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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP

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WORKSHO
GPU I D E

()FMEASURING
TOOLS
ANDDEVICES
INVENTORY

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Carpenter'a
equare
Forcheckinq
or

9tud finder
Device Lhat
locaLea wall ettuda
by an elecltrontc
fteld or Lhe natle
in a etud by a
ma4netic fteld

Try aquare
For checkin4or
markin4 90"
an4lee.Elade
avatlabletn 6Lo l2-tnch len4th

m e a e u r i n 49 0 '
an4leaeuch ae in
the corner of a room;
can aleo be used ae
a eLrai4hted4e

Chalk Iine
A lenqth of twtne,
covered with colored chalk duaL
conLained tneide a
caae: Lhe twine ie

onappedaqainett
walle1;omark lon4,
etraiqht linea

9liding bevel
AdjueLe ta mea'
Ju,

Protractor
Uaefulfor ae|tinq anqlee of
machine fenceeand bladee

piece ie levelor plumb


by cenLertnq a
-/.
bubbletn
a vtal

utility knife
tharpenedtip ecoree
ltneoan woodmore

Trammel points
AtLached Lo a eltraiqhLedqe;
on Poinf berve!,ab Lhe
pivot and Lhe oLher acdbee
a circleor an a(c around ir

precieely l,han
a pencil

vvrJ,

^r

traha-

Combination square
For checkin7or markinq 45"
or 90' an4lea;deLachable
blade doubleaae ruler
or eLraiqhtedqe

French curve
For drawinq curved linee

?pirit level
lndicat.eewhena work-

v,

fer any an4le. Blade


atoree in handle

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Compaoo
For markin4
arce and circlea

5trai4htedqe
For prectetonmarktn4 of atrar4ht ltneaand checkin4flat
eurfacee. Thick metal ed4eo are machtnedotraiqht,

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MAKING
MOLDING
CROWN

A
Panelraioing
bit

profile
router
bitsto forma complex
Using
simple
molding
appears
elaborate
it canactually
be
Although
crown
routerbits.Tomakethemolding,
madewiththreecommon
longer
firstcutthreeboards
andwider
thanyouwillneedfor
Install
a panel
raising
bitinyour
thethreelayers
of molding.
router
table.Alignthefenceandadjustthedepthof cut,

Covebit

Roman
ogee bit

forthef irstboard.
Switch
to thesecond
thenrouttheprofile
process
repeating
foreach
andthirdbitsandboards,
the
your
profile.
rip
table
saw,
respective
Next, eachboardon
is
widest
the
narrowest.
sothefirstboard the
andthethird
Glueandclamptheboards
together
to formthemolding.

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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

KITCHEN
CABTNETS

THE ART OF WOODWORKING

KITCHEN
CABINETS

TIME-LIFE
BOOKS
ALEXANDRIA.
VIRGlNIA
ST.REMYPRESS
MONTREAL

THE ARTOF WOODWORKINGwasproducedby


ST. REMY PRESS
PUBLISHER Kenneth Winchester
PRESIDENT Pierre L6veill6
SeriesEditor
SeriesArt Director
Editor
Art Directors

Pierre Home-Douglas
Francine Lemieux
Andrew Jones
Jean-PierreBourgeois,
Normand Boudreau
Designers Frangois Daxhelet,
)ean-Guy Doiron
PictureEditor Genevidve Monette
Writers John Dowling, Adam Van Sertima
Contributing lllustrators Gilles Beauchemin,Michel Blais,
Ronald Durepos, JacquesPerrault,
Michael Stockdale, JamesThdrien
Administrator Natalie Watanabe
ProductionManager Michelle Turbide
Coordinator Dominique Gagn6
SystemCoordinator Eric Beaulieu
Photographer Robert Chartier
Proofreader Judy Yelon
lndexer Christine M. Jacobs

Time-LifeBooksis a divisionof Time Life Inc.,


a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof
THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIME-LIFEINC.
President and CEO

John M. Fahey

TIME-LIFEBOOKS
President
ManagingEditor
Directorof Design
Directorof Editorial Operations

JohnD. Hall
RobertaConlan
MichaelHentges
EllenRobling

ConsultingEditor
Vice-President,Book Production
ProductionManager
QualityAssurance M anager

JohnR. Sullivan
Marjann Caldwell
MarleneZack
famesKing

THE CONSULTANTS
fon Eakes has been a cabinetmaker and custom renovator in
Montreal for more than 20 years.He is known primarily for his
teaching through books, videos, radio, and the TV show
RenovationZone.
Giles Miller-Mead taught advanced cabinetmaking at Montreal
technical schools for more than ten years.A native of New
Zealand, he has worked as a restorer of antique furniture.

Kitchen cabinets.
p. cm.- (The Art of woodworking)
Includes index.
ISBN 0-8094-9545-7
l. Kitchen-cabinets.2. Cabinetwork.
I. Time-Life Books. II. Series.

TTr97.5.K571996
684.1'6-dc20

9s-46501
CIP

For informationaboutanyTime-Lifebook,
pleasecall l-800-621-7026,
or write:
ReaderInformation
Time-LifeCustomerService
P.O.BoxC-32068
Richmond,Virginia
2326r-2068
@ 1996Time-LifeBooksInc.
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by
means,includinginformation
anyelectronicor mechanical
storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat brief passages
may be quotedfor reviews.
Firstprinting.Printedin U.S.A.
in Canada.
Publishedsimultaneously
TIME-LIFEis a trademarkof TimeWarnerInc. U.S.A.

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CONTENTS

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6 INTRODUCTION
12
14
17
19
23

LAYOUTAND DESIGN
A galleryof kitchen styles
Principlesof layout
Dimensioning
Storypoles

26 CASEWORK
28 Anatomy of a kitchen
cabinetcase
30 Buildingmaterials
33 Buildingthe cases
38 Shelvingand storage
44 Assemblingthe cabinets
50 Faceframes

98
100
L02
II2
115
118

INSTALLING CABINETS
Installationbasics
Installingthe lower cabinets
Islandsand peninsulas
Installingthe upper cabinets
Crown molding

I2O
I22
123
I34

COTINTERTOPS
A galleryof countertopsurfaces
Installingcountertops
Backsplashes
and edgetreatments

140 GTOSSARY
T42 INDEX
I44 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

56 DOORS
58 A galleryof cabinet
door designs
doors
60 Board-and-batten
doors
62 Frame-and-panel
73 Mounting doors
78
80
83
87
93

DRAWERS
Drawerconstruction
Building drawers
Drawerslidesand runners
Falsefronts and hardware

INTRODUCTION

Tom Santarsleroon

CHOOSING
CABINETSTYLE,S
espitethe tremendousvarietyof kitchencabinets,
theyall comedown to two

faceframeandframeless.
Eachhascharacteristics
basictypes:
thatgreatly
affect
how the heartof the modernhomewill appearand function.For the designer,
cabinetmaker,
and installer,theyalsodeterminehow the cabinetswill be created.
Faceframe cabinetsare the most populartype of kitchencabinetin North
America.Thistime-honoredmethodof constructioninvolvesattachinga framework
of solidlumberto the front of a carcase.
Doorsand drawerscanbe mountedin
oneof threeways:inset,lipped,
Inset,themostelegantin appearance,
is
or overlay.
a true testof a craftsman's
Tight tolerances
skill in constructionand installation.
arerequiredto accommodate
woodmovementandyielda pleasing
seasonal
margin betweenframeand door.During installation,cabinetsmustbe setperfectlylevel
and plumb to maintainthat margin.My clientswho chooseframedcabinetsare
veryinterested
in forginga link with thepast.Theyappreciate
theclassic
look of wellfitted doorsand drawersthat openwith easeand closewith a gentlepuff of air as
theynestwithin the frame.

Frameless
cabinetry
wasbornin EuropeafterWorldWarII. It addressed
some
of thechallenges
of thetime,suchastheshortage
of lumberandtheneedto rebuild
housing
rapidly.
Thesimplicity
kitchencabinet
greatly
of theframeless,
or European,
reduced
material,
needs,
andproduction
time.Doorswouldaligntightlytogether,
creating
aclean,flowinglineof casework.
Thisreflected
amodernist
viewof achanged
worldwheretimewasshortandproductionandefficiency
reignedsupreme.
This
methodyieldedotherbenefits.
construction
Drawers
couldbewideranddeeper
because
theydidn'tneedto cleara faceframe.Andstorage
andremoval
of items
alongwith cleaning
thecabinetinteriorbecame
easier
andmoreefficient.
Today,
thelinebetween
faceframeandframeless
hasblurredslightly.
casework
Frameless
cabinets
arenolongerlimitedto flush-laminate
doors;mostof theframelesskitchens
I buildfeature
raised
paneldoors,
traditional
multi-part
cornice
moldings,
andotheraccoutrements
endowing
eachkitchenwithwarmthandcomfort.For
maximizing
building,installing,
storage,
andease
of use,frameless
cabinets
can'tbe
surpassed.
If, on theotherhand,you'dprefera touchof timeless
traditionin your
yourcabinets
kitchen,
areonlya faceframeaway.

TomSantarsiero
isPresident
of theKtchenDesignCenter
in Montclair, NewJersey.

INTRODUCTION

DonaldSilversdiscusses

KITCHENFORM
AND FUNCTION
I am continuallyjugglingtwo requirements:
I n *y work asa kitchendesigner,
I creating
spaces
thatarebothwonderfultolookat anda pleasure
to workin. Form
must
andfunction
work in tandem.
Thiswasnot alwaysthecase.In yearspast,cabinetmakers
who designedkitchens
werevirtuallyunknown,sincethe homebuilderwasresponsible
for creatingthe
kitchenand its cabinets,
and oftenbroughtto the kitchenthe sameeconomyof
meanswith which he built the restof the house.For example,a ceilingheightof
8 feetandthreestudsspaced16inchesapartcreated
theneedfor largequantitiesof
plywood.The homebuilderfelt it waseconomicallysoundto useleftoverplyvood
for kitchencabinets
sotherewouldbeno waste.Thebasecabinets
were22inchesdeep
just running
andthewallcabinets
were11to 12inchesdeep.Thesecabinets-really
shelves
with doors-stubbornlyresisted
anyform of change;
basecabinetsdidn't
changeto a 24-inchdepthuntil thedevelopment
of dishwaihers
madeit necessary.
In the kitchenenvironmentof today,designingand buildingkitchensis much
morethana wayof recyclingleftoverhomebuildingmaterials.
To createeye-catching
residentialkitchens,today'sdesigners
havetakena cuefrom the extraordinarywork
of cabinetmakers.
Thedifferentwoodsandfinishesthat makeup thecabinetmaker's
paletteprovidethefreedomto conjureup anystyle.Wth histools,thecabinetmaker
might carvecherryor oakwoods,creatingFrenchor EnglishCountrycabinets,
or
shapean intimateArtsandCraftskitchenin beech.He couldfashionanArt Decolook
in the richness
of walnut,or anArt Nouveau,
Victorian,or EarlyAmericanlook in
a varietyof woods-pine, ash,maple,or mahogany,
to namea few Thecabinetmaker
puttingat hisdisposal
mightevenwork with laminates,
theentirecolorspectrum.
And let'snot forgetthestainsthatproducean arrayof huesandpatinas.
Therange
is breathtaking.
of choices
The cabinetmaker
hasalsomadethe cook'slife a delightby incorporatingthe
right kind of accessories
that canmakethe cook'sjob easier,evenfun. For example,
therearedrawersand roll-outswith hardwarethat givesthe cookfingertipcontrol,
pantriesthat areonly a foot wide yet 84 inchestall,providingenormousstorage
whenpulledout of a wallcabinetwith ease.
Moreandmore,thekitchendesigner
of
todayis drawingon thepastandthepresentto createa kitchenenvironment
thatlooks
and cooksbeautifully.

DonaldSilversis a kitchendesigner
who teaches
at the
Universityof Californiaat LosAngeles.
He is theauthorof
TheCompleteGuideTo KitchenDesignWith CookingIn
Mind, publishedby TheNewarkManagement
Institute.

INTRODUCTION

SvenHansontalksabout

ASMOOTH
INSTALLATION
needtop-qualityinstallation
to lookgoodandfunctionwell.
itchencabinets
Unlikefinefurniturethatcanlookgoodin adustycornerof theshop,cabinets
wetendto put
don'tcometo life until aftertheyhavebeeninstalled.Unfortunately,
it happens
in anunfamiliar
off considering
theproblemsof installation
because
andrequiresskillsdifferentfromthoseneededto build thecabinets.
environment
plan,cirawn
Toavoidtheseproblems,
startwith andstickto a detailedinstallation
you
Dont betemptedto change
it because
up wellbeforethecabinets
arefinished.
of the36-inchoneyouoriginally
suddenly
likea 42-inchdrop-incooktopinstead
plannedfor.Thiswill forceyouto modifrtherangebase,
bothadjacent
cabinets,
table
andtheirdrawers.
It'sfarmoreefficientto bringallpartiesto thenegotiating
andmakethatkindof decision
beforeyoubuildthecabinets.
yourpsychological
Youwill getto practice
skillswhenyouannounce
to therest
of thehousehold
thatthektchenwill beclosedfor a fewdayswhilethenewcabinets
goin. Tryto keeptheblockade
for everyone.
Aboveall,
shortandtimedconveniently
do not fall into the snakepit of trying to haveyour newkitchenreadyjust before
"if
goesto plan"
investing
in oneof those everything
Thanksgiving
or Christmas,
them
schedules.
However,
if youplanto getrid of yourin-lawswhileconvincing
youarethecomplete
idiottheythought,success
beckons.
Thereis no rightor wrongwayto installcabinets.
I liketo installandlevelthe
plinthsfor thelowercabinets
theafternoon
beforetheinstallation
begins.
Forsheer
levelto thehighestpointof
exhaustion,
crawlingaroundthefloorto setallthebases
chores.
Thefollowingmorning,I
thefloor standsapartfrommostwoodworking
first,thenthelowercabinets.
AsI screwthecabinets
in
installtheuppercabinets
"idiot"
place,Ialways
for levelness.
Nothingsays
louderthana tilting
double-check
sinkor cooktop.
Duringinstallation,
adustcurtainmadeof 4-milplasticsheeting
can
repelwould-be
whilekeeping
mostdustandsomenoisecontained.
Tofursnackers
anyairductsandopenthekitchenwindowacrack
therreduce
dust,youshouldblock
Finally,I'veobserved
manyfirst-timeinstallers
whousesurprisingly
fewtools.
I relyon manymoreandlaythemout on a temporary
workbench
setat theedge
of theroom.Ifyourshopisapartfromthejob site,startmakingalistof theinstalhelps
lationtoolswhileyou'restillconstruaing
thecabinets.Visualizing
theinstallation
yourtools(and
to fabricatea cabinetthatistruly readyto installandhelpsorganize
mindset)to finishthejob properly.In 25yearsI'veneverhearda singlewoodworker
"I
say, wishI hadn'twasted
somuchtimepreparing
for thatjobJ'

SvenHansonis a cabinetmaker
Ne'wMexico.
in Albuquerque,

,;:j/,:;,!ii,

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f,

IAOUTATDDESIGN

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incecolonialdavs.the American
orovidedfor work.Thekitchenisa workkitchenhasbeenthoughtofas the
ihop like anyother,and shouldbe laid
heartof thehome.It is thefirst room a
out with efficiencyin mind. Youwould
familyshareseachday;it is not only the
not think of locatingthetablesawanda
placewheremealsareprepared,
planerat oppositeendsof a workshop;
but also
wheretheyareofteneaten.The kitchen
theprimaryworkcentersof a kitchenis wherechildrenand adultsdo their
in mostcases,
the sink,refrigerator,
and
homework,and wherethey lingerfor
stove/cooking
area-are no different.
Yet,althoughthe roleof
conversation.
Worktriangles(page17)areonewayto
the kitchenhasnot changedin three
minimizethe trips betweenthe three.
centuries,its appearance
has.Once,
Arriving at an efficientlayout for a
cookingwasdoneby the centralfireThesupplypipesanddrainofa kitchen
kitchenin a confinedspacecanbea chalplace,andthelarderwasstoredagainst sinkaremarkedon thewallwith theaid
lenge.Invariably,the sizeand location
willhaveto be
the cold,north-facingwall. Today,a
of a carpenter\level(above).Theprecise of your kitchencabinets
kitchenmust be carefullyplannedto
flexibleenoughto accommodatethe
locationof thefixtureswill thenbe
meetthe demandsof a busyhousehold,
locationof appliances,
markedontoverticalandhorizontal
site
utilities,windows,
andto accommodate
a batteryof laborstorypolesbeforebeingtransferred
to the
and doors.A selection
ofbasiclayout
savingdevices.
Thischapterfocuses
on
storypolesfor thesinkcabinetitself.
optionsis shownon page18.Drafting
thework of today'skitchen-especialscalefloor plansandelevations
canhelp
ly its cabinetry-introducespopulardesigns,and outlines you visualizeyour layout;floor plansandelevations
for a typical L-shapedkitchenareshownon page20. Onceyou have
somebasicprinciplesthat willhelp you createa kitchenthat
meetsyour needs.
you candividetheir
settledon theplacementof your cabinets,
A kitchendesignoftenstartsasa naturalextension
runsinto individualcabinetsanddrawers.Whilemostkitchen
ofthe
architecturalstyleof a house.Justastrim, molding,and furcabinets
adhereto basicdimensionalstandards
inheight (page
nishingscandistinguisha homeasbeingVictorianor Colonial, 19),their width and numberof doorscanbe fine tunedto
cabinetdoors,molding,andhardwarecandefinethestyleof a
reacha visuallywell-balanced
kitchendesign(page22).
kitchen.For example,Victorianis an opulentstylemarkedby
Accuracyis crucialwhen draftingfloor plansand elevapulls,andexposed tions.A site-referenced
complexegg-and-dart
molding,porcelain
storypole(page24) tellsyou everyhinges,while Shakerstyleis a modelof austerity,relyingon
thing you needto know abouta kitchenwall in precisedetail,
frame-and-panel
includingthelocationandsizeof thecabinets.
simple,recessed
doors,an absence
of moldBy usingthese
ing, and the muted colorsof milk paint.A galleryof kitchen smalllengthsof wood for eachwall and cabinet,you can
stylesfrom traditionalto modernis shownstartingon page14. proceedfrom floor plan to cuttinglist with a minimum of
Whetheryou choosea traditionalarchitectural
stylefor your
errors.From thereto your dreamkitchenit is only a few
kitchenor a blendof severalstyles,
adequate
room mustbe
morecarefulsteos.

Drawingyour kitchento scaleis thebestwayto experimentwith its


layout.Thephotoat leftshowstheJloorplan of an L-shapedkitchen,
includingthelocationof cabinets,
windows,appliances,
and utilities.

13

A GALLERYOF KITCHEN STYLES


\ [ f hileakitchenshouldreflectyour
Y V personalculinaryneedsand
its designshouldnot bechosen
tastes,
withoutfirst addressing
a fewimporWiil thestylecompletant questions.
mentor clashwiththerestof thehouse

A Victoriankitchen
architecturally?
wouldlookout of placein a modern
with Missionfurniture.
housedecorated
Budgetis anotherimportantconsideration.Thelumbercostsalonefor an
kitchenwith cherfuts andCrafts-swle

ry cabinets
doors
andframe-and-panel
arebeyondthereachof many.Popular,
lessexpensive
optionsincludethe
kitchen,whichusesstanEuropean-style
dardizedmelaminecabinets,
or the
kitchen,in whichrustic
Country-style

SHAKER
but
Manykitchens
areShaker-inspired,
styleasthis
fewareasfaithfulto Shaker
architect
Charles
Allen
house
designedby
Hill. Withtheirflat recessed
frame-andpaneldoors,
achewornamenthecabinets
yet
elegant
tation,andevoke
theShalcer's
evena pegboard
utilitarianethic.There's
overtherange.

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VICTORIAN

Lessopulentthan its namesake,


this
byMaine architect
kitchendesigned
lohn Gillespienonetheless
featuresseveralhallmarlsof thestyle,mostnotabf
tall uppercabinetswith tongue-andgroovedoors,surface-mounted
brass
hinges,andporcelainpulls. Notethe
way the Victori an motifs-cr own
molding ornatecolumnsand arches
-are carriedinto adjoiningareasof
thehouse.

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LAYOUTAND DESIGN

charm can be derivedfrom the minor


defectsofaged,recycledwood.
A kitchendesigndoesnot haveto be
faithful to a singlestyle.As the gallery
on thesepagesandthe charton page16
show,severalstylescan be combined

with a carefuleyeto createa unique of therightmaterials


canalsounifr a
Blending
make
your
kitchen
with
design.
stylescan
contrasting
thesurroundfor examdesignmore flexible:Shaker-style ing house.Cherrycabinets,
ple,
provide
kitchens
well-adapted
to
modugraceful
are
the
can
a
transition
larconstruction
of European-style
cab- between
a European-style
kitchenand
inetry(page26).
Thediscerning
choice a Colonialfarmhouse.

EUROPEAN
Its hardwareout of sight,theEuropeanstylecabinetdefinesthemodernkitchen.
Itsclean,unadornedlinesareenhanced
by
recessed
kghtingandplentyofuncluxered
laminatecountertop.
Subtletouches
by
Maine designer
JohnScholtz,suchasthe
porcelainfriezeand bacl<splash
trim and
theladderbackShakerchairs,lenda warm
toneto theimmaculate
decor.

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Thisisan ecleaicstylethat canbeevoked


asmuchby decoration
asby actualcabinetry.Framedby exposedtimbers,the
kitchenat left,designed
by StevenFoote
of Boston,is a pleasinglymodernupdate
on thestyle.Thebrick,pineplankfloors,
and leadedglazingintheupperwallcabinetsall contributeto a colonialambiance.
A moreexplicitreference
to thestylecan
befoundin theframe-and-panel
doors
with oversized
knobs.

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LAYOUTANI) DESIGN

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()FPERI()D
STYLES
DESIGN
CHARACTERISTICS
C()UNTRY
STYLE

Kaieed
frameand-panel
door

tl)
V

Wrought iron hingeoand pullo

SHAKER

Keceseed
panel
door with
pinned
mortise
and tenon
jointe

ARTSAND
CRAFTS

Woodenpull

Eutterfly hinge

Pierced tin panel

-;-_A=_ --_

- , *i l ;

I,tl+

Leaded
glazed
window

VICT()RIAN

9urfacemounted
braee door
hingea

Porcelainpull

Egg-and-dart molding

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PRINCIPLES
OF LAYOUT
kitchen dependson
A successful
A
threethings:sufficientspaceto
work, adequatelighting overthe sink
andcookingareas,
andcabinets
arranged
so that everythingfrom the cutleryto
thebreadboxis at hand.Sometimes
the
areadestinedfor thekitchenis woefully inadequate
in the first of thesethree
needs,Still,with a little creativeplanning,a functionalkitchencanbi laid
out in thetightestofspaces.
Thecornerstone
of kitchenlayoutis
positioningthe stove,refrigerator,
and

sinksotheyform a triangle(below).The
smallerthe triangle,the moreefficient
theuseof space.
As theillustrations
on
page18 show,thereareseverallayout
optionsfor a kitchen.The mostpopular of these,the U- and L-shaped
designs,
allowfor efficientwork triangles.A largekitchencanbenefitfrom
theadditionof an island,whichtightens
the work trianglewhile freeingup
counterspace.
Conversely,
a singlewall
or corridor-style
layoutmakesthebest
useof a smallspace.

All appliances
andfixturescomewith
dimensional
requirements
of theirown
thatshouldbetakeninto consideration
beforetheir positionsare fixed.For
example,a sink shouldhavecounter
spaceofabout 30 incheson eachside
for washingdishes;
a stoveshouldhave
20 to 24 inchesofspaceon both sides
for unclutteredandsafecooking.The
doorsof refrigerators,
dishwashers,
and
ovenscreatefurtherdemandfor space;
theseappliances
shouldbe positioned
fully open.

WORKTRIANGLES

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U-ahaped

Laying
outanetficient
kitchen
Thethreediagrams
shown
above
demonstrate
howto applythe
principle
of theworktriangle
forthreedifferent
kitchen
layouts.
Formaximum
efficiency,
theperimeter
of thetriangle
should
notexceed
25 feet;Iessthan20 feetis ideal.Planyourlayout
yourkitchen
byfirstdrawing
to scale,
thensketch
in theappli-

ances
in different
arrangements
untilyoucomeupwithanefficientandsatisfactory
useof space.
lf possible,
layoutthekitchen
sotheworktriangles
areclearof household
traffic.Forfurther
easeof movement,
makesurethereisat least36 inches
of clearancearound
anypeninsula
or island.

LAYOUTAND DESIGN

(lFKITCHEN
LAYOUT
OPTI(INS
A SELECTION
SINGLEWALL
Oood for a amall
apartment with
emallappliancee

U.5HAPED
Themoat efficient
and veraatilekitchen
layout; two blind cornere can be a diaad'
vantaqeae they take
up valuableopace

L.qHAPED
More efficient than
either corridor or
ein4le-walllayout;
worktrtanqlecan be
kept emalland coun'
tera continuoua

CORRIDOR
More efficient
than einqlewall layout;
through traffic can be
a problem

L.5HAPED
WITHI?LAND
)ffere more
efficient work
trianqle than
eimpleL-ohaped
layouL;createe
oeparate cooktn1area

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DIMENSIONING

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for kitchen
Q tandardmeasurements
r.J cabinetsarederivedfrom human
anatomy.For example,countertopsare
comfortablefor most userswhenthey
arewaist-high-typically,threefeetoff
the floor. Subtractingfour-and-a-half
inchesfor a kickolateand one-and-ahalf inchesfor thi countertoDleavesa
30-inch-high
cabinet.
Uppercabinetsareusuallyshallower
thanbottomonesfor easieraccess
to the
countertop.A generalrule of thumb for
uppercabinetsis to positionthebottom
of thelowestcabinetat shoulderheight.
This will fluctuateto allow for a range
hood overthe stoveor for mountine
appliances
that usedto crowdthe counl
tertop,suchasmicrowaves.
Youcanalso
leavea few inchesbeneaththe cabinets
to accommodate
lighting.Allow for an
inch or two at the top of the ceilingto
addmolding.
Onceyouhavedeterminedtheheight
and depthof cabinets,
you can start
dividingtherunson your floor planand
elevations
into individualcases
with face
frames,doors,and drawers(page22).
Startby positioningthe sink and any
othermajorappliances
in therun, then
dividetheremainderof therun into cabinets.Dependingon yourkitchenneeds,
thesecabinets
canbelargeor small,with
oneor two doors;theycouldalsoconsist
ofa bankofdrawers.Forvisualbalance
andeaseof production,try to makethe
proportional,sothewidth of a
cabinets
large,two-doorcabinetis twicethat of a
smaller,one-doorcabineu30-38inchesis a good width to work with for a
Iargecabinet.Also takecareto match
the upperand lowerruns.For sample
floorplansandelevations
ofan L-shaped
kitchen,
seepages
20-21.

STANDARD
KITCHEN
CABINET
PR()P(!RTI(|NS
ANDDIMENSIONS

Varies with
heiqhtof
kitchen ceilin4

cabinet

30-40
inchea

)pace for liqht

15 inchea
minimum
Counterbop

24-26
inchee

Eackaplaah

32-33
incheo

Lower
cabinet

LAYOUTAND DESIGN

KITCHEN'S
SH(]RTWAIL
VIEWOFANI-SHAPED
FAGE-ON

WALL
FACE-ON
VIEWOTIONGER

LAYOUTAND DESIGN

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LAYOUTAND DESIGN

DIVIDING
A RUN

2-inah
sPaae

The illuatration below


showahowto dividea lower and upperrun of cabinete. ln the lowerrun, the
diahwasherand ainkare
then the reat
poeiLioned,

of the run ia divided into


equalcaaee.Next, the
caeee are divided into
draweraand doors. ln
thie example,the upper
cabinet run ia also divided

to match the lowerrun.


For different matchtng
effecte, aeeLhe illuatration at the bottom of
the paqe.

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24 inahea

00 0

4-8 inchea wider :,Double eaee


',13-19
than aink
I,inchea wide
"

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;,)ingle i,Double qase


i c a e e1 O "1 3 ' 1 9 i
:,inohes i,incheo,',1ide
iwide

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MATCHING
ANDTOWER
UPPER
CABINETS

Matahing top run to bottom

Matahing bottom run to top

zz

Staggered run

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STORYPOLES
Q tory polesarea methodof measurrJ ingkitchencabinets
accurately
for a
mastercuttinglist withoutrelyingon a
have
tapemeasure
or ruler.Carpenters
beenlayingout entirehomeson these
long, narrowsticksof wood for centuries,and this tried-and-truemethod
offersseveraladvantages
overstandard
measuring
Forone,all meatechniques.
surements
aremarkedout full-size,making an error-freecuttinglist easierto
thanfrom scaledrawings.
calculate
Storypolesalsoallowyouto visualize
constructiondetailsmore easilv.By
markingthemeasurements
for eachcabineton thesticksyouhaveanexactpictureof eachcabinet;lengths,
widths,and
positionsofjointscanallbemarkedlater on the stockdirectly,without a tape
measureintroducingerror.For easeof
handling,makeyour storypolesfrom
wood t/+inchto 3/+
inchthickandabout
1r/:incheswide.Toseetheoencilmarks
wood.
better,uselight-colored
Whenlayingout a kitchen,sitestory
polesarefirst completedfor eachwall
of the kitchen(pnge24).On the horizontalstorypole,thelocationofeverything alongthat wall is marked:the
appliances
and cabinetsin the run,
doors,windows,and anyelectricalor
plumbingfixturessuchasoutletsor sink
pipes(seephoto,page13).The vertical
storypoleshowstheheightof thekickplate,lowercabinet,countertop,backsplash,upper cabinet, and ceiling
molding,aswell asany windowsand
plumbingfixtures.A depth
electricalor
storypoleprovidesthe depthof kickplate,cabinet,andcountertopoverhang.
Oncethe kitchenhasbeenlaid out
on story poles,individualstory poles
arecreatedfor eachcabinet(page25).
For maximumaccuracy,
eachcabinet
shouldhavethreesmallerstorypoles:
height,width, and depth,eachieferencedto the respective
sitestorypole.
Theseshorterstorypoleswilltellyou
the dimensionsof your cabinets(right)
whenit comestime to compilethemaster cutting list (page32).

CABINET
STORY
POLES

Depthatory pole
lndicateadepthof cabinet,kickplate,
counterLop overhan1, and
nailinq raile

Width at'ory pole


lndicateawidth of
cabinet,Iocationof
drawera and doora,
and any intermediate
face frame attles.
Aloo may indicate
cutouta for electrical
or plumbinqeervicee

ZJ

Height etory pole


lndicatea heiqhLof cabinet, kickplate,countertop,
and any drawer frame raila.Alao may indicaLe
cutouts for electricalor plumbinaeervicea

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LAYOUTAND DESIGN

WITHSTORY
POLES
LAYING
OUTA KITCHEN

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horizontal
sitepoles
1l Making
-

I U s r n gc h a l k s, k e t c ha f u l l - s i z oe u t l i n eo f y o u rk i t c h e nl a y o u t o n t h e s i t ef l o o r .M a r kb o t ht h e u p p e ra n d l o w e rc a b i n e t
r u n s ,i n d i c a t i nwg h i c hc a s e sw i l l b e c a b i n e tas n dw h i c hw i l l
b e a p p l i a n c e sT.h e nc r e a t ea h o r i z o n t as li t es t o r yp o l ef o r
nf all
e a c hw a l l i n t h e k i t c h e nO
. nt h e p o l e ,m a r kt h e l o c a t i o o
cabinetsin both runs(above)
and anydoorsor windows.lf the
k i t c h e nw a l l i s u n u s u a l llyo n g ,y o uc a nj o i nt w o s t i c k st o g e t h e r
+^ ^^^^
LU 5lidil

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/ , /
t

+h^ l;^+^^^^
LilC UtSLdILC,

\ /

r, /

Making
vertical
sitepoles
F l o o r sa n dc e i l i n g a
s r eo f t e nn o tf l a t o r l e v e ls, o y o un e e dt o
k n o wt h e m i n i m u md i s t a n c e
b e t w e etnh e t w ot o p l a nt h e h e i g h t
y
o
u
r
i n eo n t h e w a l l sa r o u n d
of
c a b i n e t sS. t r i k ea l e v e rl e f e r e n cl e
t h e k i t c h e nT. h e nf i n d t h e h i g hp o i n to f t h e f l o o ra n d h o l dt h e
v e r t i c asl i t e s t o r yp o l ea t t h i s p o i n t ,p l u m bt o t h e r e f e r e n c e
l i n e .S e ta c o m p a stso t h e h e i g h o
t f the kickplate
andmark
. s et h e c o m p a s st o m a k e
t h i s p o i n to n t h e s t o r yp o l e( r i g h t ) U
t f a n y m o l d i n ga t t h e t o p
a s i m i l a rm a r kt o r e c o r dt h e h e i g h o
o f t h e p o l e .N o wm a r kt h e h e i g h to f t h e u p p e ra n d l o w e cr a b i n e t so n t h e v e r t i c apl o l e ,a s w e l la st h e l o c a t i oonf a n yw i n d o w so n t h a t w a l l .L a s t l yc, r e a t ea d e p t hs t o r yp o l ef o r t h e w a l l
i n d i c a t i n tgh e d e p t ho f t h e c a b i n e t sa n da n yo t h e rf e a t u r eos n
t h e w a l la d i a c e ntto t h e r u n .

