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National Aerospace University

K h a r k i v A v i a t i o n I n s t i t u t e
Aircraft Engines Designing chair

Lectures summary

Basics of aerospace engineering

Kharkiv 2012

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CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................- 5 1. Short fragments of aviation history..............................................................- 5 2. Atmosphere. Atmospheric layers...............................................................- 19 3. Main thermodynamic parameters and features of atmospheric air. The
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA). The International System
of Units (SI).......................................................................................................- 20 4. Lift force. Principles of aircraft flight..........................................................- 25 5. Aircraft classification by general features..................................................- 27 6. Basic aircraft performances.......................................................................- 29 II. AIRCRAFTS LIGHTER THAN AIR AND GLIDERS.....................................- 31 7. Aerostat and airship. Their general characteristic.....................................- 31 8. Gliders design...........................................................................................- 33 III. AIRPLANES................................................................................................- 35 9. Airplane. Classification of airplanes...........................................................- 35 10. Basics of airplane`s flight........................................................................- 42 10.1. Wing loads..........................................................................................- 42 10.2. Aerodynamic wing characteristics......................................................- 43 11. Basic airplanes parts and systems..........................................................- 45 12. Geometrical wing characteristic..............................................................- 48 13. Required thrust calculation for cruise and take-off modes......................- 51 IV HELICOPTERS............................................................................................- 56 14. Flight and design bases of helicopter......................................................- 56 15. Classification of helicopters.....................................................................- 57 16. Bases of helicopter aerodynamics..........................................................- 59 17. Helicopter flight control............................................................................- 64 V. ROCKETS....................................................................................................- 67 18. Rockets. Flight principle (Meschersky and Tsiolkovsky equations).........- 67 19. Bases of rocket design............................................................................- 70 20. Classification of the rockets.....................................................................- 71 21. Rockets flight dynamics...........................................................................- 75 VI. SPACECRAFTS..........................................................................................- 78 22. Some fragments of space exploration history.........................................- 78 23. Main functions of astronautics. Direct and inverse problems of astronautics.
Spacecraft classification...................................................................................- 85 24. Required flight velocities of rocket (Orbital and parabolic velocities)......- 87 25. Basic spacecraft systems and assemblies..............................................- 90 VII. POWER PLANTS.......................................................................................- 96 26. Bases of power plants. Main requirements for a power plant and an engine.
The general engine classification......................................................................- 96 27. Piston engines.........................................................................................- 98 28. Rocket engines. Ramjet and pulse jet engine.......................................- 102 29. Liquid propellant engine. Solid fuel rocket engine.................................- 104 30. Electro jet and nuclear engines.............................................................- 109 ZHUKOVSKY NATIONAL AEROSPACE UNIVERSITY KHARKIV AVIATION INSTITUTE

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31. Gas turbine engines...............................................................................- 111 I. INTRODUCTION
1. Short fragments of aviation history.
From ancient times people were trying to fly like birds in the sky. We all know
the myth about Daedalus and Icarus, who were trying to get to the Sun using
wings. First known mentions about flying machine sketches are dating by
IV century.
They
were
done
by
famous
artist
and
scientist
Leonardo da Vinci (1452 1519). He lived in Milan, where studied principles of
birds flying. First designs were supposed to be powered by human muscles. But
after several unsuccessful experiments he arrived to idea that human should stay
free and flying machine should be driven by its own power plant. But he didn`t
build any working flying machine for his life mostly because of poor technology
and absence of power pants.

b
c
Fig. 1 Sketches of flying machines by Leonardo da Vinci:
a parachute b flying machine c helicopter

In imperial Russia M. V. Lomonosov practically proved


the possibility of flying winged machines using. He is world
famous scientist, author of big amount of works in the fields
of natural science, heat exchange theory, physical chemistry,
astronomy, electricity theory. He built a working model of
flying machine - the first prototype of helicopter, with
two equal propellers,
rotating
on
parallel
axes,
equidistant from the machine gravity center. He didn`t
Fig. 2 - Model
thought about manned flight, but only about lifting different of flying machine by
devices (thermometers, barometers) for atmosphere studying
M.V. Lomonosov
purposes.
Next step of humanity in conquering the sky was lighter
than air flying machines designing.

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The first human flight took place on June 4, 1783. That day in Annonay,
France Montgolfier brothers demonstrated their hot air balloon.
On August 27, 1783 Jacques Charles and Robert brothers launched the
world's first hydrogen-filled balloon from the Champ de Mars, Paris.
On October 19, 1783 - the Montgolfiers launched the first tethered
balloon with humans onboard, at the Folie Titon, Paris.
On November 21, 1783, the Montgolfiers launched the first free flight
balloon with Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier and marquis de Arlandes.
They flew about 8 km.
In 1852 the first powered, controlled, sustained lighter-than-air airship flight
took place. Henri Giffard`s airship flew 15 miles powered by steam engine.

a
b
c
Fig. 3 Lighter than air aircrafts: a Montgolfier brothers balloon;
b Jacques Charles and Robert brothers balloon c Giffard airship
Next years sir George Cayley discovered basic flying principles and proved
the close to modern airplane structural scheme with engine. But before airplane
producing it was necessary to study how to build gliders.
Polish peasant Jan Vnek built a controllable glider in 1866. Jan Vnek was
firmly strapped to his glider by the chest and hips and controlled his glider
by twisting the wing's trailing edge using strings attached to stirrups at his
feets.
Otto Liliental(1848 1896) is one of the modern glider scheme founders,
hand glider inventor. He published some scientific works on wing
designing rules. He proclaimed the principal jump before you fly. He made
about 2500 flights and died when his glider crashed.
Octave Chanute (1832 1910) is a Liliental`s work continuator. He built
some gliders and tested them in Miller Beach, Indiana. His research field
was problems of flight stability.
Alexander Mozhaysky, russian inventor, built a glider in 1884. During
testing his glider had flown only few meters and then crashed.
Percy Pilcher built few gliders (The Bat, The Beetle, The
Gull and The Hawk) heavier than air and tested them in late 1890 th. He
even designed an airplane with engines, but didn`t test it.
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Fig. 4 Jan Vnek and model of his glider

Fig. 5 Otto Liliental and his gliders

Fig. 6 Octave Chanute testing his glider

Fig. 7 Alexander Mozhaysky and his monoplane design scheme

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Fig. 8 Percy Pilcher and Hawk


After first successes people made next steps to manned, controlled airplane
flight. This time in aviation history is known as Pioneer era. This is a period
from 1900 to 1914. First flights became possible only with aircraft engines
progress. Only when engines developed to definite specific power real flights
heavier than air crafts became possible.
Characteristic:
First regular flights were made by flexible airships of Alberto SantosDumont design. On October 19, 1901 he won the prize for travel over
Paris from the Parc de Saint Cloud around the Eiffel Tower and back less
than 30 minutes.

Fig. 9 Alberto Santos-Dumont and a photo of his record


In 1899 Ferdinand Zeppelin started construction of the first rigid airship
Zeppelin LZ1 with 2 Daimler engines (10,6kW). First flight occurred on
July 2, 1900 and terminated about 18 minutes with velocity 6 m/s.

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Fig. 10 Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August Graf von Zeppelin and his designs
Samuel Langley started designing aircrafts after long period of studying
aerodynamics in the University of Pittsburgh. On May 6, 1896, Langley's
Aerodrome 5, unpiloted, engine-driven, heavier than air aircraft, made
the first successful flight. He also made few flights more on another crafts,
but in 1903 his aircraft Quarter-scale Aerodrome crashed and he had no
money to continue researches.

Fig. 11 Samuel Langley and his Quarter-scale Aerodrome on a river Potomac

Gustave Albin Whitehead made a flight on a distance about 800 m on an


engine-powered aircraft at an altitude 15 m. But there were no photos
made, that`s why he couldn`t prove this fact.

Fig. 12 Gustave Whitehead and the drawing of his flight


Orville and Wilbur Wright, continuing philosophy of Liliental, made lots of
experiments with different gliders and researches in a fields of
aerodynamics, engine building, flight control. They even build aerodynamic
tunnel to discover the best wing design. After long researches Wrights
designed and built their first airplane Flyer I. And on December 17, 1903
they made the first sustained, controlled, manned, engine powered flight of
heavier-than-air aircraft at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina. That day there
were made 4 flights, results of which are in table 1

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Table 1 Wright`s airplane flights history
Airplane
Year
Flight characteristics
1: Dist: 37 m, time: 12 sec
Flyer I
December 17, 1903
4: Dist: 260 m, time: 59 sec
1: Dist: 400 m
August 13,1904
2: Dist: 1244 m, time: 90 sec (catapult)
Flyer II
September 7, 1904
3: Dist: 5 km, time 5 min
Nov-Dec, 1904
Total: time 50 min , 105 flights
Flyer III
October 5, 1905
1: Dist: 38,9 km, 39,23 min

Wilbur Wright

Orville Wright

Fig 13 Wrights and their airplanes Flyer I Flyer II Flyer III


The first time a manned rotocraft is known to have risen off the ground was
in 1907 at Lisenux, France. The first successful rotorcraft, however, wasn't
a true helicopter, but an autogiro, invented by Spanish engineer Juan de la
Cierva in 1919.

Fig. 14 - Juan de la Cierva and his helicopter in 1923

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Real helicopter building became possible after solving problems with its
controllability and aerodynamic stability. The father of helicopter building
was famous Russian scientist Boris N. Yuriev, who is an author of classical
helicopter scheme and the collective and cyclic pitch control
mechanism (1911 1913).

a
b
c
Fig. 15 First helicopter invention: a Boris N. Yuriev, b The first helicopter,
c The collective and cyclic pitch control mechanism
The first powered seaplane was invented in March 1910 by the French
engineer Henri Fabre. Its name was The Duck. It took off from the water
and flew 800 meters on its first flight on March 28, 1910.

Fig. 16 Henry Fabre and his hydroplane


Interesting facts:
On July 25, 1909 Louis Blriot flew the Blriot XI monoplane across
the English Channel winning the Daily Mail aviation prize. His flight from
Calais to Dover terminated 37 minutes.

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Fig. 17 - Louis Blriot and a Blriot XI model


On October 22, 1909 Raymonde de Laroche became the first woman to
fly solo in a powered heavier-than-air craft. She was also the first woman in
the world to receive a pilot's license.

Fig. 18 - Raymonde de Laroche and her flight in Voisin biplane


at the Reims airshow in 1910
On May 10, 1913 the Russky Vityaz by Igor Sikorsky made his first
flight, which accelerated the development of heavy aviation.

Fig. 19 Igor Sikorsky and his Russky Vityaz


The next period in aviation development is associated with the First World
War. This was a birth period of military aviation. First military airplanes used civil
airplanes as a prototype of well-known designs (Wright brothers and Samuel
Langley airplanes). First country to use airplanes for intelligence was Bulgaria,
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which airplanes made photos of enemy positions. Both military alliances Antanta
and Central Powers used mostly two-seater airplanes to get information about
movement of enemy forces. After some period of time designers began to install
weapon onboard, that caused first air battles.
Pilots` skills, stability and controllability of airplane improved, which caused
first aces emergence:
Manfred von Richthofen (Red Baron) had shot down 80 Antanta
airplanes in air during air battles.
Rene Paul Fonck had shot down 75 Central Powers airplanes.
Eddie Rickenbacker was the best USA pilot with 26 airplanes shot down.

