swells into wrinkles. This is because your skin cells are
_______________ to the _______________ dishwater.
A. hypotonichypertonic
B. hypertonichypotonic
C. hypotonichypotonic
D. isotonichypotonic
E. hypertonicisotonic

What is homeostasis?
A process of actively maintaining stable conditions necessary for life
What is equilibrium?
Stable conditions, constant

Osmosis
1. In osmosis, water always moves toward the ____ solution: that is,
toward the
solution with the ____ solute concentration.
a. isotonicgreater
b. hypertonicgreater
c. hypertoniclesser
d. hypotonicgreater
e. hypotoniclesser

2. The concentration of solutes in a red blood cell is about 2%.


Sucrose cannot pass through the membrane, but water and urea
can. Osmosis would cause red blood cells to shrink the most when
immersed in which of the following solutions?
A. a hypertonic sucrose solution
B. a hypotonic sucrose solution
C. a hypertonic urea solution
D. a hypotonic urea solution
E. pure water

3. Sea water is dangerous to drink because


a. one cup of sea water contains enough sodium to poison you.
b. sea water is hypertonic to your body tissues and drinking it
will cause you to lose water.
c. sea water is isotonic to your body fluids and you will absorb
too much water.
d. the salt causes hypertension and you will promptly die of a
stroke.
e. it contains toxic levels of iodine.

4. If the volume of a cell increases when it is placed in a solution, that


solution is said to be __________ to the cell.
a. hypertonic
b. subatomic
c. isotonic
d. gin and tonic
e. hypotonic

Osmosis

1. Inside one osmosis bag*, A, is a 50% glucose solution and inside


bag B is a 20% glucose solution. Both bags are put into beakers
containing 100% water.
*Osmosis bags are membranes that let water through but not glucose.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Bag A will gain weight.


Bag B will gain weight.
Both bags will gain weight.
Both bags will lose weight.
Both bags will remain the same.

2. A 0.9% NaCl solution is isotonic to red blood cells. Which of these


describes the results if red blood cells are placed into a 9% solution
of NaCl?
A. They will burst.
B. They will shrink.

C. Nothing will happen.


D. They will expand but not burst.
E. None of the above.
3. Wallway is a new general herbicide for aquatic plants. Its main
ingredient is a marine salt solution. It is effective against freshwater
but not saltwater plants. It works by breaking down the cell walls of
the plants. The freshwater plants die because their cells
A. swell and cease to function.
B. shrink.
C. remain the same size but malfunction.
D. are crushed by the weight of the plant.
E. [not enough information to tell]

Active Transport
What is it called when something is pushed out of the cell using energy?
exocytosis
What is it called when something is pulled into the cell using energy?
endocytosis

Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote


What is a Prokaryote?
Old type of cell, very few organelles
List examples.
Bacteria, amoeba

What is a Eukaryote?
True cell, having a nucleus
List at least 3 examples.
Humans, plants, animals

Which organelles would a prokaryote be missing?


Nucleus, have a plasma membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA.

What is the Endosymbiosis Theory?


The idea that mitochondria and chloroplast were prokaryotes that came
into a eukaryotic cell and maintained a beneficial relationship.
What does this theory have to do with the evolution of life on our planet?
Before this, life was not able to exist on a larger scale as energy and food
were not successfully made.
What is an autotroph? List as many examples as you can.
An organism that makes it own food. Plants, bacteria, algae.
What process do autotrophs perform for food?
Photosynthesis
What is a heterotroph? List as many examples as you can?
Organisms that have to eat something for energy. Humans, animals, fungi.
What process do heterotrophs perform for energy? Cellular Respiration

Osmosis
1. Flasks X, Y, and Z contain solutions with different concentrations of
the solute NaCl.
Flask X has 0.5% NaCl
Flask Y has 0.9% NaCl
Flask Z has 1.5% NaCl
Red blood cells (0.9% NaCl) will be placed into each flask. Predict
what will happen to the blood cells in each of the flasks.
Flask X: Contract
Flask Y: Unchanged
Flask Z: Swell
Flask X: Swell
Flask Y: Unchanged
Flask Z:
Contract
Flask X: Unchanged
Flask Y: Swell
Flask Z:
Contract
Flask X: Unchanged
Flask Y: Unchanged
Flask Z:
Unchanged