1 A
L.+

/-

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LAYOUTAND DESIGN

Locating
electrical
and
plumbing
services
U s ea c a r p e n t e r 'lse v e lt o d r a wp l u m b
l i n e sf r o mt h e l o c a t i oonf a n yp l u m b i n g
or electricalservices
to the levelreference
line (right).Transfer
theselocations
to the
horizontal
and verticalsite storypolesfor
t h e r un .

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/ / :

<'1- , c - R, ^b
t-'
{^\Q, $\
Creating
cabinet
storypoles
M a k eh o r i z o n t avl e
, r t i c a la, n d d e p t h

a-\

z
/'\

\z--J

/'1

t QRb
t

r-

Horizontal

cabineL

erort'Pote

{-\F ' $sJ


\_/r

B3 DRAWERS

B5 DRAWERS

25

storypoles
foreachcabinet,
thenreference
eachto itsrespective
sitepolefortherun
t h ec a b i n ei st i n . I n t h ee x a m p sl eh o w n
at left,thehorizontal
storypolefora bank
of drawers
is beingreferenced
to its horizontal
sitepole.Markoutthedetails
of
thecabinetin thiscase,
thefaceframe
r a i l sa n ds t i l e sw i t h i n
t h ec a b i n ewti d t h .
0n thevertical
storypole,marktheheight
of thekickplate,
countertop,
backsplash,
upper
cabinet,
andceiling
molding,
aswell
asanywindows
andelectrical
or plumbingservices.
Markthedepthof kickplate,
cabinet,
andcountertop
overhang
onthe
depthpole.Besureto labelall poles
caref ullyto avoidconfusionlater.

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CASEWORK

M{

andotherhardware
canthenbeaddedto
uilt-in kitchencabinetsarerelacreatean appropriatestyle.
tivelyrecentarrivalsin domestic
I
kitchens.Traditionally,
kitchencupWhile the wide availabilityof materialssuchasmediumdensityfiberboard
boardswere freestandingunits with
frame-and-panel
andface
hassimplifiedcasework,sheetgoods
construction
frames,muchlike the chinacabinetin
still havean Achilles'heel:their edges
theparlor.Yetby theturn ofthe centuareunattractiveand needto be hidden.
ry, the switchto built-ins had already
Laminateboardcanbeedgedwith hardduring the postwoodstrips(page48)orlaminateedge
begun.It accelerated
banding(pagea9).Thetraditionalface
WW II housingboomin Europe,when
frame(page50),a solid-woodframeconthe constructionof millions of new
An appliancebayis a tidy way to keep
sistingofrailsandstilesthatis attached
homespromptedthe developmentof
new wood products,tools,and techa countertop
to thefront of thefinishedcase,isanothfreeof clutter.Blenders,
niquesthat savedlaborand materials. cffie makers,
toasters,
andothersmall
er wayto hidethe edgesof man-made
No room in the housebenefittedfrom
appliances
canbekeptout of sight
boards.Moreimportantly,thefaceframe
morethan the kitchen.
but readilyaccessible.
Whilethe
can impart a traditional,handcrafted
theseadvances
Thedevelopmentof pll.rvood,partiappliancebayshownabovefeatures
feelto the kitchen.
fiberboard,andothermanulouvereddoors,spacecanbesaved
cleboard,
Shelvingand storagearekeyconsidFor
facturedsheetgoodsmadeassemblyJine
by usingtambourdoors(page40).
erationsin casework
construction.
productionof largeand rigid cabinets
example,
a bankof graduated
drawerspossible.The European32-millimetersystem-so called theidealsolutionforcutleryandkitchenutensils-shouldnot
alltheholesfor drawerslides,dowels,shelfsupports, be an afterthought
if you areusingfaceframeson your cabibecause
andhingesarespaced
32 millimetersapart-was revolution- nets.(For moreon drawers,seechapterthree.)Adjustable
offered shelves(page38)canaddflexibilityto your cabinets,enabling
aryin design.Itsmodular,predrilledmelaminecabinets
flexibility.It alsomadethemodernkitchenafford- you to storeoversized
unparalleled
bulk goodsandadaptto changingculinaryneeds.Theyarealsosimpleto installif you drill the supable:Eventhemostmodesthomecouldnowbeoutfittedwith
port holesbeforeassembling
Anothermodernstorage
a full complementof sleekkitchencabinets.
thecases.
Buildingthesecases
is mainlya matterof cuttingthestock idea,thelazySusan(page42),makesgooduseof a perennial
to sizeand thenjoining it usingoneof the techniquesshown weakspotin thekitchen:thelowercornercupboard.An applipieceof caseon pages33 to 37;thecharton page3I will helpyou choose ancebay(photoaboveandpage40)is a separate
from availablematerials.Faceframes.doors,drawerfronts, work in its own rieht.

l.-,,*rT:
ih

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Accurately cutting sheetgoods to size can be a tricky task. In the photo at left, a
panel-cutting circular saw attachment is being usedto rip a sheetof melamine
for a kitchen cabinet. The Exqct-T-Guidemodelshownfeaturesa T-square-type
guide that rides in a U-shapedchannelscrewedto the edgeof a plywood base.

27

ANATOMYOF A KITCHENCABINETCASE
shouldbekeptas
f1 itchencabinets
goods
aspossible.
Usingsheet
A. basic
(page31)andsimplejoinerytechniques
of buildwill keepthetimeandexpense
worthof
ing andinstalling
a kitchen's
to a minimum.Althoughtheir
cabinets
it isimportant
issimple,
construction
Drawers,
bewell-built.
thatthecases
will allbeeasier
doors,
andcountertops
is strong,straight,
to fit if thecasework
a littleextratime
andsquare.
Spending
will savemuchfrusin thebuildingstage
trationduringinstallation.

The anatomies
belowand on the
facingpageshowbasiccabinetconfrom
struction.Usethe measurements
your cabinetstory poles(page25) to
cut the stockfor eachcabinetto size.
The sidesofthe bottom cabinetcan
extendright down to the floor,or you
can install levelerlegs (page44) that
will hold a clip-onkickplate.At this
time, it is a good ideato cut all the
groovesfor the back panels,and to
shelving
boreholesfor anyadjustable
(page38).

Ifyou areaftera traditionallook,


solid-woodfaceframescanbe added
afterthe cabinetsarebuilt. If you do not
choosefaceframes,the exposededgeof
mustbecovered
with some
theolr.r,vood
eitherlaminateor solid
sorfo?banding,
wood.Whiietherearemanywaysto join
boards,efficiencyfavorscertainmethods.Biscuit,lock miter,tongue-andgroovejointsandready-to-assemble--or
RTA-fasteners,canall be usedto producejointsthat combineeaseof installationwith accuracy
andstrength.

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UPPER
CASES

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Holea for
adjuotable
shelving

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CASEWORK

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LOWER
CASES

Counteftop
nailer

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Face frame
(paqe 50)

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RTAfastener

Eiaauit joint

Loak miter joint

BUILDINGMME,RIALS
werebuilt
all cabinets
raditionally,
I entirelvoisolid wood.But close
examination
of anticuefurniturecan
offeran instructivesuiprise.Yesterday's
woodworkers
oftenusedlessattractive
woodslike poplarandpine for hidden
partssuchasdrawersidesand cabinet

to theexpensive,
Fromtheeconomical
goodsis available
a uastarrayof sheet
Thephotoat left
for usein casework.
goods,includof sheet
showse selection
partiingsamples
of melamine-coated
cleboard,mediumdensityfiberboard,
and veneered
olvwood.

wasno pointin puttingwalbacks;there


nut andcherrywhereit wouldneverbe
stillsave
the
seen.Today,cabinetmakers
cherryandwalnutfor thedrawerfronts,
sheetgoods
but theyrelyon man-made
Not onlydo
for theinsides
of thecabinets.
resources,
theysavemoneyandconserve
but sheetgoodsalsooutperformwood
in termsof dimensional
stability.
Thechartbelowoffersanoverviewof
differentmaterialsusedin makingkitchen
to
cabinets,
from melamineto plyr,vood
solidwood.Eachhasits own strengths
The challeneeis to
and weaknesses.
thebestproductfor eachiompochoose
nentandfor the styleofyour cabinets.

MATERIATS
CASEWORK
MATERIAL

RELATIVE
C()ST

PLYWOOD
GABINET-GRADE
(softwood
veneer
core)
Moderate
Rotarycut
hardwood
veneer
Hieh
Plainsawn
veneer

CHARACTERISTICS

faceveneer
notasattractive
anddimensionally
stable;
Easy
to work,verystrong
littlesanding.
variety.
Edges
mustbefacedwithsolidwood;needs
asplainsawn
resembles
edge-joined
boards.
butfaceveneer
Sameasabove

WOOD
SOLID
Cheny

Oak,ash
Maple,birch
Walnut
Pine,poplar,
alder

colordarkens
withage;
woods.
Reddish-brown
Oneof thefinestcabinet
natural
finishes
well.Moderately
difficultto work;
f inegrained
texture
accepts
resins
in thewoodcanleaveburnmarks.
natural
finishes
well.
withprominent,
opengrain;accepts
stablehardwoods
Moderate
to low Strong,
finish.Density
can
thatprovide
a smooth
Moderate
to low Straight-grained,
stablehardwoods
woods
to work;maplein particular
canblunttools.
makethese
difficult
worked
withall hand
woodwithrichcolorandgrain;
easily
cabinet
Moderate
to high Choice
finishes
well.
tools;accepts
natural
andpower
yetjustasstable.Easyto workbutalsoeasily
woods,
Muchsofterihanabove
LOW
finished
withpaint.
Verylittlefigure;
typically
damaged.
Moderate

C()MPOSITE
Medium
density
(MDF)
fiberboard

Moderate

Particleboard

Low

Melamine

Moderate

orgroove;
stable;
edges
easyto rout,shape,
Strong
anddimensionally
or painted
withlittle
withplywood
faceveneers.
Canbefinished
available
Somevarieties
canemittoxicfumeswhensawn;useof
or nosanding.
toolsis recommended.
carbidetipped
poorly.
Moredifficult
less
strong
andstable
thanMDF;holdsfasteners
Slightly
withplywood
faceveneers.
to workandfinish;available
witha hardplastic
or particle
boardsurfaced
Common
termfor plywood
of colors.
Toughandlong-lasting;
onlyasstrong
laminate;
comesin a variety
asitssubstrate.

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CASEWORK

TYPES
OFPLYWOOD

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Types
ofplywood
d e n s i tfyi b e r b o a rLdu. m b e r - c oprley w o ohdo l d s
is thesame:a corecovered o r m e d i u m
Thebasicdesignof all plywood
l eh e r ea d d i t i o n a l
on bothsidesby layers
of crossbanding
anda faceveneer. n a i l sa n ds c r e wbs e s ta n di s p r e f e r a bw
"Cabinet-quality"
plywoods
plywoods strength
andflatness
arerequired.
Themostcommon
typehasa veneer
core.All softwood
faceveneers
forvisible
surarerecommended
and withsuoerior
aremadethisway,andtheyarestable,warp-resistant,
plywoods
faces.Therearetwobroadcatinexpensive.
Hardwood
canalsobe madewithsolid facessuchasdoorsanddrawer
plywood:
rotary
sawnandplainsawn.
of cabinet-quality
lumber
Themiddleplyof lumber-coreegories
or particleboard
cores.
plywood
h l, a i n s a wpnl y w o ocda nr e s e m bal e
narrow
consists
of several
stripsof solidwood-usu- W h i l ee q u ailn s t r e n g t p
poplar,or basswood-edge-glued
allymahogany,
together. g l u e d - uspo l i dw o o dp a n e lw, h i l er o t a rsya w nv e n e ei sr e a s i l y
plywood
iedasplywood.
Particleboard-core
hasa solidcoreof particleboardidentif

PLYWOOD
FACE
VENEER
GRADES
PTYW()OD
S()FTWOOD

HARDWOOD
PTYWOOD
Premium Faceveneer
withwell-matched
seams
andsmooth
surface;
madeof specific
hardwood,
suchaswalnutor mahogany.
Evencolorandgrain
Faceveneer
Good
similar
to premium,
butnotaswellmatched.
Freeof
in colorandgrain
sharpcontrasts
Sound

Utility

Back

Faceveneer
smooth,
butnotmatched
forcolororgrain;defects
onlyon back
veneer.
Generally
intended
forpainting
Veneers
haveroughgrainandmay
haveknotholes
upto %inch,aswellas
somediscoloration,
staining,
andslight
forcolororgrain
splits,Notmatched
Mayhavelargerdefects
thanutility
grade,
butnonethatimpairpanel
strength.
Notmatched
forcolororgrain

c
C Plugged
D

Specialty Madeto orderto meetspecific


panels
requirements,
suchasseparate
grainpatterns
withmatching

3l

Sanded
smooth;
cantake
matched
for
a clearfinish;faceveneer
grainandcolor,freeof opendefects
Sanded
smooth;
cantakea natural
finish,butis moreoftenpainted
mayhave
Smooth
andsanded;
minorsplits
grain,
Smooth;
mayhavesomebroken
sanding
defects
andknotholes
upto
% inch
Sanded;
similar
to C grade,
butknotholes
andsolitsaresmaller
forinnerpliesandback
Usedmainly
veneer;
mayhaveknotholesupto
2%inches

I
CASEWORK
I
I
list
Making
a cutting
t
cuttinglistfora kitchen
Making
a master
Nailer:4@
CASE
2B%"X 4" X%"
f u l l o f c a b i n e tm
s a ys e e ml i k ea d a u n t i n g I
about
task,yetif youhavebeenscrupulous
Baak panel:
22%"
marking
accurate
storypolesforallyourcabiI
3U/''X 29',1"X',/"
a cutting
listis relatively
nets,thendeducing
Writea separate
cuttinglist
straightforward.
I
1ide:2@
(lefil.f,Aake
index
card
cabinet
on
an
for
each
51t/r"X 22" X'/o"
andjot downa
a roughsketchof thecabinet
FACEFRAME
t
materials,
takcomponents
and
list
of
all
the
Stile:2@
fromthecabinet's I
ingtheirmeasurements
31'/""X 2" X'/o"
laier
storypoles(page2fl Toavoidconfusion
Median rail:
card
the
same
as
make
sure
to
label
the
on,
I
I
271" X 2" X%"
your
list
can
then
The
master
cutting
cabinet.
31%"
listbased
ontherequirements
becalculated
I
Rail:2@
I
up
at
the
cards.
To
speed
things
ed
on
all
the
X
2"
X%"
26',/;'
youmaywishto create
separate I
lumberyard,
i
master
listsforsolidstockandsheetstock.
I
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FEET
BOARD
ESTIMATING
I
FEET
BOARD
CATCULATING
I
1"x 12"x 12"= 1 aLandardboard foot
foot
0rdering
lumber
bytheboard
I
usedto
The"boardfoot"isa unitof measurement
lt
of stock.
of a givenamount
thevolume
calculate
t
lumber.
Asshown
iscommonly
usedwithhardwood
board
footis
at righi,thestandard
in the illustration
t
thatis I inchthick,12 inches
equivalent
to a piece
Tocalculate
thenumber
long.
wide,and12 inches
I
itsthree
feetin a pieceof wood,multiply
of board
Then,dividetheresultby144
together.
dimensions
I
arein inches,
orby12 if justone
if thedrmensrons
isinfeet.
dimension
I
board:
Theformulafora standard
I
1"x 12"xI2" + I44 = I
( o r1 "x 1 2 "x 1 ' + 1 2= 1 )
I
plankthatis 1 inchthick
So,if youhada 6{oot-long
theboard
wide,youwouldcalculate
and4 inches
I
feetasfollows:1" x 4" x 6' + 12= 2 (or2 boardfeet).
intheillustration.
areshown
Otherexamoles
2-by-6=Bboardfeet
I
onthe
Remember
thatboardfeetarecalculated
2-by-4 = 5% board feet
rather
thanactualdimensions
basis
ofthenominal
I
1-W12=Bboardfeet
feetcontainec
theboard
of thestock;consequently,
ll|-by-3/zinches
measures
in a2-by-4thatactually
1-W-6=4boardfeet
I
dimensions.
usingthelarger
wouldbecalculated

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1-W-3=2boardfeet

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BUILDINGTHE CASES
a master
A fter you havecalculated
f\ cuttinglistfor your cabiners,
you
arefinally readyto startbuilding them,
Asyou cut the materialsto size,carefully markeachpieceto indicatewhichcabinet it belongsto. Thencut thegrooves
for the backpanelsand borethe holes
for anyadjustableshelving(page38).
With thisgroundworkdone,assembly is largelya matterof choosingajoinerymethod.If you arecomfortablewith
your table saw, tongue-and-groove
joints(pagej5) areagoodchoice.Those
well-versed
in usinga platejointermay
want to join their caseswith biscuits
(below),a joint equalin strengthto the
tongue-and-groove.
Ifyou havea shaper
or a verysolidroutertableanda hearyduty router,lockmiterjoints (page36)
aresolid,durable,and easyto cut. If
spacein your workshopis at a premium or if you needto disassemble
and
Cutting sheetgoodssuch as melamine on the table saw often resultsin rough
moveyour cabinets,
ready-to-assemble edges,chipping and tearout. Installed on a table saw'sarbor, the Modulus scor-or RTA-fasteners(page37) maybe
ing saw attachmentshownabovefeaturesa smallerblqdethat cleanlyscores
the bestchoice.
the sheetbeforethe main bladecuts it, resultingin a professional,
smooth cut.

JOINING
CASES
WITHBISCUITS
theslotlocations
1 Marking
I Foreachcabinet,
identify
theoutside
faceof all fourpanels
withanX,then
marklocation
linesforthebiscuit
slotson
(Onlowercabreachof thefourcorners.
nets,whichtypically
donothavea top
panel,
markthelocation
linesbetween
thecountertop
nailers
andthesidepanels.)Tostart,placeonesidepaneloutside-face
downona worksurface
and
holdthetoppanelat a 90" angleto it.
Usea pencil
to marklinesontheadjoiningpanels
about2inches
in fromeach
(lefil.Markadditional
corner
linesabout
every
4 to 6 inches.
Repeat
to markslot
locations
ontheotherthreecorners
of the
case.Addreference
letters
to helpvou
identify
thecorners.

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33

CASEWORK

Faceplate
Toppanel

)upport board
)ide panel

r') Cutting
theslots
willallowyouto cuttheslotsfor
L m" setupshownabove
Place
moving
thepanels.
corner
of thecasewithout
onemating
downon a worksurface,
a sidepanelof thecaseoutside-face
up ontop.Offsetthetop
thensetthetop paneloutside-face
panelfromtheedgeof thesidepanelbythestockthickness
slotlocamakesurethemating
in place;
andclampthepanels
Set
aligned.
of stockareperfectly
tionmarksonthetwopreces
following
themanudepthof cutontheplatejoiner
theproper

Tocuttheslotsin thetop panel,butt


instructions.
facturer's
theendof thetop panel,aligning
against
thetool'sfaceplate
markand
witha slotlocation
onthefaceplate
theguideline
asthe
boardthesamethickness
resting
thetoolon a support
(above,
the
mating
lefil.fo
cut
at
each
mark
Cut
a
slot
stock.
the
baseplateagainst
buttthejoiner's
slotsin thesidepanel,
plate
guideline
panel
with
a
slot
on
the
center
and
align
the
top
right).
locationmark(above,

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slotsfora partition
Q Cutting
partitions
or fixedshelves
rJ Vertical
between
casesidescanalsobejoinedwith
to layout
square
biscuits.
Usea framing
of the partition
onthematthethickness
atopone
ingpanels,
thenlaythepartition
withits loweredgealigned
of thepanels
w i t ht h e l a y o ulti n e .C l a m pt h ea s s e m Cuttheslotsin the
blyto a worksurface.
panelandpartition
as in step2 above.
Reoeat
to maketheslotsat theotherend
andthe secondmating
of the partition
panel(righil.Sincesomeplatejoinerscut
slotsslightlyoff center,keepthe same
for bothcuts.
face-up
sideof thepartition

t
Layout linea

Eottom panel

34

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CASEWORK

JOINING
CASES
WITHTONGUE-AND-GROOVE
J()INTS
'l

Setting
upthetablesaw
I U s ea d a d oh e a do n a t a b l es a wt o
cutgrooves
in thesidepanels
andtongues
i n t h et o oa n db o t t o mo a n e l sC. u tt h e
grooves
first.Installa dadoheadsetto
halfthethickness
of thestock,andattach
te
a n a u x i l i a rwyo o df e n c et o s u p p o rt h
w o r k p i ed
ce
u r i n tgh ec u t .B u i t i n ag s i d e
panel
against
thefenceasshown,
slidethe
riofencetoward
the bladeuntiltheoutsidefaceof theworkpiece
is in linewith
the edgeof the sawblade(right).LasIly,
s e tt h e b l a d eh e i g het q u atl o h a l ft h e
thickness
of thestock.

9ide panel

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Cutting
thegroove
L a vt h e s i d e o a n e li n s i d e - f a cdeo w n

o n t h es a wt a b l ea n db u t ti t s t o oe n d
against
theauxiliary
woodfence.Usethe
mitergauge
equipped
withanextension
to feedthe panelintothe blades(left),
pressing
theworkpiece
against
thefence
throughout
thecut.Keepyourhands
well
awayfromtheblades.
Repeat
thecutfor
thebottom
endof theoanel.

35

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CASEWORK

thetongues
Q Cutting
in thetopandbottom
r.J Tocuttongues
p a n e l sf i,r s tu n p l u tgh es a wa n da d da
theblades
spacer
to thedadohead.Lower
andmovethe
belowthetablesurface
the
auxiliary
woodfenceso it overlaps
Turnonthesawandraise
cutters
slightly.
thedadoheadto cuta notchin theauxili a r yf e n c eS. e tt h eh e i g hot f t h ed a d o
h e a da n di t sw i d t ho f c u te q u atlo h a l f
Withthetoppanel
thestockthickness.
up on thetablesaw,butt
outside-face
thefence.Feedthepanonesideagainst
slight
el intothe cutters(right),applying
pressure
the
toward
thefencethroughout
fortheothersideof
operation.
Repeat
panel.
thetoppanelandthebottom

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WITHA LOCKMITERJOINT
JOINING
CASES

Making
thecuts
p i e c eo f s c r a pa g a i n stth e f e n c ea n dt h e m i t e rg a u g ee x t e n s i o n ,
I n s t a al l l o c km i t e br i tt ny o u r o u t ear n dm o u ntth et o o li n a
fenceandscrew
anextension feed it into IhebiI (above,left).fo cut the matingpiece,clamp
auxiliary
table.Attach
a notched
. h e nf e e dt h e b o a r d
cutter a g u i d eb l o c kt o i t t o r i d ea t o pt h e f e n c e T
Setthebit height
sotheuppermost
to themitergauge.
on end into Ihe bit bbove,right),keepingit f lushagainstthe
withthepanel
flatonthe
is centered
ontheendof theoanel
fencesothebitwillmiterthestock f e n c ew i t h o n eh a n dw h i l ep u s h i n gi t a n dt h e g u i d eb l o c kf o r table.Position
theauxiliary
of ply- w a r dw i t ht h e o t h e r T. e s tt h e f i t a n da d j u s t h e p o s i t i o no f t h e
it. Next,maketestcutsin twopieces
without
shortening
r ye f o r em a k i n gt h e c u t s i n t h e c a s ep a n e l s .
f e n c ea s n e c e s s a b
w o o ds c r a pt h es a m et h i c k n e sassy o u rp a n e l sB. u t t i n og n e

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CASEWORK

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USINGREADY-TO-ASSEMBLE
FASTENERS

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Preparing
theholes
I Tojoina casewithready-to-assemble
or RTAfasteners,
firstdryassemble
thefinished
caseandsecure
it squarely
with
(page
clamps
47).Tohelpposition
thefasteners,
drawlineson
thesidesof thecaseindicating
thecenter
of thetopandbot(lntheexample
tompanels.
shown,
thebottom
of thecaseis
s e t4 i n c h efsr o mt h ef l o o r . ) W h isl e
p e c i aslt e p p eddr i l lb i t s
a r ea v a i l a btloe b o r et h ep i l o th o l e a
s n dc o u n t e r s itnhke mi n
a s i n g l es t e p a
, s i m p l ea l t e r n a t i ivset o u s et w od i f f e r e n t -

sizedbits.Startwitha bitslightly
widerthanthebaseof the
fastener;
wrapa lengthof tapearound
the bit to markthe
desired
depth-slightly
moreihanthelength
of thefastener
b a s eD. r i l al s e r i eosf c o u n t e r s ihnok l e tso t h ea p p r o p r i a t e
depth,
spacing
theholes
about5 inches
apart.
Theninstall
a
bitslightly
smaller
thanthefastener
shank
to drillthepilot
h o l e sM
. a r kt h ea p p r o p r i adteep t hw i t hm a s k i nt ga p et,h e n
borethe holeshbovd.

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Instal
Iingthefasteners
lf youwishto moveyourcabinets
(orif your
fromonekitchen
to another
cabinets
arelarge
andyouintend
to disassemble
thembefore
transporting
them
t o t h ei n s t a l l a t isoint e )s, i m p l dy r i v ea
fastener
in eachpredrilled
hole(lefil.fhe
fasteners
canberemoved
laterandthe
cabinets
knocked
downforeasytransport.lf youwantto install
yourcabinets
permanently,
thenremove
theclamps
andapplyglueto themating
edges
of the
before
driving
the
fasteners.
loints

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37

SHELVINGANDSTORAGE
/l ooksseldomcomplainabouthavin their
U ingtoo muchstorigespace
pots,cans,spice
kitchens.Appliances,
racks,cookbooks,
anddishesall seemto
conspireto fill everynookandcrannyof
available
space.Efficientshelvingand
storagedevicescancreatea surprising
amount of spacesimply by keeping
things organized.For example,the
heightof adjustable
shelves(below)can

Fromtowelracksto slide-outgarbage
storbins,therearemanycommercial
to
agedevices
on themarketdesigned
reducetimespentrummagingin lower
Thephotoat leftshowsslidecabinets.
out shelvingmountedon drawerslides.

be changedto accommodate
differentsizeddry goodsor dishes.
Cornercabinetsareparticularlyproneto wasting
valuablespace;itemsat theverybackof
suchcabinets
tendto beforgotten.A lazy
Swan(page42)is an elegantsolutionto
this problem: Its two round shelves
rotatearounda centralshaft,makingall
the contentsreadilyaccessible.
Applianceclutteris anothercommon
kitchencomplaint.Certainappliances
that seefrequentuse,suchastoasters,
coffeemakers,andblenders,oftencrowd
the countertop.An appliancebaywith
a slidingtambour door (page40)providesa tidy placeto keepthesekitchen
pluggedin andout ofsight,
conveniences
vet easilvaccessible.

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ADJUSTABTE
SUPPORTS
INSTATTING
SHELF

holesforthesleeves
1 Drilling
requires
twoparallel
rowsof holes
to be
I Adjustable
shelving
jig
drilledin thesidepanels
of thecabinet
case.Thecommercial
and
shown
above
allowsyouto boreholesat 1-inchintervals
ensures
thatcorresponding
holeswillbeperfectly
aligned.
Seta
sidepanelinside{ace
upon a worksurface
andclampthejig to
fromthe
of thepanel;
theholescanbeanydistance
theedges
paneledges,
butabout2 inchesin wouldbebestforthepanels
Fityourdrillwitha bitthesamediameter
asthesleeves
shown.

andinstall
a stopcollar
to markthedrilling
depthequalto the
sleeve
lengh.Starting
at eitherendof oneof thejig'srails,place
theappropriate
bushing
in thefirstholeof thebushing
carrier.
(Thebushing
keeps
thebit perfectly
square
to theworkpiece.)
Holding
borethehole.Drilla series
thedrillandcarrier,
of evenly
holesalongbothrails.Remove
spaced
thejig andrepeat
forthe
positioning
othersidepanel
of thecase,
carefully
thejigsothe
holes
willbealigned
withthosein thefirstpanel.

38

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CASEWORK

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ljlrlllllltlllllllllllll
llltllllilllllllill]lll1
|llrfil]rll1
llliilllrll1
5HO?TI?
A ohop-madeshelf
drillinqjiq
IheT-ehaped
jiq ohownaN
riqhlwillallow
you Noborea row
of evenlyopaced
holeeae accuratelyae
jig. Make
a commercial
Nhejiq from 1-by-3stock,
beinqcarefullo screwIhe
fenceand arm togeLheraNa
perfect90" angle.Marka linedown
lhe centerof the arm and boreholes
wilh the
alonqit at 2-inchinNervale
samebiLyou wouldusefor thread'
uset.he
ed sleeves.To
1iq,clampiLto a

oidepanelwith lhe fencebuLtedagainel,.:


e i t h e re n d o l t h e o a n e la n d t h e m a r k e d Y

centerline2 inchesin from ite edge.


FiNyourdrillbil with a otoVcollar,boreNhe
holee,and,repooition
Nhejiq for eachnewrow.

39

r) Mounting
thesleeves
andsupports
Z. To install
thethreaded
sleeves
withthem,usea sleeve-setting
outdamaging
Place
a sleeve
ontheendof the
ounch.
punchandpushthesleeve
firmlyinto
oneof theholesin a sidepanel(above).
intoeachholeyouhave
Insert
a sleeve
into
drilled,
thenscrew
shelfsupports
at eachdesired
shelflocatron.
thesleeves

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CASEWORK

BUILDING
ANAPPLIANCE
BAY
slats
1 Millingtambour
I Startbycuttingthetambour
stockto size;makethe
lengthof thestockequalto thewidthof thetambour
door
plus% inch.Thenplane
thestockto a thickness
equalto
%to I inch.Mill
thedesired
widthof theslats;
typically
of the
theslatsin threesteps(right).First,jornttheedges
rounding
overbit to shape
stock(,4).Next,usea Yo-inch
thetwolongedgesof the stockon yourroutertable(B).
Finally,
ripa /o-to %-inch-thick
stripfromeachedgeto
makethefirsttwoslats(C);usea pushstickto keepyour
Jointthestockagain,
then
fingers
awayfromtheblade.
slatsto
repeat
the lasttwostepsuntilyouhaveenough
height
of theslats
makethetambour
door.Thecombined
morethantheheightof thedoor
should
total2 or3 inches
opening.
Trimalltheslatsto length.

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r') Gluing
theslatsto a backing
fortheslats.Stretch
Z tlr" lightweight
canvas
as backing
overa pieceof melamine
andpullit taut,smooththecanvas
i n go u ta l l t h ew r i n k l e sS.e c u r iet i n p l a c ew i t hs t a p l e sT.o
helpalignthe slats,screwthreeboards
to the plywood
to
f o r ma U - s h a p ej idg .T h ed e v i c e
s h o u l db e a sw i d ea st h e
s l a t sa r el o n ga n dp e r f e c tsl yq u a r eS.l i d ea l l t h es l a t si n t o

placethenscrewa fourthboardto closethetop of thejig.


R e m o vt eh es l a t sa n da p p l ya n e v e nc o a to f w h i t eg l u et o
thecanvas.
Gluetheslatsbackin placehbovd,thenweight
themdownto geta goodbond.Letthe assembly
dryovern i g h tU
. n s c r etwh ej i g a n dt r i mt h ee x c e scsa n v aw
s i t ha
s h a r ok ni f e .