Manfred von Richthofen


Rene Paul Fonck
Eddie Rickenbacker
Fig. 20 Aces of First World War

Fig. 21 Antanta airplanes of First World War

Fig. 22 Central forces airplanes of First World War


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On May 10, 1930 first high-altitude balloon flight took place. O. Picar and
P. Kipfer on the high-altitude balloon FNRS-1 climb to the altitude of 15,758 km.
High-altitude balloon is an a balloon, designed for flying into stratosphere (altitude
from 18 to 37 km). As usual they are filled with helium or hydrogen that is released
into the stratosphere.

a
b
c
Fig. 23 First high-altitude balloon flight: a Ogust Picar, b Paul Kipfer,
c high-altitude balloon FNRS-1
But after some crashes of airships in 1937 there was no more confidence to
them as a safe mean of transportation. Era of airships finished.
First to develop the theory bases of the jet engines building was Russian
scientist B.S. Stechkin, who published an article An air-breathing engine
theory in 1929.
In Germany and in England jet engine researching and designing started.
a) In England Frank Whittle patented a design of a turbo jet engine in
1930 and towards the end of the decade began developing an engine.
b) In USSR Professor Archip M. Lyulka designed first turbo jet engine
with centrifugal compressor in 1933-1939. He was also a concept
turbofan author in 1939 1941.
c) In Germany Hans von Ohain patented his version of a turbo jet engine
in 1936 and began developing a similar engine.
d) In USSR professor Vladimir V. Uvarov designed and built
in 1938-1940 first turboprop engine.

b
c
d
Fig. 24 Founders of air-breathing engines building:
a B.S. Stechkin, b Frank Whittle, c Archip M. Lyulka, d - Hans von Ohain
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After First World War aviation get further development. Main ways for
improvement were:
Aircraft engines transformed from gasoline engines with water cooling to
rotary and radial air-cooled with growth in specific power.
The fuselage from wooden and tissue transformed to aluminum one.
In 1929 first flight control and navigation devices were designed by Jimmy
Doolittle.
In history of aviation this period is known as Golden Age. Main dynamics
of the progress were air shows and prizes for records.
For example:
On June 14, 1919, Captain John Alcock and lieutenant Arthur Brown copiloted a Vickers Vimy made non-stop flight from St. John's,
Newfoundland to Clifden, Ireland, winning the Northcliffe prize 13,000

Fig. 25 Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Brown and a picture
of their airplane
Eight years later Charles Lindbergh took the Orteig Prize of $25,000 for the
first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic.

Fig. 26 Charles Lindberg and his airplane Ryan

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Fig. 27 Airplanes of Golden Age


But after ending of Golden Age in 1939 started the Second World War. This
fact caused drastic increase in the pace of aircraft development and
manufacturing. All countries involved in the war stepped up in development and
manufacturing of aircrafts and flight based weapon delivery systems, such as the
first long range bomber and escort fighters. Also started practical implementation
of jet planes (First plane to combat was Heinkel He 178).

Heinkel He 178
Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe
Fig. 28 Jet airplanes of Second World War
Second World War left big amount of military airplanes, especially bombers
(B-29 Lancaster). That was the reason for quick progress in civil aviation. First
regular flights appeared. First civil airplanes for regular flights were British De
Havilland Comet (January 1951) and American Avro C102 Jetliner (September
1949. First airlines appeared in the USSR and the USA.

Fig. 29 De Havilland Comet and Avro C102 Jetliner


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Aeroflot started regular flights by jet airplane Tu-104.
Boeing started Boeing 707 manufacturing.

Fig. 30 Tu-104 and Boeing 707


Also modern airplanes began to approach sonic velocity. And some of
airplanes even broke the sonic barrier.
In October 1947 Chuck Yeager on the jet engine powered airplane
Bell X 1 broke the sonic barrier.

Fig. 31 Chuck Yeager and his Bell X-1


In 1967, the X-15 set the velocity record for an aircraft at 7,297 km/h. This
record was renewed (12 144 km/h) by X-43 in the 21st century.

Fig. 32 X-15 and X-43


In 1975 Aeroflot started airlines by supersonic airplane Tu-144
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In 1976 British Airlines started transatlantic airlines by supersonic airplane
Concorde.

Fig. 33 Supersonic airplanes Tu-144 and Concorde


Interesting facts and records:
In 1969 Boeing 747 made its first flight. That is the most abundant liner in
the world.
In 1981 Space Shuttle made its first orbital flight.

Fig. 34 Boeing 747 and Space shuttle


In 1986 Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager made first round-the-world,
unrefueled flight without landing on an aircraft, the Rutan Voyager.

Fig. 35 Crew of Rutan Voyager

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In 1999 Bertrand Piccard became the first person to circle Earth in a
balloon.

Fig. 36 Bertrand Piccard and his balloon


2. Atmosphere. Atmospheric layers.
Atmosphere is the air coat of the planet, which provides conditions for life
and protects from influence of solar radiation.
It`s hard to define the size of atmosphere, because it gradually changes to
space. But it`s assumed that atmosphere is that part of the air shell, that rotates
together with planet. The size of the atmosphere changes with latitude. There is
no single opinion about boarder between atmosphere and space. Some scientists
believe boarder to be at the altitudes from 1000 to 3000 km, other insist on 120
160 km. FAI classifies flights at the altitudes lower than 80 km as atmospheric,
and higher as space flights.
Composition of the atmosphere is very rich and consists of lots of gases.
Main of them are:
Nitrogen 78,08%
Argon 0,93%
Neon 0,0018%
Carbon Dioxide 0,0314% Helium 0,000524%
Oxygen 20,95%
Atmosphere can be divided into different layers.
Troposphere is the lowest atmospheric
layer, which stretches up to altitudes 10 km
at the poles and up to 17 km at the equator.
This layer may be characterized with
intensive air mixing, cloudiness presence,
precipitation,
permanent
temperature
reduction.
Temperature in troposphere changes
intensively with altitude and latitude. For
example, at the sea level temperature is
about 15 and at the troposphere boarder

Fig. 37 Atmospheric layers


structure

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-56 . In some deserts temperature can be


+55 , but -89 in polar station Vostok,
Antarctica.
Stratosphere is the atmospheric layer from troposphere up to 55 km. Air
temperature from 11 km to 20 km stays almost constant. This part of
stratosphere is known as Tropopause. Upper than 20 km air temperature
began to rise up to 0, because of air and ozone molecules heating by solar
radiation. There are intensive, hundred meters width, flows with velocities 100150 m/s at altitudes from 17 to 25 km.
Mesosphere is the atmospheric layer from 55 to 80 km. Temperature in this
layer falls from 0 to -88. Mesosphere also has intensive flows with
velocities 70 - 170 m/s.
Thermosphere is the atmospheric layer from 80 to 800 km. In this layer air
temperature raises up to 750 . But it`s only kinetic air temperature, and it
has nothing in common with temperature as we understand it, because of very
low density.
Exosphere is atmospheric layer from 800 to 3000 km. Here Earth atmosphere
transits to space.
Ionosphere is a part of the atmosphere (40 800 km) with high level of
ionization. Here are lots of positively and negatively charged particles.
Contacting with Sun rays they shine producing auroras.

Fig. 38 Auroras from Earth and from space


Transfer zones between basic atmosphere layers are known as pauses.
3. Main thermodynamic parameters and features of atmospheric air. The
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA). The International System
of Units (SI).
Main thermodynamic parameters to describe air condition are temperature,
pressure and density.
Temperature (T) characterizes quantitative measure of heating degree of
body. Liquid, mechanical, electrical or gas thermometer, thermocouple, resistance
thermometer or pyrometer may be used to measure temperature.
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d
e
Fig. 39 Devices for temperature measurement: a liquid thermometer,
b mechanical thermometer, c resistance thermometer, d thermocouple,
e pyrometer
There are four temperature scales:
Kelvin temperature scale (K) is absolute scale, in which zero point is the
point where it`s impossible to get any heat energy from the body. This point
is a point is known as Absolute zero.
Celsius temperature scale (C) is a scale, in which the point of ice melting
was adopted as zero scale point. Use of this scale is cozily for routine life,
especially for meteorology. One degree in Kelvin and Celsius scales are
equal.
Fahrenheit temperature scale(F) is a scale, in which zero point
corresponds to temperature of water, ice and ammonia mixture freezing. 96
degrees Fahrenheit is the temperature of human`s body.
Rankine temperature scale (R) is a scale, in which zero point is equal
to zero point of Kelvin scale. In Rankine scale one degree is equal to 1
degree Fahrenheit.
Pressure
(p)
is
the force per
unit
of
area applied
in
a
direction perpendicular to the surface of an object.
To measure pressure manometer, differential manometer, vacuum gauge,
pressure sensor, barometer (atmospheric pressure), tonometer (blood pressure)
are used.

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Table 2 Transfer between temperature scales
Kelvin
Celsius
Fahrenheit
5
K=C+273,15
K=
F+459,67
K
1
9

5
F-32
9

Rankine
5
K= R
9

5
R-491,67
9

C=K-273,15

9
F= K-459,67
5

9
F= C+32
5

F=R-459.67

9
R= K
5

9
R= C+491,67
5

R=F+459,67

C=

C=

d
e
f
Fig. 40 Devices for pressure measurement: a manometer,
b differential manometer, c vacuum gauge, d pressure sensor,
e barometer, f tonometer.

N
2
m

The unit for pressure measurement is Pascal


.
Density can be mass and volume. The mass density () is defined as unit of
mass per its volume.

m kg
,
;
V m3

11\* MERGEFORMAT ()

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where mass density; m mass of substance in volume V, kg;
V considered volume.
In aviation such parameter as specific weight is often used:

G N
,
;
V m3

22\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Mass density and specific weight are correlated:


=

m
G
kg
=
= , 3 ;
V
g V
g m

33\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Main features of atmospheric air are inertia, viscosity, elasticity,


compressibility and humidity.
Inertia characterizes ability of a substance or an object to save a rest state or
rectilinear steady motion. Inertia can be characterized with mass density (). The
more mass density is the more inertia substance has.
Viscosity is property of substance to oppose the relative displacement of
substance internal layers. It`s caused by internal friction forces. When adjacent
layers shift, the force appears. This force tries to oppose this shift. Viscosity can
be estimated with kinematic or dynamic viscosity factors.
N sec
m2

dynamic viscosity factor,


(It depends only on gas structure and
temperature).
m 2

sec

kinematic viscosity factor,


(Depends on temperature and density)
Kinematic and dynamic viscosity factors are correlated:
=

44\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Elasticity characterizes air ability to return to initial state after removing of the
force, which caused deformation. The reason for air deformation as usual is
compression pressure. If after compression more volume shall be given to air, it
shall fill all volume, but its density shall decrease.
Compressibility characterizes air ability to change the volume with pressure
or temperature change. This ability is related with big distances between
molecules. Generally, liquids are considered to be incompressible because of
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surface tension forces. The compressibility depends only from temperature. The
lower temperature the higher compression may be obtained.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air volume. For humidity
estimation absolute or relative humidity can be used. Absolut humidity
characterizes amount of water vapor (in grams) in the definite volume (m 3).
Relative humidity characterizes the ratio between amount of water vapor and
amount of water vapor saturation.
The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is an atmospheric model of
how
the pressure, temperature, density,
and viscosity of
the Earth's
atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes. The ISA model divides the
atmosphere into layers with linear temperature distribution. It consists of tables of
values at various altitudes, plus some formulas by which those values were
derived.
Table 3 The standard atmosphere table
Sonic
Altitude Temperature
Pressure Density,
velocity,
,m
,K
, Pa
kg/m3
m/sec
0
288,2
340,3
101330
1,225
500
284,9
338,4
95464
1,1673
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
60000
247
315,1
22
0,00031
80000
198,6
282,5
1
0,00002

Kinematic
viscosity, m2/sec
1,46105
1,52105
:
:
5,11102
7,16101

The International System of Units (SI) is the modern form of the metric
system and is generally a system of measurement units arranged around
seven basic units and the convenience of the number ten. It is the world's most
widely used system of measurement, both in everyday commerce and in science.
The SI was developed in 1960 from the old meter-kilogram-second system
and was officially adopted as international at the 11 th General Conference on
Weights and Measures.
SI is not static, units are created and definitions are modified through
international agreement among many nations because of measurement
technologies progress and precision improvement.
Table 4 SI basic units
Measure unit
Value
Length
Mass
Time

Symbol

russian

international

meter

russia
n

kilogram

kg

second

international

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Amperage
Thermodynamic
tempreature
Luminous intensity
Amount of substance

ampere

kelvin

candela
mole

cd
mol

Table 5 Standard prefixes for the SI unit of measure


Multiple
s
Fraction
s

Name
Symbol
Factor
Name
Symbol
Factor

100

100

decada
101
decid
101

hectoh
102
centic
102

kilok
103
millim
103

megaM
106
micro
106

gigaG
109
nanon
109

teraT
1012
picop
1012

petaP
1015
femtof
1015

exaE
1018
attoa
1018

zettaZ
1021
zeptoz
1021

yottaY
1024
yoctoy
1024

4. Lift force. Principles of aircraft flight.


To fly any aircraft in the Earth atmosphere, first of all it`s necessary to
overcome the gravity and environmental resistance. To do this aircraft jointly with
power plant should produce enough lift force for this.
Lift force is a force, which overcomes gravity. Lift force and gravity force
acting in one plane, but in opposite directions. If the resulting aerodynamic force
acts at an angle to gravity force then lifting force will be the projection of this force
on the direction of gravity force action. Lift force is a force, which is directed
normally to wing surface (fig. 41).