2. A red blood cell has a salt concentration of 0.9%. What will happen
if it is placed
into a 1% salt solution? The red blood cell will
a. shrink if its membrane is permeable to both the salt and
the water.
b. shrink if its membrane is impermeable to the salt and
permeable to the water.
c. maintain its shape - nothing will happen.
d. swell and probably burst because its membrane is
impermeable to salt and permeable to water.
e. swell and probably burst because its membrane is
impermeable to water and permeable to salt.

Latin Roots
Fill in the meanings:
Latin Root
Meaning
Two
bi
Ten
deca
Two
di
Earth
geo
Dun
heli
Half
hemi
Stone
litho
The study of
(-logy)
One
mono
Eight
oct

Latin Root
ante
com
cyclo
eco
ex
extra
infra
mega neo
nom

Meaning
Before
Together
Circle
House
Out
Outside
Beneath
Great, large
New
Name

quadr
terr
tetra
tri
uni
a
auto
centr
cide
crypt
gene
hetero
homo
kary
malmeta
morph
muta
poly
sym-

Four
Earth
Four
Three
One
Without
Self
Center
Kill or destroy
Hidden
Birth
Different, other
Same
Nucleus
Bad
Form
Change
Multiple
with

palaeo
pre
pseud
tax
transvivi
aero
aqua
bio
cyt
dent
derm
endo
hydro
hyper
hypo
iso
ped
photo
semi

Ancient
Before
Fake
Order
Move
Alive
Air
Water
Life
Cell
Tooth
Hide/skin
Within
Water
Above, more
Below, less
Equal
Food
Light
half

Compare and contrast diffusion, osmosis and active


transport.

Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a high concentration to a


low. No energy required.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water. No energy required.
Active transport requires energy and is the movement of molecules
against the concentration gradient. Can move from a low to a high
concentration.

Fill in the blanks

1. sun 2. Chloroplast 3. Glucose 4. Oxygen 5. Mitochondria 6. Carbon dioxide 7. Water 8.


ATP

What happens to stored energy from the mitochondria? It is released

Carbon dioxide creates a weak acid in bromothymol blue which makes it green. The
test tube A turned from green to blue. Where did the carbon dioxide go?
Absorbed by the plant

Photosynthesis
What acts as a catalyst for photosynthesis to occur?
sunlight

What effect would it have on the rate of photosynthesis if not available?


Slow down production of sugar and oxygen

What would happen to the production of sugar if carbon dioxide were removed from
the plants environment?
Slow down the process and production of products

Of water, temperature and light intensity: which do you think would affect the rate of
photosynthesis the greatest?
Light intensity

Draw a diagram representing how photosynthesis occurs.

Fermentation
What is fermentation?
The process in which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
What is anaerobic activity?
Without oxygen
What is the product for plants and what is the product for animals?
(Hint: one of them makes beer/wine and the other makes your muscles sore after
working out)

Plants- alcohol Animals- lactic acid


Which organelle is responsible for fermentation?
Mitochondria
-All of the following are sources of energy during exercise, except:
A. stored ATP
B. Alcoholic Fermentation
C. Lactic Acid Fermentation
D. Cellular Respiration

The graph below shows the data from a contestant on the biggest loser, a
T.V. show where people try very hard to change their body type. Over time
the peoples bodies slowly get more efficient at working out. They also
tend to get less sore and can do the same amount of work without getting
tired.
What is this graph indicating about
available energy over time?
Energy increases over
time

Osmosis

If we allow this to sit overnight, what will change color and what color will
it be?
orange
Why do some molecules move through the membrane and some do not?
The membrane is selectively permeable
The molecules inside the bag are sucrose molecules. Sucrose cannot be
split by water and it too big to move through the bag unless split. What
would we do to make sucrose split so it can move through the membrane?
a. heat up the bag
b. add more sucrose
c. add an enzyme called sucrase designed to split sucrose
d. add iodine to get starch out of the bag