40

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CASEWORK

-) Routins
track
thetambour
<
bottom
of the panel,
r.,l Starting
at the
shape
of
the
tambour
door
drawthedesired
s
i
d
e
s
F
.
a
s
hion
t r a c ko n o n eo f t h ec a s e
l
i
n
a t e m o l a tteh a tc o o i etsh ei n s i d e eo f
thistrack.Place
thetemplate
atopthecase
s i d ea, l i g n i ni g
t w i t ht h et r a c k 'isn s i d e
l i n e .I n s t aal lt o p - p i l o t fel u
d s ht r i m m i n g
thediameter
of thebit
bit in yourrouter;
s h o u lb
d e% ui n c hg r e a t et hr a nt h et h i c k n e s so f t h ed o o rS
. e tt h er o u t eor nt h e
template
andadjustthecuttingdepthto
p o v eu;s es h i m s
m a k ea / a - i n c h - d eger o
pattern
underthe
if necessary.
Routthe
pressed
track(right),
keeping
thebearing
p
a
t
t
e
r
n
a g a i n st ht e
t h r o u g h otuhtec u t .
Toroutthetambour
trackin theoooosite
overandrepeat.
caseside,turnthepattern

Template

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Installing
thedoor
youcan
Oncethesidesareprepared

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a s s e m b lteh e c a s ef o r t h e a p p l i a n c e
bay.
M a k et h e w i d t ho f t h e c a s ee q u a tl o t h e
l e n g t ho f t h e s l a t sp l u st h e t h i c k n e sos f
t h e s i d e s ,l e s st h e c o m b i n e d e p t ho f
. l s oa d d X ui n c ht o g i v et h e
t h e g r o o v e s( A
) o t et h a tt h e a p p l i a n c e
d o o ra b i t o f p l a y . N
b a yh a sn o t o p o r b o t t o m ;i t i s d e s i g n e d
t o f i t b e t w e e nt h e c o u n t e r t o ap n d u p p e r
c a b i n e ta, n dt h e l a c ko f a b o t t o mp a n e l
m a k e si t e a s i etro s l i d et h e a p p l i a n c ien
a n do u t .T o i n s t a ltlh e t a m b o udr o o r t, i l t
t h e c a s eo n t oi t s b a c k t, h e ns i m p l ys l i d e
the doorfromthe bottom(/eft).The bottom
o f t h e d o o rw i l l r e s to n t h e c o u n t e ar n d
i t sw e i g hw
t i l l h o l di t u p w h e no p e n e d ,
t h e r e f o rneo s t o p so r l a t c h e sa r er e q u i r e d .

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CASEWORK

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INSTALTING
A LAZYSUSAN

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thepivotpoint
1 Finding
I A lazySusan's
traysrotatearounda
centralpostscrewed
to thetopandbottomof a cornercabinet.
To locatethe
pivotpointof theshaft,placeoneof the
trayson the floorof the cabinetand
clears
the
adjustit soitscircumference
twobackpanels
byabout1 inch.Slidea
pencilin thetray'sshaftholeandtrace
mayprovide
a circle.(Themanufacturer
a positioning
template
to makethisstep
Thenusea framing
square
to
easier.)
locatethe pointin thecirclethatis the
fromeachbackpanel
samedistance
hbovd.Thisis thepivotpoint.Transfer
thesemeasurements
to thetoppanelor the nailerif thecabinethasnotop.

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r') Centering
thepivotbrackets
I Center
the lowerpivotbracketonthe
pivotpoint(right),then
screwthehardware
in place.
Turnthecabinet
upside
down
to installthe upperbracket.
andrepeat

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CASEWORK

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r') Installing
thepostandtrays
I Forthemodelof lazySusanshown,
the postconsists
of twotelescoping
rodsthatareextended
to fit thecabinet
oncethetraysareslidin place.
Slidethe
lowertrayontothe post(rnset),
followed
bythecolletanduppertray.Placethe
postin the bottompivotbracket,
then
extendtherodupward
soitstopfitsinthe
upperpivotbracket.
Tighten
thelocking
Next,positionthe uppertrayat
screw.
height
the desired
andmarkits location
onthepost.Liftthetrayandalignthetop
of thecolletwiththemark.Tighten
the
colletin place(above),
thenlowerthe
upper
trayintoposition.

5HO7Tt?
5lide-out shelves
thelveethat elideoul of a
aabinet not onlyreduceback
eNrainandlime soenN
rummaqin4 thr ou4h Iower
cabinern,thay aleoincrea*
usable atoraqe epace.To
keeplhe aonlente of lhe
shelvesfrom elidinqoff,qlue
edqinqotripa cut from 5/+inch hardwoodetockto Nhe
shelfsides and ende.lneLall
bottom-mountedshelf
slidesa6 you wouldfor a
drawer (paAeO7).

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43

THE CABINETS
ASSEMBLING
of
{ l.you havecut thecomponenents
.l-yourcabinets
assembling
accurately,
task.
them will be a straishtforward
Whilethe procedurishown0n pages
46-47is basedon biscuitjoints,gluing
andclampingis identicalfor mostother ioinervmethods.
Ifyour cabinets
do not havesidesthat
extendbelowtheir bottompanels,you
willneedto installlegs
to supportthem.
Commerciallevelerlegs (below)are
quicklyboltedin placeandallowyouto
installa levelrun of cabinetson an
uneveufloor.Theyalsoaccommodate
a bracketfor a clip-onkickplate.

Hidingtheedges
of nelantirteorplywoodcabinets
isessettial
for crclean,
professional
look.Heren lantinote
trintmercttssolidwoodedging
flush
Forntore
with thesidesof a cabinet.
seepages48-49.
on edgetreatntents,

ADJUSTABLE
LEGS
INSTALLING
D r i l l i n hg o l e sf o rt h el e gb o l t s
1
I P o s i t i o tnh e l e s so n t h e c a b i n e b
t ott o m ss ot h a tw h e nt h e k i c k p l a ties c l i p p e d
o n t ot h e f r o n tl e g s@ a g e1 0 4 ) , i t w i l l b e
i n s e tf r o mt h e c a b i n e t ' fsr o n te d g eb y
a b o u t4 i n c h e sT. h e l e g ss h o u l da l s ob e
s e t i n f r o mt h e s i d e so f t h e c a b i n e bt y t h e
s a m ea m o u n tT. h es i m p l el i p p e dj i g s h o w n
a t r i g h tw i l l h e l py o u b o r et h e h o l e sf o r
t h e l e g b o l t si n e x a c t l yt h e s a m ep l a c e
o n a l l c a b i n e t sT. o m a k et h e j i g , s c r e w
t w o o i e c e so f l - i n c h - s o u a rset o c kt o o n e
c o r n eo
r f a p i e c eo f p l y w o o dM. a r ka l i n e
4 i n c h e sp l u st h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e k r c k p l a t ef r o mt h e i n s i d ee d g eo f e a c hl i p ,
d h e r et h e
t h e nd r i l la h o l ei n t h e p l y w o ow
l i n e si n t e r s e c M
t . a k et h e h o l e sf o r t h e l e g s
b y h o l d i n tgh ej i g i n p o s i t i oann dd r i l l i n g
a h o l ei n e a c hc o r n e o
r f t h e c a b i n ebt o t tom panel (right).

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44

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CASEWORK

r) Attaching
thelegbases
L tav the bottompanelface-down
on
a worksurface.
lnserta boltwitha washer
t h r o u gohn eo f t h e h o l e sy o ud r i l l e di n
oneof the
theprevious
step,andthread
legbases
ontothebolt.Holding
thebase
facesthefront
sothatits roundsurface
of the cabinet(right),
tightenthe bolt
Theninstall
snugly.
theotherlegbases.

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Inserting
thelegs
Thef inalstepisto insert
thelegs
in the bases.
Thetypeof leveler
leg
grooves
shown
at lefthasmatching
and
place
ridges.
Simply
thelegin thebase
a n dp u s hd o w nl i g h t l w
y h i l et u r n i n g
untilit snaps
intoplace.
Thelegheight
canthenbeadjusted
whenthecabinet
is installed
@age104).

45

CASEWORK

THECABINETS
ANDCLAMPING
GTUING

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'l Assembling
thefirstcorner
sidesface-up
I Layoneof thecabinet
gluein eachbisinsert
ona worksurface,
c u i ts l o t ,a n da d dt h ec o r r e c t - s i zbei sdbiscuits,
cuits.Applyglueto theexposed
bottom
ontotheside
thenfit thecabinet
p a n em
l , a t c h i nt hgeb i s c u i tasn ds l o t s .

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r) Adding
thenailers
panelin place
with
L non thebottom
a 9 0 " c l a m po r a c o m b i n a t ioofnh a n d in thenext
asshown
screws
andclamps
s t e pA
. p p l yg l u ei n t h es l o t sf o rt h er e a r
nailers
andplace
thebisandcountertop
gluetothenailers
Apply
cuitsintheslots.
end cpi thpm

in nlarp

lnqpri 2 qn2apr

betweenthe rearnailersto createa gap


b e t w e etnh e t w o t h a t w i l l a l l o wy o ut o
slidethe backinto place(step4). Clamp
the assemblytogelher(rrght).

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CASEWORK

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thesecond
side
Q Installing
r-,, Applyglueto theexposed
edgesof
panelandthenailers.
thebottom
Insert
t h eb i s c u i t tsh, e ns e tt h es e c o nsdi d e
(/eft).
panelatoptheassembly

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Clamping
thecabinet
W i t ht h e c a b i n est t i l lo n i t s s i d e ,
s l i d ei t s ot h a to n ee d g ee x t e n d os f f t h e
w o r ks u r f a c eR. e m o v teh e 9 0 " c l a m p
holding
t h e b o t t o ma n d i n s t a l al b a r
c l a m pa c r o s tsh e f r o n to f t h e c a b i n e t ,
. epeat
a l i g n i nrgtw r t ht h e b o t t o mp a n e l R
t h i s n r o c e d r rtroe s e c r r rteh e r e s to f t h e
c a s eY
. o uw i l ln e e df r v eb a rc l a m p st:w o
for the casebottomand oneeachfor the
t w o c o u n t e r t onpa i l e r sa n d u p p e rr e a r
n a i l e rP r o t e ct th e s i d en a n e l sw i t hw o o d
p a d sp; l a c ea l - i n c hw o o dc h i p u n d e r
t h e b o t t o mp a d st o f o c u ss o m eo f t h e
pressure
m i d w a yb e t w e e nt h e e d g e so f
p
a
n
e
lM
. a k es u r ea l l e d g e sa r ef l u s h
the
a n d c h e c kt h e c a b i n efto rs q u a r eb e f o r e
t i g h t e n i ntgh e c l a m p sF. i n a l l ys,e tt h e
a s s e m b loyn t h e f l o o ra n ds l i d et h e b a c k
panel into post|on(righil.

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47

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CASEWORK

W(IODEDGING
SOLID
1 Makingthe edging
I M a k es o l i dw o o de d g i n gb y r i p p i n gi t
f r o ma p i e c eo f s t o c ks l i g h t l yt h i c k e rt h a n
y o u rc a b i n e pt a n e l st;h i sw t l l a l l o wy o u
t o t r i m i t f l u s ha f t e ri n s t a l l a t i oPn l.a n ea
l e n g t ho f h a r d w o osdt o c ks u c ha s m a p l e
o r o a kt o t h e d e s i r e dt h i c k n e s sS. e t t h e
r i p f e n c eo n y o u rt a b l es a wt o c u t a % i n c h { h i c ks t r i p .F e e dt h e w o r k p i e cien t o
the blade(left),keeptnglight pressure
a g a i n st th e f e n c ef;i n i s ht h e c u t w i t ha
s f e d g i n gf o r
p u s hb l o c k R
. i pf o u rp i e c e o
e a c hc a b i n e tc, u t t i n gt h e ms l i g h t l yl o n g e r
t h a nt h ec a b i n e t .

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r) Installing
the edging
L Vttt",the stripsal a 45'angleon each
e n d .T r i mt h e e d g i n gt o f i t a sy o ui n s t a lilt .
F i r c t e r r t tL h' ' p
o
o fnr the lonsest sides
I rb
v
vvd
6rsin

. pread
t f t h e c a b i n e tS
t o t h e e x a c th e i g h o
a t h i n b e a do f g l u eo n t h e m a t i n gs u r f a c e s ,
t ith
a n df a s t e nt h e e d g i n gt o t h e c a b i n ew
r
f i n i s h i n gn a i l sa n da n a i lg u n ( r i g h t ) o a
h a m m e rl .f y o ua r eu s i n ga h a m m e rd, r i l l
p i l o th o l e sf o rt h e n a i l st o a v o i ds p l i t t i n g
. u tt h e t o p a n d b o t t o mp i e c e s
t h ew o o d C
s l i g h t l yl o n g etrh a nt h e w i d t ho f t h e c a b i n e t ,t h e nt r i m t h e m u n t i lt h e yf i t . G l u e
a n dn a i lt h e mi n p l a c e F. i n a l l yt r, i mt h e
e d g i n gf l u s hw i t h t h e c a b i n e tu s i n ga
rouler (photo,page 44).

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CASEWORK

EDGE
BANDING
C()MMERCIAT
edgebanding
commercial
1 Applying
is another
I Commercial
edgebanding
method
of hiding
theedges
of melamine;
your
a colorthatmatches
simplychoose
Thecommercial
edge-banding
cabinets.
at rightworksbyfeeding
the
unitshown
panelalonga fence;an adjustable
heater
justbefore
it
adhesive
meltsthebanding's
contacts
theedgeof the panel.Practice
onsomescrapstockuntilyoufinda temoerature
andfeedratethatworkswell.
butmoretime-consuming
An inexpensive
is to installcommercial
edge
alternative
b a n d i nogny o u rc a b i n e tuss i n ga n i r o n
sureyoudo not
seton highheat,making
letthe ironrestin oneplace.

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r') Trimming
theedgesofthebanding
around
Z nttneends,pushthebanding
thecorner
withthef latsideof a chisel
t o b r e a ki t c l e a n l yt h, e nc u t i t o f f w i t h
a d o w n w asr dl i c eo f t h ec h i s e lU
. s ea n
edgetrimmer
to trimtheedges.
Themodel
features
twospring-mounted
razor
shown
%e
cutters
andcanfit anypanelbetween
a n d1 i n c ht h i c k P
. l a c teh et r i m m eorn
t h ee d g eo f t h e p a n eal t o n ee n da n d
squeeze
thetwoedges
together,
thenpullit
alongthe edge(left).
slowlyandsmoothly
Youcanalsousea wide,verysharpchisel
forthejob.Holdthetoolflatto thepanel,
4 5 " t o t h ee d g ea, n dm o v ea l o n gi n a
for eachsideof the
singlestroke-one
panel.
witheither
or a
Finish
sandpaper
flushedge.
smooth
filefora perfectly

49

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FACEFRAMES
I faceframeis a solidwoodfronting
Face
Aapplied to kitchencabinets.
in facttheyare
framesarenot essential;
noticeablyabsenton European-style
cabinets,whose concealed,microadjustablehingesmakeit possibleto
coverthe
install doorsthat seamlessly
entire cabinet front. However,face
framescanadd a traditionallook to a
Europeankitchen.

Whenlayingout a faceframe,remember to add an extra Yrinchto any stile


positionednextto a wall;thiswill allow
you to scribeand trim the stileif the
wall is out-of-plumb.If the cabinethas
drawers,you will alsorequiredividers
betweenthem. If your cabinetsfeature
doorsand drawers,cockfully recessed
(page
53)canadda subtle,decbeading
orativetouch.

Faceframescanbejoined in a numberof ways,includingpockpockethole


et holes,biscuits,and dowels.Here,a commercial
cutterboresa holein a faceframe rail. Pocketholescanalsobe
usedto attachthefaceframe to thecabinet;besureto cut
them.
theholesin thecasesidesand railsbeforeassembling

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FRAME
ANATOMY
OFA FACE

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Drawer rail

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Ineide stile

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CASEWORK

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WITHDOWELS
FACE
FRAMES
JOINING

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'l Drilling
holes
I U s ea d o w e l i nj iggt o d r i l lh o l e fso r
The
in thefaceframemembers.
dowels
the
modelshownat rightnotonlyaligns
butalsoholds
holes
in bothrailsandstiles,
perpendicular
to thewood
thebitexactly
instrucFollow
themanufacturer's
surface.
of
tionsto setupthejigforthethickness
thefaceframestock,thenadjustthejigto
fromeither
about1/,inchin
drilltwoholes
thebushing
Insert
endofoneofthestiles.
intothe
thedoweldiameter
thatmatches
b u s h i ncga r r i eor f t h e1 i g a, n da t t a c ha
colletto thedrillbitandadlustit to bore
thanhalfthelength
a holeXutnchdeeper
(Allow
of
forthethickness
of ihedowels.
thismeawhenmaking
theligandbushing
a stileinyourworkbench
Clamp
surement.)
a n dp l a c et h ej i g o nt h es t i l ea, l i g n i nigt
Setthe
withoneendof theworkpiece.
holein
in theappropriate
carrier
bushing
t h ed o w e l i nj igg .H o l d i ntgh el i g s t e a d y ,
. e p e at ot d r i l lt h es e c o n d
d r i l lt h eh o l eR
hole,thenboretheholesat theopposite
e n do f t h es t i l e i,n b o t he n d so f a l l r a i l s
(right),
andin anyinsidestilesthatalso
require
dowelholes.

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r") Insefting
thedowels
railsand
in thedrawer
L lnsert
dowels
stiles.
first,thenintheouter
inside
stiles
clamptheappropriate
Toinsert
thedowels,
glue
spread
to yourbench,
framemember
thentapit home
ononeendofthedowel,
theframe
witha mallet(/efil.Assemble
(page53).

5l

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CASEWORK

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STAND
PLATE
J(IINER
reduce
To
thesetuptimeneeded
face
to cut slotsfor biscuit-jointed
joiner
your
plate
in a
mount
frames,
like
the
one
shown
shop-made
stand
at left. Buildthe jig from3/q-inch
plywood,
except
forthebarrelsupport,whichshouldbesolidwood.
forsuggestReferto the illustration
eddimensions.
to the
Screw
thehandle
support
thenattachthehandlebrackbase,
themto fit yourtool.
ets,spacing
joinerresting
plate
upside
Withthe
support,
butt
downonthehandle
against
themotor
thebarrelsupport
housing
andtracetheoutlineof the
barrelon the stock.Cutor borea
holeforthebarrel,
thensawthesupportin twoacross
itswidth,through
the
thecenterof the hole.Screw
bottompartto thebaseandfit the
otherhalfon top.Boreholesfor
hanger
boltsthrough
thetoponeach
thendrivethe
sideof theopening,
boltsintothebottomof the
hanger
Forquickinstallation
and
support.
removal
of thetool,usewingnuts
together.
to holdthetwohalves
Screw
theauxiliary
tableto the
(lt
fixed-angle
fenceof thejoiner.
maybenecessary
to drillholesin
thefenceto acceptthescrews.)
secure
thejoiner
Tousethestand,
in it, thenclampthebaseto a work
surface.
Setthefenceat thecorrect
heightand,forrepeat
cuts,clampstop
totheauxiliary
tableto center
blocks
onthecutterwheel.To
theworkoiece
f lat
cut a slot,puttheworkpiece
the
on thetableandbuttedagainst
joiner's
thenturnonthe
faceplate,
toolandpushthestockandthetable
towardthe culter(\eft,belowl

52

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CASEWORK

THEFACE
FRAME
ASSEMBTING
C l a m p i nugpt h ef r a m e
A s s e m b lteh e f r a m ew o r k i n gf r o mt h e
m i d d l eo u t w a r dg, l u i n gu p a n yd r a w e r
r a i l sa n d i n s i d es t i l e sf i r s t .I n t h e f r a m e
s h o w na t r i g h t ,s t a r tb y g l u i n gt h e i n s i d e
s t i l et o t h e t w of a c ef r a m er a i l s .A p p l y
g l u et o t h e e x p o s e d o w e l st h e n p u s h
t h e r a i l si n t op l a c eT. i g h t e nt h e a s s e m b l yw i t h a b a rc l a m p .N e x t ,s p r e a ds o m e
g l u eo n t h ed o w e l isn t h e r a i l sa n di n s t a l l
t h e o t h e rs t i l e st;i g h t e nt h e mi n p l a c ew i t h
. h e c kt h e a s s e m b l y
t w om o r eb a rc l a m p sC
f o r s q u a r eb y m e a s u r i nagc r o s st h e t w o
d i a g o n a l s( r i g h t ) . I h e ys h o u l db e e q u a l .
l f n o t ,p l a c ea b a rc l a m pa c r o s tsh e l o n g e r
d i a g o n aal n dt i g h t e ni t u n t i l t h ef r a m e
issquare.

INSTATLING
C()CKBEADING
'l

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|/ /-,L,

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53

Making
cockbeading
I Makecockbeading
asyoumadesolid
woodedging(page48), rippingY,incht h i c ks t r i p sf r o ma p i e c eo f h a r d w o o d
stock%inchthicker
thanthethickness
of thefaceframe.
Toroundovertheoutinstall
a /,sideedgeof thecockbeading,
inchcanoe
beadbit in a router
andinstall
. a i s teh eh e i g hot f
t h et o o li n a t a b l eR
onthestock,and
thebitsoit is centered
a d j u stth ep o s i t i oonf t h ef e n c et o j u s t
Attach
behind
thecutter.
a featherboard
to thetableto holdthestockagainst
the
fence,
andclamptwomorefeatherboards
t o t h ef e n c eo n e i t h esr i d eo f t h eb i tt o
prevent
thestockfromliftingup.(lnthe
has
illustration,
thefrontfeatherboard
Withtheworkbeenremoved
forclarity.)
piecelyingf latonthetable,feedit into
t h e b i t ( / e f f )f,i n i s h i ntgh ec u t w i t ha
pushstick.Ripthecockbeading
to width
a n dt h e nc u t i t t o l e n g t hm
, i t e r i ntgh e
endsat 45".

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CASEWORK

Installing
thecockbeading
Dryfit thecockbeading
strips;pare
o r n t sw i t ha c h i s e lL. a yt h e
a n yi l l - f r t t i nj g
f r a m eo n a f l a t s u r f a c eS
. p r e a ds o m e
g l u eo n t h e o u t s i d ef a c eo f a s t r i po f
c o c k b e a d i nagn d p o s i t i o ni t o n t h e f r a m e ,
a l i g n i n tgh e b a c ke d g e so f t h e t w o .D r i v e
i n f i n i s h i n ng a i l sw i t ha h a m m eor r a n a i r
nailer (lefil.

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INSTALLING
THEFACE
FRAME
Attaching
thefaceframeto thecasework
A p p l ys o m eg l u et o t h e e d g e so f t h e c a b i n e t .P l a c et h e f a c ef r a m ei n o o s i t i o a
nn d
a l i g ni t w i t ht h e t o p , b o t t o ma, n ds i d e so f
t h e c a b i n e tI.n t h e i l l u s t r a t i oant r i g h t ,t h e
r i g h ts i d eo f t h e f r a m eo v e r h a n gt hse c a b i n e t ;t h i s i s t o a l l o wt h e s t i l eo f t h e f a c e
frameto be trimmedto fit the profileof the
wall (page104). Fastenthe faceframe in
p l a c ew i t ha f i n i s h i n n
g a i le v e r y4 - 6 i n c h e s .

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54

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CASEWORK

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Usingscrewsandwoodplugs
l f y o ua r ei n s t a l l i nygo u rf a c ef r a m e s
w i t h s c r e w sc, o u n t e r b o rt eh e f a s t e n e r s
a n d c o v e rt h e i rh e a d sw i t h w o o dp l u g s .
P o s i t i otnh e f r a m ei n p l a c ea sy o uw o u l d
f o r f a c e - n a i lni g ( p a g e5 4 ) . d r i l l a n d
c o u n t e r b o sr ec r e wh o l e st,h e nd r i v et h e

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)urcvY)

r.{rrll ffi dr trr il r}.xrili r$ ffi r$ rrr L*

$ $ U *

1HO?TI?
Making
!
woodplugo
Savetime making
woodplugeby usinqa
n i e r ^ . en f f A n e f . n r e . a n v e

N h e mf r o m t h e i r h o l e e ,U e e a
p l , , t gc u L t e r o n L h e d r i l l p r e o ot o

borea rowof Vluqetrothe depLhyou


require.Coverthe rowwith a oLripof
m a s k i nN
q a p e , I h e rni p t h e p l u g eL o
lenqLhon r,hebandeaw.)imply peeloff
Lhet,aVeLo removeLhe rowof pl,tge.

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55

;^ ^r^^^ T^ -^ko tho nlrroc


ru ilrd..Prduc.

rr

i n s t a lal n l u pc r r t t etrh e s a m ed r a m e t e r
a st h e c o u n t e r b o r h
eo
d l e si n y o u rd r i l l
p r e s sC
. h o o s i nsgo m ew o o dt h a t m a t c h e s t h e f r a m es t o c kf o r g r a i na n dc o l o r ,
b o r ea s m a n yp l u g sa s y o u n e e di n t h e
slock (above,left).Prythe plugsfree
w i t h a s c r e w d r i voer n a r r o wc h i s e l (. S e e
t h e S h o pT i p a t l e f tf o r a n a l t e r n a t p
er o p
l
u
g
s
,
g
i
n
s
t
a
l
l
t
h
e
cedure.)To
apply lue
i n t h e h o l e t, h e nt a pt h e p l u gi n p l a c e .
T r i mt h ee x c e sw
s i t ha c h i s e lH
. olding
t h e c h i s e lb e v e l - s i duep o n t h e f r a m e ,
remove
the wastein f ineshavings
bbove,
r i g h t ) u n t i l t h e p l u g i s p e r f e c t l yf l u s h .
T h i sw i l l p r o d u c ae m u c hc l e a n esru r f a c et h a n i f t h e p l u gw e r es a n d e df l u s h .

\3

Q.

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DOORS

themost
Considerations
of styleshouldnot
f abinetdoorsarearguably
important
single
decorative
feature
cloud
the
need
for
\-r
durability.Kitchen
kitchen.
They
first
item
hard
of a
arethe
to
doorswork
and.sincewoodis
proneto swellingandwarping,solid
greettheeyeand,because
theyareusuallysonumerous,
canalsobethemost
doorssuchasboard-and-batten
doors
impressive.
Thestyle,finish,andconshouldonlybeinstalled
on smallcabistructiondeserve
carefulattention.
nets.Frame-and-panel,
veneered-panel,
Once.cabinetmakers
wereconcerned
andglass
doorsarebetterableto accomprimarilywith buildingsimple,sturdy
modatewoodmovement
caused
bvflucdoorsthatwouldstandup to thepuntuationsin heatandhumidity.'Also,
ishmentmetedoutto themin dailyuse. A braddriversecures
a strip of molding differentdoorsrequiredifferentdegrees
Formcertainlyfollowedfunctionby a
to theframeof a kitchencabinetdoor
of precisionwhenbuildingthem.A
widemargin;kitchen
cabinets,
andespesandwiching
a centralpaneof glass
flush-mounted
door,forexample,
iscut
ciallytheirdoors,werethemostutilibetvveen
themoldingand a rabbetcut
to closetolerances;
anerrorasslightas
tarianof furniture.Butgonearethedays
into theinsideedgeof theframe.For
Zuinchcansooilthelookof anotherof one-style-fits-all
kitchens.Today, moreon buildingglassdoors,seepage69. wisefinelyeiecutedcabinet.Overlay
homeowners
carefirllyconsider
theperidoors,ontheotherhand,donotrequire
odandsryleof theirdwellings
beforedetermining
thedecorof thesameprecision
astheyexceed
thesizeof theiropenings.
Advances
particutheirkitchens.
Someof thepossibilities
areshownin thelayout
in themanufacturing
of doorhardware,
AndDesignchapter(page16).
larlyhinges,
havegreatlyimproved
boththeappearance
of cabOncethebasicchoiceismade,doorstylecanbearrivedat. inetdoorsandtheease
of mountingthem(page
73).Classic
or
Perhaps
it is a basicboard-and-batten
door (page60)for a antique-sryle
doorsmaystillbehungfromsuchdecorative
and
countrycottage.
Anfuts andCraftsbungalow
mightdemand attractive
fasteners
assurface-mounted
hingesthatcomein
panes
finerwork,withdoorsfeaturing
glass
setin glazing
bars polishediron or brassfinishes.
Otherhingeoptionsinclude
(page70).Mosthomeowners
will probablyprefertraditional thesimplebutefficient
butthinge(page
76)forflush-mount(page
frame-and-panel
doors
62).Butevenheretherearevari- ed doors,andthe pianohingefor cornercabinetdoors.
(page European-style
ations,suchasarchedpanel(page67),veneered.panel
cuphinges(page7a)havevirtuallybecome
(page
paneldoors
68),andglass
69).Thischapter
introduces thestandard
hardware
for melaminekitchencabinets.
Not
fivedoorstyles
andthesteps
to buildingeach,soyoucanpro- onlyaretheseversatile
hingesfully concealed;
theyarealso
ducedoorsthatwill lendcharacter
to yourkitchen.
simpleto installandeasilyadjustable.

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Theversatile
Europeancuphingecanbeusedto hanga varietyofkitchencabinetdoors.In thephotoat left,afull overlay
door is beingmountedon a faceframe
frame-and-panel
cabinet.Thedoor canbeadiustedor removedwith ease.

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57

A GALLERYOF CABINETDOORDESIGNS
1rl f thefourdoortypesshownbelow
\-/ andon thefollowingpage,all but
door arebuilt
the board-and-batten
The
techniques.
usingframe-and-panel
door (page60)is a
board-and-batten
solidpaneldoor featuringa seriesof
plankswith rabbetededgesheldtogeththebackof
across
erby battensscrewed
aneldoors(page
the door.Frame-and-p
62) fearvea panelthat floatswithin a
frame composedof rails and stiles
or
assembled
with mortise-and-tenon
joints.Thefloatingpancope-and-stick
el in thecenterofthe doorcanberaised
effect.Therails
or shaoedfor decorative
and stileshavean integratedmolding

cut into them;foraddedembellishment


you canalsocut an archor curveinto
theupperrailandpanel.
Veneered-panel
doors(page68) feasheet
turea panelmadefrom veneered
stockthat is gluedto the frame.To
concealthe platejoints betweenthe
paneland the frame,rabbetsarecut
into the insideedgesof the frameat
doors(page69)
the back.Glass-panel
door
a frame-and-panel
areessentially
with a paneof glassreplacinga floating panel.The pieceof glasssitsin
rabbetscut alongthe edgesof the
frame.It is held in placeby stripsof
molding.A variationof theglasspanel

door featuresglazingbarsthat hold


smallerpanesin place(page70).Iorned
by miteredhalf-laps,the glazingbars
haverabbetscut alongtheirbackedges
the glassand glassto accommodate
stopmolding.
Althougha door is alwaysmadeto fit
its cabinet,it doesnot alwayshaveto be
sizedexactlyto fit its opening,asshown
page.
in theillustration
on theopposite
and full-recess
doors
Flush-mounted
to construct
canbe time-consuming
required
because
ofthe fine tolerances
to fit andhangthemproperly.Theyare
particularlyunsuitablefor board-andbattendoors,as thesedoorstend to

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DOORS

expandand contractwith changes


in
humidity.Full-overlay
or lip-rabbeted
doorsareeasierto make.A full-overlay
doorcoverstheentirewidth of thecabinet,whilea lip-rabbeted
doorhasrabbetscut aroundits outsideedgesat the
backsothat only a part of its thickness
is exposed.
Oneof themostcommonlyuseddoors
is the onetypicallyusedfor Europeanstylecabinets-apieceof laminatedparticleboardsuchasmelaminesimolvcut
to size.Whileinexoensive
andeisierto
maintain,melaminedoorsneededge
banding(pages48-49)to concealtheir
non-laminated
edses.