Fig. 41 Directions of gravity and lift forces acting


Flight principle defines mean for lift force creation. There are 4 flight
principles, which are based on three nature laws.
Aerostatic flight principle is based on Archimedean law. According to this
law, a body, which is placed in gas or liquid, is acted by the force, which is equal
to the weight of the displaced by this body liquid.
This principle is used in balloons, aerostats, stratospheric balloons and
airships.
Aerostatic flight principle uses the conception of free lift force (difference
between buoyant force and gravity force).
Free lift force can be calculated with eq. (8):
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Y = P-G, N ;

55\* MERGEFORMAT ()

where: Y free lift force, P buoyant force, G gravity force.


Buoyant force can be calculated with next equation:

P = g V, N ;

66\* MERGEFORMAT ()

where: density, g gravity acceleration, V volume of gas filled shell.


Gravity force is a weight sum of hot gases inside the shell volume and
structural weight with payload.
G = GSTR +Gh g = GSTR +h g g V, N .

77\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
Substituting (6) and (7) in (5) we got:

Y = g V-

h -G
g

, N
STR

88\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Consequences from eq. (8):


If Y>0 the aircraft lifts until Y=0, because air density decreases with
altitude.
If Y=0 aircraft stays at this altitude, which is known as equilibrium altitude.
Conversely if Y<0 the aircraft goes down until new equilibrium altitude.
Aerodynamic flight principle is based on Second Newton`s Law. To
understand this principle let`s consider the following example.
If to put a plate at an angle to the flow or to move the plate in immovable air
(liquid) the interaction force appears. The plate deflects flow down, and in
accordance with the Third Newton`s Law, the flow with the same force affects the
plate but in opposite direction. This flow force, acting the plate opposes the gravity
force, forming the lift force (fig. 42).

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Fig. 42 Lift force formation in accordance with aerodynamic


flight principle
This principle is used in hang-gliders, gliders, airplanes and helicopters.
Technically aerodynamic principle may be realized in two ways:
By movement of the whole aircraft, equipped with immovable surface (ex.
wing).
By movement of aircraft separate parts (ex. propeller).
The lift force can be calculated using eq. (9):

m
Y = V,
N,
t


99\* MERGEFORMAT ()

where: m mass of the deflected flow, t time of force action,


change.

air velocity

Jet flight principle is also based on Second


Newton`s Law. The difference between aerodynamic and
jet principles is that in first principle environment is
discharged and in the second a part of aircraft mass.
Mass can be taken from atmosphere or from inside of the
aircraft.
Fig. 43 Lift force in
This method is used in Rockets (fig. 43).
ballistic flight principle
The lift force in this method can be calculated using
eq. (10)

Y msec Vn V fN pn pin , N ,

1010\*

MERGEFORMAT ()

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where:

msec

Vn

secondary massflow,
velocity of leaving gases from the
fN
pn
V
nozzle,
rocket velocity,
nozzle area,
pressure at the nozzle
discharge,
pin
ambient pressure.
Ballistic (or inertial) flight principle Lift force in this case is defined by
aircraft inertia force. Lift force in this case is determined by initial acceleration.
This principle is used in space technic and some ballistic Rockets.
5. Aircraft classification by general features
By flight principle
Aerostatic

Aerodynamic
Airplanes
Helicopters

Strato-spheric balloons

Airships

Autogyros
Hovercrafts

Wingless Rockets

Balloons

Jet

Ballistic

Combination

Spacecrafts

Shuttles

Some cruise Rockets


Ballistic Rockets

Hang-gliders
Cruise Rockets

Fig. 44 Aircraft classification by flight principle

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By appointment
Military

Special-purposes

Civil

Functions:Functions:
Airplane for airborne observation
Air targetsCountry`s
destruction.
economy support (passengers, mail and goods
Antisubmarine
transportation).
patrol aircrafts
Intelligence.
Agricultural maintenance.
Aircraft-transponders
EquipmentEnvironmental
and troops transportation.
protection (firefighting, supervisory and meteorological aircrafts)
Fighting enemy
aircrafts
trainers
Refueling aircraft in the air.
Other military purposes

Fig. 45 Aircraft classification by appointment


By the crew presence
Manned aircraft

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

Fig. 46 Aircraft classification by crew presence


Pilot presence complicates the structure of aircraft because of necessity to
install life-support and rescue systems. It increases aircraft`s mass and limits the
velocity and acceleration. As usual UAVs are single use aircrafts that do not need
landing system.
By means of control
Automatic

Semiautomatic

Man controlled

c:
Characteristic:
y
human
pilot using
instructions
information
after collected
start. But
from
its regulations
sensors
(aircraft
and
velocity
canand
be acceleration,
changed
manually
parameters
when it`s
andnecessary.
performa
Controlled
manually
bytargets
pilot,
without
any sensors.
Information
about
aircraft

Fig. 47 Aircraft classification by means of control

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By power plant
Electric engine

Gas turbine engine

Rocket engine

Piston engine

Electrostatic engine
Electrodynamic engine Liquid propellant engine Solid fuel engine

Fig. 48 Aircraft classification by power plant


By aircraft velocity

km
h

km
h

km
h

Fig. 49 Aircraft classification by maximal velocity


By location
Marine

Land

Space

Amphibian

Fig. 50 Aircraft classification by location


6. Basic aircraft performances
Basic aircraft performances are velocity, distance, altitude, rate to climb,
maneuverability, carrying capacity, takeoff/landing performance. For rockets also
target hitting and target capture precision, launch preparation time, hit probability.
These performances are not equivalent, because each aircraft has its own
application purposes, for which different performances are important. For
example, for interceptor aircraft main performances are velocity, maximal
permissible altitude and rate to climb. For civil aircrafts carrying capacity and takeoff/landing performance are important.
Maximal flight velocity is a velocity in horizontal flight with maximal power or
thrust of the engine.
Flight range is a maximal distance, which aircraft can fly without refueling.
Flight range depends on altitude, that`s why usually flight range at the altitude is
specified. For military airplanes flight range is replaced with action range.
Altitudes (fig. 51)
Absolute altitude is a distance between sea level and a plane in
perpendicularly to sea level.

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Real altitude is a distance between current earth surface and a plane
perpendicularly to sea level.
Relative basing altitude is a distance between aircraft and an aerodrome
perpendicularly to sea level.

Fig. 51 Types of altitude


Roofs:
Static roof is a maximum altitude, on which vertical velocity is equal to
zero and aircraft is able to fly horizontally at constant velocity.
Operational roof is a maximal altitude, on which aircraft is able to fly
horizontally with normal control characteristics.
Dynamic roof is a maximal altitude, which aircraft can reach using engine
thrust and kinetic energy store.
Helicopters have static roof 23km and dynamic roof up to 6 km.
Supersonic airplanes have static roof 1820 km and dynamic roof 30
35 km.
Rate to climb is a time, necessary for aircraft to reach given altitude.
Maneuverability is an ability of an aircraft to change flight direction.
Maneuverability is characterized by time of maneuver and overload.
Carrying capacity is a mass of payload, which is carried by aircraft on this
route with definite fuel stock and take-off weight.
Take-off/landing performances characterize runways, at witch aircraft can
be used.

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II. LIGHTER THAN AIR AIRCRAFTS AND GLIDERS
7. Aerostat and airship. Their general characteristic.
Aerostat (Balloon) is a noncontrolled, lighter than air aircraft (fig.
52). Main part of the aerostat is a
spherical shell (1), which is made
from gastight material. Special belt
(3) is attached to the spherical shell.
This belt is joined to strop ring (4)
with strops (5). Nacelle (2), where
payload and crew are placed, is
attached to strop ring. For flight
altitude control there are sandbags
(6) attached to nacelle and exhaust
valve (7) in upper part of the shell.
Also in this part are claws (8),
which are used for keeping aerostat
on the ground. In the bottom of the
shell there is special device for filling
Fig. 52 Aerostat scheme
the shell with gas. This device is
known as appendix (9).
As working gas aerostats may use heated air, hydrogen or helium. If heated
air is used aerostat needs special gas-jet unit for heating.
Aerostat control is performed only in vertical direction. In horizontal it is not
controlled and direction of its flight depends on wind. If it needs to gain altitude air
in spherical shell may be heated or sandbags can be thrown down. Conversely, if
it needs to decrease altitude air must be cooled.
Aerostats classification is presented in fig. 53.
By the presence ofbindingto the ground

Sport
Substratospheric balloon
Stratospheric balloon
baloon
310 km
1012 km
0,13 km

Gaseous

Tethered

Thermal

Free

By working gas

Fig. 53 Aerostat classification


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The benefits of thermal aerostats to gaseous are cheap fuel and safety. But
the pressure difference necessary for free lift force creation in thermal aerostats is
lower.
Airship is a controlled aerostat. Airship has elongated form with rounded fore
part and sharpened trailing part of the shell. This is made for decreasing
aerodynamic drag. The form of nacelle also differs from aerostat because of same
reasons. Airship is also equipped with propelled engines to provide translation
movement. To control airship flight aerodynamic surfaces are used. To correct
horizontal position rudder is used, and vertical position elevator. Special
dampers installed under nacelle to decrease the strike while landing.

Fig. 54 Soft airship scheme: 1 berthing node, 2 front enhancement,


3 soft shell, 4 vertical empennage, 5 - horizontal stabilizer, 6 elevation
rudder, 7 rudder, 8 ballonets, 9 nacelle, 10 claws, 11 strops,
12 berthing cables, 13 engine with propeller.
Airships are divided into 3 groups: soft, semi-rigid and rigid airships. Soft
airships do not have rigid elements to support the soft shell and rigid elements,
such as nacelle and empennages is attached with claws and strops, connected to
them. Volume of such airships is about 8000 m3.
Semi rigid airships have rigid metal keel truss, connected in front to front
enhancement increasing the rigidity of the airship and keeping the form of shell.
Fuel stock and payload are located inside the rigid metal keel truss. Volume of
such airships is 800035000 m3.
Rigid airships have rigid frame, consisting of transversal and longitudinal
power elements. Fuel stock and all devices are located inside the rigid frame to
decrease aerodynamic drag. There are no ballonets in rigid airships. Volume of
such airships is up to 200000 m3.

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8. Gliders design
Glider is heavier than air aircraft without any energy resources for taking-off
or flight. Flight of the glider is performed using stored potential energy during its
lifting to start position. Glider uses aerodynamic flight principle. One component of
gravity force G2 makes glider moving relative to the air. According to the Second
Newtons law aerodynamic contra directed to G force R appears. Component of
this force forms lift force (fig. 55).
Basic parts of glider are wing, fuselage, and tail empennage.
Wing is a glider`s main part. Its function is the
lift force production. Main requirements for glider
wing are minimal drag and maximal lift force
production with minimal wing area.
Fuselage is a gliders part necessary for
cockpit and tail empennage installation. It also
must have low aerodynamic resistance, thats why
it has a drop form.
Tail empennage is a gliders part for control
and stability provision. Tail empennage can be Fig. 55 Forces scheme,
divided into two groups: horizontal and vertical acting on glider while flying
empennage.
Horizontal empennage consists of stationary stabilizer (2) and mobile
elevator (5). Stabilizer ensures horizontal stability during the flight. If front part of
the glider goes down the trailing part goes up. In this case the pressure on upper
stabilizer surface rises and pushes glider back to horizontal position. And
conversely if the trailing part goes down pressure on lower stabilizer surface rises
and as in first case pushes glider to horizontal position.
Elevator is a mobile trailing part of the stabilizer made for flight altitude
control. For example, if pilot deviates the elevator upwards pressure on the upper
elevator surface increases, making glider to increase the altitude.

Fig. 56 Glider: 1 aileron, 2 stabilizer, 3 keel, 4 rudder,


5 elevator, 6 fuselage, 7 wing
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Vertical empennage also consists of stationary keel and mobile rudder. Keel
ensures vertical stability during the flight. If glider goes left the trailing part goes
right. In this case the pressure on right keel surface rises and pushes glider back
to initial position. And conversely if glider goes right pressure on left surface rises
and as in first case pushes glider to initial position.
Rudder is a mobile trailing part of keel, made for flight direction control. For
example, if pilot deviates rudder right, pressure on the right rudder surface
increases making glider to turn right.
Ailerons are mobile parts of wing panels. They are designed to control the
glider position on longitudinal axis. Glider has 2 ailerons because of 2 wing
panels. They work synchronously, when one aileron deviates upwards another
deviates downwards. When aileron deviates downwards pressure on its lower part
increases and simultaneously second aileron deviates upwards and pressure on
its upper part increases. This cause lift force difference and glider rotation to
upwards deviated aileron direction.

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III. AIRPLANES
9. Airplane. Classification of airplanes.
Airplane is an aircraft heavier than air with engine and fixed relative to other
parts wing. Because of high velocity, carrying capacity and range, reliability during
maintenance, maneuverability, stability and controllability the airplane become the
most widespread aircraft in the world.
Airplanes can be classified according to:
Aerodynamic configuration

Fig. 57 Airplane classification according to aerodynamic configuration


Main advantages and disadvantages of each scheme are shown Next.
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Tailless Canard Normal


Converti Combine
configur configur
configur
Flying configur configur
d
ble
ation
ation scheme ation
wing
ation
ation.

Table 5 Airplane aerodynamic configuration characteristics.


Aerodynami
c
Advantages
Disadvantages
configuratio
n
Wing operates in undisturbed
Operation of a horizontal
flow.
stabilizer in a flow skewed and
Nose part length of fuselage is disturbed by the wing. This
small,
which
causes
a considerably
Horizontal
stabilizer
operates
During stall on reduces
the horizontal
the
in an undisturbed flow. It stabilizer such a configuration
improves efficiency.
results airplane`s squatting,
Low
Horizontal

drag. stabilizer produces owing


The uniting
of the
airplane
decrease
its total
lift.
High wing stillness for torsion. control in horizontal and
This improves its aeroelasticity. longitudinal
axes
results
High
Themaneuverability.
lowest aerodynamic worse
Complexity result
of controlcontrol
and
drag.
poor stability stock.
The lowest structural weight.

momenttogether
along High aerodynamic drag
Destabilizing
Horizontal stabilizer
with flaps produce the
additional lift.
Convertible
Direct lift control
(can be is
used
configuration
an Destabilizer
complicates
airplane
with
destabilizer. control system,
because
Function of destabilizer is destabilizer is hidden in
reduction in the appropriate fuselage or is set in free
According to number of wings and their location
Biplane

Monoplanes

Triplane

Sesquiplane

Normal biplane

High-wing monoplane

Mid-wing monoplane

Low-wing monoplane

Fig. 58 Airplane classification according to number of wings and their location


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Biplane is an airplane with wings arranged one upon other. As usual lower
wing is displaced backwards to reduce interference drag, to provide necessary
center of gravity position and to improve downward view. Main advantage of
biplane is lower wing curvature. Main disadvantage of biplane is extremely high
drag.
Sesquiplane is an airplane with considerably smaller lower wing than upper
one.
Triplane is a history. Nowadays they are not manufactured.

a
b
c
Fig. 59 Airplanes: a Biplane b Sesquiplane c Triplane
Monoplane is an airplane with one wing. It has a lower drag but higher mass
in comparison with biplane. Nowadays monoplane is the basic concept.
Low-wing monoplane is a monoplane with low wing arrangement in
fuselage.
Advantages:
Considerable increase in lift force during take-off and landing due to screen
effect.
Safety of crew and passengers in case of emergency landing if the wing
touchdown happens.
Safety of crew and passengers while emergency landing on water.
Easy engine maintenance.
Disadvantages:
High aerodynamic drug.
Deterioration of downward view.
Danger of foreign objects getting inside the engine.
Possibility of the engine touching the runaway during bank landing.
Middle-wing monoplane is a monoplane with middle arrangement of wing in
fuselage.
Advantages:
Lower interference drag than low-wing monoplane has.

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Possibility to arrange the cargo compartments in a low part of fuselage
under the wing.
Disadvantages:
Center-wing intersects the middle section of a passenger or a cargo
compartment.
Deterioration of rearward view.
Increase of landing gear strut length while attaching them to wing.
High-wing monoplane is an airplane with wing arranged on top of fuselage.
Advantages:
The lowest value of an interference drag.
Good downward view for a crew and passengers.
The arrangement of passenger compartment and cargo one inside
fuselage is simplified.
The loading and uploading of airplane is simplified.
Possibility of wing damage while loading and uploading processes is low.
Disadvantages:
The complexity of arranging the landing gear struts on wing.
Complexity of engine maintenance, which are arranged on a wing.

a
b
c
Fig. 60 Monoplanes: a low-wing, b mid-wing c high-wing

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According to landing gear type

Fig. 61 Airplane classification according to landing gear type


According to power plant
Propeller airplane

Jet airplanes

Rocket
Turboprop
Gas-turbine engines of
direct rection
Turboprop

Piston

Combined

Fig. 62 Airplane classification according to power plant


Engines can be installed:
on the wing;
under the wing;
inside the wing;
inside the fuselage;
on the fuselage.
According to the purposes airplanes can be civil or military.

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Civil airplanes
Transport airplane

Agricultural
Intelligence
Firefighting

Transient

Middle
(<4000 km)

Sanitary

Training
airplane
First training

Ultra heavyweight (>120 tons)

Heavyweight (>40 tons)

Middleweight (<40 tons)

Lightweight (<10 tons)

Intercontinental (>9000 km)

Trunk

Local airlines (<20 passengers)

Nearby
(<2000 km)

Special purposes airplane

Aerobatic

Airliner

Distant
(<9000 km)

Fig. 63 Civil airplanes classification


Military airplanes

Front-line
bomber

Rocket carrier

Rocket
carrier

Bomber

Spy plane
Attack plane
Fighter

Spy plane

Tactical
bomber
Strategic
bomber

Navy aviation
Coastal
aviation

Naval
aviation

Rocket
carrier
Spy
plane
Patrol
plane

Training airplanes

Long range aviation

Military-transport airplanes

Front-line aviation

Front-line
Patrol
Fighter-bomber
Fighter-interceptor
Airplanes
shorter take-off distance
Vertical take-off and
landingwith
airplanes
fighter
plane

Fig. 64 Military airplane classification

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10. Bases of airplane`s flight


10.1. Wing loads
The wing of airplane is very loaded part. Correct and accurate wing loads
calculation is necessary for designing, performances calculations, structural and
rigidity tests. Aerodynamic and mass forces are main wing loads during flight. It`s
necessary to know the way of action, distribution law, direction and value of each
force.
Aerodynamic load appears as a result of interaction between wing and
airflow. It`s distributed on a wing surface.
Resultant aerodynamic force (R) is a geometrical sum of lift force (Y) and
drag (X). This force is applied to the center of pressure (C). Because of rigid
junction of wing to fuselage the moment appears (fig. 65).

Fig. 65 Aerodynamic wing loads


Aerodynamic forces depend on wing position in the airflow, which is defined
by attack angle.
Attack angle () is an angle between the airflow velocity vector and a wing
chord. Wing chord (b) is the distance between the trailing edge and the leading
edge. Attack angle can be positive (if airflow runs against the bottom surface of
the wing), equal to zero (if airflow velocity vector matches the chord) and negative
(if airflow runs against the upper surface of the wing).

Fig. 66 Positive (>0), equal to zero (=0), negative (>0) attack angles
Aerodynamic forces can be calculated with equations 11 14:

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V 2
R Cr
S, N .
2

Resultant aerodynamic force:


MERGEFORMAT ()
V 2
Y Cy
S, N .
2
Lift force:
MERGEFORMAT ()
V 2
X Cx
S, N .
2
Drag:
MERGEFORMAT ()
V 2
Z Cz
S, N .
2
Lateral force:
MERGEFORMAT ()

1111\*

1212\*

1313\*

1414\*

Cr Cy Cx Cz
In this equations
,
,
,
aerodynamic factors of resultant, lift, drag
and lateral force (as usual these factors are experimentally measured in wind
V 2
2
tunnel),
kinetic head, S wing area.
Moment, which loads wing, can be calculated as:
V 2
M=Cm
S b, N m ,
2

1515\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Cm

where
moment factor relative to the transverse axis (z axis) of the aircraft
(experimentally measured in wind tunnel), b characteristic size (as usual it`s a
chord size).
It`s clear that moment M can be decomposed along axis in the same way as
resultant aerodynamic force is decomposed.
Mass loads are forces of weight and inertia of wing mass, fuel, cargo and
units that are located inside or fixed outside the wing. Inertia forces appear when
curvilinear flight happens with acceleration or in during turbulent flow, during
ground impact on landing.
10.2. Aerodynamic wing characteristics
Airplane maneuvers can be decomposed along the axes (fig. 67):

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Pitch is airplane turning round the Z axis. If the airplane front part goes down
this is known as pitch-down and conversely, if front part goes up pitch up.
Roll is airplane turning round the X axis.
Yaw is airplane turning round the Y axis.
These parameters can be estimated with pitch angle, roll angle and yaw
angle respectively.

Fig. 67 Airplane flight path decomposition


Aerodynamic characteristics are convenient to represent in graphs. Tests in
Cy
wind tunnels show that lift force factor ( ) rises with the rise of attack angle. But
Cy
Cy
rises up to definite value of attack angle, after which the rapid drop of
Cy
cr
occurs. The attack angle with highest
is known as critical angle ( ). Drop of
Cy
when attack angles are above critical angle happens because of stall and
intensive vortex formation. Modern aircrafts have critical angle 15-20 and
Cy max 0.81.2
maximal
. This graph is correct only for subsonic flow, because
supersonic flow is very high influenced by shock waves.

Fig. 68 Dependence of lift force factor and drag factor from attack angle:
1 non-symmetrical airfoil, 2 symmetrical airfoil

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0

Attack angle with zero lift factor is known as zero lift force angle ( ). Zero
lift force angle depends on wing airfoil curvature. For symmetrical airfoil this angle
is equal to zero and for non-symmetrical is negative.
Angles from zero lift force angle to critical angle are known as attack angle
range.
Drag factor has more complicated dependence form attack angle. It can be
calculated with next equation:
Cx =Cx pr +Ci r ,

where
range),

Cx pr

Ci r

1616\* MERGEFORMAT ()

airfoil drag, caused by airfoil form (constant in whole attack angle


inductive drag.

CY

Universal performance of great practical importance is the dependence of


CX
from
and attack angle. This dependence is known as wing polar. It`s formed
Cy f Cx f
using dependences
,
.

Fig. 69 Wing polar


If to look at wing polar it`s easy to see the most efficient attack angle. This
attack angle has the highest aerodynamic quality (lift-to-drag ratio).
Lift-to-drag ratio (K) is characterized with ratio of lift force to drag or ratio of
lift force factor to drag force factor.

Y Cy

.
X Cx

1717\* MERGEFORMAT ()

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Maximal lift to drag ratio significantly affects flight performances, such as
airplane flight distance and duration and static roof.
11. Basic airplanes parts and systems
Basic airplane systems are:
Electric system consists of energy sources, board network and consumers.
This system ensures work of most electric devices.
Control system helps pilot to operate airplane or operates airplane itself.
This system also includes autopilot, which functions are ensuring stability of the
airplane round all axes, flight along a definite course, constant altitude keeping
and maneuvers provision.
Equipment for engine operation provision consists of different devices for
engine parameters control (pressure in lubrication system, fuel consumption, etc.).
Equipment for piloting and navigation consists of devices for flight
parameters control. This devices include different compasses (gyroscopic,
magnetic and astronomic), gyro horizon (necessary for flight without land vision
and for horizon determination). For altitude and velocity measuring altimeter and
air velocity indicators are used.
Radio and radar equipment includes huge amount of near and long range
transceivers, radio equipment for near and long range navigation. This system
ensures contact of airplane with land.
Special equipment consists of devices used only by special airplanes
(armament, photo and film intelligence, meteorological equipment).