DOOR
MOUNTING
METH()DS

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BOARD.AND-BATTEND OORS
T iketheirearlycolonialcounterparts,
L moderncabinetmakers
a
seeking
"country"
look oftenturn to
rusticor
doors.Thesesimple
board-and-batten
but sturdydoorsconsistof rabbeted
planksheld togetherby stripsor batacrosstheirbacks.
tensofwood fastened
batThemostcommonof thesefeatures
tensscrewed
to thebackof the door in
battencontheformof aZ;thediagonal
nectingthe two horizontalbattensat
the too and bottom actsasa braceto
strenghenthedoorandpreventsagging.
Because
theyaresolidpaneldoorsand
will swelland shrink with changesin
doorsare
humidity,board-and-batten

oftenmountedon smallercabinetsas
thebattens
overlaydoors.In somecases,
caninterferewith interiorshelving.One
thebattensin dadoes
solutionisto recess
cut into thebackof thedoors.Another
more elaboratemethodof bracinga
dooristo rout a slidboard-and-batten
ing dovetailacross
thebackoftheboards.
Routa matchingdovetailslidein thebatthemin placewith a sintens,andsecure
glescrewin thecenterofthe door.

andcharm,
Combiningrusticstrength
doorsareidealfor
board-and-batten
in a countrykitchen.
smallcupboards

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DOORS
INBOARD.AND.BATTEN
JOINTS
USED

thiplap

Chamfered ahiplap

Beaded ahiplap

Double-beadedahiplap

60

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DOORS

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MAKING
A BOARD-AND-BATTEN
D()()R
'l

Cutting
therabbets
I I n s t a lal d a d oh e a dh a l fa s w i d ea s
t h e s t o c kt h i c k n e sos n y o u rt a b l es a w .
A t t a c ha n a u x i l i a rw
y o o df e n c ea n d r a i s e
t h e b l a d e tso c u t a n o t c hi n i t , t h e ns e tt h e
c u t t i n gh e i g h t - a g a i no n e - h a ltfh e t h i c k n e s so f t h e b o a r d sT. o s e c u r et h e w o r k p i e c e ,c l a m pt w o f e a t h e r b o a r d
a sn d a
s u p p o r tb o a r dt o t h e t a b l ea s s h o w n .
U s i n ga p u s hs t i c k ,f e e dt h e s t o c ki n t o
t h e b l a d e st,h e nf l i p t h e b o a r do v e ra n d
repeatthe cut alongthe otheredge(left).
T o a l l o wf o r w o o dm o v e m e n tc,r e a t ea
s l i g h te x p a n s i ogna p b e t w e e n
the boards
a t t h e b a c ko f t h e d o o rb y r u n n i n go n e
e d g eo f e a c hb o a r da c r o s tsh e j o i n t e r .

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r) Assembling
thedool
L C l a n pt h e d o o rt o g e t h ear n d p l a c ei t i n s i d e - f a cuep o n a
w o r ks u r f a c eT. h e nc u t t w o b a t t e n ss l i g h t l ys h o r t e trh a nt h e
w i d t ho f t h e d o o ra n d n a r r o w et h
r a nt h e d o o rb o a r d sP. o s i t i o n
the two piecesof woodacrossthe top and bottomof the assemb l ya s s h o w nT. h e nf i t a n e l e c t r i dc r i l l w i t ha c o m b i n a t i obni t
a n d c o u n t e r b o rheo l e sf o r s c r e w sa n dw o o dp l u g sa t 2 - i n c h
i n t e r v a las l o n gt h e b a t t e n sa, l t e r n a t i nbge t w e e tnh e t o p a n d
b o t t o mo f e a c hb o a r d .M a k ec l e a r a n cheo l e se x c e o ti n t h e

6l

p l a c e sw h e r et h e s c r e ww i l l j o i nt h e b a t t e nt o a n o u t s i d ed o o r
b o a r dT. h e n ,h o l d i n gt h e b a t t e ns q u a r et o t h e e d g eo f t h e d o o r ,
drivein eachscrew(above,left).Cuta third battento fit diago
n a l l yb e t w e e tnh e t w o a l r e a d yi n p l a c ea n d s c r e wi t i n t o p o s i t i o n .T o c o n c e atlh e s c r e w sa, p p l ya d a bo f g l u et o t h e i rh e a d s ,
t h e ni n s e r nt l r r c si n t h e h o l e sT. a nt h e n l r r s si n o l a c ew i t ha
woodenmallelhbove,right),then usea chiselto trim the prol e c t i n gs t u b sf l u s hw i t ht h e d o o rs u r f a c e .

DOORS
FRAME-AND-PANEL

t
to theeyeandstructurally
p leasing
dooris
.L sound,theframe-and-panel
the mostenduringand popularof all
Because
its panel
cabinetdoor designs.
floatsin a rigid frameof railsandstiles,
the
doorwithstands
a frame-and-panel

swelling
andshrinkingof woodbrought
in humiditybetterthan
on by changes
anyothersolid-wooddoor.Theflexibility of its designallowsfor a widevarietyofattractiveoptions,suchasveneered
panels(page68),glassdoors(page69),

andglazingbars(page70).Thetop rail
of theframecanevenbearchedto softlinesofthedoorsand
entherectangular
(pnge67).
adda touchofelegance
The framederivesits considerable
strengthfromthejoinerymethodsused
Thissectioncovers
in its construction.
doorusing
buildinga frame-and-panel
joinerywith intemortise-and-tenon
gratedmolding (page63)andcope-andstickjoints (page66).Beforestartingto
door,however,
builda frame-and-panel
takecareto sizethestockproperly.Make
thestilesequaltotheheightof thedoor
opening;the railsshouldbe aslongas
thewidthof thedoorplusthetrvotenons
at eitherend-typicallyaboutZ inchminusthewidth of thestiles.

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oppearance
Depending
on thedesirecl
door,thepanof afrane-and-panel
canbentoldedtoJit
el'sinsideedges
in thegrooves
of thef'arneor beveled
"raise"thecertter
onfour sidesto
of thepanel.Irrthephotoat left,a
panelis beingraisedwith an ogee
panel-raisirtgbit
on a routertable.

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RAISED
PANET
STYTES

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62

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DOORS

MAKING
A FRAME.AND-PANEL
DOOR
thetenoncheeks
1 Cutting
I Install
a dadoheadslightly
widerthan
thetenonlengthonyourtablesaw.Attach
andnotchanauxiliary
fence,
thensetthe
w i d t ho f c u te q u atlo t h el e n g t h
ofthe
tenonto sawthetenoncheeks;
adjust
the
cutting
height
to about
one-third
thethicknessof thestock.Butting
therailagainst
thefenceandthemitergauge,
feedthe
stockfacedownintotheblades.
Turnthe
railoverandrepeat
thecutontheother
sideof thetenon.Thenrepeat
theprocess
at the opposite
endof the rail (left)and
wtththesecond
rail.

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r) Gutting
thetenonshoulders
L to cutthetenonshoulders,
setthe
height
of thedadoheadat about%inch.
S t a n d i nt g
h er a i lo n e d g ef l u s ha g a i n s t
t h ef e n c ea n dm i t e rg a u g ef,e e dt h e
workpiece
intotheblades.
Turntherail
overandrepeaton the othersideof the
t e n o nC
. u tt h et e n o ns h o u l d ear st t h e
o p p o s i teen do f t h e r a i lt h es a m ew a y
(right).Repeat
the process
withthesecondrail.Toaddintegrated
molding,
f it a
r o u t ewr i t ht h ea p p r o p r i abt iet ,m o u n t
t h et o o li n a r o u t etra b l ea n dc u t a l o n g
theinside
edges
of therailsandstiles.

Tenon
ehoulder

Preparing
therailsforglueup
R e m o vteh e a u x i l i a rfye n c ea n dd a d o

h e a dI.n s t a al l c o m b i n a t ibolna d e
and
adjustitsangleto 45".Tosetthewidth
of cut,marka lineonthemolded
edgeof
a railthesamedistance
fromthetenon
s h o u l d ae srt h em o l d i nwgi d t hA. l i g nt h e
markwiththeblade
whereit exitsthetable
opening,
thenbuttthefenceagainst
the
rail.Adjust
theblade
height
untilonetooth
justbeyond
protrudes
thetenonshoulder.
Tomakethecuts,butttherailagainst
the
fenceandholdit flushagainst
themiter
gauge
to feedit molded-edge
downintothe
blade.
Repeat
to cuttheotherendof the
rail(left)andbothendsof thesecond
rail.

63

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thestiles
Preparing
M a r ka l i n eo n t h e m o l d e de d g eo f

eachstilethewidthof a railawayfrom
Withthetablesaw
theendof theboard.
b l a d ea n g l e ad t 4 5 ' , a l i g nt h ec u t t i n g
edgewiththemarkandcut intothemoldsothe
adjust
thecuttingheight
ededge;
themoldat thepointwhere
cutf inishes
ingendsandthefaceof thestilebegins.
between
Next,sliceoffthestripof molding
the45' cutandtheendof thestilewith
a bandsaw?iehil.

thecut edge
f, Smoothing
r , f O nt h e t a b l es a w ,a d j u s t h e r i p f e n c e
s o t h e b l a d el i n e su p w i t ht h e b e g i n n i n g
o f t h e c u t y o u m a d ei n s t e p 1 w h e nt h e
s t i l ei s b u t t e da g a i n stth e f e n c e .H o l dt h e
. lide
s t i l ef l u s ha g a i n stth e m i t e rg a u g eS
t h e s t o c kb a c ka n df o r t ha l o n gt h e m i t e r
gaugeto smooththe cut edge(lefil.

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themortises
trl Cutting
in thestilesona drill
L.f Cutthemortises
press
attachmortising
usinga commercial
and
mark
rail
with
each
stile
ment.Aligna
mormortises.
Install
a
ofthe
theoutline
and
onyourdrillpress
tisingattachment
fence,
centering
the
clampthestileto the
and
bit.
under
thechisel
mortise
outline
deeper
than
depthslightly
Setthedrilling
a
cut
at
each
thenmake
thetenonlength,
out
before
boring the
endof the mortise
(right).
wastein belween

64

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Three-wing
alottinq cutter

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grooves
forthepanel
I Cutting
/ Assemble
therailsandstiles.
Then,
protecting
thestockwithwoodpads,use
twobarclamps
to holdtheframetogether
securely.
Fita router
witha %-inch
threewingslotting
cutterandmountthetoolin
a routertable.Remove
thefenceandset
theframeonthetable.Adjust
thecutter
height
to placethegroove
midway
between
the bottomof theframeandtheedgeof
t h em o l d i n gG.r i p p l nt h
g eb a rc l a m p s
f irmly,butttheinsideedgeof theframe
a g a i n st h
t eb i t n e a o
r n ec o r n e rt ,h e n
rotateit against
thedirection
of bit rotationto cutthegroove
alongtherailsand
stiles(/eff,).
Keeptheframef lat on the
tableasyoufeedit intothe bit. Raise
a
panelto f it theframe(photo,page62),
thendisassemble
theframe.

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Gluing
upthedoor
Glueupa panel
from%-inch{hick
solidstockandcutit to
s i z ea; d d i n g
% i n c ht o e a c hs i d et o a l l o wt h ep a n etlo f i t t h e
groove
in theframe.Thenrouttheedges
of the panelto producethe raisedcenter,asshownin the photoon page62.
passes
Makesuccessive
untiltheedgeof thepanelfits intothe
groove
in theframe.To reduce
tearout,
routthetopandbottom
edgesbefore
routing
thesides.Squeeze
someglueintothe
mortises
in thestilesandonthetenoncheeks
andshoulders
at
theendsof therails;alsoapplysomeadhesive
onthecontactingsurfaces
of themitercutsin therailsandstiles.
Donotadd

grooves.
anyglueto thepanel
Then,assemble
thedoorandset
ontwobarclamps
ona worksurface,
aligning
therailswiththe
barsof theclamps.
Tokeeptheclamps
fromfalling
over,prop
eachoneon a notched
woodblock.Protecting
theframewith
justenough
woodpads,
tighten
theclamps
to fullyclosethe
joints(abovd,thenusea square
to checkwhether
thecorners
o f t h ed o o a
r r ea t r i g h a
t n g l e sF.i n i s thi g h t e n i nt hgec l a m p s
untilthegluesqueezes
outof thejoints,
checking
occasionally
thatthecorners
remain
square.
0ncethegluehasdried,usea
cabinet
scraper
to remove
anyremaining
adhesive.

65

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JOINERY
C()PE.AND-STICK

,,/

\ /y

-/

r') Cutting
thegrooves
the
L Unplucthe routerandreplace
s t i c k i n bg i t c o p i n gb i t w i t ha p i l o t e d
a sa s t i l ec u t t e rT. os e tt h e
a l s ok n o w n
cuitingdepth,butttheendof a completadjust
the
thestilecutter;
ed railagainst
is
height
of thebit untiloneof itscutters
Alignthe
levelwiththerailtongue(inset).
fencewiththeedgeof thepilotbearing.
theworkto secure
Usetwofeatherboards
pieceduring
oneto the
thecut:Clamp
thebitandsecure
router
tableoooosite
sideof thefence.
theotherontheinfeed
Makeeachcutwiththestockoutside-face
pressing
edgeof theworktheinside
down,
pieceagainst
Usea push
thefence(rtght).
onthe
thepass.Repeat
stickto complete
inside
edees
of allrailsandstiles.

66

in therails
tongues
1 Cutting
jointprovides
a
I Thecope-and-stick
andrailsin framemethod
of joining
stiles
Tno.n g u ei n
st h e
a n d - p a nceol n s t r u c t i o
in thestiles;
the
railsmeshwithgrooves
forthe
routerbit thatcutsthegrooves
panelalsocarves
in
molding
a decorative
Tocutthe
edges
of theframe.
theinside
bit-the
a piloted
coping
tongues,
install
r a i lc u t t e r - i ny o u rr o u t ear n dm o u n t
. u t tt h ee n do f a
t h et o o li n a t a b l e B
r a i la g a i n st ht eb i ta n da d j u stth ed e p t h
of cut sothatthetopof the uppermost
c u t t e irs s l i g h t layb o v teh ew o r k p i e c e .
to themiter
Position
thefenceoarallel
gauge
slotin linewiththeedgeof thebit
e i t ha n e x t e n p i l o tF. i tt h em i t e rg a u g w
faceof thestock
sionandlaytheoutside
f l a to nt h et a b l ek; e e pt h ee n d so f t h e
buttedagainst
andextension
workpiece
eachcut (left),
the fencethroughout

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DOORS

RAISING
ANARCHED
PANEL
thearch
1 Raising
I B a n d s atw
h ep a n etlo s i z ea, d d i n g
%inchoneachsideto allowtheoanel
to
fit thegroove
in theframe.Install
a panelraising
bit in yourrouterandmountihe
toolin a table,setting
it fora shallow
cut.
Clampa free-standing
bit guardto the
t a b l ea, n da g u i d ee x t e n d i nf rgo mt h e
infeedendof thetableto thebit'soilot
(Donotusea fenceforthisoperbearing.
ation,asyouwillneedto pivotthepanel
beyond
thebit.)Usingtheguideasa pivot
point(right),pivotoneend of the arch
i n t ot h e b i t a n ds t a r tr o u t i n tgh ea r c h ,
k e e p i ntgh e p a n efll u s hw i t ht h e p i l o t
bearing
throughout
thecut.Makeseveral
passes
onthearch,raising
thebit %inch
at a timeuntilthepanelf itsthegroove
in theframe.

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Raising
thesides
T o r a i s et h es i d e sa n de n do f t h e
panel,usethesamesetupor remove
the
guideandbitguardandinstall
a fenceon
yourrouter
table.Lower
thebitto a shallow
c u t t i n dg e p t hT. h e nh, o l d i ntgh ep a n e l
f latonthetable,feedit intothe bit with
yourrighthandandpressit flatagainst
theguidewithyourlefl (left).Repeat
for
theothersideandtheendof theoanel.
Makeas manypasses
as necessary
for
thepanelto f it in thegrooves
in theframe,
raising
thebit %inchat a timeandtestpasses.
ingbetween
Thenglueup the
doorasyouwoulda regular
frame-and(page65, step8).
panelassembly

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VEENERED-PANEL
D()()R
'l

Preparing
theframepieces
I R r pt h ef o u rf r a m ep i e c e tso w r d t ht,h e nc r o s s c ut ht e ms l i g h t l y
r i t ha d e c o r a t i v e
l o n g etrh a nt h e i rf i n i s h e dl e n g t hF. i t a r o u t e w
m o l d i n gb i t , i n s t a ltlh e t o o li n a r o u t e tra b l e ,a n d r o u tt h e o u t s i d ee d g eo f e a c hf r a m ep i e c e .N e x t ,c u t a r a b b e ti n t h e b a c k
. e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g h t o e q u a tl h e
f a c eo f e a c ho f f r a m ep i e c e S
f es t o c k
t h i c k n e sosf t h e p a n e lt;h e w i d t hs h o u l db e o n e - h a tl h
t ost h e s a wt a b l et o s u p p o rtth e
t h i c k n e s sC. l a m pf e a t h e r b o a r d
r dn d
w o r k p i e c eI n
. sera
t s h i mb e t w e e n
t h e v e r t i c afle a t h e r b o a a
off the rabbetedpartof the stock.
the fenceto keepthe pressure
Feedthe workpiece
face up intothe dadoheadtight). CUIthe
f r a m ep i e c e st o s i z e .m a k i n g4 5 " m i t e rc u t sa t e a c he n d .D r y a s s e m b lteh e f r a m e t, h e nc u t t h e p a n etl o f i t i t . M a r kt h e p a n e l
e d g e sa n dt h e i rm a t i n gf r a m ep i e c e tso h e l py o uc o r r e c t lays s e m b l et h e d o o ra t t h et i m eo f g l u eu p .

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r) Cutting
biscuit
slotsintheframes
. a ^

Assembling
thedoor

C - C u tt h e p a n e tl o s i z ea n d m a r ka l i n ea c r o s tsh e p a n e al n d
s b o u 4t i n c h e sf r o me a c he d g ea n d a t 6 - i n c h
f r a m ep i e c e a
i n t e r v a lisn b e t w e e nD. i s a s s e m bt h
l ee d o o ra n dc l a m po n e
f r a m ep i e c et o a w o r ks u r f a c ep, r o t e c t i ntgh e s t o c kw i t hw o o d
n:dc
Qpi tho nrnnor don+L ^{ ^ ^ '+ ^- ^ ^l^+^ ;^incr ihon qpi
V u u J , r u L L r r uV r u p u r u u p L I l U l d L U L U l l d p l d L Uj u l , . - , . . . , - , , - - .

t h e t o o l ' sb a s ep l a t eo n t h e b o t t o mo f t h e r a b b e itn t h e f r a m e
pieceS
. e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g h st o t h e s l o t sw i l l b e m a d ei n t h e
m i d d l eo f t h e r a b b e t e p
d o r t i o no f t h e f r a m e a
, s s h o w nb y t h e
r e dd o t t e dl i n e i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n
W. i t ha s u p p o rbt o a r du n d e r
t h e j o i n e rt o k e e pl t l e v e l a, l i g nt h e g u i d e l i noen t h e t o o l
n a r k .H o l d i n g
w i t ha s l o t l o c a t i o m
t h el o i n e w
r i t h b o t hh a n d s ,
cut a grooveat eachmark(abovd.Repeatfor the otherframe
n i p c p q i h p n r ^ r r i.h. p. -.m. :.t*i n. .o, .co
l n t c ,i n t h p n : n p l t.h, p
, -s a m ew a y .

O n c ea l l t h e s l o t sh a v eb e e nc u t , g l u eu p t h e d o o r .S e tt h e
f r a m eo i e c e sa n dt h e o a n e fl a c e - d o wonn a c l e a nw o r ks u r f a c e
a n ds q u e e zgel u ei n t oe a c hs l o t ,i n s e r t i nbgi s c u i tas sy o ug o .
T o p r e v e nt th e b i s c u i t fsr o me x p a n d i nbge f o r e v e r y t h i ni sg p u t
t o g e t h e ra,s s e m b lteh e d o o r sa s q u i c k l ya s p o s s i b l ef i,t t i n gt h e
framepiecesto the panel(above),
Setthe dooron two barclamps
o n a w o r ks u r f a c eW
. i t hw o o dp a d sp r o t e c t i ntgh e f r a m e ,t i g h t o ore
e n t h ec l a m p sj u s te n o u g tho c l o s et h ej o i n t sI.n s t a l l t w m
c l a m p sa, c r o s tsh e t o p o f t h e d o o r ,p l a c i n gt h e mp e r p e n d i c u l a r
t o t h e f i r s tt w o .F i n i s ht i g h t e n i n ug n t i l g l u es q u e e z eosu t o f
. n c et h e a d h e s i vhea sd r i e d ,r e m o v e
thejoints0
a n ye x c e s s
w i t h a c a b i n est c r a o e r .

6B

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DOORS

GLASS-PANEL
D()()R
a rabbet
around
the
1l Cuttins
-

I i n s i d eo f a d o o rf r a m e
Makeandglueup a frameas youwouldfor
a frame-and-panel
door(page63). Using
pad
protection,
a wood
for
clampthe frame
t o a w o r ks u r f a c eT. h e ni n s t a l la % - i n c h
r a b b e t i nbgi t i n a r o u t e a
r n ds e tt h ed e p t h
o f c u t t o t h e c o m b i n e d e p t ho f t h e m o l d i" n
' bo :" "n- d

thp nano nf ol:cc vnrr intond in

i n s t a l il n t h e f r a m e .H o l dt h e t o o lf i r m l y
w r t hb o t hh a n d sw h i l er e s t i n g
thebasep l a t eo n t h e f r a m en e a ro n ec o r n e rt,h e n
t u r no n t h e r o u t ear n dg u i d et h e b i t i n t o
the insideedgeof the door.Movethe router
clockwise
alongthe edges?ight)untilthe
c u t i s c o m o l e t e dS. o u a r e
t h e c o r n e rw
s ith
a woodenmalletanda woodchiselbelow).
M a k et h e c u t sa g a i n stth e g r a i nf i r s tt o
a v o i ds p l i t t i n tgh ef r a m e .

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O Fittingtheglass
t o h o l dt h eg l a s si n t h ef r a m e m
I
. ake
g l a s s - s t ompo l d i n gb y r o u t i n ga d e c o r a t i v e

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pdoe in pithpr sidp nf :

l n n o n i p ep n f c n l .

i d s t o c kR
. i pt h e m o l d i n tgo w i d t h t, h e n
m i t e rf o r r n
r r e c etsn f i t i h e f r a m eS e tt h e
frameandtheglasson a worksurface,
then
p l a c et h e m o l d i n g
i n p o s i t i o nB.o r ea p i l o t
h o l ee v e r y2 i n c h e su s i n ga n e l e c t r idc r i l l
f i t t e dw i t ha s m a l fl i n i s h i nnga i lw i t ht h e
h e a ds n i p p e do f f . D r i v et h e b r a d si n p l a c e
u s i n ge i t h e ra h a m m eor r a b r a dd r i v e r
(photo,page57). Whenusinga hammer,
h o l dt h e m o l d i n g
f l u s ha g a i n stth e f r a m e
o f t h ed o o rs; l i d et h e h a m m ear l o n gt h e
s r r r f a coef a n i e c eo f c a r d b o a rtdo a v o i d
breakingthe glass(/eff).

69

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oi\{r_.

Ifyou prefer the look ofsntallerpanesofglassrather


thatr one largersinglepane in yotn'dooryotr can choose
to makeglnzingbars.The moldedstripsarejoined with
miteredhalf-laps.Rabbetsare cut along the backedgesof
panesof glassand glass-stop
the barsto acconmtodate
molding. The endsof the barscan bejoined to the outer
joints.
rnilsend stileswith dowelsor cope-and-stick

Q'-\.

,\t"n-

\'t'a

MAKING
A GLAZING
BARD()OR

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'l

M o l d i n tgh eg l a z i n g
bars
I T h ej o i n t r s m a d ei n t h r e es t a g e sS: t a r tb y c u t t i n gt h e p r o p - t i o nw i t ht h r e ef e a t h e r b o a r dCsl :a m po n et o t h e t a b l eo p p o s i t e
e r p r o f i l ei n t h e g l a z i n gb a r s ,a s s h o w na b o v en; e x t ,c u t r a b - t h e b i t a n dt w ot o t h e f e n c eo n e a c hs i d eo f t h e c u t t e r .( l n t h e
b e t si n t ot h e o p p o s i t sei d e so f t h e b a r st o h o l dt h e g l a s sa n d i l l u s t r a t i o tnh, e f e a t h e r b o aor dn t h e o u t f e e ds i d eo f t h e f e n c e
m o l d i n gs t r i p s( s t e p2 ) ; I i n a l l y ,p r o d u c et h e m i t e r e dh a l f - l a p h a sb e e nr e m o v efdo r c l a r i t y )F. e e dt h e b a ri n t ot h e b i t u n t i l
(sfeps3 to 5). Forthe first stage,installa pilotedroundover
bit y o u rf i n g e r sa p p r o a cthh e c u t t e r t, h e n u s et h e n e x tp i e c ea s a
p u s hs t i c ko r m o v et o t h e o t h e rs i d eo f t h e t a b l ea n d p u l lt h e
i n a r o u t e rm
, o u n t h e t o o l i n a t a b l e ,a n da l i g nt h e f e n c ew i t h
t h e b i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i n gT. h es t o c ks h o u l db e w i d ee n o u g hs o t h a t w o r k p i e cteh r o u g ht h e c u t . R e p e atth e p a s so n t h e o t h e rs i d e
) . r e p a raen e x t r ab a rt o h e l ps e t u p t h e c u t
making
a p a s so n e a c hs i d eo f t h e b a rw i l l l e a v ea % - i n c h - w i d e o f t h e b a r ( a b o v e P
l i p b e t w e etnh e c u t s .S u p p o rtth e w o r k p i e cdeu r i n gt h e o p e r a - i n s t e p3 .

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DOORS

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r) Cutting
rabbets
fortheglasspanes
I
lnstalla dadoheadonyourtablesawslightly
widerthanthe
desired
rabbets.
Thetongue
remaining
aftertherabbets
arecut
shoulm
d easu%
r ei n c hw i d e I. n s t a a
l l w o o d eanu x i l i a frey n c e
andmarktherabbetdepthon it-the combined
thickness
of
theglass
andthemolding
strip.Position
theauxiliary
fenceover
thedadoheadandraisethe blades
to notchthefenceto the
height
of themarked
line.Turnoffthesawandmarkthewidth
of therabbets
ontheleading
endof theglazing
bar.Buttone
o f t h em a r k as g a i n st ht eo u t e b
r l a d eo f t h ed a d oh e a dt,h e n
position
thefenceflushagainst
thebar.Usethreefeatherboards
to support
thepieceas in step1, addinga support
boardto
provide
extrapressure
to thefeatherboard
clamped
to thetable.
(Again
in thisillustration,
thefeatherboard
ontheoutfeed
side
of thetablehasbeenremoved
forclarity.)
Feedthebarsbyhand
(left)unlilyourfingers
approach
thefeatherboards,
thenusethe
nextworkpiece
to finishthepass.
Complete
thecutonthefinal
workpiece
bypulling
it fromtheoutfeed
sideof thetable.

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themitercuts
Q Making
r-,1 Remove
thedadoheadandinstalla crosscut
blade.
Adjust
thebladeangleto 45" andattacha mitergauge
extension.
To
s e tt h eb l a d eh e i g h th, o l dt h ee x t r ag l a z i nbga ro nt h es a w
youcut in step2 isflushagainst
tablesothetongue
theextension.Thetopof thebladeshouldbe levelwiththe lowerside
of the lip (inset).
Thenmarkthemitercutson bothsidesof
t h eb a r sa; t t h e i rw i d e spt o i n t st ,h eV ss h o u l db et h es a m e
widthasthestock.To makethecut,holdthetongue
of the

b a rf l a ta g a i n st h
t e m i t e re x t e n s i oann da l i g no n eo f t h e
marks
withtheblade.Butta stopblockagainst
theendof
thestockandclampit to theextension
forsubsequent
cuts.
Clamptheworkpiece
to theextension
andfeedthe glazing
. otate
b a ri n t ot h eb l a d ew h i l eh o l d i n igt f i r m l yi n p l a c eR
thepieceandmakethesamecutontheothersideof theV.
Repeat
theprocess
to cuttheV ontheopposite
sideof the
bar (above).

7r

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DOORS

Cleaning
theV-cuts
O n c ea l l t h e m i t e rc u t sh a v eb e e n
made,usea narrow
chiselto pareaway
t h ew a s t eT. h ew i d t ho f t h ec h a n n ealt
o f t h eV s h o u l de o u atlh e
t h eb o t t o m
widthof thelip.Holding
thechiselbevelsideup, pareawaythewaste(right)until
andf lat.
the bottom
of theV is smooth
Workcarefullv
to avoidtearout.

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thehalf-laps
f, Cutting
r . , l R e i n s t at lhl ed a d oh e a di n y o u rt a b l es a wa n da d j u sitt
t o t h ew i d t ho f t h e b a r ' sl i p .S e tt h ec u t t i n gd e p t ht o o n e h a l ft h es t o c kt h i c k n e sY
s ,o uw i l l n e e dt o s a wa h a l f - l a ipn
thebottom
of oneglazing
bar,thenmakean identical
cut in
t h et o po f t h em a t i n gp i e c eS. e tu p t h ec u t b ya l i g n i ntgh e
m i d d lo
e f t h eV - c uw
t i t ht h ed a d oh e a dw, h i l eh o l d i ntgh e

b a rf l u s ha g a i n st ht em i t e rg a u g e x t e n s i oKn e. e pt h ew o r k p i e c ef l a to n t h es a wt a b l ea n df l u s ha g a i n st th ee x t e n s i o n
(above).
asyoucut the half-laps
Usedowels
or copingcuts
(page66) to securethe glazingbarsto a frame-and-panel
d o o rt,h e ni n s t a lgl l a s sp a n e as sy o uw o u l df o ra g l a s s - p a n e l
door(page69).

72

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MOUNTINGDOORS

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hingesfor
fr hoosingtheappropriate
*-L yourkitchencabinetdoorsdepends
primarilyuponthestyleof cabinets
you
arebuilding.Surface-mounted
hinges,
thoughlimitedin termsof weightcapacity andeaseof adjustment,
areidealfor
Butthinges
antiqueor rusticcabinets.
(page76),available
in iron or brass,are
commonlyused on flush-mounted
doorsandsit in shallowmortises
cut
into the door and case.Long,narrow
cabinets
oftenrequirepianohingesfor
strenghandproperweightdistribution.
Tilt-out hinges(pnge77) arepractical
for turningfalsedrawerfiontsinto small,
handystorage
units.
\Ahenstyleis not an issue,andeaseof
installation
andadjustability
aremore
important,European-type
cup hinges,
or 32-millimeterhinges,(pnge74) are
an idealchoice.Fullyconcealed,
strong,
andsimpleto adjustoncein place,cup

hingeshavebecomewidespread
in the
homebuildingindustry.Availablefor
andfaceframecabbothEuropean-style
inets,cuphingescomewith a varietyof
mountingplatesthatallowtheinstaller
to controltheamountof overlay.
Beforeinstallinganyhinge,readthe
manufacturer's
instructionsregarding
placement.
If youareworkingwith fine,
delicate
woods,tapthestockfor machine
screwsafterdrillingpilot holesto reduce
thechance
of splitting.A spotof gluein
theholewill improvetheholdingability of thefastener.

Locatingdoorknobs
neednot involve
tedious
measurement
frontdoorto door.
Thesimplejig showrtin thephotoat
right,madefront a pieceofplywoodand
twolipscutfrom solidstock,
Iocates
knobs
in exnctlythesarnespotot'teachdoor.

()FDO()R
A SETECTI()N
HINGES

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Piano hinge

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MOUNTING
ANOVERLAY
D()()R
'l

Drillinh
g o l e sf o rh i n g e s
I D r i l tl h e h o l e sf o r E u r o p e acnu p h i n g e s
w i t ha c o m m e r c idarli l l i n jgi g a n dg u i d eo, r
m a k ey o u ro w nj i g b y i n s t a l l i nagp l y w o o d
f e n c ea n db a c k u pb o a r do n y o u rd r i l lp r e s s .
F i tt h ed r i l lw i t ha 3 5 - m i l l i m e t F
eo
r rstner
b r t ,a n ds c r e wt h ef e n c ea n db a c k u pb o a r d
t o g e t h ear s s h o w nF
. o l l o wt h e h i n g em a n u f a c t u r e r 'i n
s s t r u c t i o nrse g a ridn g r e c o m m e n d e db o r i n gd e p t ha n dd i s t a n c e
from

ihp pdsp nf ihp dnnr' rrqo : nionp nf snr:n

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w o o dt o p r o p e r lpyo s i t i o tnh e j i g .C l a m p
t h e 1 i gt o t h e d r r l lp r e s st a b l e ,a n d m a r k
t h e c e n t e r l i noef t h e h o l eo n t h e f e n c e .
N e x t ,m a r kt h e l o c a t i o n
o f t h e h i n g e so n
t h e d o o r sd; e p e n d i nogn t h e s i z eo f t h e
d o o ry o ua r ew o r k i n g
w i t h .h i n g e sc a n b e
installea
d n y w h e rfer o m3 t o 6 i n c h e s
f r o me i t h e re n do f t h e d o o r ;m a r ka s i m i l a r
c e n t e r l i noen t h e f e n c e .L a yt h e d o o rf a c e
d o w no n t h e d r i l lp r e s st a b l ea n d b u t t i t
a g a i n st h
t ef e n c ea, l i g n i nag h i n g em a r k
w i t ht h e c e n t e r l i n eH. o l dt h e d o o rs t e a d y
. l i d et h e d o o r
a n d d r i l lt h e h o l e( / e f f ) S
a l o n gl,i n eu p t h es e c o n h
d i n g em a r kw i t h
t h ec e n t e r l i n ae n, dd r i l lt h e s e c o n d
hole.

r) Installing
the hinges
L t o w o r kc o m f o r t a b l p
y ,l a c et h e d o o r
f a c ed o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c eW
. r t ht h e
p l a t ea t t a c h e tdo t h e h i n g ea r m ,
mounting
f i t t h e b o d yo f t h e h i n g ei n t h e h o l ey o u
d r i l l e di n s t e p1 . T h e n ,m a k i n gs u r et h a t
t h e h i n g ea r m i s p e r f e c t lpye r p e n d i c u l a r
tn ihp odop nf ihp dnnr

f:qtpn

ihc

hinop

i n p l a c ew i t h t h e s c r e w sp r o v i d e db y t h e
manulaclurer(risht).

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DOORS

plate
Installing
themounting
platestillattached
Withthemounting
to thehinge,
align
thedoorwiththecabinet
asshown,
andextend
thehinge
armsto
plateagainst
buttthe mounting
thepanel.Making
surethat
Hanging
thedoor
platearein mid-position,
plateuntilthey
theadjustment
screws
onthemounting
Slidethehingearmsontothemounting
(above),
platefromthe
marka reference
line,unscrew
themounting
thenscrew
themtogether.
Close
the
clickintoposition
hingearms,andfastenit to thecabinet
side(above).
Thisneed
doorandcheckitsposition.
Adjust
theheight,
depth,
or lateral
position
precise;
notbeoverly
the hingecaneasilybeadjusted
of thedoorbyloosening
ortightening
after
theappropriate
(step4).
plate.
installation
adjustment
screws
onthehingearmsandmounting

INSTATTING
EUR()PEAN-STYIE
FACE
FRAME
HINGES
Installing
thehinge
European-style
hinges
arealsoavailable
forfaceframecabinets,
thepredominant
cabinet
stylein NorthAmerican
kitchens.
Install
thehinges
to thedoors
in thesame
youwouldan overlay
manner
door,but
plateto the inside
fastenthe mounting
edgeof thefaceframe(left).

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75

DOORS

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INSTALLING
A FLUSH.MOUNTED
DOOR
'l

Routing
hingemoftises
I Toroutthemortises
forbutthinges
on
a f lush-mounted
door,firstmakea hinge
jie (inset).
mortising
Drawa centerline
across
thewidthof a pieceof %-inch
plywood
andcentera hrngeleafonthe
board's
edge.Tracethe profileof the
hardware
Next,install
onthetemplate.
a
straight-cutting
bit in a router
andrestthe
bitontheleftedgeof thehinge
outline.
Makea markat theIeftsideof therouter
baseplate.Repeat
theprocedure
at the
rightandinside
edges
of theoutline.
Use
profile
a square
to complete
thetemplate
andcut it outona bandsaw.Nowposition
thehingeonthecabinet
sideandmeasure
thedistance
fromthebottom
of thecabinetto themidpoint
of thehinge.Measure
thesamedistance
fromthecenterline
of thetemplate
to eitherendof thejig
a n dt r i m i t t o l e n g t hF. i n a l l yc,u tt w o
forliosandnailthemto the
smallblocks
frontof yourtemplate.
To usethejig,
olacethecabinet
on itssideon a work
surface,
thensettherouter's
depthof cut
to thethickness
of the hingeleaf.Butt
thetemplate
against
the bottomof the
cabinet
andclampbothin place.
Using
thetemplate
asa guide,routthe morIise (above,right).BuIt the template
against
thetopof thecabinet
andrepeat
thecut.Usea chiselto square
thecorners.

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r) Hanging
thedoor
L to cut matingmortises
in theedgeof
in
thedoor,secure
theworkpiece
edge-up
a vise.Markthehingeoutlines
ontheedge
from
of thedoortransferring
theirlocation
thecabinet
side;makesurethehingepin
projects
overtheedge.
Clamp
anedgeguide
to thefaceof thedoorto orovide
a wider
bearing
surface
fortherouter,
thenroutthe
mortises.
Next,shrmthedoorwitha piece
of woodsothedooris levelwiththecabinet.Setthehingeleaves
in themortises
cut
inthecabinet
sides,
andscrew
thehardware
in placetighil.

76

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DOORS

INSTALLING
A TILT-OUT
SINKTRAY

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thehinges
1 Attaching
I A tilt-out
sinktrayisa handy
spacesaving
fixture
forstoring
soap,
scouring
pads,andsponges
outof sightyetclose
at hand.To install
thetray,f irstremove
thefalsedrawer
frontfromthecabinet
andplaceit ona worksurface.
Follow
themanufacturer's
instructions
to trace
t h eo p e n i nogf t h et r a yo nt h e i n s i d e
of thedrawer
front.Next,lineupa hinge
withtheedgeof theoutline
andcenter
it onthedrawer
front,(When
thehinge
i sc l o s e di t,w i l lb ei n t h em i d d l oe f t h e
drawer
face.)Holdthehinge
to theoutl i n ea n ds c r e wi t t o t h ed r a w ef r o n t .
Repeat
theprocess
fortheotherhinge.

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r) Re-attaching
thedrawer
front
L Xtacnthetwoscrews
thatholdthe
trayin placebefore
installation.
Then,makingsureto spring
themechanism
of the
h i n g fei r s tl,i n eu pt h eh i n g ien t h em i d d l e
of thedrawer
frameandscrewtheentire
unitin place.
Attach
theotherhinge,
and
hangthetrayfromthetwoscrews,

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77

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'p

roperlyproportioned
andwell-built
83).Otheroptions,likethelockmiter
(page
I drawers
partof
areanindispensable
37),dado(page35),andthedouanykitchen.Likecabinetdoors,wellbledadoaresuitable
alternatives.
styleddrawerfrontscan contribute
Kitchendrawers
placetoughdemands
handsomely
to the overalllook of a
onthemountingmethodusedto secure
kitchen.Yettheirappealing
faceshide
themto thecasework.
Side-mounted
firll
thekitchen's
mostabused
(page89)aredesigned
elements:
the
extension
sltdes
to
drawers
themselves.
Theirorganization
withstand
veryrigorous
use,andarethe
andconstruction
areofparamount
imporbestchoiceif your budgetpermits.
tance,for avisuallystrikingkitchencan
Bottom-mounted
slides(page87)are
beafrustrating
placeto workif itsdrawnotquiteasstrong,butarelessexpensive
ersarehaphazardly
locatedor jamevery
andeasier
to install.
timetheyareopened.
Whenit comes
to theappearance
of
Kitchendrawers
mustbebuilt to last.
akitchen,
thefrontisthemostimportant
Theyareyanked
openandslammed
shut
part of a drawer.Thedesignof your
countless
timesaday.Worse,
drawers
in
DrawerscaninJluence
lookandfeelof a
drawerfrontswill helpsetthetonefor
thekitchenareoftenweighed
downwith
kitchen.With their moldededges
thekitchen's
and
style.Howwellthedrawers
appliances
andcrammed
full of cutlery roundpulls,thebankof overlaydrawers areinstalled
will alsoproveto bea lastandutensils,
soanyshortcutmadein
in thekitchenshownabovespeaks
ing testimonial
of a
to yourcraftsmanship.
theirconstruction
will eventually
com- verytraditional,almostVictorian,style. It canbeatime-consuming
taskto hang
promisetheirstrength
andutility.
adrawersoit restsperfectlystraightand
Thischapter
detailsthetechniques
involved
in building level,let aloneseveral
banksof drawers
in a cabinetrun.
strong,attractive,
smoothly
functioning
drawers.
Thecon- Applytnga falsefrontto thedrawer(page93)canreduce
the
structionguides
onpages
80and81offeranoverview
ofyour timespentfussingwithlevelsanddrawerslides.
Wth minimal
joinery,mounting,andmaterials. experience,
optionsfor drawerfaces,
youcanquicklyandaccurately
installfalsefronts
Youreventual
choicewill dependon yourexperience,
shop onbothinsetandoverlay
drawers.
Evenif themounteddrawsetup,andtimetable.
Whenit comes
to joinery,thereis little ersthemselves
areslightlyuneven,
theywill appear
to behung
joint isthethroughdovetail
(page with theprecise
question
thatthestrongest
eyeof a mastercabinetmaker.

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A bankof insetdrawersin aframeless


cabinetlike theone
shownat left allowslittle roomfor error.By installing
fakefronts,thedrawersneednot behungperfectly;thefalse
frontscanthenbepositionedstraightand levelto thecase.

79

DRAWERCONSTRUCTION
I

DRAWER
OVERLAY

INSETDRAWER

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Arr overlaydrawerfenttn"es
n sepnrote
.fhlsa
A false.fitrtt
fi'ont screwedto the drawer.fi'ortt.
is typicallylorgerthart its drawerc0tulterpart
so thnt it overlaystlrcfaceJi'nrrteof tlrc cobitrct.

Alsohnwn as a llush-f'ont drawer,an ilset


dra;er fits entirelywithin itscabinet.To hide
the ud grain of the drawer sides,s raltbetcan
be ctff irtto the bttckJaceof the drawerf'ont as
shownabove,or a falseJi'otttcan be ndcled.

DRAWER
J()INTS

Throughdovetail
Veryotron4, decorativejotnt eutLable
for any drawercor'
ner; end qrain of
drawer aideecan be
concealedwtth falae
front. Ueedonly
with eolid wood.

Lock miter joint


CommonlyueedLojoin drawer
backeLo eidee;autLablefor solid
wood.plywood.or melamirte.

Front/back

AIao known aa a drawer lockjoint;


cut wtLh a epectal ehaper cul,Ler

or rouLerbtt. )uttable for aolid


wood,plywood,and melamine.

Doubledado
Canbe uaed
for all cornera
of a drawer;
conceal6ena
gratn of etdee.
Suitableonly
for eolid wood.

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Front/back

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DRAWERS

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DRAWER
HANGING
METHODS
Wooden runners
thop-made otripe of wood acrewed
to ordepanelaof cabineteiL in groovee
cut in drawer etdee;drawer can be
exLendedto about.% of ita length.

Eottom-mounted alidee
CommercialmeLalahdee;runnero
screwed to the lowercorneraof the
drawermate with tracke faetened
Lo cabinet eidee:drawer can be
extendedabout% of ita len7f,h.

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Commercialmetal alidee;runnero
aLtach Lo drawer eideand mate wiLh
track mountedon cabinet atdee;extension mechaniamtn eomemodeleallows
drawer to be fully exLended.

MATERIALS
FORDRAWERS
MATERIAT

USES

COMMENTS

Solidwood

Sides,backs,fronts,
falsefronts

plywood
Cabinet-grade

Sides,backs,
fronts,false
fronts,drawer
bottoms

Melamine

Sides,backs,
fronts,
false
fronts,bottoms
S i d e sb, a c k sf ,r o n t s ,
falsefronts

U s ep i n eo r o t h e ri n e x p e n s iwv oe o df o rd r a w ecr a r case;savemoreattractive


species
forfalsefronts
Useplainsawn
veneer
forfalsefronts;trimedges
of false
frontsandtopedges
of drawer
sideswithsolidwood
(page48);use%"panels
banding
fordrawer
bottoms
(page
Trimall edges
withlaminate
edgebanding
49);
use%"panels
fordrawer
bottoms
Easyto work,yetfairlyheavy
for drawer
construction;
mustbe painted
orveneered

Medium
density
fiberboard

B1

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DRAWERS

BANKSOFDRAWERS
PLANNING

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Graduated
drawera

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Threeupper
draweraof
equalheight

Two middle
drawers of
equal height,

Laying
outa bankof drawers
ruleof thumbforplanning
There
isonlyonegenerally
accepted
than
shouldnever
besmaller
heights:
a lowerdrawer
drawer
orderin proportion;
Thehumaneyeappreciates
theoneabove.
placing
look
a cabinet
larger
drawers
atopsmaller
onesmakes
drawers
area matterof taste.Experiment
top-heavy.
Otherwise,
fromother
above
ortakemeasurements
withthedesigns
shown

Three lower
drawera of
equal height

youlike.Onceyouhavedecided
markthe
ona layout,
kitchens
25).lf
onthecabinet's
storypole(page
location
of thedrawers
yourcabinets
to calcuhavefaceframes,
usethechartbelow
pieces.
Forexample,
thewidthof a
latethesizeof thedrawer
runners
shouldbe
drawer
sideto beusedwithbottom-mounted
opening,
of thedrawer
%inchlessthantheheight

DRAWER
DIMENSIONS
CALCULATING
depth.
dimensions
orcabinet
fromtheopening
Subtract
theseamounts
()FDRAWERS
PTANNING
BANKS

HEIGHT

WIDTH

DEPTH

'/ou

1u

of falsefront
%"+ thickness

front
Withoverlapping
Bottom
mounted
runners
Withflushfront

Y4'

%'

of falsefront
% ' + thickness

front
Withoverlapping
Wooden
runners
Withflushfront

%'

1
1

You

YB'

of falsefront
% ' + thickness

YAu

Ya'

%'

runners
Sidemounted
Withflushfront

Withoverlapping
front

82

%'

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BUILDINGDRAWERS

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]l rawerstendto takea lot of abuse,


Ll sostrength
isof utmostimportance
whenbuildingthem.A drawerthathas
beenstapled
together
maylookfine,and
will evenworkwell-for awhile.Butin
a fewyearsit will startto loosen,sag,
andeventually
fallapart.
Whendesigning
for strengh,nothjoint.Many
ingtopsthethroughdovetail
woodworkers
remainintimidatedbythe
degree
ofprecision
needed
to execute
yetcommercial
thisjoint properly,
router
jigshaveplacedthisonce-exacting
task
within reachof everycabinetmaker.
If
you do not havea router,thedoubledado,a joint almostasstrongasthe

throughdovetail,
canbecut on your
tablesaw.Unfortunately,
neitherof these
jointsworkswellin plywood,
oneof the
mostcommonkitchencabinetmaterials.Forplywood,alockmiter(page
37)
or dadojointcanbeused.

A lockmiterjoint is an easywayto
turn out perfectlyfining drawer
parts by thedozen.Thejoint featuresidenticalcutsin theendof one
boardand thefaceof themating
board.Thestepsfor makinga lock
miterjoint areshownonpage37.

CUTTING
THROUGH
DOVETAITS

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joints
Routing
through
dovetail
Whenjoininga drawer
withdovetailjoints,
cutthepinsin the
frontandbackof the drawer,
andthetailsin the sides.To
jig shownabove,
cut thedovetails
withthecommercial
screw
thepin-andtail-board
templates
to backup
boards,
thensecure
oneof thedrawer
sidesendup in a benchvise.Protecting
the
stockwitha woodpad,clampthetailtemplate
to theworkpiecesotheunderside
of thetemplate
is buttedagainst
the
endof the board.Alsoclampa stopblockagainst
oneedge
of the drawer
sidesothetailsat the otherendwill match.
Installa top-piloted
dovetail
bit in the routerandsetthe

depthto slightly
morethanthethickness
of thedrawer
front.
Cutthetailsbyfeeding
thetoolalongthetopof thetemplate
andmoving
the bit in andoutof thejig'sslols(above,
left).
Keepthebit pilotpressed
against
thesidesof theslot.Repeat
to routthetailsat theotherendof theboardandin theother
drawer
side.Thenusethecompleted
tailsto outline
the oins
onthedrawer
frontandback.Secure
eitheronein thevise,
c l a m pt h e p i n - b o a tr ed m p l a tteo t h e b o a r dw i t ht h es l o t s
aligned
overtheoutline,
andsecure
thestopblockin place.
Routthe pinswitha top-piloted
straightbit (above,
righil.

83

DRAWERS

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DADO
DOUBLE
JOINTS
dadoes
in thedrawer
front
1 Cuttins
I M a r ko n ee n do f t h ed r a w efr o n t ,
d i v i d i nigt st h i c k n e si ns t ot h i r d sT. h e n ,
i n s t a lal d a d oh e a do n v o u rt a b l es a w .
itswidthto one{hird
thethickadjusting
front.Setthecutting
nessof thedrawer
height
equalto thethickness
of thedrawer
s i d e sN
. e x t i,n s t a lal t e n o n i nj gi g ;t h e
m o d esl h o w ns l i d e si n t h e m i t e rs l o t .
P r o t e c t i nt hges t o c kw i t ha w o o dp a d ,
c l a m pt h ed r a w ef r o n t o t h ej i g ;m a r k
t h el i g
t h eo u t s i dfea c ew i t ha nX . M o v e
withthemidsideways
to aligntheblade
d l et h i r do f t h eb o a r dT. u r no nt h es a w
t h em i t e rs l o t o
a n ds l i d et h ej i g a l o n g
frontover
cut thedado.Turnthedrawer
a n dc l a m pi t t o t h ej i g t o c u tt h ed a d o
at the otherend(right).

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r) Trimming
thetongues
fenceon the rip fence.Marka
L lnstalla woodauxiliary
c u t t i n gl i n eo nt h ee d g eo f t h ed r a w ef r o n t h a td i v i d etsh e
facein half.Withthestockflushagainst
tongue
on its inside
inside-face
themitergauge,
down,alignthemarkwiththeblade.
Buttthefenceagainst
thestockandraisethe blades
to cut
height
a reliefnotchin thefence.
Setthecutting
to trimthe
frontf irmlyagainst
halftongue.
Holding
thedrawer
thegauge,
feedit intothecutters(above).
Turnthe boardaround
and
reoeat
theorocedure
at theotherend.

Cutting
matching
dadoesin thedrawersides
Q
r . J T o j o i n t h e d r a w e sr i d e st o t h e f r o n t ,c u t a d a d on e a rt h e
f r o n te n d o f e a c hs i d e .T h ed a d om u s tm a t ew i t h t h e h a l f t o n g u eo n t h e f r o n t .S e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g h t o t h e l e n g t ho f t h e
h a l f - t o n g uaen d s c r e wa w o o d e ne x t e n s i obno a r dt o t h e m i t e r
g a u g eT. o s e tt h e w i d t ho f c u t , b u t t t h e d r a w e sr i d ea g a i n s t
t h e f r o n ta n d u s ea p e n c itl o o u t l i n et h e h a l f - t o n g uoen t h e
d r a w esr i d e .H o l dt h e s i d ea g a i n stth e e x t e n s i oann da l i g nt h e
m a r k sw i t ht h e d a d oh e a d C
. l a m pa s t o pb l o c kf l u s ha g a i n s t
the endof the stockandfeedthe boardto cut the dadohbovd.
R e p e atth e c u t o n t h e o t h e rs i d e .

B4

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DRAWERS

PREPARING
THEDRAWER
F()RA B()TT()M
PANEL
panel
Cutting
thegroove
forthebottom
Dry-assemble
thedrawer
andmarkany
spots
where
thejointsbind;usea chisel
to
paresmallamounts
of woodto achieve
a
goodfit. Next,useyourtablesawto cut
a groove
in thedrawer
frontandsides
to
panel.
accommodate
thebottom
Install
a
d a d oh e a da, d j u s t i nt gh ew i d t ht o t h e
panelstock.Set
thickness
of thebottom
thecuttingheight
to halfthestockthicknessandadjusttheriptenceto leave
a
%-inchborderbetween
the bottomof
thegroove
andtheboard
edge.Feedthe
drawer
frontacross
thetableusinga push
slick(right).(Caution:
Inthisillustration
the
bladeguardhasbeenremoved
for clarit y . )R e p e at h
t ec u to n t h ed r a w esri d e s .
F i n a l l rya, i s teh eb l a d e
h e i g hat b i th i g h e r t h a nt h es t o c kt h i c k n e sasn dr i pt h e
d r a w ebra c kt o w i d t hT. h i sw i l la l l o w
the
bottompanelto slrdeintoposition
when
thedrawer
is assembled,

ASSEMBLING
THEDRAWER
thedrawer
1 Clamping
I A webclampwithcorner
brackets
is
idealforgluingupdrawers.
Thewebdispressure
tributes
evenly
among
allfour
corners,
whilethebrackets
helpto spread
thepressure
along
thelenghof eachjoint.
Tousethewebclamps
shown,
applyglue
t o t h ec o n t a c t i nsgu r f a c easn da s s e m blethedrawer
on a worksurface.
Next,
f it thecorner
brackets
in olace.
Wraothe
s t r a p sa r o u n d
t h ed r a w ecr a r c a saen d
t i g h t e nt h e mw i t ht h e b u c k l ebs e f o r e
locking
themin place(left).Whenthe
a d h e s i vhea sc u r e dr,e m o vteh ec l a m p s
andapplyedgebanding
to thetopedges
of thedrawer.

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85

DRAWERS

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thebottom
O lnstalling
L f rimthe bottomoanel'/,e
inchnarthetwo
rowerthanthesoacebetween
grooves.
Slidethepanelintoplacefrom
the back(above).
Donotapplyanyglue.
Thiswillallow
thedrawer
sides
to expand
o r c o n t r a cwt i t hc h a n g ei sn h u m i d i t y ;
p a r t i c u l a ri fl yt h es i d e sa r em a d ef r o m
solidwood.Secure
the bottomwitha
back.
couole
of finishnailsin thedrawer

rltffrlllIItffilj{tiltllllfillllltflflljliljltII]finitltjllntl
1HO?Tt?
Eliminating
drawer rattle
DrawerbolNome
alwayofia
t tad
looeelyto allowfor
woodmovement,
thio
Unfor1unately,
can somelimeolead
lo an annoytnq
raNlle.An eaoy fix
for this io to jam
little wedqee
belweenthe bottom
paneland the drawer
sides.Cut four lo six wedaes
for eachoffendinadrawer.ge eure
Lo cut,lhemeo the grainie orientedaNa
riqhLanqleNothe taper.Thiowillmakeit eaoy
to breakoff. Toinetall eachwedqe,NapiNin place.
Finallybreakoff lhe exceesby liflinq the wedqe.

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DRAWERSLIDESAND RUNNERS
ommercial
slideshavesimplifedthe
f
of drawersto thepoint
U installation
wherethat theyhavevirtuallysupplanted all otherdrawer-hanging
hardware,
andfor goodreason.Theslidesaresimple to installand canbe securedwith
only threeor four screws.Somecommercialslidesevenallowfor fine tunins
and canbe adjustedverticallyafterthi
havebeeninstalled.
screws
For the kitchenuser,commercial
drawer slidesalso offer unmatched
durability.Goodqualityside-mounted
slides(page89) arerigorouslytested;
theymust openand closeflawlessly
at
Ieast100,000
timesand supporta load
of 150poundswhen fully extended.
Bottom-mounted
slides(below)cannot
bearnearlyasmuchweight,but areconsiderably
lessexpensive.
Woodenslides
(page91)still havea place.Inexpensive
to make,they areperfectlysuitablefor
Somebottom-mounteddrawer slidescan extend
light-dutysituations.
a drawer itsfull length to display the contentsinside.

INSTATTING
BOTTOM.MOUNTED
STIDES
therunner
to thedrawer
1 Attaching
I Bottom-mounted
slidesconsist
of two
parts:a runnerthatattaches
to the bottomof thedrawer
slideanda trackthat
is secured
to the cabinetsides.Before
placeit in front
installing
thefirstdrawer,
o f t h ec a s ea n dl a yo u tt h es l i d ep a r t s
beside
i t . M a k es u r ey o uu n d e r s t a n d
where
eachpiecegoesanditsorientation.
T o p o s i t i otnh er u n n e rs,e tt h ed r a w e r
o n i t s s i d ea n db u t tt h er u n n ear g a i n s t
the bottomof thedrawer
sideasshown.
Insetthehardware
%einchbackfromthe
drawer
f rontso it will notinterfere
with
the falsefronl(page93).fhe runner
canbesecured
frombelowor fromthe
side.lf youareusingsolidwoodor plywood,attachit fromtheside.lf youhave
chosen
melamine,
attach
therunner
from
below(/eff).In bothcases,
drillpilotholes
f irstto avoidsplitting
thematerial.

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87

I
DRAWERS

Positioning
thetracks
O n c ey o uh a v ed e t e r m i n et hdes p a c i nogf t h ed r a w e r s drawerheightfromthecabinetstorypole(page25) thenmove
(page82),position
andtracktogether
to alignthebottom
of thetrack
thetracksfor bottom-mounted
slidesonthe thesquare
withthisdistance
thecombined
thickness
of the
sidesof thecabinet.
Place
a trackonthecabinet
side,usinga
hbovd.Given
andtrack,thismeans
the bottomof thedrawer
sides
front. runner
framing
square
to holdit at a rightangleto thecabinet
placethetrackalmost
t z - i n chhi g h et rh a no nt h es t o r yp o l e .
flushwiththe w i l lb ea c t u a l layb o u%
Forfaceframecabinets,
overthedrawer
belowwrllnotbe
frontedgeof thecabinet;
forframeless
cabinets
liketheone Thisbit of extraclearance
s i l lc o v etrh eg a p .F i n a l l y ,
n o t i c e a bslien c et h ef a l s ef r o n t w
insetthedrawer
bythethickness
of thefalse
shownabove,
holesrnthetrackontothecabinet
side.
outtheappropriatemarktheoredrilled
frontstock;typically
about%inch.Measure

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thetracks
Q Fastening
r-,f Drilla oilotholeat eachof themarks
youmadein step1, wrapping
a pieceof
t a p ea r o u ntdh ed r i l lb i tt o e n s u rteh a t
theside
thescrews
do notpassthrough
o f t h ec a b i n eT
t .h e nf a s t e tnh et r a c ki n
placewitha screwin eachholetighil.
lf youhavemorethanonedrawer
to install
at a certainheight,
cut a plywood
spacer
to fit between
thetrackandthecabinet
Youcanusethisto placeallthe
bottom.
thesameheightwithout
tracksat exactly
Repeat
measuring.
steps1 and2 forthe
in thecabinet.
otherdrawers

88

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DRAWERS

INSTALLING
SIDE.MOUNTED
SLIDES
'l Attaching
runners
thedrawer
I Unlikebottom-mounted
slides,
the
runners
of a side-mounted
drawer
slide
canbeattached
to thesideof a drawer
at
anyheight.
To makeinstallation
easier,
always
offsettherunner
thesamedistance
fromthe bottomedgeof thedrawer
side.
Therunner
in theillustration
wasolaced
3%inches
fromtheedge,measuring
to
t h ec e n t eor f t h er u n n e rM. a k ea s i m o l e
jig to position
all therunners
at exactly
thesamespoton eachdrawer.
Fasten
someone-inch-square
stockasa lipto a
12-inch
length
of plywood,
thentrimthe
jigto widthto holdtherunner
at theright
position
asshown.
Toattacheachrunner,
firstseparate
therunner
fromthetrack.
Thenclampthejigto thedrawer
sideand
holdtherunner
against
it, making
sureit
is f lushwiththedrawer
front.Secure
the
runnerwith screwstight).

Poaitioninqjiq

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r) Fastening
thetracks
Z- Position
thetracksonthesidesof the
cabinet
according
to thedesired
spacing
(page82) Forthe lowest
track,simply
measure
theoffsetof thedrawer
runner
(above)
fromthecabinet
bottom,
adding
Yoinchforclearance.
Drawa lineat this
height.
Holdthetrackagainst
thecabinet
srdeandcenter
thepredrilled
screwholes
o v e tr h e l i n e .F o rf a c ef r a m ec a b i n e t s ,
position
thetracksoit is nearly
f lushwith
t h ef r o n to f t h ec a b i n e tf ;o r f r a m e l e s s
cabinets,
insetthetrackbythethickness
of thefalsefrontstock.Fasten
thetrack
withscrews(left).f he highertracks
canbe positioned
byadding
thedrawer
heightspecified
onthecabinet
storypole
25)to
the
runner
offset.
Remember
@age
t o m e a s u rt eo t h e c e n t eor f t h et r a c k .
Repeat
stepsI and2 fortheotherdrawers.

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89

I
DRAWERS

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thedrawer
Q Installing
ullypositioned
and
vl lf youhavecaref
i n s t a l l etdh e r u n n e rasn dt r a c k st ,h e
drawers
canbehungbysimply
slipping
intotheslidesmounted
on
theirrunners
Toremove
thecabinet
sides.
thedrawer,
it fullythentripthelever
releases
extend
on bothslrdeskbove).

lljtfillffilltllittllltlltfitrfiltljltlllrfillfiltilltllllilIltllllllt
9HO7Tt?
7uildingup faaeframe cabineto
drawer
)ince mosl commercial
slidesare desianedtobeecrewed
direcblyto the eideeof a cabinel,
lhey cannol be ueedon face
framecabineNe
withoutcerlain
adjuetmenNe.
Manufacturere
makeepecialbrackeLe
Nobridqethie qap buI a
muchelurdier,ehoe-made
alternaNive
ie NobuildupNhecabineNeidee,Rio eome 1'/z-inch-Nhick

eolidetock equalin widLhlo Nhe


dietancebelweenNheedgeof the face
frameandthe eideeof Nhecabinet,.You
willneedthree upriqhLpieceoIhaN eNreNch
the bothomand lop of NhecabineN.
Drillpilot,holesin Nhe
between
upriqhLo
everyfourto sixiiches.Locaileeachoi Lheupriqh\eeo
it io oppooite a pre-drilled
suew holein the olide,then f astenthe
o?acerotrothe cabinetsidewith woodscrews.NowNheslidecan
beoecurely
inslalledin linewiththe insideedqeof Ihe f aceframe.

90

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DRAWERS

Longbefore
theadventof commercial drawerslides,cabinetmakers
weremakingsimpleyet fficient
drawerrunnersfrom wood.The
drawerin thefaceframe cabinet
shownat right hasdadoescut into
its sidesthat slideoverwooden
runnersmountedto theinsideof
thecabinet.Four notchedblocks
scretued
to thefaceframe and cabinetbacksupporteachrunner.To
installwoodenrunnersin aframelesscabinet,seethestepsbelow.

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HANGING
DRAWERS
WITHSHOP-MADE
RUNNERS
grooves
in thedrawer
sides
1 Cutting
I Before
assembling
thedrawer,
cut a
groove
forthe runnerin theoutside
face
of eachdrawer
side.Tomakeinstallation
easier,
offseteachgroove
thesamedistancefromthe bottomedgeof the drawer
side.Therearenorigidrulesforthewidth
of thegroove,
butit shouldaccommodate
slidesthatarethickenough
to support
thedrawer.
Onyourtablesawinstalla
dadoheadthesamewidthasthe groove.
Drawcuttinglinesforthegroove
in the
middleof the leading
endof onedrawer
side.Alsomarkthedepthof thegroove;
i t s h o u l db e n o m o r et h a no n e - h atlhf e
stockthickness.
Buttthe linesforthe
groove
against
thedadohead,thencrank
theblades
upto thedepthline.Buttthe
ripfenceflushagainst
thestockandmake
thecut.Repeat
foreachdrawer
side.

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91

I
DRAWERS

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r) Installing
theslides
L ltulltheslidestockso itsthickness
andwidthareabouthzinchlessthanthe
d i m e n s i oonfst h eg r o o vien t h ed r a w e r
Trimtheslides
a fewinches
shorter
sides.
t h a nt h ec a b i n esti d e st,h e nd r i l lt h r e e
c o u n t e r b o rcel e
d a r a n cheo l e si n e a c h .
Position
thewooden
slidesasyouwould
commercial
side-mounted
slides@age
89.
Holda slideso it is insetf romthefront
e d g eo f t h ec a b i n ebt yt h et h i c k n e s s
of thefalsefrontstock,thenscrewit in
place(righil.Test-fit the drawer.lf it is
t o ol o o s ea, d ds h i m su n d etrh es l i d e s ;
i f t o ot i g h t ,r e m o viet a n dp l a n eo rs a n d
i t s l i g h t tl yhi nn e r .