Fig. 70 Airplane basic parts: 1 fuselage, 2 radar cowl, 3 wing center


section, 4 slats, 5 ailerons, 6 aileron trimmer, 7 interceptors, 8 keel,
9 rudder, 10 rudder trimmer, 11 stabilizer, 12 elevator, 13 elevator
trimming tab, 14 nose landing gears, 15 main landing gears, 16 turbo jet
engine, 17 flaps.
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Basic airplane parts are:


The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and
passengers or payload. The fuselage also serves to attach control and
stabilization surfaces in determined relationships to lifting surfaces, required for
aircraft stability and maneuverability provision.
Wing is an airplane surface for lift force creation and control surfaces
attaching. In some cases wing can be used for landing gears attachment.
Slat is a small airfoil shaped device attached just in front of the wing leading
edge. The slat re-directs the airflow at the front of the wing, allowing it to flow more
smoothly over the upper surface in case wing operates at a high attack angle
mode. This allows wing to operate more efficiently at high attack angles required
to produce more lift.
Aileron is hinged fastened flight control surface attached to the wing trailing
edge. The ailerons are used to control aircraft in roll. Two ailerons are typically
interconnected so that one goes down when the other goes up. The downgoing
aileron increases the lift force on its wing while the upgoing aileron reduces it on
its wing, producing a rolling moment along the aircraft's longitudinal axis.
Trimmer is a small deflecting surface in the rudder, aileron or elevator trailing
edge. It reduces the force in the control system of an airplane.
Flap is a movable part of the wing that can be lowered into the airflow to
produce extra lift. Their purpose is to re-shape the wing section into one that is
more curved. Flaps are usually located on the trailing edge of a wing, but leading
edge flaps are occasionally used as well.
Interceptor is a movable part on the upper wing surface deflected or put into
the flow to increase aerodynamic drag and to decrease the lift force. Therefore,
interceptors are also called means of direct lift force control.

Fig. 71 Airplane wing mechanization:


1 slats, 2 ailerons, 3 flap, 4 interceptor
Keel is a part of an airplane's empennage, which is typically situated on the
aft end of the fuselage and is intended to reduce aerodynamic slip aside. On
aircraft, keel generally points upwards.
Rudder is a movable trailing end of the stabilizer, which allows the airplane
pilot to control yaw.
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Stabilizer is a fixed surface from which an elevator may be attached.
Stabilizer provides stability when the aircraft is flying straight, and the airfoil of the
horizontal stabilizer balances the forces acting on the aircraft. Stabilizer can be
placed on the front or the back of airplane.
Elevator is flight control surface, usually at the back of an aircraft, which
controls the aircraft's orientation by changing the pitch of the aircraft, and so also
the wing attack angle. An increased wing attack angle will cause a greater lift force
production by the wing, and a slowing of the aircraft velocity. A decrease in attack
angle will increase the velocity.
Landing gears is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and
allows it to move, takeoff and land. Typically wheels are used, but skids, skis,
floats or a combination of these and other elements can be applied, depending on
the surface.

Fig. 72 Landing gears and tail empennage: 1 keel, 2 rudder,


3 rudder trimmer, 4 - stabilizer, 5 elevator, 6 elevator trimmer
12. Geometrical wing characteristic
Wing geometry can be characterized by airfoil shape and wing shape from
top and front.
Wing airfoil is a form of section obtained by plane crossing the airplane wing,
which is parallel to airplane symmetry plane.
Main airfoil parameters are:
Airfoil chord (b) is a straight line, connecting the most distant points of front
and trailing edges of the airfoil (fig. 73).

Relative airfoil thickness ( ) is a relation of maximal airfoil thickness (cmax)


to airfoil chord. It significantly influences drag factor. To have low drag factor, wing
must have thin airfoil (fig. 73). But if wing is very thin, stress performances
deteriorate.

max
100%.
b

1818\* MERGEFORMAT ()

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6%

6%

12%

Modern airfoils can be thin


, mean
and thick
12%
8...20%
. Sub- and transonic airplanes have wing with RAT
,
3...9%
subsonic airplanes
.

Relative airfoil concavity ( ) is a relation of middle line sag of airfoil to its


chord (fig. 73).

where

fmax

fmax
100%,
b

1919\* MERGEFORMAT ()

airfoil concavity (maximal middle line sag from chord).

The airfoil concavity augments lift force at subsonic flight velocities. Maximal
relative concavity of airfoil, which is optimal for subsonic airplanes reaches values
f 1,5...2,5%
. At supersonic airplanes the presence of concavity doesn`t
f 0...2%
augment lift force significantly, therefore wings with airfoils
are used for
supersonic airplanes.
Middle line is a points summary, which are equidistant from both, up and
bottom airfoil sides in perpendicular to chord direction (Fig 72).

Fig. 73 Geometrical parameters of the airfoil


Airfoil shapes of wing can be:

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Fig. 74 Wing airfoil shapes: 1 byconvex, 2 plano-convex, 3 convexconcave, 4 symmetrical, 5 S-shape, 6 lenticular, 7 and 8 diamond-shape, 9
double-wedge shape, 10 and 11 wedge shape.
Historically, first wing airfoil shape was byconvex, close to birds have. This
was aimed to get the highest possible lift force.
Characteristics of wing airfoil shapes:
Byconvex have high aerodynamic performances at average subsonic
velocities, when the air compressibility effect is insignificant.
Convex-concave have high lift ability and are used at airplanes that fly with
low velocities. Its application became inexpedient with increase in velocity
because of high drag.
Symmetrical have the lowest drag at high subsonic velocities and are
applied for wings of subsonic airplanes.
Lenticular have acute edges.
Double wedge shaped are theoretically the most expedient for supersonic
velocities.
Wedge shaped have the lowest drag at high supersonic and even
hypersonic velocities.
Wing shape from top can be rectangular, elliptical, trapezoidal, swept and
delta. Rectangular shape was the first used because of manufacturing simplicity.
Trapezoidal wing shape is more efficient because of lower mass with the same lift
force production. The lowest drag for subsonic velocities has elliptical wing. But
this shape is very complex for manufacturing. For transonic and supersonic
velocities swept and delta wings are commonly used.

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Fig. 75 Wing shapes from top: 1 rectangular; 2 elliptical;


3, 4 trapezoidal; 5, 6 swept; 7, 8 ogival shape
Main wing parameters from top are:
Wing span (l) is a maximal distance between wing ends, measured
perpendicular to airplane symmetry plane.
Wing area (S) is an area of the wing from top including fuselage wing area.
Wing aspect ratio () is a ratio of wing span squared to wing area.
l2
.
S

2020\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Wing taper ratio () is the ratio of tip chord to root chord.


Wing sweep is estimated with wing sweep angle () is an angle, formed in
top plane between perpendicular to airplane symmetry plane and the line
connecting the points lying at a distance of 0,25b of the wing airfoil, starting from
the wing leading edge (fig 76).

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Fig. 76 Wing characteristics in top plane
Most modern airplanes have V-angle (angle between horizontal plane and
chord plane) in front plane. This angle is positive if wing tips are uplift and
negative if they are downlift. This is important parameter for flight stability and
control.

a
b
Fig. 77 V-angle: a positive b negative
13. Necessary thrust calculation for cruise and take-off modes
Airplane is acted by four forces which are constant in value, while horizontal
steady airplane flight at constant altitude and velocity. They are mutually balanced:
lift force (Y) is balanced with gravity (G) and drag (X) with thrust (P) (fig. 78).
For low attack angles ~2-3 degrees thrust deviation can be neglected.
Px P cos P.
2121\* MERGEFORMAT ()
Then lift-to-drag ratio (K) physically means the weight lifted by 1 N of engine
thrust.
G
K .
P
2222\* MERGEFORMAT ()
From eq. (22) it`s obvious that thrust needed for horizontal steady flight
equals:
G
P .
K
2323\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Fig. 78 Forces, acting the airplane during horizontal flight


Momentum sum along all axes is equal to zero because of wing positioning
and tail empennage (stabilizer, keel, rudder and elevator). Jet engine can cause
roll and pitch moments. To compensate them usually wing pannels are installed at

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different angles (difference can be up to 0,5). Also ailerons and trimmers are
used to oppose moments.
The lift-to-drag ratio depends on flight velocities and airplane type (subsonic
or supersonic).

Subsonic airplane

Airplane with variable wing geometry

Supersonic airplane

Optimal variant

Fig. 79 Lift to drag ratio dependence from velocity and wing geometry
But if to increase attack angle immediately, while horizontal steady flight, and
to keep the flight velocity constant by increasing the engine thrust or power, the lift
force (Y) becomes greater than weight (G) and airplane starts curvilinear flight
(climbing).
The difference between lift force and weight can be calculated by equation:
Y G
m
where:

mV 2
,
R

2424\* MERGEFORMAT ()

G
g

- airplane mass;
V velocity of the aircraft on the trajectory;
R trajectory radius;
From eq. (24) the lift force equals:

V2
Y G 1
, N .
g

2525\* MERGEFORMAT ()

From this equation g-load (overload) definition can be given.


G-load (n) is a ratio of lift force to weight.

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Y
V2
n 1
.
G
g R

2626\* MERGEFORMAT ()

The g-load factor can be defined in another way. Let`s discuss the situation
when flight velocity of airplane increases rapidly because of engine operation
mode change. In this case attack angle stays constant and hence lift force does.
Lift force is greater than weight and airplane starts the curvilinear flight (climb).
In horizontal flight lift force can be calculated with eq. (12).
Yhor

2
Vhor
CY
S, N .
2

2727\* MERGEFORMAT ()

In this case the g-load factor can be defined as:


2

V
n curv .
Vhor

2828\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Value of g-load factor is important for designing process and stresses


calculation of engine and airplane.
When airplane perform maneuvers, crew and passengers are exposed to
overload (g-load action).
G-load classification is presented in fig. 80:

According to airplane type


Maneuverable airplanes (fighter, sport airplane)
G-load fact.: n= 89

According to direction of overload

Negative

Non-maneuverable airplanes (passenger and cargo airplane)


G-load fact.: n= 23

Positive

Airplanes with limited maneuverability (attack airplane)


G-load fact.: n= 46

Fig. 80 G-load factor classification


Positive overload happens when inertia forces presses a pilot to a chair.
Negative when inertia forces detach pilot from the chair.
Overload (g-load factor) is measured with acceleration sensors
(accelerometers).
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Example of necessary thrust calculation on take-off and cruise modes:
Take-off process consists of two phases:
take-off run on the runway;
acceleration after take-off.
During take-off run airplane is under next forces action: thrust (P);
NFLG
aerodynamic drag X; lift force Y, reaction force of landing gears (front
and
NMLG
FFLG
FMLG
main
); friction forces from landing gears (front
and main
(fig. 81).

Fig. 81 Forces, acting on airplane on take-off mode


In the first half of the take-off process (velocity of airplane is less than
100-120 m/s) the aerodynamic forces are low.
To get the maximum acceleration from the very beginning, the landing gears
are blocked and the engine is brought to maximal mode. After a few seconds the
breaks are turned off and the airplane starts take-off run. The aircraft control is
performed with front landing gear, that`s why it should contact runway till the liftoff
point (if no additional requirements to the front landing gear are made).
To start the flight, airplane engines must accelerate the airplane to lift-off
velocity on a given runaway length.
Ex: Needed to calculate the necessary engine thrust of the passenger
airplane with mass 23000 kg if liftoff velocity and runway length are given and
km
Vsep 245
h L 1600 m
equal
,
.
First, let`s suggest airplane to run with constant acceleration a and express
km
m
Vsep 245
68
h
sec
the run time with acceleration and final liftoff velocity
.
Acceleration is equal:

Vliftoff =a t t=

Vliftoff
.
a

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The runaway length can be calculated with next equation:
V
a liftoff
2
a t
a
L

2
2

2
2
Vliftoff
2 L

a 2 .
2 a
Vliftoff

Then engine thrust can be calculated using next equation (neglecting friction
forces and lift force):

P ma m

2 L
2 1600
23000
33235N 33kN.
2
Vliftoff
682

K 14
Let`s suggest the airplanes lift to drag ratio
and check possibility to
continue a stable flight after liftoff. This condition may be considered as
requirement for total thrust: it is to be no less then thrust of steady horizontal flight.
Using eq (23) determine

Phor

As

P 33 kN

mg 23000 9,8

16100N 16,1kN.
K
14

, condition

P Phor

of stable flight is satisfied.

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IV HELICOPTERS
14. Flight and design bases of helicopter.
Helicopter is a heavier than air aircraft, lift force and thrust necessary for its
flight are provided with one or some lift rotors, which rotate in horizontal or close
to horizontal plane.
Lift rotors are driven by piston or jet engine with gearbox and vertical
shaft (fig. 82).

Fig. 82 Helicopter scheme


As opposed to airplane, which lift force is obtained only when translational
motion happens, helicopter`s lift rotor may produce lift force without any aircraft
motion. Helicopter`s lift rotor provides not only lift force (airplane wing
function) but also jet thrust, ensuring the helicopter ability to move forward,
rearward and aside, to climb and to descent, to stay immovable during the flight
and to turn round vertical axis. To do this, thrust vector is inclined in the flight
direction.
Helicopter`s lift rotor has one more unique feature in case of engine failure
happens it is able to continue rotation and create the lift force due to interaction
with free airstream. This process is known as autorotation. Autorotation lets the
helicopter to glide and land with turned off engine.
Helicopter consists of next basic parts:
fuselage;
landing gears;
lift rotor;
control aggregates;
radio- and electroequipment;
powerplant with systems, providing its performance capability (fuel
supply system, oil system, etc.);
transmission with gearboxes, shafts and couplings;

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Some helicopters may have unique features:
To increase the flight velocities some helicopters additionally have little
wings for unloading the lift rotor.
Helicopters with one lift rotor have tail rotor to control its position or flight
direction.
Some helicopter designs contain vertical and horizontal empennage.
15. Classification of helicopters
Helicopters may be classified by different features, for example:
drive type of lift rotor;
number of lift rotors;
position of lift rotors;
method of reactive moment compensation.
Reactive moment appears because of lift rotor rotation. It attempts to turn the
helicopter fuselage in the opposite direction to lift rotor rotation. Reactive moment
can be calculated with next equation:
r

where

Mr

716,2 NE
, N m ,
nLR

2929\* MERGEFORMAT ()

reactive moment;

NE
nLR

engine power;
lift rotor rotational speed.

If airplane and helicopter have engines of equal power the reactive moment
of helicopter is much bigger because of lower rotational speed
(helicopter 200-350 rpm, airplane 2000-2500 rpm).
Classification of helicopters according to reactive moment compensation is
shown at the fig. 83.
Single lift rotor with tail rotor scheme is the most abundant nowadays. In
this scheme reactive moment of lift rotor is compensated by the moment of tail
rotor. Normally tail rotor is of smaller diameter than lift rotor. Both rotors are driven
by an engine (or engines) with transmission, which consists of gearboxes, shafts
and couplings. The reactive moment of tail rotor is varied to control the flight
direction in horizontal plane.
Helicopters of double lift rotor coaxial scheme have two rotors, rotating on
the same axis with the same rotational speed, situated one above another. Lift
rotors rotate in opposite directions. Reactive moments of both lift rotors are
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balanced because of the same operation conditions of each lift rotor. Helicopter
control in horizontal plane is performed by differential changing of installation
angles on both rotors blades. If installation angles are different the reactive
moment is also different which cause helicopter turn round yaw axis. For better
control sometimes rudder is installed.

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Classification of helicopters according to reactive moment compensation

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Fig. 83 Helicopter classification
Helicopters of longitudinal double lift rotor scheme have two lift rotors
installed on opposite sides of the fuselage. They also have opposite direction of
rotation, that is why their reactive moments are balanced. To protect rear lift rotor
from harmful influence of front rotor the last one is installed lower. Usually, the
distance between two rotors is less than their diameters. To prevent the collision,
rotors are synchronized.
Helicopters of transversal double lift rotor scheme have two lift rotors
installed in opposite sides of fuselage (left and right side). Reactive moments are
balanced by opposite rotation of lift rotors with the same velocity. For lift rotors
installation it is efficient to use the wing, which in horizontal flight unload them. For
lower transversal dimension lift rotors are installed close to each other. To prevent
the collision their axis are inclined and their rotation is synchronized.
16. Bases of helicopter aerodynamics
Lift rotor provides the lift force, which is necessary to perform flight, and
provide thrust, which is necessary for forward motion. Rotor blade can be
considered as an airplane wing of the special form. Rotor blade has complex
motion:
1 it`s the rotation round the lifting rotor axes, 2 forward motion with helicopter
fuselage, 3 oscillation in all planes.
There are 2 modes of rotor blade operation:
axial fanning mode (corresponds to vertical climbing and descent, and
hovering).
oblique fanning mode (corresponds to helicopter horizontal flight or at an
angle to horizon flight).
At first mode operation conditions of all rotor blades are similar. At the second
mode operation conditions change periodically. That is why forces and moments,
which act on the particular rotor blade at the horizontal flight mode, change
periodically (with lift rotor rotational speed period) (Fig 84).

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Fig. 84 Velocities distribution on the rotor blades surfaces


To make an analysis of rotor blade operation it`s necessary to know air
velocities, near rotor blade surface. Resultant air velocity depends on azimuthal
blade location. Azimuthal location is a blade location respectively to some axes.
As usual zero azimuthal location corresponds to rearmost blade position (fig.

84). Azimuthal location can be estimated with azimuthal angle ( ).


w
Resultant incident on the rotor air velocity
in each blade cross-section can
u
be calculated as a sum of tip velocity
(stays constant at all azimuthal angles)
v
and flight velocity (varies depending on azimuthal angle).
w u v 2 r nLR sec

m
V
sin , ,
s

3030\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
where: r radius of the blade considered cross-section;
nLR
lift rotor rotational speed.
V =0
In case of axial fanning
resultant velocity is constant for all azimuthal
W 2
r n LR sec
positions
.
In case of oblique fanning resultant velocity varies on azimuthal angle:
r n LR sec V
90 WMAX 2

:
;

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r n LR sec V
270 WMIN 2

:
;

2
Faer f nLR

As aerodynamic forces depend on air velocities (


), the lift force
and aerodynamic drag vary permanently from maximum to minimum per
revolution. Aerodynamic forces periodicity causes vibrations and jolting, which is
transmitted to the helicopter fuselage. To prevent vibrations harmful influence,
modern helicopters have hinged fastening of blades (3 hinges: axial, horizontal,
vertical) (fig. 85)

Fig. 85 Lift rotor hinged fastening


Axial hinge changes blades installation angle and aerodynamic forces.
Horizontal and vertical hinges suppress vibrations in horizontal and vertical
planes, and decrease the force misbalance. At the axial fanning mode rotor blades
find the position to balance automatically.
Fc
There are three main forces acting on the rotor blade: centrifugal force , lift
force Y and weight G. Centrifugal force can be calculated with next equation:
G 2
F
C R, N ,
g


3131\* MERGEFORMAT ()

where: eq: angular velocity of rotor blade;


R radius of gravity center.
Centrifugal force is the most significant and is 10 times greater than lift force.
Gravity is negligibly small as compared with centrifugal and lift force. When the
rotation happens, blade, by centrifugal force action, tries to rotate in horizontal
plane, but two other forces deflect it upwards on some angle . Balance appears
when the sum of moments created by forces about horizontal hinge becomes
equal to zero. Thus angle depends on centrifugal force and lift force. The more
lift force while constant rotational speed the bigger angle is. As a result the

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movement of the blade happens not in the plane of bush rotation, but on the cone
surface. That is why angle is known as taper angle (fig 86).

Fig. 86 Tapper angle illustration


Balance of each blade about vertical hinge at axial fanning mode also
appears when sum of moments, created by forces (centrifugal force and drag)
becomes equal to zero. Fig. 86 shows that drag creates the moment that makes
the blade to lag from normal position, meanwhile centrifugal force creates
recovery moment to return the blade to its normal position. As a result of rotor
rotation between the longitudinal axis of each blade and a straight line
drawn through the axis of vertical hinge rotation the angle is formed. This angle is
known as lag angle () and depends on torque moment and rotational speed of lift
rotor. The bigger lag angle is the bigger recovery moment is formed by centrifugal
force.

Fig. 87 Lag angle illustration


To understand the way horizontal and vertical hinges reduce the lift force at
oblique fanning mode let`s consider the rotor blade movement during one
revolution (fig 88).
In this figure the dot-dash line shows the path of blade tip and the full line
shows the horizontal plane projection of the path. Let`s consider flight velocity to
be equal V, rotor angular velocity and installation angles of the blade to be
constant and equal . At the 1st position because of lift force influence the path of
1st
2nd
the rotor blade tip is above full line. While the blade moves from
position to
w uv
the resultant velocity rises
and because of this the lift force also rises.
Because of lift force rise the blade goes upwards and makes so called stroke,

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round the horizontal hinge. The attack angle decreases from to . So in this way
stroke fends off the lift force rise thereby automatically regulates the lift force
3d
2nd
value. Moving from
to
position the blade continues upward movement.
When the blade moves into second half of the circle, its resultant velocity and
therefore the lift force decrease. Because of the centrifugal force action the blade
goes down and attack angle rises. Despite of the resultant velocity reduction, the
lift force stays constant because of attack angle rise. Totally, each rotor blade goes
up and down per revolution (makes stroke) and keeps the lift force
approximately constant in each azimuthal position.

Fig. 88 Lift rotor revolution


90
In the azimuthal position
the airflow velocity around the blade is
maximal, consequently the stroke velocity is also maximal and attack angle is
90
180
minimal. While moving from
to
airflow velocity decreases, but
vy
the blade continues moving upwards with velocity
because of inertia forces.
180
220
That`s why the stroke peak appears between
and
. Minimal
270
airflow velocity is in the azimuthal position
, so attack angle and the
0
stroke velocity is maximal. Minimal taper angle appears between the
and
40
.
To understand mass forces nature, acting rotor blades, let`s consider the
movement of load with mass m from center to periphery during rotation with
angular velocity . The kinetic energy of load can be calculated with next
equation:

R
m U2 m
E

, J
2
2
2

3232\* MERGEFORMAT ()

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where: m load mass;


gravity center angular velocity;
R gravity center radius.
If to keep the angular velocity constant and increase radius, kinetic energy is
supposed to increase, but it contradict the law of energy conservation. That
means that with radius rise angular velocity must decrease to observe the
equation:

1 R1

2 R2 .
2

That explains the emergence of force which tries to accelerate the load while
moving to the center of rotation and decelerate the load while moving to the
periphery.
This force, which appears while rotating load changes the rotation radius, is
directed perpendicular to displacement direction and called Carioles force.

Fcor 2 m V,
r N ,

where

3333\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Vr

radius change velocity of rotating mass;


angular velocity.

Let`s suggest that mass of whole rotor blade is concentrated in the center of
gravity and the angular velocity is constant. During stroke motion the center of
gravity changes rotational radius (fig 89).