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fit
drawer
Q Fine-tuning
r-,1Slidethedrawer
ontoitsrunners.
lf thesidesbind,remove
onthesides-high
spots
thedrawer
andmarkanyshinyareas
Tosecure
thedrawer
thatcanbeshaved
offwitha handplane.
forplaning,
to a workbench
withoneedge
clampa wideboard
Remove
of the
extending
overthesideasshown.
the bottom
drawer
andhangthedrawer
ontheboardsothe binding
side

i s f a c i n gu p .T h e nc l a m pa n o t h ebro a r dt o t h ew o r k b e n c h ,
butting
it against
thedrawer;
usea bench
dogto keepthesecondboard
frommoving.
Gripping
theplanewithbothhands,
(above).
shaveoff the marked
spotswithsmooth,
evenstrokes
Test-fit
thedrawer
andrepeat
untilit slides
smoothly.
Replace
ihp hnfinm nanpl

92

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FALSEFRONTSAND HARDWARE
f, alsefrontssolvethe problemof
I hanging
drawers
sotheyareperfectly
straightandlevel.Wth thefalsefront
system,
all thedrawers
in a cabinetare
mountedascloseto levelaspossible,
thenthefrontsarepositioned
individuallysotheyareplumbandlevelwith
thecaseor faceframe.Shimsareused
to fine-tunethefit. Thelocationof the
falsefrontsaremarkedwithnailtiosset
in the drawers,
thenthe draweriare
removed
andthefalsefrontsarefastened
in place.
Falsefrontscanbeusedwith either
frameless
or faceframecabinets.
Thefor-

mer alwaysusesinsetdrawers(below),
while the lattercanhaveeitherinsetor
overlaydrawers(page80).
Installing knobs or pulls is not
tricky, but takethe time to do it right.
The key is to centerthe hardwareon
the drawer front. Techniquesfor
installing the two different types of
hardwareare shownon page97.

Oneof thefinal touchesin makinga


draweris addingtheappropriatehandleor knob.Herea drawerknobis attachedto aframe-and-panel
falsefront.

()NINSET
INSTALLING
FALSE
FRONTS
DRAWERS
'l

Preparing
thedrawer
I 0ncethe drawer
slideshavebeen
properly
mounted(pages
87-92),setthe
drawer
face-up
ona worksurface
anddrive
twobradsintothedrawer
front,leaving
theirheadprotruding.
Makesurethebrads
arenotlocated
pullwill
where
thedrawer
beinstalled.
Thensnipofftheheads,
leavingabout%inchexposed.

=--l - l=

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DRAWERS

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Attaching
thefalsefronts
PosiApplya thinlayerof glueto thefrontof thedrawer.
t i o nt h ef a l s ef r o n ti n p l a c el,i n i n gu pt h ei n d e n t a t i oynosu
m a d ei n s t e p2 w i t ht h eb r a dt i p s .C l a m tph ef a l s ef r o n ti n
t o l en e aer a c hc o r n ef r o mt h ei n s i d e
p l a c et h
, e nd r i l la p i l o h
o f t h ed r a w e m
r ; a r kt h ep r o p edr e p t ho nt h eb i t w i t hs o m e
m a s k i nt a
g p et o a v o i d r i l l i ntgh r o u gthh ef r o n tF. i n a l lfya s t e n
%inchshorter
thanthetotalthickthefalsefrontwithscrews
nessof thedrawerIront(above).
r) Marking
fronts
thedrawer
Z lnstall
allthedrawers
ontheirslides.
posiwiththe bottomdrawer,
Starting
t i o ni t sm a t c h i nf ga l s ef r o n ti n p l a c e .
h i m st o l e v e l
U s eo a o eor r c a r d b o asr d
anevengap
thefalsefrontandcreate
it andthecabof about%inchbetween
Pulloutthedrawer
above
inetbottom.
false
thebottom
to ensure
thatit clears
When
front;trimthefrontif necessary.
youaresatisf
iedwiththef it, pushthe
driving
the
falsefrontintothedrawer,
Applylaminate
bradtipsintothewood.
(page4& to theedges
of
edgebanding
to step3 to
thefalsefront,thenproceed
installit. Marktherestof thefalsefronts
eachoneagainst
thesameway,shimming
it bbove).
drawer
benealh
thef inished

lll1
lllllllJllltlllj
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liliiltlfillllltlljllllliltillllilllllllill lll1
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Sizingfaloe fronls
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tatoe
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fronls lo eize,two
otraiqht,and equare
slickg can oerveag
accural,e4auqeofor
measurinq
Ihe ineide

lffi$S$#,ffi;;

w i d t h o f a k i b c h e nc a b i -

neL,TlaceNhesticks oideby
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o t i c k a q a i n o No n e o i d e a n d L h e o t h e r
a q a i n e l N h eo p p o o i t es i d e . M a r k a l i n e

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Remove
acro;ethe eNicks.
lenquhof the stickswillgiveyou
marke.Ihecombined
for Ihe lenathof the faleefronN.
Nhecorrect,meaouremenN

94

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DRAWERS

INSTALTING
FALSE
FRONTS
ONOVERTAY
DRAWERS

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thefalsefronts
1 Chamfering
I False
f rontson overlay
drawers
typicallyhavesomesortof edgetreatment,
(shown
suchasrounding
over,chamfering
here),or moreinvolved
shaping.
Firstsize
thefalsefrontsto matchthedrawer
carcasefront,plusthedesired
overlap.
To
chamfer
theedges
ofthefalsefront,install
a piloted
45" chamfering
bit in a router
and
mountthetoolin a table.Alignthefence
withthebit'spilotbearing
andadjust
the
height
of thebitto cutall but%uinchof
thefront'sedgesandends.Clamptwo
featherboards
to thefence,oneon either
sideof thebit,to holdthestockagainst
t h et a b l e (. l n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o
t hnef r o n t
featherboard
hasbeenremoved
forclarity.)Toreduce
tearout,
chamfer
theends
b e f o r teh es i d e sF
. e e dt h ew o r k o i e c e
across
thetablewitha pushstick,using
yourlefthandto press
thestockagainst
the f ence(righil.

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r) Marking
thefalsefront
L Ltlarnfalse
frontsforanoverlay
drawer
(page93).
asyouwouldforan insetdrawer
Theexample
at leftshows
twoside-bysidedrawers
overa pairof doors.
A supportblockis clamped
beneath
thedrawer
t o h e l pp o s i t i ot n
h ef a l s ef r o n ti n p l a c e .
Firstprepare
thefrontof thedrawers
by
inserting
andcuttingoff a pairof brads
(page93).To placethesupportblock,
drawa lineonthedrawer
railwherethe
partof thefalsefrontwillbe.Clamp
lowest
theblockin place,
thensetthefalsefront
ontopof rt.Finetune
position
theblock's
b yt a p p i n igt l i g h t l w
y i t ha m a l l eut n t i l
thefalsefrontsitslevelandat exactly
the
rrghtheight.
Thenmovethefrontrightor
leftto center
it horizontally.
Finally,
hold
thefrontin position
andpushthedrawer
intothefrontto markit (lef).fhe front
canbescrewed
to thedrawer(page94)
orgluedin place(page96).

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onfalsefronts
Q Gluing
a
andspread
r.,l Remove
thedrawer
thrnlayerof glueonthebackof thefalse
withthe
front.Place
thefrontin position,
Holdthe
twobradsin theirimpressions.
bar
usingquick-action
assembly
together,
theedgeof thefrontand
clamps
along
C clamps
along
thebottom
deep-throated
edge;protect
thestockwithwoodpads
Tighten
theclamps
wherenecessary.
evenlyuntiltherearenogapsbetween
bbovd.
thefalsefrontandthedrawer

tjlifiljiltilllllll]llllllliilliilllllljlllillliill illllllllllllll1llll
)HO?Tt?
1eauringfalse lronts
with double-facedtape
Double-f
acedtape ie
a quickand eaey /
wayto Vooition
S._
and holdfalee
lronNein place
whileinotallinq
Nhem.Slick a eNriV
LaVe
of double-faced
to the fronl of the
drawercarcage.Forface frame cabi'
neNo(ehownhere),holdthe f alsefront
in placewith a 6u??ortboard.For
frameleescabinets.shimLhefront,
shime.Then
with paperor card,board,
oushthe fronNaaaineLthe drawerso
ineLall
it uticketo NheiaVe,Finally,
Ihe faleefront with ocrewe.

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HANDTES
ANDPULTS
'l

Installing
knobs
I Drawers
withsinele
knobs
should
have
t h e k n o bc e n t e r ei d
n t h em i d d l eo f t h e
drawer
front.Tofindthe center,draw
d i a g o n acl so n n e c t i nogp p o s i tceo r n e r s ,
justnearthemiddle
marking
ofthedrawer
(right);
do notmakethe linestoodarkor
t h e yw i l lb ed i f fi c u l t o e r a s e
l a t e rD
. rill
a c l e a r a n cheo l ef o rt h e k n o bt;h eh o l e
should
bejusta shade
larger
thanthebolt
sotheknobbasewillhavesomething
to
bearagainst.
lnstall
theknobafterapplyinga finishto thefront.

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r') Installing
pulls
drawer
L me holes
pullsarea little
fordrawer
moretime-consuming
to mark.Mostfronts
a r el a i do u ts ot h ep u l li s l e v eal n dc e n teredbothhorizontally
andvertically;
some
tallerdrawers
mayhavepullsplaced
a bit
below
thehalfway
mark.Fora single
cent e r e dp u l l ,b e g i nb yd r a w i nagl i n et h a t
divides
thefrontin halflengthwise.
Use
a framing
square
to layouttheline,then
d o u b l ceh e c kw i t ha r u l e tro m a k es u r e
thatit is evenat bothends.Measure
out
theexactmidpoint
of thislineandmake
a mark.Measure
thedistance
fromcenter
to center
of thetwoendsof thepulland
divide
thisnumber
in two.Markoutthis
d i s t a n coen t h ec e n t e r l i nm
e ,e a s u r i n g
f r o mb o t hs i d e so f t h em i d p o i n D
t.rill
clearance
holes
through
thefrontat these
twopoints.
Install
thepullafterapplying
a finishto thefront.

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NSTALLNG CABINETS

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kitchencabinets
can
Pinpointingirregularities
in
f nstalling
I bethebestof times.andthe
kitchensurfaces
is coveredon
worst.Best,because
it marksthe
page102.Lowercabinetruns
completionof an arduoustask;
(pagefia) areusuallyinstalled
worst.because
installationof
first,followedbytheuppercabperfectcabinets
in an imperfect
inets(page115).Somecabinetkitchenis sureto put yourcabmakers,however,install the
inetmakingskillsto the test.
uppercabinets
first,arguingthat
Until now,you haveworkedon
it is easierto dothistaskwith the
paperandin therelativecalmof
lowercabinetsout of theway.
yourworkshop,carefullycraftA transferscribeaccurately
Whileeitheroptionwill work,
followsthecontours
ing your cabinets
oneby one.
of a wall and drawsa matchinglineontoa scribe
stand-alone
kitchenpeninsulas
Buta kitchenis not a workshop. rail. Oncetherail isplanedor sandedto thisline,
andislands(pages
112-114)
are
Whenyoubringyour cabinets
thecabinetwill fit seamlessly
whenit is installed.
bestinstalledlast,astheycancreon siteandstartinstallingthem,
atetrafficjamsduringinstallayou mayfind yourselfdealingwith problemsyou hadnot tion, no matterhow well theyareexpected
to work in the
anticipated,
oftenworkingagainst
theclock.
finishedkitchen.
Forexample,
no matterhowpainstakinglyyou
haveexePlaced
plinths,or theirownintegralbases,
on levelers,
the
cutedyourstorypolesandbuilt yourcabinets
(page104)arcshimmedfrombehindsotheir
to theirspec- lowercabinets
ifications,
therewill undoubtedlybe
gapsbetween
thecarcases facesareplumbandalignedflushwith eachother,thenthe
andthewalls,floors,andceilings.
Thisisbecause
thewallsof
cases
arefastened
to thewallstuds.Utilityhookupssuchashot
a room,unlikeyourcabinets,
arerarelystraight.
Fortunately, andcoldwatersupplies,
drainpipes,andelectrical
outlets
out-of-plumbwallscaneasilybestraightened
by addingaddi- requirespecialplanning(page108).Beforeinstallingcabinets
(page104)andscribingthem aroundsuchhookups,
tionalrailsto theendcabinets
checkwithaprofessional
plumberand
(photo,above).
Thescriberail canthenbeplanedor sanded electrician
to ensure
thatthepipesaresoundandthewiringis
to conformto thewall.
in goodcondition.Uppercabinets
aremountedusingnailer
Thechapterthatfollowsguidesyou throughthesteps rails,European-style
supports,
or beveled
woodensupportrails
andtechniques
necessary
to installyourkitchencabinets (page115).As
in thelowercabinets,
variations
in thelengthof
andmakesuretheyareplumbandlevel.A generalreview acabinet
runmaycallforfillersnipsto bridgegapsbetween
cab(pages100-101)
of installationtechniques
outlinesseveral inets.Thefinaltouchisdecorative
crownmolding(page118),
optionsfor installingbothloweranduppercabinetruns. whichdresses
thejointbetr,veen
thecabinets
andtheceiling.

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Positioningand installingtheuppercabinetsof a kitchen


is moredfficult than installinglowercabinets.Simple
jigssuchasshop-madecabinetjacks(left) and temporary supportraik (pagell5) makethejob mucheasier.

99

INSTALLATIONBASICS
yourkitchen
cabiheninstalling
youchoose
to
nets,thetechnique
keepthem levelwill dependon your
If your lower
methodof construction.
integral
toekick,you
feature
an
cabinets
(page
legs
44)
or shims
use
leveler
can
(page106)to positionthecabinetslevel,
plumb,and squarewith one another
to the studs.If
beforenailingthe cases
leveler
your cabinetsaresimplecarcases,
plinth
are
both
suitable.
legsor a
base
Whiletheplinth base(page112)can
be usedwith anyIowercabinet,it is particularly well-suitedto islandsand
Thisisbecause
bothof these
oeninsulas.
iabinet tvDesaredifficult to secureto
The
thefloor whilehidingthefasteners.
olinth is leveledfirst with shimsor
idjustablelevelers,then fastenedin
screwed
to
olacewith a fewL-brackets
ihe floor and insideof the plinth. The
onto
islandor peninsulais thenscrewed
theolinth,
Uppercabinetscaneitherbescrewed
to the wall studsthroughnailerrails
(page116),specialized
hardcommercial
woodensupware,or hungon beveled
oort railsscrewedto both the cabinet
both
ind the wall studs(opposite).In
shimsareused
upperandlowercabinets,
and makethemall
to levelthe cabinets
appearto be a singleunit seamlessly
joinedto the kitchen.Scriberailsand
fillerstripsshouldtakecareofanygaps.

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Kickplate

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kickclio

Adiuatable

\, E1,

f f i - - - - - - , /

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F'::-::!a

: #@//t: .
w-^
uor)tinq

plate

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INSTALLING CABINETS

(Page115)
UPPER
CABINETS

5ide view

ISTAND
(Page
112)

Adjuetable
leveler

INSTALLINGTHE LOWERCABINETS
rla hewallsandfloorsof a kitchenare
I typicallyfar from plumb,level,
straight,
andsquare.
Commonirregularitiessuchasbowsin thewallor a
problems
warpedfloorcancreate
when
it comes
timeto installcabinets
thatare
perfectly
In olderhomes,the
square.
studsin thewallsmayalsobeplacedat
intervals
16-inch
otherthanthestandard
spacing
usedtoday.Thebestplanned
kitchenwill poseinstallation
challenges
thatcannotbetackleduntil thecabinets
arereadyfor assembly
on-site.However,
youneedto identifytheseirregularities
A chalklinesimplifies
markingout
longlevellines,suchasindicating
thetopof a lowerrun of cabinets.

PREPARING
FOR
INSTALLATION

beforeyoubeginputtingthecabinets
in place.
Yourfirsttaskis to drawlevelhorizontallinesonthewallswherethecabIf thekitchenfloor
inetswill go(below).
isnotlevel,youcanadjusttheheightof
thecabinets
laterwith shimsor various
typesof commercial
levelers.
Next,you
needto locatethewallstuds.whichare
in place.
crucialto securing
thecabinets
Thisis easilydonewith an electronic
deviceknownasa studfinder,which
detects
differences
in thethickness
ofa
wallby meansof a magnetic
field.
Lastly,
thesquareness
of corners
will
affectaclosefit (opposite).
Scriberails,
mustbewideenough
usedto covergaps,
to spananyvoids
between
cabinetsides
andtheadjoiningwall.

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layout
lines
1 Drawing
I Usea longcarpenter's
levelto drawa
lineonthewallat the heightof the lower
this linefrom
cabinetstighil. Measure
the highestpointof the f loorwhereit
meetsthe wall (page24). lt youhave
adjoining
cabinetruns,startmarking
fromthe highest
floorpointof the respectivewalls.
Thisensures
thatyouwillonly
needto shimthecabinetbottoms
to level
(lf youstarted
thetopsof thecabinets.
froma lowerpointonthef loor,cabinet
wouldrequire
scribing-amore
bottoms
Thelinescanalso
laborious
approach.)
beeasilylaidoutwitha chalkline(photo,above).
Repeat
the procedure
to mark
thebottomof the uppercabinets.

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INSTALLING CABINETS

r) Checking
thecorners
forsquare
L tlsea carpenter's
square
to determine
(left).lf not,measure
if a corneris square
thegap,andusethisfigureto makescribe
rails(page104).Usea plumbbobto see
if thewallleansinward.
lf it does,meapoint.
surethegapat itswidest

wallstuds
Q Locating
r.,f Usean electronic
studf inderto
locate
thecenters
of thestudsin the
w a l l sF. o l l o w i nt hgem a n u f a c t u r e r ' s
instructions,
calibrate
thesensor
and
place
thedevice
against
thewall.Press
theoperating
buttonandslidethesensorsideways
across
the wall(below);
theredlightwillcomeonasthedevice
passes
overa stud.Determine
theedges
of eachstudandmarkitscenter.
You
canalsosnapa chalklineupthecenter
of eachstudto locateit for bothuooer
andlower
cabinets.

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103

t
INSTALLINGCABINETS

RUN
A LOWER
CABINET
INSTALLING
'l Adding
scribe
rails
I lnstall
a corner
cabinet
first.Cuta
to spanthegap
scribe
railwideenough
between
theedgeof thecabinetandthe
wall.Thescribe
railshould
bethesame
lengta
h st h ec a b i n ef a
t c e a, n dm a d e
fromthesamematerial.
Gluetherailin
placesoitsfaceisf lushwiththecabinet.
railin place(left)and
Clamp
thescribe
letthegluecure.

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r) Shimming
temporarily
thecabinets
Z - P o s i t i ot n
h ec a b i n ei tn p l a c ew i t h
r a i lt o u c h i ntgh ew a l l .S l i p
t h es c r i b e
s h i m sb e n e a t h ec a b i n eutn t i tl h et o p
of thecabinetis level(righil.Forcabin e t sw i t hl e v e l el e
r g sa, d j u stth e h e i g h t
o f t h el e g su n t i lt h ec a b i n ei ts l e v e l
(page110).

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INSTALLING CABINETS

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therail
Q Scribing
r-t Seta transfer
scribeslightlylarger
thanthegapyoudetermined
forthe
scriberail(page103).Placethesteel
p o i n at g a i n st ht ew a l la n dl a yt h ep e n t n t h es c r i b er a i l .K e e pt h e
c i l p o i no
points
two
levelasyouslidethetransfer
scribedownthewall(above),
marking
thecontour
of thewallontherail.

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Planing
thescriberails
Sandor planetheedgeof thescribe
raildownto thelineyouscribed
in step
2. Tilt thetoola bit towardthe rear
o f t h ec a b i n eatsy o up l a n et h es c r i b e
rail,creating
a slightbevel(/eff).This
bevelneednotbeverypronounced,
but
willensure
a snugf it whenthecabinet
is installed.

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INSTALLING CABINETS

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RUNS
INSTALLING
ADJACENT
adjacent
cabinets
1 Aligning
I Toinstall
runsof cabinets
onadjacent
cabinet.
Level
walls,startwiththecorner
a n di n s t a tl lh ec a s ea sy o ud i d i n s t e p5
(above),
Place
thenalignthenextcabinet.
sothecabiandadjustshimsas needed
n e tf a c e sa r ef l u s ha n dI e v e lC. l a m tph e
(rghf).
in position
cabinets
together

thecabinet
f, Installing
r-,1Reposition
in placewith
thecabinet
t h es c r i b e
r a i lt o u c h i ntgh ew a l l .S h i m
the bottomandsidesof thecabinet
so
i t i s l e v eal n di t st o pi s a l i g n ew
d i t ht h e
r e f e r e n cl ien eo n t h ew a l l .F a s t etnh e
c a b i n ei tn p l a c eb ys c r e w i nt g
hrough
t h es h i m sa n dr e a rn a i l e risn t ot h ew a l l
fromthe
studs(/eff).Trimthe excess
shimswitha sharpknife.Alignthenext
c a b i n ei tn t h er u na n ds c r e wi t t o t h e
Repeat
firstcabinet(below),
to install
t h er e m a i n doefrt h er u n .

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106

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INSTALLINGCABINETS

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ji]trllillll lrrlllll ilil lilrlillill illi itil {illtlil ilt{iil1iill


rlJlur
lllI iii
ul
lu ili i.u uJ ilJ iti t$ {lJ di ul i.ri ru u ui ut

5HO?TI?
Makingthiak shims
lf you muet ehima wideqap,add a sufficienbly
thick pieceof plywood
Lo a ef,andard
cedarshim.Thieeliminatee
the needfor eeveral
ahime,whichmay ehifLand complicate
Ihe levelinq
?roceoo.
Uoinqa pieceof plywood
of uniformthickneesalso
enauree
that,the shimwillnoLinlroduceadditionalirregularities,
as may happenwhen
placinqmanyohimonexf,loeachother.
JoinIhe ehimIo the plywood
with
a shorLscrewimakesureLhe
headof the lasteneris
e u n kb e l o wt h e s u r / ..,"',
f ace of the ehim.
G)
,/ . a ' - '

d*.

,at'
.a/

'..,."
'x.t

I
'\ti

y'''

r07

r) Fastening
thecabinets
y o uh a v ea l i g n etdh ec a b i L Once
nets,fastenthemtogether
withscrews.
D r i l tl h r e ec o u n t e r s uonikl o th o l e a
st
t h ef r o n ta n dt h eb a c ko f o n ec a b i n e t
side.lf youareusing
%-inchthick
stock
foryourcabinets,
maketheseholes1%
i n c h eds e e pT. h e nd r i v et h ef a s t e n e r s
in place(above).

INSTALLING CABINETS

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fillerstrips
Q Installing
r-J Minoraberrations
of thewallsandcabiin themeasurement
to be
netscanleaveyouwitha gapbetween
the lastcabinets
rails
cannot
beeliminated
byadding
scribe
installed.
lf thespace
of equalwidthat eitherendof therun,cuta fillerstripthelength
faceandwideenough
to bridge
thegapbetween
of thecabinet

asthe
Cutthepiecefromthesamematerial
thetwocabinets.
installed.
Screw
screw
it
to
the
cabinet
already
cabinets,
then
an addiiional
stripalongthetopedgeof thecabinetbbovd,as
front
fillerstripandaslongasthedepthof thecabrwideasthe
it asin step2.
next
in place,
andinstall
nets.Slidethe
cabinet

H()()KUPS
FITTING
CABINETS
AROUND
UTITITY
utilitycutouts
1 Locating
I Usingthecabinet
storypolesforthe
cabinet(page24),transfer
appropriate
forplumbing
andelecthemeasurements
tricaloutlets
ontothebackoanelof the
the position
and
cabinettighD.lndicate
sizeof eachutilitycutout.

Location
,-/ofdrain

r08

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INSTALLING CABINETS

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r) Gutting
holes
L Cutthe holesusinsa drillf itted
witha holesawthesairesrzeasthe
cutout(abovel.
Makethe holesslightly
larger
thanthe pipe.A keyhole
saw
canbeusedfor largerholes.

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shut-off
valves
Q Attaching
\, Fitdecorative
flanges
overthepipes,
thenfastenshut-off
valves
to the pipe
e n d sT. h e s e
t a p su s u a l lrye q u i roen l y
(left)tofastenthemin place.
wrenches
A f l e x i b l seu p p l tyu b et h e nf e e d st h e
waterto thetaos.

109

INSTALLINGCABINETS

KICKPLATES
INSTALLING
thecabinet
1l Levelins
haveintegrated
toe
I lf yourcabinets
to step2. For
kicks(page100),proceed
legs,usea levelto
withleveler
cabinets
guideyouwhileyouadjustthelegs(right).
Shiftthelevelfromthefrontto theside
untilthecabinet
andrepeat
asnecessary
i s l e v eol na l ls i d e sS. e c u rteh ec a b i n e t
fasteners
through
the
in placebydriving
intothewallstuds.
nailers

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thekickplate
Scribing
T o f i t t h e k i c k p l a t ep, l a c ei t o n t h e

f loorin frontof thecabinetbelow).Use


to scribe
thekickplate
a transfer
scribe
asyoudid the scriberail (page105).
should
be
Thetopedgeof thekickplate
Plane
the
level;
useshimsif necessary.
kickplate
to theline.

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110

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INSTALLINGCABINETS

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)rrtrr$a'r

Fitting
theretaining
clips
Drawa centerline
downtheleneth
ofthekickplate's
insrde
face.lndicate
thelocatron
of eachleveler
legon
thekickplate.
Screw
therectangular
plates
mounting
at eachof thesepoints,
thenslidetheclipsontothemounting
plates(above).

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Attaching
thekickplate
L i n eu p t h e c l i p sw i t h t h e l e g s( l e f t )

t h e ns n a pt h ek i c k p l a itnep l a c eS. l i d e
t h ec l i p ss l i g h t layl o n tgh em o u n t i n g
plates,
if necessary,
sotheylineupwith
theirrespective
legswhenthekickplate
positioned.
is properly

111

ISLANDSANDPENINSULAS

With its large tiled countertop,sink, and ample storagebelow,the kitchen


island abovedoesdouble duty as a dishwashingand food preparation
qrea. Instead of restingon a plinth, the island is set on a molded baseframe.

I f yourkitchenis largeenough,the
islandcan
I additionof a freestanding
tightenwork triangles,reducekitchen
traffic,andeliminatecountertopclutter.
a sinkor rangeandaddiIncorporating
spaceinto the islandcan
tionalstorage
improvethe overallefficiencyof your
kitchenevenmore.
Installinga kitchenislandrequiresa
differentapproachthantheoneusedfor
kitchencabinets,asthe islandhasno
supportfrom thewalls.Onesolutionis
to setthe islandon a plinth. This is a
woodenframewith a perimeterslightly
smallerthan the cabinet.The plinth is
with splinedmiterjoints,Ievassembled
to thefloor;theisland
eled,andfastened
to theplinth.The
cabinetisthenscrewed
plinth canbe madefrom plywoodor
solidwood.Theformeris recommendkicked ifthe floor is uneven;separate
olatescanbe scribedandaddedlater,

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ISLAND
A KITCHEN
INSTALLING
theframepieces
1 Preparing
I Assemble
theolinthfromveneered
or solidstockusing
%-inchplywood
First,
miterjointsat thecorners.
splined
to width-typiripthefourframepieces
to
Tocuttheframepieces
cally,4 inches.
l e n g t ht ,i l t t h et a b l es a wb l a d et o 4 5 "
; h e na s s e m b l e d ,
a n dm i t e rt h ee n d s w
from
beinset3 inches
theolinthshould
Next,make
cabinet.
allsidesof theisland
plywood;
they
from%-inch
somesplines
s h o u l db ea s l o n ga st h ew i d t ho f t h e
f ramepiecesand%inchwide.Tocutthe
grooves
forthesplines,
in theframepieces
remove
thesawbladeandinstalla dado
of thesplines.
headsetto thethickness
Adjusttheheightof thesawbladesoit
endofthe
cutsa 45" dadointothemitered
(right);lhe
pieces
depth
of
thedado
frame
width
of
the
splines.
be
half
the
should

t12

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INSTALLING CABINETS

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r) Assembling
theplinth
glue
L npply to theendsof theframe
pieces,
spreading
you
it in thedadoes
cut in step1. Spread
adhesive
on the
s p l i n easn dt a pt h e mi n t ot h ed a d o e s .
A s s e m bal en dc l a m pt h ep l i n t hu s i n g
a largewebclamp(above);
the model
shownfeatures
special
corners
thatdisr ev e n l y
t r i b u t et h ec l a m p i npgr e s s u e
along
themiterjoints.

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Leveling
theplinth
S c r e wa n a d j u s t a b l lee v e l ear t e a c h

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corner
of theplinth,installing
thefirstone
at thehighest
floorelevation
of thefour
corners.
Setthisleveler
aslowaspossible.
thenraiseor lower
theothers
asneeded
untilthetopof plinthis level(/eft).

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113

I
INSTALLINGCABINE,TS

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Shimming
theplinth
l f t h e f l o o ri s u n e v e ny,o uw i l l u n d o u b t e del yn d u p w i t h
g a p sb e t w e e nt h e b o t t o mo f t h e p l i n t ha n d t h e f l o o ro n c et h e
p l i n t hh a sb e e nl e v e l e dF. i l lt h e g a p sw i t hs h i m s p
, ositioning
e a c ho n e s o i t s w i d ee n d i s o u t s i d et h e p l i n t ha r e a( a b o v e ) .
A d d a d r o po f g l u et o e a c hs h i mt o h o l di t i n p l a c e a, n d u s e
a c a r p e n t e rl'es v e tl o e n s u r et h a ty o ud o n o ts h i f tt h e p l i n t h
t d d i t i o n aslh i m s .
a s v o ui n s e r a

theplinthto thefloot
F Fastening
r - , 1F a s t e n
t h e p l r n t ht o t h e f l o o ru s i n gL - s h a p eadn g l eb r a c k e t s S e tt h e b r a c k e tisn o l a c ea n ds c r e wt h e mt o t h e i n s i d e
f a c eo f t h e p l i n t h ;u s et w o b r a c k e t sp e rs i d e .T h e ns c r e wt h e
h a r d w a rteo t h e f l o o r ( a b o v e )O. n c et h e p l i n t h h a s b e e nf a s f a c eo f
t e n e di n p l a c ec, u t t h e s h i m sf l u s hw i t ht h e o u t s i d e
t h ep l i n t h .

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cabinel
lnstalling
theisland
C e n t etrh e i s l a n dc a b i n e ot n t h e
p l i n t h ,a n d m a r ko u tt h e p o s i t i oonf t h e
p l i n t ho n t h e c a b i n ebt o t t o mS
. c r e wt h e
c a b i n e ti n p l a c e( r i g h i l ,d r i v i n gt h e f a s t o t t o mi n t o
t e n e r st h r o u g ht h e c a b i n e b
. f t e rt h e c a b i n eits i n p l a c e ,
t h ep l i n t hA
s c r i b ea n d i n s t a lkl i c k p l a l e(sp a g el l 0 )
o n t h eo u t s i d fea c e so f t h e p l i n t h .

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INSTALLINGTHE UPPE,R
CABINETS
to
T f pp.r.cabinetscanbe fastened
LJ thewallsin oneof threeways.The
easiest
methodissimplyto screwthecabinetsto the wall studsthrouehnailers
(below).lf
you wanta lesspErmanent
solution,youcanhangthecabinets
from
shop-made
interlockingrails(page116).

Onerailisscrewed
to thebackof thecabinet,theotherto thewall.Cabinets
can
alsobehungusingcommercially
availableadjustable
railsandcabinetsupports
(photo,right).Whatevermethodyou
choose,
the cabinetsneedto be leveled
beforefinalinstallation.

The European-stylecabinetsLtpportshown in the cutawaycabinet


nt right providesstrongersupportfor mounting uppercabinetsthan
screwsdriven into the wall. Screwedto the insidecornerof a cabinet,
the hardwarefeaturesa metalhook that protrudesthroughthe backand
clips onto a rnil fastenedto the wall behind the cabinet.Adjustment
screwsallow the cabinetto be leveledand tightenedagainstthe rail.

INSTALLING
UPPER
CABINETS

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'l

Installing
a temporary
support
rail
I Attaching
a temporary
support
railwillhelpyouholdtheupper
cabinets
in position
pieceof 1-by-2
asyouinstallthem.
Screw
a straight
stockto the
wall(abovd,
aligning
itstopwiththe layoutlineindicating
thebottom
of
theupper
cabinet
run.Makesureto drivethefasteners
intothewallstuds.