Fig. 89 Coriolis forces formation scheme


If the tapper angle rises, the center of gravity moves to center of rotation and
Cariolis` forces try to decelerate the rotation. While horizontal flight Cariolis forces
cause vibrations.
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17. Helicopter flight control


There are 3 ways to get the necessary thrust for translational movement of
the helicopter:
lift rotor axe inclination;
lift rotor bush inclination;
azimuthal change of lift rotor blade attack angle;
These ways make lift rotor to decline the rotational plane while control lever
declination. In this case, resultant aerodynamic force vector R declines either in
the same direction. Vertical component of resultant aerodynamic force Y equals
the weight G, and horizontal component produces thrust, which is necessary for
any movement.
It`s very complex to provide the lift rotor axe or bush inclination. Nowadays
the most abundant way of lift rotor control is a cyclic change of blade installation
angle while rotation. As usual this is provided with swashplate (fig. 90)

Fig. 90 Swashplate: 1 lift rotor shaft, 2 axes of rings turning,


3a - external ring, 3b internal rings, 4 lift rotor bush, 5 axis of the axial hinge,
6 axis of the vertical hinge, 7 axis of the horizontal hinge, 8 blade, 9 rod,
10 rod of general twist, 11 slider, 12 rods from control knob,
13 ball bearings.
Control knob is connected with rods to internal non-rotational rings of the
swashplate. Two rings and slider form the universal hinge, which is able to incline
left or right, forward or rearward and even upward and downward. External ring is
a ball bearing racer and rotates with shaft. It is connected with rods to the blade
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turning (round axial hinge) lever. Vertical rods displacement changes blade
installation angle.
For example, while moving control knob forward, front ring part moves down
and rear part moves up. In this case in front part of rotation circle installation
angles are less than initial and in rear part bigger than initial. In the azimuthal
90
270
angles
and
installation angle is average and equal to initial.
That means that rotational cone of the lift rotor inclines to lower attack angles side
(in this example forward) and the resultant vector of aerodynamic forces too.
That means that helicopter will move forward (fig. 91).

Fig. 91 Flight control examples a lifting, b maneuvers


If to incline control knob rearward, the cone also inclines rearward and
helicopter moves rearward (fig. 91).

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V. ROCKETS
18. Rockets. Flight principle (Meschersky and Tsiolkovsky equations).
Rocket is a heavier than air aircraft, which use the jet flight principle. There
are some rockets that use aerodynamic flight principle. In this case they are
known as cruise rockets.
Rocket doesn`t need any density of the atmosphere to move, because the
mass, thrown rearward by the engine is onboard of the rocket.
Because of huge amount of propellant onboard it is unacceptable to neglect
the Rocket mass change when analyzing a motion of this aircraft. That is why
equations of classical mechanics are not correct to describe the motion of the
rockets. First to deduce the equation of aircrafts` motion with variable mass was
I.V. Meshchersky.
Next, using the Meshersky equation, K.E. Tsiolkovsky calculated the maximal
Rocket velocity neglecting gravity and drag. In this equation Rocket motion is
caused only by thrown rearward particles of substance.
M
Let`s imagine moving mass M with velocity v and mass
, moving with
t
velocity w, attaching the first mass for the time
:

Fig. 92 Meschersky equation illustration


M v M v w

Before mass attaching momentum equals


, and after
M M v v
attaching
. The momentum change equals to the momentum of
t
all forces acting the system during the time
:
Mv Mv

Neglecting the

M
v M
v Mv

M v

M
v M
w=t

(because of minuteness) and dividing by

P. i
t

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M

v
M
=
w P.i
t
t

In the considered case the additional mass decelerates the whole system, but
in case of rocket accelerates:

v M
=
w P.i
t t

Finally we obtain the Meshchersky equation for propulsive mass motion of


variable mass:
M v& m w P,i

where:

v
v&
t
m

M
t

3434\* MERGEFORMAT ()

rocket acceleration;
mass consumption per second.

To design rocket it`s necessary to know the maximal velocity we need to


have. Let`s deduce the equation for maximal velocity calculation:
According to the momentum conservation law:

M m v

m v G,

where: M variable Rocket mass;


m
mass of substance particles thrown rearward from the engine;
vG
velocity of substance particles thrown rearward from the engine;
v
rocket velocity change.
If to remove brackets and neglect the
equals:

mv

rocket velocity increment

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v v G

m m
,
.
M s

To calculate the finite rocket velocity it`s necessary to sum up all rocket
velocity increments using integration method.
M0
m
, ,
s
MRB

v fin v G ln

where:

M0 MRB Mf
MRB
Mf

3535\* MERGEFORMAT ()

mass of rocket body;

propellant store mass.

Equation 32 can be transformed to next form:


M Mf

M f
v fin v G ln RB
v G ln 1
MRB
MRB

m
v G ln
1 z , ,
s

3636\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
where: z Tsiolcovsky number (equals mass ratio of the propellant stock to the
Rocket mass).
From eq. (36) it`s clear that for Rocket velocity rise it is necessary to increase
velocity of substance particles thrown rearward from the engine or Tsiolcovsky
number.
Modern rockets usually are multistage. Multistage rocket is a rocket that uses
two or more stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant
(fig. 93). When launching happens first to start are the engines of first stage.
When the first stage worked out all the propellant stock it stops operation and is
undocked. Then next stage starts operation and till all stages worked out there
propellant stock the rocket accelerates. When maximal velocity is achieved the
last stage is undocked and only payload continues the flight (for example
Apollo in Saturn 5 rocket).

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Fig. 93 Example of multistage rocket


In the case of multistage rocket the Tsiolkovsky equation changes:
m
v fin n v G ln 1 z , ,
s

3737\* MERGEFORMAT ()

where n amount of stages.


Eq. (37) shows that n stages using allows getting n-times bigger finite rocket
velocity than single stage rockets.
As it was mentioned earlier Tsiolkovsky equation was deduced neglecting
gravity and drag. If to take into account these factors the Tsiolkovsky equation
changes:
m
v fin k n v G ln
1 z , ,
s

3838\* MERGEFORMAT

()

where k factor, that accounts drag and gravity

k 1

19. Bases of rocket design


Rocket consists of case (rocket on the fig. 94 has 2 cases poss. 3, 5),
supporting aerodynamic surfaces (fig. 94, pos. 8) and control aerodynamic
surfaces (fig. 94, pos. 11) fastened to the case.
Gases, necessary for rocket flight, are generated in combustion chamber of
the engine (fig. 94, pos. 10) as a result of liquid or solid fuel burning.

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Liquid propellant usually consists of 2 components: fuel and oxidizer, which
are stored in two different tanks (fig. 94, pos. 6, 7). These tanks are inside the
rocket case or are a part of the case.

Fig. 94 Rocket design scheme: 1 nose cone, 2 payload, 3 rocket


case, 4 control devices, 5 case of the first stage, 6 propellant tank, 7
oxidizer tank, 8 stabilizer, 9 steering engines, 10 main rocket engines, 11
control surfaces.
Case is a rocket part, necessary for aggregates, engines and control surfaces
fastening. Also payload (fig. 94, pos. 2) is inside the case. For provision of the
flight stability and controllability Rockets are equipped with empennage
(stabilizers fig. 94, pos. 8), which may have control surfaces (fig. 94, pos. 11).
It operates under aerodynamic forces action during the flight in the dense
atmosphere.
Steering engines (fig. 94, pos. 9) may be used for rocket control. They are
almost the same design as main engines, but smaller and have less thrust. They
are able to control the rocket trajectory in the rarefied atmosphere and when the
rocket velocity is equal to zero.
Also rocket is equipped with control devices (fig. 94, pos. 4) of the rocket
and section for payload (fig. 94, pos. 2).
But the main difference of the rocket from airplane or helicopter is that it`s
disposable aircraft. That`s why it`s very important to provide high reliability. It`s not
easy task, because of high temperatures and pressures in the rocket engines gas
path.
20. Classification of the rockets
There are lots of features for rockets` classifying:

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Fig. 95 Rockets classification according to lift force creation
Ballistic rockets pass the most of the way along the ballistic trajectory and do
not need wings. Lift force during active phase is produced by rocket engine.
During the passive phase, rocket moves according to the ballistic principle (under
inertia forces action).
Cruise rockets are designed for flying in the dense atmosphere and have
aerodynamic surfaces, which operate same to wings. In this class of rockets, all
lift force or its part is produced by the wing. Some rockets have 2 wing panels
(designs are very close to UAV) and other have 4 wing panels.
Rockets with 2 wing panels are used for long distances and for flying close to
the earth surface. They are used to hit the stationary and slow targets. Rockets
with 4 wing panels are used to destroy the maneuverable and fast targets.

According to guidance syste

Fig. 96 Rockets classification according to nature of control


Non-guided Rockets do not have any control devices and are not able to
change the flight trajectory. Trajectory is formed only by external forces action
(weight, inertia forces, drag etc.). As usual non-guided rockets are used for
meteorological, research and some military purposes.
But most rockets are guided. Autonomic rockets are operated with onboard
control system according to some program. They do not have information about
the target from the command post during the whole flight.
Remote-operated rockets use information from the command post for flight
trajectory correction.
Homing rockets use the energy, which is radiated from the target to form the
trajectory. They use onboard sensing system for trajectory correction.

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According to the engine type


Liquid propellant engine

Solid fuel rocket engines

Ram jet engine

Pulse jet engine

Fig. 97 Rockets classification according to the engine type

According to the rocket structure


Multi-stage Rocket

Fig. 98 Rocket classification according to the rocket structure


If stages of the rocket are arranged one after another this scheme is known
as tandem. This scheme has low drag and starting mass. To launch this rocket
simple launchers may be used. But rockets of this scheme are greatly exposed to
lateral overloads.
If stages of the rocket are arranged in parallel this scheme is known as
parallel. Rockets of this scheme are simple to transport and have extra thrust
while first stage operation. But this scheme has a lot of disadvantages, such as
high drug, low efficiency on the starting moment and in dense atmosphere.
203000 kg
As usual civil rockets have starting mass
, flight altitude
0,62 km/s
20512 km
and velocities about
.

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Tactical earth-to-earth rockets are used for destroying the enemy forces on
the battle field or in the close range to it. Strategic rockets are used for hitting
targets, which are far from the launching place. Size of the earth-to-earth rocket
type vary greatly from a few tens of centimeters to few tens of meters and the
mass from a few kilograms to tens of tons.
Also earth-to-earth rockets are used for destroying the battleships and
tanks.
Interesting fact is that new type of earth-to-earth rockets appeared, which fly
not in atmosphere, but in water. Such rockets are used to destroy the above-water
targets. Launching may happen as from above-water boosters as underwater
boosters.

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According to the rocket purpos


Flare

Anti-hail

Civil
Rescue
Meteorological
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Middle range

For

Earth-to-earth
Short range (L<10 km, H<10 km)
BASES OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING
Short range
Middle
range
Tactical
Long
range km)
km,
H=10...25
99 Rockets classification according(L=1050
to the rocket
purposes

Fig.
Earth-to-air Rockets as usual are parts of the anti-aircraft system. These
Long range
systems also contain launching devices and Strategic
guidance devices.
Long ranged
(L=50400Earth-to-air
km, H>25 km)
rockets may be used not in anti-aircraft systems, but in rocket systems.
Lightw
Rocket-carrier is used for reaching the outer space
by
the
rocket
head
part
Infighting (L<15km, M>6)
Medium w
with payload (spacecraft). To do this rocket-carrier should accelerate the head part
Carrying capacity
to orbital velocity. Spacecrafts are spaceships,
artificial
Earth satellites,
Mean
combat (L<15km,
M>6)
Heavy we
specialized space devices and other.
Ranged (L<15km, M>6)
Rocket-carrier type is defined by spacecraft type and
its goals.
Super-hea
Rocket-carrier is characterized with constant active mass
discarding
Air-to-air
(propellant) andWay
rocket
stages step drop. During rocket flight the velocity and Mann
Military
of
usage
Payload type
acceleration of rocket constantly increase and is limited by propellant stock.
Unman
21. Rockets flight dynamics

Air-to-earth
Amount of starts
Earth-to-space

Single

Multi s

Rocket main goal is to carry the payload form the launch location to the
Space-to-earth
destination point. The way of Rocket (rather its center of gravity) is known as
trajectory. Different rocket types may have different trajectories (fig.
100).
Space-to-space

Rocket-carrier

Fig. 100 Trajectory scheme of the different rocket types: 1 cruise rocket, 2
rocket with rebound warhead, 3 rocket with ballistic and gliding trajectory
parts, 4 ballistic rocket, 5 gliding rocket.
The axes of the Rocket control are the same to airplane yaw, roll and pitch
(fig. 101).