INSTALLING CABINETS

thefirstcabinet
O Installing
in theupper
Z- Position
thef irstcabinet
runin itscorner,
settingit onthesupport
rail.lf necessary,
adda scriberail (page
the cabinetand
105),thenreposition
screwit to thewallstudswithtwoscrews
the backof thecabinet
driventhrough
all
nearthetop.Donotdrivethefasteners
theway;leave
someslacksoyoucanshim
t h ec a b i n e C
t . l a m pa l e v etlo t h es i d e
o f t h ec a b i n eatn ds l i ps h i m sb e h i ntdh e
caseuntilit is plumb(left),thentighten
Drivea secondpairof screws
thescrews.
the backof
intothewallstudsthrough
thecabrnet
at thebottom.

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cabinets
Installing
additional
in therun
Position
thesecond
cabinet
nextto thefirstandclampthemtogether
in
sothefacesareflush.Drivetwoscrews
them
the secondcabinet(right),leauing
asin
slacksoyoucanshimthecabinet
cabistep.Shimthesecond
theprevious
thenscrewit to the
netuntilit is level,
joining
Tighten
thescrews
f irstcabinet.
the
cabinet
to thewall.Screw
thesecond
Repeat
to installthe
cabinets
together.
in therun
othercabinets

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116

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INSTALLINGCABINETS

USINGBEVELED
NAILERS

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ffilltillllllllllltllfltlljtllltll}IlItllltllllllliflttlIIllllllltllli
1HO?TI?
Shop-made cabinet jacke
Cabinetjacke eerveas an extra pair of
h a n d s ,h o l d i n qa c a 6 ei n p l a c ew h i l ey o u
i n s t a l li t . Y o uc a n e a o i l ym a k ey o u r o w n
jacke.7implyscrewtrhreepiecee
ehop-built
of Vlywoodor melamineNoqelherinboNhe
l-ohapeshownaNriqhL Vakethe piecee
ae lonqas the dielancebelweenthe upper
cabinetrs
and the counterlop.The
cenNer
e
h
o
u
l
d
w
i
d
e
b
e
e
n
o
u
4
h
t
o
o
uVporN
Viece
a cabinelunif.

Hanging
thecabinets
lf youareusingbeveled
nailers
to install
yourcabinets,
firstscrewa lengthof
1-by-6
to thebackof an uppercabinet.
Position
thecaseonthewallsothebottomof thecaseis aligned
withtheline
onthewallindicating
thebottom
of the
uppercabinets,
thenmarkthelocation
of the 1-by-6
onthewall.Remove
the
stripof woodandcuta 45" beveldown
its middle.
Crosscut
the oieces
to the
desired
length.
Screw
oneof thestrips
to thewallstudsasa batten,
its bevel
p o i n t i nugpa n df a c i n g
t h ew a l l S
. crew
theotherpieceto thebackof thecabinetasshown.
Attacha second
railan
equaldistance
fromthebottom
of the
c a b i n et o
t a c ta sa s h i m S
. crew
a filler
s t r i pt o t h eb a c ko f t h ec a b i n ef tl u s h
withthebottom,
thenhangthecasein
place(top,left).

CROVTNMOLDING
8rown moldingaddsa nicefinish- width is aboutright for an average
f
\-i ins touchto a setof kitchencabi- foot-highceiling.
Whilecuttingmiteredcornersat the
nets.Itian alsohideunevenceilingsand
with the
end of a cabinetrun requirescare,the
visuallyintegratethe cabinets
in installingcrownmoldroom'sarchitecture.
Simpleone-piece realchallenge
in a varietyof
ing is attachingit firmly andinvisiblyto
crownmoldingis available
particularlywhenthereis
profilesto matchthesryleofyour kitchen the cabinets,
thecabinet
cabinets,
andis easilycut andinstalled. onlyenoughspacebetween
Youcanalsomakeyour ownwith a table- tops and the ceilingfor the molding
mountedrouteranda coupleof bits (see itself.Attachinga nailerto themolding
(below)allowsit to be fastenedto the
\tVhenchoosingcrown
backendpaper).
cabinetfrom underneatn.
molding,makesureit is properlyproportionedfor thekitchen;molding
that
Crown molding doesnot haveto
is too widewill havethe effectof lowerextendall the wayto the ceiling.In the
high ceilings,there
caseofexceptionally
ing theceiling.Molding3 or 4 inchesin
maybe a gapof asmuchasa foot.This
hiddenspaceabovethe cabinetcanbe
usedto goodeffect;by placingfluoresCustomcrownmoldingisavailable
centlightson top ofthe cabinets,
the
carvedpatterns
with elaborate
resultingindirectlightingcanadd soandscrollwork,in a widerangeof
phistication
to your kitchen.
modernand antiquestyles(left).

MOLDING
INSTALLING
CROWN
thenailer
1 Attaching
forthefasteners
I Toorovide
ananchor
a
wheninstallrng
crownmolding,
attach
first.Ripa %-by-IY,nailer
to themolding
inchpieceof stockequalin lenghto the
youareinstalling
pieceof molding
onthe
c a b i n e tT. o e a s ep a i n t i nogr f i n i s h i n g ,
t h en a i l esr h o u l d
b ec u tf r o mt h es a m e
t hge
m a t e r i aalst h e m o l d i n gP. r o t e c t i n
stockwithwoodpads,gluetheedgeof
flushto thebottom
edgeof the
thenailer
witha
molding;
support
thetwopieces
(right).
shimasyouclampthemtogether
fortheotherpieces
of molding.
Repeat

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INSTALLINGCABINETS

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Cutting
themolding
to lengh
M a r kt h e l e n g t ho f t h e t o p o f t h e c a b i n ert u n o n t h e u p p e r

f a c eo f t h en a i l e rS. e ty o u rm i t e sr a wt o c u ta 4 5 ' a n g l ea n d
p o s i t i otnh em o l d i n rgi g h t - s i duep o nt h es a ws ot h em a r ki s

e i t ht h e
a l i g n ewdr t ht h eb l a d eS. e c u rteh em o l d i nign p l a c w
saw'sviseknob;usea scrappieceof woodif necessary.
Make
yourhandwellclearof theblade(abovd.
thecut,keeping

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Installing
themolding
P o s i t i otnh e c r o w nm o l d i n go n t o p o f
t h ec a b i n ertu n ,a l i g n i ntgh e h e e lo f t h e
m i t e ry o uc u t i n s t e p2 w i t ht h e c o r n e o
rf
t h e c a b i n e tT. h en a i l e rs h o u l de x t e n do u t
o v e rt h e e x t e r i oor f t h e c a b i n e tf r o n t b y
t h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e d o o r s l.f t h e r ei s s u f f i c i e n ts p a c es, c r e wt h e c r o w nm o l d i n gt o
t h et o po f t h ec a b i n e ttsh r o u g h
thenailers,
spacing
t h e f a s t e n e resv e r y6 t o 8 i n c h e s .
Otherwise,
drivethe fasteners
fromundern e a t h .M i t e rt h e p i e c eo f c r o w nm o l d i n g
f o r t h e e n do f t h e c a b i n e tt,h e ns c r e wi t
in place(left).

119

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{L-t,'l
'

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\,a"--

\
----=='--

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+
+.

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COLINTERTOPS
s indispensable
to the

easeofapplication(page126).
The originalfitting neednot
is to theshop,thecountertop
be painstakinglyexact;once
bearsthebruntof thekitchen's
the laminateis gluedin place,
workload.In additionto suDit can be trimmed perfectly
portingthepreparation
and
flushwith the substrateusinga
cookingof meals,
thecounter
laminatetrimmer. This cusisalsoanall-purpose
worksurtom-fittingabilityis particufaceusedfor scores
of other
larly usefulwhen meldingthe
dailyhousehold
tasks,from
top sheetof laminatewith a
brewingcoffeeto writingletcontrastingedge treatment
(page1j7). Plasticlaminateis
ters,fromfixingappliances
to
sundryarts
andcraftsactivities.
thematerialusedto makeinexItmustbesolidenough
tostand
pensive,popularpre-molded
on,easily
cleaned
withadamp
A tile baclcsplash
canelevatean ordinarykitcheninto a
countertops (page132).These
cloth,anddurableenoughto
workof art. In thekitchenshownabove,a baclesplash
of
countertops
havethetop,edge
lookasgoodafter10yearsas
decorative
ceramictilesis carriedoverinto an elaborate
treatment, and backsplash
thedayit wasinstalled.
mural in theopenspaceabovetherange,providinga tracombinedin oneunit, andtake
Fortunately,the technical ditionalcontrastto theclean,modernlinesof thecabinets. much of the work out of
innovationsthat transformed
installinga countertop.Solidkitchencabinetmaking
in thepost-warerahavemadethiskind
surfacecountertops(page129)aremoredifficult to installbut
of performance
commonplace.
In particular,theperfectionof
the resultsarerewarding.The ability to mold edgesand exeplasticlaminatehasput attractiveand resilientcountertops cuteinvisiblejoints and repairshasmadesolid-surface
counwithin thereachof eventhetightestof homebuildingbudgets. tertopssecondonly to plasticlaminatein popularity,despite
Solid-surface
materials
soldundersuchbrandnamesasCorian their highercost.
andAvoniteofferevenbetterperformance-but at a price.And
Gettingall the detailsright is the mark of true craftsmanthere still is a placein the kitchenfor natural materialslike
(pages
ship,andinstallinga backsplash
134-1j6)is an excellent
wood and stone.Theguideon page122will helpyou choose wayto addan individualtouchto your kitchen.Sincea backthe bestcountersurfacefor your kitchen;thepagesthat follow
splashdoesnot bearasmuchabuseasa countertop,you have
outlinethe procedures
andtechnioues
necessarv
to installit.
considerably
moreleewaywhenchoosingthe material.Wood
While initallation methodsdiffer somewhatamongcounandtile,which canbeproblematicascountertopsurfaces,
are
tertop materials,therearemanysimilarities.The procedure excellentchoicesfor backsplashes.
Selectingthe perfectpiece
for installinga sink in a countertopwith a plasticlaminate of hardwoodor usingceramictileswith an antiquehandsurface(page125),for example,canbe easilyadaptedto othpaintedpatternasa backsplashcould be the differencethat
er countertops.
One of the appealsof plasticlaminateis its
makesyour kitchenunique.
kitchen asa workbench

Solid-surface
countertopmaterialsoffersuperiorjoint-cuxingandshapingabilities.
Thekitchenat leftfeaturescountertops
madefrom Corian,a popularsolid-surface
material.Notethemoldedcornersand seamless
transitionfrom countertopto sink.

t21

A GALLERYOF COUNTERTOPSURFACES
tl- h. idealcountertopis not only laminatehassincebecome
thestandard,
andcounters
millionsof tables
I attractive.
durable,
heat-resistant covering
and waterproolbut easyto form, aroundtheworld.
Madeof castacrylicandpolyester,
install,andrepair,andinexpensive.
wereinvented
countertops
Alas,thiswonderhasyetto beinvented. solid-surface
products, in thelate1960s,
andaretheclosest
to an
Fortunately,
thereareseveral
both man-madeand natural,that idealcountersurface,but for their
permits,
youcan
expense.
Ifyourbudget
comeclose.
ofstone,suchas
Plastic
laminate
isthemostcommon opt for theopulence
facingmaterial.Firstcreated graniteor marble.Woodcanbea very
countertop
counter,
butmanypeopleshy
isformedbybond- attractive
in 1913,
thismaterial
ingpaper,phenolicresins,
andmelamine awayfromusingit nearthesinkwhere
wet.
plasticunderheatandpressure.
Plastic it will become

kitchens
Someof thebest-designed
matemakeuseof several
contrasting
rials,takingadvantage
oftheirdifferForexample,
entstrengths.
a counter
might be mostlywood or tile but
steelaroundthe
switchto stainless
sink.Anotheroptionis a plasticlamwith
inateor solid-surface
countertop
aninsetcuttingboardof wood.Lastly,
possibildo not forgetthedecorative
itiesof thebaclsplash,
wheretheuseof
eitherwoodor tilescanadda handcraftedtouch.

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Plasticlaminate is tough,inexpensive,
and relativelyeasyto apply.Because
it cannotbe
it ispaperthin, however,
shapedand is very dfficult to repair.

Solid-surfacematerial,suchasCorian
or Avonite,is expensive,
but can be
workedmuchlike wood,sincethepatthroughits
ternand coloris consistent
It canalsobejoined
entirethickness.
or repairedwith invisibleresults.

Granite is the mostprestigious-and


expensive-materialfor countertops:
extremelyhard,smooth,and idealfor
rollingpastrydough.It is alsoheavy
and difficultto install.

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but is
and
Marble is veryexpensive
Tile is heat-and water-resistant
availablein a varietyofpatterns,colors, not astoughasgranite.And like
granite,it needsto becut and
thetiles
andfinishes.Thegroutbetween
canbecome
stainedand mildewedunless p olished professionalf .
ahigh-qualityepoxygroutis used.

arewarm and
Woodencountertops
pleasant-well suitedfor country-style
kitchens,but theleastdurableof thelot.
Theyarebestusedfor part of a counter,
suchasa choppingblockinsert.

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INSTALLINGCOUNTERTOPS

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Woodenand plasticlaminatecountertopsare installedby simply screwing them to the supportingcabinets.


In the photo at left, a woodencountertop with mitered solid wood edging
is beingsecuredto a cornercabinet
that featuresa lazy Susan;thefastenersare driven through the cabinet's
countertopnailers into stretchers
attached to the undersideofthe top.

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BUITDING
UPTHECOUNTER

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Attaching
stretching
andcleats
as
stretchers
andcleatsof thesamematerial
h e d i u m - d e n -of 4-inch-wide
e rseu s u a l lm
y a d eo f % - i n cm
C o u n t esru b s t r a t a
of the
Screw
thestretchers
alongtheedges
for itsdimensional
stability.
Todouble thesubstrate.
chosen
sityf iberboard,
thestretchers,
spacing
substrate,
thenattachcleatsbetween
t h ep e r c e i v et hdi c k n e sosf t h ec o u n t e r t oa pn di n c r e a si tes
of
lf youarejoiningtwosheets
t ei t hs t r e t c h ear n
s dc l e a t s . themevery1Bto 20 inches.
s t r e n g t hb ,u i l du p t h es u b s t r a w
(above),
countertop
makesureto
substrate
intoan L-shaped
, a k i n sgu r et o i n c l u dteh e
F i r s ct u tt h es u b s t r a t oe s i z e m
a cleatontheioint.
% inch.Thenprepare
a number secure
amount
of overhang;
typically

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COUNTERTOPS

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CUTTING
A HOLEFORTHESINK
thesubstrate
1 Marking
I Mostnewsinkscomewitha template
t h a tw i l lh e l py o up o s i t i oann dm a r kt h e
o p e n i nognt h es u b s t r a tlef y. o ud o n o t
youcanmakeonefrom
havea template,
Place
thesinkfacedownon
cardboard.
Next
thecardboard
andtraceitsoutline.
line%inchinside
thefirst
drawa second
onethencutoutthetemplate
along
this
innerline.Draw
a pairof linesdividing
the
in halfbothvertically
andhoritemplate
zontally.
Center
thesinkonthesubstrate
marking
intersectatopitslower
cabinet,
Place
theteminglinesonthesubstrate.
platein position
andalignthetwopairsof
lines.Trace
theoutline
witha pencil(/efil.

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r) Cutting
theopening
youhavemarked
L Once
outtheposit i o no f t h es i n k c, h e c kt h a tt h el i n ed o e s
holding
the
notcrossanyof thescrews
Next,drillaY,-inch
stretchers
andcleats.
just
access
holethrough
the substrate
inside
t h ep e r i m e t eI rn.s t a lal c o m b i n a tionbladein a saber
sawandlowerthe
. o l d i ntgh et o o l
blade
t h r o u gthh eh o l eH
f i r m l yt,u r ni t o na n ds t a rct u t t i n a
gl o n g
the linetighil. f ry to cut ascloseto the
Thisneednotbeexact,
lineas possible.
a st h ee d g ew i l lb eh i d d e n
b yt h el i p o f
thesink.To keepthewastepiecefrom
breaking
off asyouneartheendof the
cut,support
it withyourfreehand.Solids u r f a cteo o ss h o u l dn e v ebr ec u tw i t h
saw;instead,
usea router
witha
a saber
bitanda plywood
template.
straight

t24

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COUNTERTOPS

INSTALLING
A TAMINATE
COUNTERTOP
laminate
1t Trimmins
-

I A sheeo
t f p l a s t i cl a m i n a t e
c a n b e r i p p e dt o w i d t ho n y o u r
t a b l es a w ,b u t i t i s e a s i etro c r o s s c ui t w i t ht h e j i g s h o w nh e r e .
T o s e t u p t h e j i g , f i r s tj o i n t t w o b o a r d ss o t h e ye a c hh a v eo n e
s t r a i g het d g e W
. i t ha f r a m i n gs q u a r ed, r a wa l i n ea c r o s tsh e
l a m i n a t ae t t h e d e s i r e d
l e n g t hN
. e x t s, a n d w i cthh e l a m i n a t e
b e t w e e tnh e b o a r d sa s s h o w nA
. l i g nt h e l i n ew i t h t h e e d g e so f
t h e b o a r d sa n dc l a m pt h e w h o l ea s s e m b ltyo t h e w o r ks u r f a c e .
I n s t a lal f l u s h - t r i m m i nbgi t i n y o u rr o u t e a
r n ds e t t h e c u t t i n g
d e p t hs o t h e p i l o tb e a r i n w
g i l l r u b a g a i n stth e j i g . P l a c et h e
r o u t e frl a t o n t h e j i g a n de a s et h e b i t i n t ot h e l a m i n a t em
, aking
s u r et h e b e a r i n gr u b sa g a i n stth e j i g t h r o u g h o ut h
t e cut(left).
l f a s h e e ti s d a m a g e ad t b o t he n d s ,f i r s tt r i m o n ee n dt o g e ta
c l e a ne d g e t, h e nm a r ko f f t h e d e s i r e dl e n g t ha n dt r i m t h e o t h e r
e n d .C u tt h e l a m i n a t ae t l e a s a
t n i n c hl o n g ear n dw i d e rt h a n
n e c e s s a rivt :c a n b e t r i m m e df l u s hl a t e r .

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Flueh-trimminq
bit

r) Trimming
pieces
matched
Z- Whenever
twopieces
of plastic
laminate
meetit is important o v e r l a p p itnhge mb y4 t o 5 i n c h e sa,n dc l a m pt h ea s s e m b l y
thattheymatchperfectly.
Anygapswillbeverynoticeable
and i n p l a c eT. os u p p o rt h
t eo u t e sr h e e tc, l a m pi t t o t h et a b l er n
jig about6 inches
unattractive.
Trimming
thetwosheets
before
installation
in the a second
fromthefvst(inseil.
Totrimthe
jigshown
herehowever
willresultin precisely
matched
edges sheets,
settherouter
onthejig withthepilotbearrng
against
every
time.Theprocedure
(above).
issimilar
to trimming
a single
sheet theedge,
thenpullit through
thesheets
Keepa slight
bothsheets
6tep1).Tosetupthejig,secure
between
theboards, pressure
against
thejigthroughout
thecut.

t25

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COUNTERTOPS

Positioning
thelaminate
sheet
to thesubAttach
thelaminate
stratewithcontactcement.Firstf inish
(page138);
the edgesof the substrate
o t h e r w i tsheee d g eo f t h el a m i n a twei l l
size,
Trimthesheet
to approximate
show.
(sfep2).fhe
edges
andjointanymating
sheetshownat leftis for an L-shaped
corner
canbetrimmed
counter;
theinside
aftergluing.Applyan evencoatof conandlet it
tactcement
to thesubstrate
dry.Thenapplya thincoatto bothsurAsconfacesandletdryuntilit istacky.
set%-inch
tactcement
bondsinstantly,
about12 inches
dowels
onthesubstrate
a p a r tL. a yt h e l a m i n a tseh e eot n t h e
dowels
withoutlettingit touchthesubstrale(lefil.

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downthelaminate
/ Gluing
'tSlide
thelaminate
sheetoverthedowit properly;
sincethesheet
elsto position
youhavesomemaris slightly
oversized,
ginforerror.Starting
at oneend,remove
thef irstdowelandoressthe laminate
Worktoward
the
against
thesubstrate.
dowels
andpressing
otherend,removing
the laminate
downasyougo (right).Press
thesubstrate
thelaminate
sheetagainst
w i t ha r o l l e (r i n s e t )l f. y o ua r ed e a l i n g
w i t ht w om a t c h i nsgh e e t sd,r a wa l i n e
wherethetwosheets
across
thesubstrate
a r et o m e e t W
. h e ni n s t a l l i ntgh ef i r s t
downtheedgestartsheet,
beginbylaying
. o i n s t a tl lh es e c o n d
i n ga t t h i sl i n e T
butting
itsedge
sheet,
beginbycarefully
against
thefirstpiece.

r26

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COUNTERTOPS

Trimming
theedges
f,
r - , 1U s ea r o u t eor r l a m i n a tter i m m e r
mounted
witha flushtrimming
bitto trim
theedges
of thelaminate.
First,remove
anygluesqueeze-out
fromthejoint.Then
s e tt h ec u t t i n g
d e p t hs ot h eb e a r i nwgi l l
r u bt h em i d d l e
o f t h es u b s t r a tTeo.t r i m
theedges,
holdthetrimmer
f latonthe
c o u n t ear n de a s ei t i n t ot h e l a m i n a t e .
C o n t i n ume o v i ntgh et r i m m ear l o n g
the
edge(right),
working
against
thedirection
of bit rotation
andkeeping
slightpressure
againstthesubstrate.

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Cutting
outthesinkopening
Thelaminate
covering
thesinkopeningcanbecutoutusing
thesamemethod
youusedto trimtheedges.
Starting
the
cut,however,
is a bit moretricky.You
c a ne i t h edr r i l la h o l et h r o u gthh el a m i nateandusea regular
bottom-mounted
f l u s h - t r i m m bi ni tgo r y o uc a ne q u i pa
p l u n g reo u t ewr i t ha s p e c i apla n epl i l o t
b i t .T h i sb i t h a sa p o i n t etdi p t h a tc a n
penetrate
the laminate:
theshaftof the
bitthenactsasa pilotto guidethetrimmer.Sincethisbitdoesnothavea pilot
bearing
it mayburntheedge,
butthiswill
b eh i d d eunn d etrh es i n k

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r27

COUNTERTOPS

to thecabinet
thecounter
I Screwing
/ Position
thecounter
onthecabinet
withwoodscrews,
andanchor
thecounter
drivingthemin frombelow(right).Secure
thecabinet's
couneachscrewthrough
t e r t o pn a i l e r as n di n t ot h e s t r e t c h e r s
of thecounattached
to the underside
tertop.Selectthe sizeof yourfasteners
c a r euf l l y ;t o ol o n ga s c r e wc o u l dp i e r c e
thelaminate.

Counf,ertop
nailer

Counter
etretcher

THESINK
INSTALLING

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thefit
1 Testing
to checkthefit hbovd.
I lnsertthesinkintothecounter
Marktheholesonthe
if necessary.
Trimthecounter
opening
a
n
d
c
u
t
t
h
e
m
o u tw i t ha h o l es a w .
f
o
r
t
h
e
t
a
p
s
countertop
puttyto theunderside
of thesinkrim.(Some
Applyplumber's
foamtapethatserves
closed-cell
sinkscomewitha special
(above)
purpose.)
place
into
andadjust
Lower
the
sink
thesame
it soit restssquare
to theedgeof thecounter.

l') Securing
thecountel
clamps
thatpullit
L me sinkis heldin placewithspecial
eachclamp,insertits
thecounter
top.Toinstall
downagainst
. i g h t e int ( a b o v e )
h o o ki n t ot h em a t c h i ncgl i po nt h es i n k T
endtouches
thesubstrate.
0nceall the
untiltheserrated
begin
to secure
thesinkasevenly
asposclamps
arein place,
s i b l eg, r a d u a tl li yg h t e n i ne ga c hc l a m pa l i t t l ea t a t i m eu n t i l
avoidovertightening.
therimisf lushwiththecountertop;

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COUNTERTOPS

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INSTATTING
A SOTID.SURFACE
COUNTERT()P
funingstrips
1 Attaching
I U n l i k ep a r t i c l e b o asrodl,i ds u r f a c e
m a t e r i aelx p a n dasn dc o n t r a c twsi t h
changes
in temperature,
so it cannot
be
a t t a c h etdo a f u l l s u b s t r a t e
I n. s t e a d ,
attachit directlyto the cabinets
or to
furring
strips.
Furring
stripsaddheight
to
thecountertop
andallowa built-up
edge
to beaddedlater.Cuta number
of ,/o-by4-inchboards
to matchthedeothof the
countertop.
Attachthestripsto cabinet
modules
withwoodscrews,
spacing
them
about18 inches
apart.Addan extrafurringstripwherever
twosheets
areto be
joinedand3 inches
fromeithersideof
anopening
fora sinkorcooktop.

r) Adding
silicone
sealer
I to allowforexpansion,
thecounter
m u s tb e f a s t e n etdo t h e f u r r i n gs t r i p s
withsilicone
sealer
aboutevery
8 inches.
Position
the counterin placeandadjust
it soit issquare
to thecabrnets.
lf theend
of thecountertop
meetsa wall,leavean
gapto allowforexpansion.
}{-inch
lf you
a r ej o i n i n gt w om a t c h i nsgh e e t sf i,r s t
s t i c ka l e n g t h
ofaluminum
conductive
tape(commercial
ducttapeistooporous)
to thefurringstripwheretheywill meet
(seestep3), thenapplythesilicone
on
topof thetape.

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r29

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COUNTERTOPS

thesheets
Joining
L a yt h e f i r s ts h e e to f s o l i d - s u r f a c e
m a t e r i ai n
l p l a c eo n t h e f u r r i n gs t r i p s ,
c l a m p i n gi t t o k e e pi t f r o m m o v i n gL. a y
t h e s e c o n ds h e e tr n p l a c e a, r r a n g i ntgt
so thereis an evengapof /, inch between
. o r kq u i c k l yt ;h e s i l i c o n e
t h et w os h e e t sW
the
, aking
w i l ls e tw i t hi n 2 0 mi nu t e s m
c o u n t e r t odpr f fr c u l t o m o v e .M a k ea d a m
u n d e rt h e g a pw h e r ei t o v e r h a n gt hs e
conducc a b i n e tw
s i t hs o m ea l u m i n u m
tivetape (/eft).

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jointadhesive
Applying
S e l e c t i ntgh e r i g h tc o l o ra n d p a t t e r n
e tube
t o m a t c ht h e c o u n t e r t o pp,r e p a r a
a
d
h
e
s
i
v
a
e
c
c
ording
o f s o l i d - s u r f al coei n t
(
T
h
i
s
u
sually
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
s
.
to manufacturer's
in
i
n
l
e
c
t
i
n
g
o
f
c
a
t
a
l
y
s
t to
a
t
u
b
e
involves
m
i
x
i
n
g
t
he
o
f
a
d
h
e
s
r
v
a
e
n
d
a l a r g etru b e
g
a
p
m
i
x
ture,
w
r
t
h
t
h
e
h
a
l
f
u
l
l
t w o . )F i l lt h e
B
e
s
u
r
e
t
o
t
o
f
r
o
n
t
.
w o r k i n gf r o m b a c k
P
u
s
h
t
h
e
s
h
e
ets
k e e pt h e t u b ev e r t i c a l .
t n o e r h erro s c l r e e / eo u rt h e e x c e s a
sdhe
s i t ha t o o t h p t c k
siveP
. o pa n ya i r b u b b l ew
t
a n d a d d e x t r aa d h e s i v eo a r e a sw h e r e
t h e a d h e s i vlei e sb e l o wt h e s u r f a c eo f t h e
c o u n t e r t o pD. o n o t r e m o v et h e e x c e s s ;
i t w i l l b e s a n d e dd o w nl a t e r .

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130

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COI-INTERTOPS

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thesheets
together
f, Clamping
r,f Attacha stripof woodto the countertop
on eithersideof thegapwithbeadsof
glue.Clampa pairof handscrews
hot-melt
to thestripsto pullthetwosheets
snugly
together.
Donotclampthemtootightlysincethiscansqueeze
outall theadhesive.
Letthegluecureforonehour,thenloosen
theclamps
andtapoffthewoodstrips.
Usea puttyknifewithrounded
edgesto remove
anyleftover
hotglue.

surface
fi Smoothingthe
\,f Remove
the excess
adhesive
and
levelthejointwitha blockplane.Make
surethebladeis verysharpandthecornersareslightly
rounded.
A beltsander
with 120-gritpaperwill alsoworkbut
it produces
muchmoredustandruns
theriskof gouging
thecounter.
Smooth
thejointfurtherwitha randomorbit
(above).
sanderusing18O-grit
sandpaper
To keepthe dustdown,moisten
the
counter.
Finally,
bufftheentiresurface
polishing
pad.Again,
witha synthetic
keepthesurface
moist.Thef inaljoint
perfectly
shouldbe
invisible.

Sincetheir colorandpattern run


throughtheir entirethickness,solidsurfacecountertops
offerunmatched
shapingandjoinery abilities.In the
photoat left,a solid-surface
countertop is bondedseamlessly
with a sink
of thesamematerial.Thebuilt-in
drain boardto theright of thesink
wasmadeby routinggroovesin the
countertopwith a carbide-tipped
bit.

131

COUNTERTOPS

COUNTERTOP
A PRE-M()LDED
INSTALLING

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end
thecountertop
1 Laminating
I A p p l yp l a s t i cl a m i n a tteo t h e v i s i b l e n do f a p r e - m o l d e d
. o re x a m p l ew, h e n
d d g e sF
c o u n t e tro h i d ea n yg a p so r e x p o s e e
t h e c o u n t e ri s p u s h e da g a i n stth e w a l lt h e r ew i l l b e a w i d e
g a po n t h e e x p o s e e
t h e b a c k s p l a sahn dt h e w a l l .
dndbetween
. o c o v e tr h e e n d ,u s ea
F i l l t h i sg a pw i t h a w o o d e nb l o c k T
p r e - f o r m esdt r i po r c u t a r e c t a n g loef l a m i n a t e
s l i g h t l yo v e r s i z e ,

cement.
Installa bottomwithcontact
thenaffixit to thecounter
l
a
m
inate
rimmer
b
r
t
i
n
a
r
o
u
t
e
o
r
r
f
l
u
s
h
t
r
i
m
m
i
n
g
mounted
i
n
c
h
T
.
o
t
r
i
m
t
h ee n d ,
a
b
o
u
t
/
,
c
u
t
t
i
n
g
d
e
p
t
h
t
o
a n ds e tt h e
m
o
v
e
b
i
t
a
l
la r o u n d
t
h
e
n
t
h
e
i
n
t
o
t
h
e
l
a
m
i
n
a
t
e
,
e a s et h eb i t
(abovd.
flat
theend
of
the
tool
against
Keep
the
base
itsedges
a smooth
cut.
to ensure

r) loiningpre-molded
countertops
y v a i l a b lien l e n g t h su p
L P r e - m o l d ecdo u n t e r t o pasr et y p i c a l l a
t o 1 2 f e e t l o n g ,s o t h e yr a r e l yh a v et o b e j o i n e di n a c a b i n e t
. u t t i n ga p r e - m o l d e d
r u n .C o r n ejro i n t s ,h o w e v ear ,r ec o m m o nC
c o u n t e r t oapt a p e r f e c4t 5 " a n g l ei s t r i c k y ,t h o u g h a, n d i s a 1 o b
a il t h a l a r g er a d i a l - a r m
s a w .J o i n i n g
b e s tl e f tt o a p r o f e s s i o nw
afterwardis somewhat
with counterconnectors
the countertoos
and
e a s i e rP
. l a c et h e t w o s e c t i o nfsa c e - d o wonn a w o r ks u r f a c e
r .o p l a c et h e c o n b u t tt h e m a t i n ge d g e so f t h e . l o i ntto g e t h e T
n e c t o r sm
, a k ea m a r ka c r o s st h e j o i n t6 i n c h e sf r o me i t h e r
e n d .R e f e r r r nt og t h e m a r k sd, r i l la 3 5 m m - d i a m e treerc e sos n
e i t h e rs i d eo f t h e j o i n t ,s e t b a c k1 %i n c h e sf r o mt h e 1 o i n tF. o r m
a c h a n n ebl e t w e e tnh e r e c e s s ef so r t h e b o l tb y m a k i n gt w oc u t s
g u tt h e w a s t ew i t ha c h i s e l .
w i t ha d o v e t a si la w ,t h e nc l e a n i n o
T o j o i nt h e t w o c o u n t e r t o pas l,i g nt h e m ,i n s e rt h e c o n n e c t o r s ,
a n dt i g h t e nt h e mw i t h a w r e n c hu n t i l t h e ya r eb o t hs n u g? i g h i l .
C h e c kt h a tt h e c o u n t e r t o pasr ep e r f e c t layl i g n e da n df l u s h ,t h e n
f i n i s ht r g h t e n i ntgh e c o n n e c t o r s .

r32

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COUNTERTOPS

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Scribing
thebacksplash
S i n c ew a l l sa r es e l d o ms t r a i g h ty,o u
w i l l p r o b a b lnye e dt o s c r i b et o f i t t h e w a l l ,
t h e ns a n dd o w nt h e h i g hs p o t s P
. ositron
t h e c o u n t e r t oipn p l a c ea n ds e ta t r a n s f e r
s c r i b es l i g h t l yw i d e rt h a nt h e d i s t a n c e
b e t w e etnh e w a l la n dt h e l i p . H o l dt h e
t o o la s s h o w na t l e f tt h e np u l l i t a l o n gt h e
w a l lt o m a r kt h e b a c k s p l a s R
h .e p e afto r
t h e o t h e rw a l l .

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Sanding
backsplash
A s t h e l i p o f t h e b a c k s p l a si sho n l y
a b o u tI i n c ht h i c k ,i t i s f a i r l ye a s yt o
s a n di n t os h a p eW
. i t ha v e r yl i g h tt o u c h
s a n dd o w nt o t h e s c r i b e dl i n ew i t h a
b e l ts a n d e r( b e l o w )H. o l dt h e s a n d e r
a g a i n stth e e d g ea t a n a n g l es o i t w i l l
r e m o v es l i g h t l ym o r em a t e r i aflr o m
t h e b o t t o me d g et h a nt h e t o p .T h i sw i l l
e n s u r ea v e r yc l o s ef i t a t t h ew a l l .R e p e a t
f o r t h e o t h e rw a l l .

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133

AND EDGETREATME,NTS
BACKSPLASHES

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MAKING
A TILEBACKSPLASH
thesubstrate
1t Attachins
-

I T o p r o v i dae g l u i n gs u r f a c a
e n dt o a d d
depthto a tile backsplash,
screwa /:tnchs u b s t r a tteo t h e w a l lf i r s t .
t h i c kp l y w o o d
D p t p r m i n i n o t h p r - n r r e r ^ltp n s t h n f t h c s r r h e

cJ tLr IaOi oL C n
U eonr l h
U oL il rl il nu lnr yy

ar^ ^{
lUaLa L1 O
" .U
^ > E +L ;l ll ^C. ) O
lq Ul

f i x e dw i d t ha n dt h e e n do f t h e b a c k s p l a s h
u s u a l lwy i l l n o tf a l la t t h e c o u n t e r e' sn d .
T h ee n do f t h e b a c k s p l a si shu s u a l lsyl i g h t l y s e t b a c k( s e ep a g e 1 3 6 ) .I o f i n d t h e
c o r r e cl te n p t hl a vo r r ta l t h et i l e so n t h e
c o u n t ew
r i t h a n I i n c hs p a c eb e t w e e n
t h e r na n dc u t t h es u b s t r a t e
o t h i sl e n g t h :
r i n i f o n r r : l i n i h o n o r o h tn { i h o t i l p c .n l r r s

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n ft t h es t u d s
I i n c h .M a r kt h e p l a c e m e o
d ith
o n t h e w a l l ,t h e ns e c u r e
t h e p l y w o ow
two screwsin eachstud (/eft).lf necessaryu
. s et w o p e c e so f p l y w o otdr i m n e d

cn thpv inin :t : ctrrd

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r) Applying
mastic
(^-t

^,

C ' e a nt h e p l y w o o cw i t h a s l g h t l y
d a m p e n ecdl o t ht o p , c ku p a n yd u s t .
P r o t e ctth e c o u n t e r t ow
pith nasking
t a n p a n d : n n l v a s t r n p r o JcSo a to f m a s t i c w i r ha s e r r a t etdr o w e ls, m o o t h , nigt a s
y o ug o t o c r e a t ea s u r f a c e
l r k ea f r e s h l y

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T

n l n r a r p df i p l r l D n n n t t r v l n r ^ n v o rt n n l a r o p

a n a r e aa t f i r s t ;t h e m a s t i cs e t si n a b o u t
30 minutes.

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COUNTERTOPS

Mounting
thetiles
Cut%-inch-thick
spacers
to separate
thetiles.Makesurethetilesareall clean
place
anddustfree.Starting
in onecorner,
twospacers
onthecounter
in frontof the
w a l lw h e r e
t h ef i r s t i l ew i l lg o .S e t h e
tileonthespacers
andpivotit intoplace,
separating
it fromthewallcorner
with
another
spacer.
Press
thetileagainst
the
givingit a slighttwistto ensure
substrate,
a tightfit. Theninstallthe restof the
(lghf).
tiles,separating
themwithspacers

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Attaching
molding
Addmolding
to thetopof thebacksplash
afterthetilemastichascured.The
widthof themolding
shouldbeequalto
thecombined
thickness
of thesubstrate
andthetiles.Mitertheendof themolding,thentrimit to length.
Applya beadof
glueto theplywood
substrate
thenplace
themolding
in position.
Fasten
it to the
substrate
witha finishing
nailevery
5 to
6 inches.
Remove
themasking
tapeand
s e atl h et i l e sb yf i l l i n ga l lt h eg a p sw i t h
e p o xgy r o u ta, n da p p l y i nagj o i n to f s i l i conebetween
thetilesandcountertoo.

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COUNTE,RTOPS

BACKSPLASH
INSTALLING
A W()()DEN
thebacksnlash
1I Attachins
-

I T o m a k ea w o o d e n
b a c k s p l a swh, t h
n o l d e dt o pa n ds i d ee d g e s . ' r s l aal l
s q u a r e - e d gbeoda r dt,h e na d da m o l d i n g
( p a g e1 3 5 )o r s h a p et h e e d g eo f a w i d e r
b o a r dw i t h a r o u t e or r s h a p ear n d n s t a l l
t h e b a c k s p l a si nho n ep i e c eI.n e i t h e cr a s e ,
s c l e c ra ' p r - p t h
o f a t t r a c t i vhea r d w o ofco r
y o u rb a c k s p l a sahn d p l a n ei t t o a t h i c k n e s so f / t a / , i n c h .C u ti t t o s i z e m
, akrng
r t s l r g h t lsyh o ' t e trl ^ a nt h e c o u r t e " t o tpo
c r e a t ea s e t b a c ak t t r e e n d .l V i t etrn ee r d s
o tf e a c h
a s s h o w nl.n d i c a t teh e p l a c e m e n
s t u dw i t ha l i g h tm a r ko n t h ew a l l ,t h e n
nailthe boardin place(left).

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r) Installing
a return
L W f r " " t h e b a c n s p l a senr o s . m a v .aP
r e t u r nm o l d i n gf r o ms o m es c r a pl e f t o v e r
f r o mt h e b a c k s p l a s M
h .i t e rt h e r e t u r ns o
i t f r l l st h eg a pb e t w e etni e b a c k s p l a s h
a s q u a r e n da n d
a n dt h e w a l l ,f o r m i n g
c o n t i n u i nt gh e m o l d e dp r o f i l eS. i n c et h s
p i e c ew i l l n o t b e s u b j e c t etdo a l o t o f
s t r e s ist c a n b e s , m p l g
y l u e d ' np l a c e
a n dt h e nh e l dw i t h s o m em a s k i n tga p e
u n t i lt h eg l u ec u r e s .

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136

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COUNTERTOPS

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A chamfering bit revealsa walnut


divider betweenplastic laminate top
and edgesurfaces.This effect was
createdby applying a solid wood
edgeto the countersubstrate,then
adding laminate to the top and edge.
Not only is this an auractive way to
easethe counterfront but it alsodisguisesthe dark edgesof the laminate.

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INSTATTING
A DECORATIVE
EDGING

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(N

'l Applying
wooden
edging
I Applysolidwoodedging
to thecountertop
youglue
before
(page126).(Ihiswillensure
downtheplastic
laminatelop
there
arenocracks
between
theupperlaminate
andtheedging.)
Mill
theedgestockto a thickness
of %inchandthedesired
width.

Spread
a filmof glueonthewood,thenfastenthe piecein
place
w i t hf i n i s h i nnga i l se v e r4y t o 6 i n c h e sl f. t h ee d g ew i l l
(step9, placethenailsat least%inchbelowthe
bechamfered
topedge;
thiswillprotect
therouterbitfrombeingdamaged.

r37

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COUNTERTOPS

r) Applying
laminate
a bit
laminate
of plastic
I trtma length
w i d etrh a nt h et h i c k n e sosf t h ec o u n t e r .
edgewithcontact
Fasten
it to thecounter
(left)and
press
it downf irmly
cement
hascured,
When
the
adhesive
roller.
witha
r o u t eor r
f
l
u
s
h
w
i
t
h
a
l
a
m
i
n
a
t
e
t r i mt h e
square
a
chisel
to
Use
laminate
trimmer.
t
h
e
n
r
e
m
o vaen y
i
n
s
i
d
c
e
o
r
n
e
r
s
,
u pa n y
with
a
scraper.
cement
contact
excess
et h e
0 n c et h i si s d o n ea, p p l yl a m i n a t o
I
25-1
27).
countertop
@ages

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theedge
Q Chamfering
r - J B yc h a m f e r i nt hgec o r n e rosf t h e
youwillexpose
thewood
edging,
built-up
a
edgeyouaddedin thefirststep.lnstall
piloted
and
bit in yourrouter
chamfering
setthecuttingdepthto % inch.Holding
thetoolwithits basef latonthecounteruntilthe
thebitintothelaminate
top,ease
edge.Move
thecounter
touches
bearing
r , o r k i nigt
t h et o o la r o u n tdh ec o u n t e w
Thebtt
of bit rotation.
thedirectron
against
cutrightintotheapexof an inside
cannot
g m b ' tso n g u e
c o r n e rb,u tt h er e s u l t i nl a
pattern
effect.
is anattractive

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138

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COUNTERTOPS

MOLDING
A WO()DEN
EDGE

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R o u t i nagn o g e ep r o f i l e
N a i l a s o l i dw o o ds t r i pt o t h e e d g eo f t h e c o u n t e r( p a g e1 3 7 )
b e f o r eg l u i n gt h e p l a s t i cl a m i n a t ed o w no n t h e c o u n t e r t o p .
S i n c ey o u w i l l b e s h a p i n gt h e e d g ew i t h a r o u t e r m
, a k es u r e
t o p l a c et h e f a s t e n e rws e l lb e l o wt h e b i t ' sd e p t ho f c u t ( a b o v e ) .
N e x t ,a t t a c ht h e l a m i n a t et o p a n d t r i m i t f l u s h ( p a g e sJ 2 6 1 2 7 ) .T o s h a p et h e e d g e ,i n s t a l a
l p i l o t e do g e eo r o t h e re d g e -

forming
b i t i n y o u r o u t e rS. e tt h et o o lo n t h ec o u n r earn c
a d l u stth ec u t t i n gd e p t hs ot h eb e a r i nwg i l lr i d ea g a i n st ht e
loweredgeof thecounter.
Toshapetheedge,setthe router
f l a to nt h ec o u n t e r t ot h
pe
, ne a s et h eb i t i n t ot h ew o o dM
. ove
therouter
around
thecounter,
working
against
thebit'sdirect i o no f r o t a t i o n .

R()UTING
A DRIPEDGE
IN A S()LID-SURFACE
C()UNTER

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S h a p i nag d r i pe d g e
A d r i pe d g ei s a s l i g h t l yr a i s e de d g et h a t
p r e v e n tm
s i n o rs p i l l sf r o mr u n n i n go f f t h e
c o u n t e r t o pA. p p l ya s t r i po f m a t c h i n g
s o l i d - s u r f am
c ea t e r i at o
l t h e e d g eo f t h e
c o u n t e r t o pc,r e a t i n ga r a i s e de d g e .A f f i x
t h e e d g i n gw i t h a d h e s i vdee s i g n eeds p e c i a l l yf o r t h e m a t e r i a(l p a g e s1 3 0 - 1 3 1 ) .
I n s t a l l ap i l o t e d r i pe d g eb i t i n y o u rr o u t e r
a n da d j u s t h e c u t t i n gd e p t hs o t h e t o p
o f t h e c u r v ei s e v e nw i t ht h e r o u t e rb a s e ;
t h e i n s e ts h o w sh o wt h e b t t s h o u l dm e e t
t h ec o u n t e rT.o s h a p et h ec o u n t e rh,o l dt h e
routerbaseagainstthe edge,then lowerit
u n t i lt h e p i l o tb e a r i ntgo u c h etsh e c o u n tertopsurface.Keepingthe routerpressed
f l a t a g a i n stth e e d g e ,m o v et h e t o o la l o n g
the counter(/eit).

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139

GLOSSARY
A-B-C.D
leveller:Anycommercial
Adjustable
foot or leg attachedto lowerkitchen
cabinetsto leveland supportthem.
Auxiliary fence:A woodenattachment
to a tool's rip fencethat servesto attach
and preventaccidental
accessories
damageto the fence.
Backsplash:A continuation of the
countertopalongthe backwall; canbe
part of the countertopitselfor made
from tile orwood.
Biscuit: A thin oval wafer of compressedwood that fits into a semicircular slot cut by a platejoiner.
Blank A pieceof solid or glued-up
wood usedto createa furniture part.
Board-and-battendoor: A door
madeof boardsfastenedtogether
with lap joints and held together
by a diagonalbatten.
Board foot A unit of wood volume
measurementequivalentto a pieceof
wood one inch thick, 12incheslong,
and 12incheswide.
Caul: In veneeringor gluing uP a
carcase,a board placedbetween
the clampsand theworkpieceto distribute clampingpressure.
Chalk line: A length of twine loaded
with chalkdustusedto mark longlines
that arenormally eitherlevelor plumb.
Chamfer:A decorativebevelcut along
the edgeof a workpiece.
Cheek The faceof the projecting
joint.
tenonin a mortise-and-tenon
Cockbeading:A narrow decorative
molding appliedto the insideedges
of a faceframeor draweropening.

Cope-and-stickjoint: A methodof
joining stilesand rails in frame-andpanelconstruction.Tonguesin the
railsmeshwith groovesin the stiles;
a decorativemolding is cut alongthe
insideedgeof the frame.
Counterbore:To drill a hole that permits the headof a screwto sit below
the wood surfaceandbe concealed
with a wood plug.
Countersink:To drill a hole that permits the headof a screwto lie flush
with or slightlybelowa wood surface.
Dado: A rectangularchannelcut
in a workpiece.
Dado head:A combinationof blades
and cuttersusedto form dadoesand
groovesin wood. The assemblyis
mounted on a tablesawwith two
bladesseparatedby oneto five cutters
to achievethe right width.

Featherboard:A pieceof woodwith


"feathers"alongoneend
thin fingersor
againstthe
to hold a workpiecesecurely
fenceor tableof a powertool.
Fence:An adjustableguideusedto
keepthe edgeof a workpiecea setdistancefrom the cutting edgeof a tool.
Filler strip: A thin strip of either
material
wood or laminate-covered
usedto concealgapsbetweencabinets.
Furring strip: A narrow length
of wood installedatop a lower cabinet to supportthe counterand
raiseits height.
Glass-stopmolding: Decorativestrips
of woodusedto hold panesof glassin
a cabinetdoor.
Glazingbars:Molded stripsof wood
joined by half-lapsto hold several
panesofglassin a singlecabinetdoor.

Drip edge:A raisedprofileat the edge


of a countertopthat preventsspills'

Inset drawer:A drawerthat fits flush


within a framelesscabinet.

E-F-G-H-I-l
Edgebanding:Stripsof materialused
to coverthe edgesof plywood and
compositeboards;canbe solidwood
or plasticlaminate.

Island:A freestandingcabinetor
cabinetrun isolatedfrom the walls
of a kitchen.

End grain: The arrangementand


directionof the wood fibersrunning
acrossthe the endsof a board.
Faceframe: A decorativewooden
framefixedaroundthe front of a
cabinet,providingextrarigidity to
the cabinet.
Falsefront A pieceof wood installed
overa drawerfront, usuallyto conceal
the end grain of the sidesor to create
a lippedfront.

t40

fig A devicefor guiding a tool


or holdingworkpiecein position.
K-L-M-N-O-P-Q
Kickback The tendencyof a
workpieceto be thrown back in
the directionofthe operatorofa
woodworkingmachine.
Kickplate:The boardthat coversthe
toe kick of a lowerkitchencabinetor
the exposedfacesof a plinth.
Laminatetrimmer: A lightweight
routerusedto trim plasticlaminate
and solid wood edgingflush with
its substrate.

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Lockmiter joinfiA joint cut with a


specialrouter bit that produces
an interlocking connectionwith
a miteredoutsidecorner.
Melamine A popularbrand of plastic laminatemadefrom bonded
plastic,paper,and phenolicresin;
availablein sheetsor bondedto plywood or particleboard.
Miter gauge:A devicethat slidesin a
slot on a sawor routertable,providing
support for the stockasit movespast
the bladeor bit; canbe adjustedto
different anglesfor miter cuts.
Mortise-and-tenonjoint A joinery
techniquein which a projectingtenon
cut in one board fits into a matching
hole,or mortise,in another.
Mortise:A holecut into a pieceof
wood to receivea tenon.
Nailer rails: Woodenrails attached
to the backsof cabinetsthat support
the cabinetswhen screwedto the
wall studs.
Overlaydrawer: A drawerthat partially or fully overlaysthe frame of a
faceframe cabinet.
Panelsaw:A track-mountedcircular
sawusedfor accuratecutsoflarge
sheetgoodssuchasplywood.
Plainsawnveneer:Veneerthat
hasbeencut from the log in a flat
sheet;hardwoodplywoodwith
plainsawnfaceveneercloselyresemblessolid wood.
Plinth: A mitered woodenframe
that actsasa basefor lower cabinets
or islands.

Pushblock or stick A deviceusedto


feeda workpieceinto a bladeor cutter
to protectthe operator'sfingers.
R-S
RabbehA step-likecut in the edge
or end of a board;usuallyforms part
of a joint.
Rail: The horizontalmemberof a
frame-and-panelassembly,
Seestile.
(RTA)fastener:
Ready-to-assemble
A type of threadedfastenerwith a
stout shaftand a narrowhead;used
for fastassembly
of cabinets.
Scribing:Marking a line with a compassor scribingtool to copythe irregularity of a wall onto a cabinetor
counterwhereit butts againsta wall.
Oncethe wood is planedor sanded
to this line,the cabinetor counter
will fit seamlessly
againstthe wall.

T.U-V.W-X.Y-Z
Thmbourdoor: A type of door made
from narrowslatsattachedto a flexible
canvasbackingthat slidesin tracks
routedin the sidesof the carcase.
Tearout:The tendencyof a bladeor
cutterto tearwood fibers.
TemplateA patternusedto guidea
tool in reproducingidenticalcopies
oI a plece.
Tenon:A protrusionfrom the end of
a workpiecethat fits into a mortise.
Three-wingslotting cutter:A piloted,
groove-cutting
routerbit.
Toekick The recessrunning along
the bottom of a lower cabinetthat
allowsspacefor the feetof a person
standingbeforethe cabinet.

Shim:A thin, wedge-shaped


pieceof
materialusedto levelcabinetsand fill
minor irregularities.

jointA joint in
Tongue-and-groove
which a tonguecut in the edgeor end
of onepiecefits into a groovein the
matingpiece.

Shoulder:In a mortise-and-tenon
joint, the part of the tenonthat is
perpendicularto the cheek.

Tiansferscribe:A compass-like
device
that transferstheprofileof onesurface
onto another.

Solid-surfacemateriaLA composite
boardmadeof castacrylicandpolyesterusedfor kitchencountertops;
sold under suchnamesasCorian
and Avonite.

Utilityhookup: The point whereutilitiessuchaswater,sewage,


and electricity areconnected.

Stile:The verticalmemberof a frameand-panelassembly.


Seerail.
Storypole A long,thin pieceof wood
with the measurements
for a proiect
indicatedon its length.
Stud finder: A devicethat electronicalIy pinpointsthe locationof wall studs.

I4I

Wood movement:The shrinking


or swellingof wood in reactionto
changesin relativehumidity.
Worktriangle:An ergonomicprinciplemeasuringthe efficiencyof a
workspacethat connectsthe three
most common placesof work in
that space;in a kitchen,typicallythe
refrigerator,stove,and sink.

INDEX
A-B.C
Adjustableshelving
Shelfsupports,i8-i9
Shop-madeshelfdrilling jigs
(ShopTip),39
Appliancebays,27, 38,40-4I
Arts and craftsstyle,16
Backsplashes
TiL;,121,134-135
Wooden,136
Biscuitjoints,29,33-34,46-47
Platejoiner stands,52
doors,58,60-61
Board-and-batten
Board.feet,32
Build It Yourself
Plateioiner stands,52
Cabinetjacks,gS
Cabinets
Dimensions,19,20-22
SeealsoCasework;Doors;
Hardware;Layout;Lower
cabinets;Upper cabinets
Casework,27,28
Gluing :up,46-47
Lower cases,29
Uppercases,28
Sie alsoJoinery;Lower cabinets;
Upper cabinets
53-54
Cockbeading,
Colonial style,I5
Countertops,121
Backsplashes
tile,121,134-135
wooden,136
Decorativeedgings,137-1i9
Installation,123
plasticlaminatecountertoPs,
125-128,137-139
pre-moldedcountertops,
132-133
sinks,I24, 127,128
solid surfacecountertoPs,
129-131,139
Plasticlaminate,l2l, 122,
125-128,132-133
edgings,l37-139
120,l2l, 122,
Solid-surface,
129-131
drip edges,139
Wooden,122,123

Countrystyle,16
Crownmolding,16, 118-119
Makingcrownmolding,
backendpaper
Cutting lists,32

D-E-F
Dadoioints,80
Doubledadojoints,8Q 84
Design,13
Arts and craftsstyle,16
Colonial style,I5
Countrystyle,i6
Europeanstyle,15
Shakerstyle,14,16
Victorian style,14,16
Doors,57
Board-and-batten,58, 60-6l
Frame-and-panel,58, 62-65
archedpanels,67
joints,66
cope-and-stick
raisedpanels,62
Glasspanel,57,58,59,69
glazingbars,70-72
Hinges,73-76
Mounting techniques,59,73
flush-mounteddoors,76
overlaydoors,74-75
58,59,68
Veneered-panel,
Doubledadojoints,80,84
Drawers.T9
Assembly,85-86
Bottom panels,85,86
Dimensions,82
Eliminating drawerrattle
(ShopTip), 86
Falsefronts, 78,79, 93-96
securingfalsefronts with
double-facedtape
(ShopTip), 96
sizingfalsefronts
(ShopTip), 94
Inset,78, 80,93-94
]oinery,80
doubledadojoints, 84 84
lock miter joints, 84 83
through dovetailjoints, 80,83
Knobsandpulls,9j,97
Layout,82
Materials,Sl

r42

Mounting,79,87
bottom-mountedslides,
81.87-88
building up faceframe cabinets
(ShopTip), 90
side-mountedslides,81, 89-90
woodenrunners,81,91-92
Overlay,79,80,95-96
Drawerslides,38,8l
Drip edges,139
Edgetreatments,44
eommercialedgebanding,49
Countertops
decorativeedgings,137-139
drip edges,-139
Solidwood,44,48
Europeancup hinges,56,74-75
Europeanstyle,15
Faceframes,28, 50-51,53-55
Building up faceframe cabinets
for mounting drawers
(ShopTip), 90
Makingwood plugs(ShopTip), 55
Fasteners
Concealment
making wood plugs
(ShopTip),55
Knockdownfasteners,
front endpaper
(RIA), 32
Ready-to-assemble
Floorpians,12
Flush-frontdrawers.
SeeInset drawers
doors,58,62-65
Frame-and-panel
Arched panels,67
joints,66
Cope-and-stick
Raisedpanels,62
G-H-I
Glasspaneldoors,57,58,59,69
Glazingbars,70-72
Glazingbars,70-72
Handles,16
Drawers,93,97
Hansen,Sven,10-ll
Hardware
Doors,57
Drawerslides,38
bottom-mountedslides,
81.87-88
side-mountedslides,81,89-90

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Knobsandpulls,16,93,97
Shelfsupports,38-39
SeealsoHinges
Hinges,16,73
Europeancup hinges,56,74-75
Europeanfaceframe hinges,75
Insetdrawers,78, 80,93-94

I.K-L
IigS
Cabinetiacks,98,117
Circular'saws
panel-cuttingattachments,
26
scoringsawattachments,
33
Drills
shop-madeshelfdrilling jigs
(ShopTip), 39
Platejoiners
platejoiner stands,52
Temporarysupportrails,115
loinery,29
Biscuitjoints,33-34,46-47
platejoiner stands,52
Board-and-batten
doors,60
joints,66
Cope-and-stick
Dadojoints,80
Doubledadojoints,8Q 84
Lock miter joints, 29,36, 80,83
Through do-setailjoints, 8Q 83
joints,35-36
Tongue-and-groove
Kickplates,1 10-111
Kitchenislands.112
Plinths,100,101,I 12-114
Knobs,l6
Drawers,93,97
Layout,13,-18
Drawers,82
Proportionsand dimensions,
19,20-22
Work triangles,17
LazySusans,
38,42-43
Legs
Levelerlegs,44-45, 100
Levellingtechniques,100,102
Lock miter j oints,29, 36,80,83
Lower cabinets
Casework,29
Installation,99, 100,104-106
adjacentwalls,106-I 08
levellingtechniques,100,
102-103

making thick shims


(ShopTip), 107
utility hookups,108-109
wall studs,103
Kickplates,110-I I I
Layout, 19,20-22,24-25
Lumber
Boardfeet,32
Cutting lists,32
Drawers,81
Plywood,30,
31,81
M-N-O-P-Q-R-S
Moldings,l6
Seea[soCrown molding
Overlaydrawers,79, 80,95-96
Panels
Arched panels,67
Raisedpanels,62
Peninsulas.SeeKitchenislands
Plasticlaminatecountertops,
t2l, 122, I 25-129, 132-133
Edgings,
l37-139
Plateioinerstands,52
Platejoints.SeeBiscuitjoints
Plumbing,13
Sinks,124,127,128
Utility hookups,108-109
Plywood,30,31,81
Santarsiero,
Tom,6-7
Shakerstyle,14,16
Sheetgoods,30
Plywood,30,31,81
Reducingtearout,33
SeealsoPlasticlaminate
countertoDs
Shelfsupports,SA-SS
Shelves
Adjustableshelvingsupports,
38-39
Slide-outshelves
(ShopTip), 43
Shims
Making thick shims
(ShopTip), 107
ShopTips
Cabinetinstallation,107,117
Casework,
39,43,55
Drawers,86,90,94,96
Silvers,
Don, 8-9
Sinks,124,
127,128
Sink trays,77

r43

Solid-surface
countertops,
120,127,122,129-131
Drip edges,139
Storypoles,13,23-25

T-U*V
Tambourslats.40-41
Throughdovetailjoints,8Q 83
Tiles
Backsplashes,
121,134-I 35
Countertops,I22
Tilt-out sinktrays,TT
joints,29, 35-36
Tongue-and-groove
Tools
Circular saws
panel-cuttingattachments,
26
scoringsawattachments,
33
Drills
shop-madeshelfdrilling jigs
(ShopTip), 39
Laminatetrimmers,44
Measuringtools,backendpaper
Platejoiner stands,52
Routers
bits, backendpaper
Tablesaws
blades,front endpaper
Tiansferscribes.99
Uppercabinets
Casework,28
Installation,98,99,
1 0 0t,} t , 1 1 5 - 1 1 6
bevelednailers,117
commercialcabinetsupports,
115
crownmolding,I18-119
makingthick shims
(ShopTip), l0Z
shop-madecabinetjacks
(ShopTip),llZ
Layout, 19,20-22,24-25
Utility hookups,108-109
Veneered-panel
doors,58, 59,68
Victorian sIyle,14,16

W-X-Y-Z
Wood.30
SeealsoLumber;Sheetgoods
Woodplugs(ShopTip), 55
Work triangles,17

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Theeditorswishto thank thefollowing
LAYOUTAND DESIGN
LeeValley
' Tools,Ltd.,ottawa,ont.; StanleyTools,Divisionof the Stanleyworks,
New Britain,CT; TritechIndustries,St-Lambert,
Que.
CASEWORK
AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanClanryinq(Canada)Inc.,CambridgeOnt.;
6lack& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; BradburyIndustries,Toronto,Ont.;
canadianIndustrialDistributors,Inc., Montreal,Que.;cMT Tools,Oldsmar,FL;
Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd.,
DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable,
GA;
Ont.i HitachiPowerToolsU'S.A.Ltd'' Norcross,
Mississausa,
JuliusBlum Inc., Stanley]NC; LeeValleyTools,Ltd.,ottawa, on-t.;Modulus, St-Hubert,Que.;
Montreal,Que.;Sears,Roebuckand Co.' Chicago,IL;
Loeven-Morcel,
LesRealisations
A'G.
SencoProducts,Inc., Cincinnati,OH; Steiner-Lamello
SawCo.,Kingston,MA; Tool TrendLtd', Concord,Ont'
Switzerland/Colonial
DOORS
AdiustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; CMT Tools,Oldsmar,FL;
Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. lnc. (BuckBros.
DeliaInternationilMachineryTPort.r-Cable,
Sears,Roebuckan$_Cg.,Chicago,IL;
Division), Millbury, VA; JuliusBlum Inc., Stanley,.NC;
SawCo.,kingston,MA; Tool TrendLtd.,Concord,Ont.
A.G.Switzerland/Colonial
Steiner-Lamello
DRAWERS
Guelph'Ont.;
AdiustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable,
Roebuckand co., chicago,lL;
David Keller,Petaluma,cA; iulius BIum Inc.,stanley,NC; Sears,
A.G.
Divisionof the StanleyWorks,New Brilain,CT; Steiner-Lamello
StanleyTools,
SawCo., Kingston,MA; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,On1
Switlerland/Colonial
INSTALLING CABINETS
Guelph,Ont.;
ClampCo.,Chicago,IL; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable,
Adiustable
'
NC;
GA;JuliusBlum Inc',Stanley,
Hitachii'owerTooliU.S.A.Ltd.,Norcross,
LeeValleyTools,Ltd.,Ottawa,Ont.; OrnamentalMouldings,.HighPoint, NC; Sears,
New Britain'CT;
Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; StanleyTools,Divisionof the Stanley-Works,
St-Lambert,Que'
Industries,
MA;
Tritech
Kingston,
Saw
Co.,
A.G.
Switzerlind/Colonial
Steiner-Lamello
COI.]NTERTOPS
PowerTools,
CA; Black&_Decker/Elu
AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; Avonite,Inc.,Sylmar,.
Guelph,Ont';
TowJon,
' MD; CMt Tools,Oldimar, FL;DeltalnternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable,
Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL;
LeeValleyTools,Ltd.,Ottawa,Ont.; Sears,
SencoProducts,Inc.,Cincinnati,OH
in thepreparationofthis book:
Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted
ScottYetman
LorraineDor6,Kerry& VictoriaMcCluggage'

PICTURECREDITS
CoverRobertChartier
6,7 CarolynJones
8,9GaryMoss
10,11MichaelTincher
Brian VandenBrink
14,15,27,38,79
87 Courtesyfulius BIum, Inc.
112BrianVandenBrink
I l8 CourtesyOrnamentalMouldings
l20,l2l BrianVandenBrink
Avonite,Inc.
l3l Courtesy

t44

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WORKSHO
GP
UIDE

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TABLESAWBLADES
F()RKITCHEN
CABINETS
Combination blade
All-purpoee eaw
blade; can rip and
crogocut lumber

Melamine blade
9pecialieed blade ueed
for cutLtnq lamtnatee
,UCn aA melAmtnec overe ti pa rLtc leboa rd

Plywood blade
Hae many emall
teel,h tthaL make a
cmooth, aplinterfree cut tn plywood

Dado blade
Two blades are fitted
ort eirhe" eide of chipper
bladea, which are added
a9 nece'sary T.ovary
the widLh of Lhe cut