Fig. 101 Associated coordinate system of the Rocket


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For delivering the payload to the destination point, rocket must have the same
characteristics as an airplane: balance, stability and control. That`s why all the
conclusions made for airplane are also valid for rocket.
Rocket-carrier starts vertically. Then it passes on a curved part of flight, which
ensures gradual reduction of its angle, relative to the local horizon. For velocity
losses reduction, caused by drag, it is necessary to pass the dense atmosphere
as quick as possible. That`s why the rocket trajectory transfer to horizontal
happens after leaving dense atmosphere. In dense atmosphere rocket moves
along the path with absent aerodynamic lift force. This is made for reduction of
loads on the rocket body.
Trajectory of ballistic rocket has active and passive parts. Active part also
can be divided into several parts. Long-ranged ballistic rocket, usually, is launched
vertically and moves upwards for some time. This part of the active part is known
as start part (fig. 102).

Fig. 102 Flight trajectory of the ballistic Rocket


During the start part and going to the trajectory part necessary
performances are provided by aero- and gasdynamic means and their
combination.
Then going to the trajectory part starts. In the end of this part engines are
shutting down and the passive part of the flight starts. Most of the going to the
trajectory part is outside the dense Earth atmosphere. Motion at this part is
provided by kinetic energy store from start part.
Rocket flight after the engine shut down is determined by the laws of
ballistics. For hitting a target rocket axis must lie in the same vertical plane as
target. In the moment of engine shutting down axis must be titled under definite
angle. In the engine shutting down moment rocket velocity must be also strongly
definite.
Flight trajectory at this part is determined by amount of stored energy and can
be precisely calculated. During this part rocket stability and control are not
necessary.
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While entering dense atmosphere rocket has the same energy and the same
tilt angle as leaving it. Then rocket oblique incidence in the atmosphere happens
up to the hitting target. Because of aerodynamic forces appear again, the
necessity in control and stabilization appears. Generally, the last stage of the
Rocket is undocked before ballistic part and only rocket head part continues flight.
For correct head part orientation and stabilization, while entering the dense
atmosphere, special aerodynamic surfaces are used (conic skirts and shields
with adjustable installation angles).
But for ensuring the target hitting (motion along the trajectory) only stabilizing
is not enough. That is why special control systems are installed onboard.
These systems may contain:
different sensing elements, which measure flight parameters;
systems for comparing sensor signals with reference signals and forming
control orders;
driving units for declining the control aggregates in correct direction;
control devices.

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VI. SPACECRAFTS
22. Some fragments from space exploration history

History of rocket science starts from ancient China and India in XII th century.
At that time rockets had military and entertaining purposes.
In XIVth XVIIth century rockets enlarge the field of their application:
Military purposes;
Entertaining purposes (as a fireworks);
For lifeline transferring to the sinking ship (mostly in France);
In whaling.
In 1880th Russian scientist K. Tsiolkovsky worked out the theory of multistage
liquid propellant rocket, which is able to go into space. Tsiolkovsky equation is still
used in rocket designing. Also Tsiolkovsky made first theoretical description of the
space satellite.
In 1926 Robert Gottard designed and built first liquid propellant rocket.

a
b
Fig. 103: a K. Tsiolkovsky b Robert Gottard
After the First World War according to the Versailles treaty Germany was
forbidden to have the long-ranged artillery, that`s why the commanders of
Reichsverh paid attention to rocket weapon. From the middle 20 th German
engineers were experimenting with rockets and had succeeded a lot by 1942
thanks to Werner von Braun. German ballistic military rocket A-4, launched in
1942, was first apparatus to reach the space in the highest point of the trajectory.
In 1943 Germany started batch production of these rockets under the name V-2.
This rocket was able to carry the warhead, weighting 1000 kg, and its range was
300 km. They were used for anti-Hitler coalition. But they were very inefficient
because of big recourses necessary for their production. After the Second World
War Soviet, British and Americans were contended to get the German
technologies and specialists. Americans succeeded to capture a group of
specialists with Werner von Braun (operation Paperclip).

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Fig. 104 - Werner von Braun and the rocket V-2


After the Second World War the USSR and the USA enter the Cold War era.
That time the USA had bigger fleet, more strategic bombers, located at the
different airbases worldwide. In response, the Soviet leadership decided to
develop rocket technology. Rocket and satellite technologies had civil and military
purposes and formed scientific and technical potential, and military power of the
country.
On the October 4, 1957 the USSR successfully launched Sputnik-1, first
artificial satellite of the Earth. This was the space race start and the USSR
became the first Space Country. It was the sign of better times, remembering
that this country just survived the war.

a
b
c
Fig. 105 a S.P. Korolev the soviet space program chief designer,
b first Earth satellite Sputnik - 1, c Rocket-carrier R-7
For the USA, which was the most technologically developed country, it was
strong and unexpected blow, which made the Eisenhower administration to make
some important decisions for getting the technological excellence. In 1958 it
adopted the law National Defense Education Act. Also NASA was organized.
This period was named Satellite crisis. Only 4 months later, on 1st February
1958, the USA, after several fails, finally launched their satellite Explorer-1. First
satellites had only scientific purposes. Sputnik-1 brought information about the
density of the upper atmosphere and Explorer-1 discovered radiation field of the
Earth (Van Allen Belt).

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a
b
c
Fig. 106: a NASA logo, b First American satellite Explorer-1,
c Rocket-carrier Jupiter C
First satellites for civil purposes were launched in July 1963
(telecommunication satellite Syncom -2) and in August 1964 (Syncom-3). First
commercial satellite to be launched in August 1964 was Early Bird. As a result of
these programs the USA citizens gain the satellite communication.
First human in space became soviet cosmonaut Yury Gagarin on the space
craft Vostok 1. It happened on the April 12, 1961 and since that this day is the
holiday International day of the aviation and cosmonautics.

a
b
Fig. 107: a Y.A. Gagarin b Spacecraft Vostok-1
First man in space made the USSR stepped forward again in the space race.
But it was not for a long time.
On May 5, 1961 the USA spacecraft Mercury-3 with Alan Shepard onboard
also go into space. The USA became the second space country. The satellite
Mercury-3 reached the altitude of 187 km.

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a
b
Fig. 108: a Alan Shepard b Spacecraft Mercury-3
On February 20, 1961 the US astronaut John Glen made first controlled
orbital flight.
In the early 60s the USSR succeeded a lot in space exploration:
On August 11, 1962 the first group flight was made on the spacecrafts Vostok
3(Nikolayev) and Vostok 4(Popovich).
On June 16, 1963 Vostok 6 brought into space first woman Valentina
Tereshkova.

a
b
c
Fig. 109 First soviet cosmonauts: a Adrian Nikolayev b Pavel Popovich
c Valentina Tereshkova
On October 12, 1964 spacecraft Voshod 1 became first multi-seat
(3 cosmonauts) spacecraft. During this flight, cosmonauts had no space suits
because of small size of spacecraft.
On March 18, 1965 Alexey Leonov (Voshod 2) became the first human entered
the outer space. But this flight nearly ended in tragedy. When
Leonov leaved the Voshod 2, because of high pressure inside the space suit, it
swelled. Only after pitting extra pressure through the valve Leonov became able
to get back into spacecraft. But it was not the end of the problems. While landing
the automatic de-orbiting system failed and Pavel Beljaev had to make the deorbiting manually.
Soviet Chief Designer S.P. Korolev was planning to continue launching
spacecrafts Vostok and Voshod in scientific purposes and then switch to more
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perfect spacecrafts Sever and Sojuz and in perspective built the orbital station
and the heavy spacecraft for interplanetary missions (Mars and Venus). But those
plans were destined to fail.
On September 12, 1961 the USA started the Apollo program. And the USSR
with 3 years late had to join the race to conquer Moon.
After great successes of the USSR in space exploration the USA were
necessary to return the most technically developed status. The destination of the
new race became the Moon.
The soviet leader got the proposition from the president of the USA according
to the joint Moon exploration. But this proposition was rejected because the soviet
government thought that this was an attempt to find out the secrets of soviet
space program. But in order to keep the leadership in space exploration the
government granted financing for modernization of spacecrafts Voshod and
Vostok. Also two Moon programs were started with 3 years late: circled flight
around the Moon (rocket Proton, spacecraft Zond) landing the Moon
surface (rocket N-1, spacecraft LZ).

a
b
Fig. 110: a rocket-carrier Proton, b rocket-carrier N-1
The circled flight around the Moon program was planned on the
December 8, 1968 (first piloted flight of the complex Proton Zond-7).But
because of several fails of this complex the piloted flight was canceled and
changed for unmanned flight. This was correct decision because this flight also
failed.
The USA government thought that soviet designers made some steps forward
and were ready to launch the complex Proton-Zond. That`s why it was decided
to move the start date on the December 21, 1968 and launch the complex
Saturn-5 Appolo-8. From the 21 st to 27th December the Appolol-8 with 3
astronauts, Frank Borman, James Lowel and William Anders, made 10 turns
round the Moon. This was the first start of rocket-carrier Saturn-5. This success
made the USA the leader in space race.

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a
b
Fig. 111 a rocket carrier Saturn-5, b crew of spacecraft Apollo-8
Less than in one year on the July 16, 1969 the spacecraft Apollo-11 with 3
astronauts onboard (Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, Edwin E. Aldrin jr.) was
launched from the Cape Canaveral. On the July 20, the spacecraft landed the
Moon surface and on July 21, Neil Armstrong made first human step on the Moon
surface.

Fig. 112: a crew of spacecraft Apollo-11 b first human on a Moon surface

Main reasons of soviet defeat:


problems with the rocket-carier N-1;
soviet spacecrafts conceded American (Zond was not able to go into orbit and
had a crew of 2 cosmonauts, Moon-landing unit also was able to carry only 2
astronauts, Moon landing unit didn`t have the lunar-propelled machine)
the Glushko`s DB rejected to design the engines for rocket-carier N-1;
because of weak spirit (In 1966 died S.P. Korolev; in 1967, while landing phase on
the spacecraft Sojuz 1, died V. Komarov; in 1968, during testing flight on the
destroyer, crashed Gagarin).
As a result, the USA became the winner in Moon race. And in 1976 both
Moon programs were cut down for more than 30 years.
But not only Moon was the goal. Also spacecrafts were sent to other planets
of Solar system:

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First spacecraft to reach the Venus in 1962 was the soviet Venus - 1. American
spacecraft Mariner-2 became the first working spacecraft who gave some
information about the Venus.
First spacecraft to land the Venus surface in 1970 was Venus - 5, which bring
information about Venus pressure and temperature. First black and white
photography was sent from Venus by spacecrafts Venus - 9 and Venus - 10 in
1975 and first color photography by Venus - 13 and Venus - 14 in 1981.
First spacecraft to reach the Mars was American Mariner-4. It brought first
pictures of the planet in 1965.
In 1971 spacecrafts Mariner - 9 and Mars - 2 became first artificial satellites of
the Mars.
In 1971 Mars - 3 became the first spacecraft to land the Mars surface.
In 1976 American spacecraft Viking landed Mars and made serious researches.
In 1974 American Mariner-10 became the first spacecraft to reach Mercury.
Nowadays the Russian Federation and the USA carry out joint flights and
experiments in program Sojuz-Apollo. But except of these countries new space
countries appeared:
European Space Agency (ESA) Rocket-carrier Arian, spacecraft Hermes,
orbital station Columbus;

a
b
Fig. 113: a rocket-carrier Arian b spacecraft Hermes
China Rocket-carier Long-march F2, spacecraft Shenshou - 5.

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a
b
Fig. 114: a rocket-carrier Long-march F2 b spacecraft Shenshou - 5
India spacecraft Chandrajaan.
23. Main functions of astronautics. Direct and inverse problems of
astronautics. Spacecraft classification.
The development of any branch of science or engineering is caused by
practical and economic reasons.
Astronautics allows solving such problems as environmental protection,
communication, weather forecasting, scientific researches, development of new
technologies etc.
There are 4 main reasons, which stimulate astronautics development:
Spacecrafts allow improving human knowledge about Earth, easy and
quickly finding out current atmosphere condition; sea, ocean and
continent surface condition. This allows to accurate meteorological
situation; to predict crops, stores and prospects of snow melting, ice
condition; to locate mineral wealth etc.

Fig. 115 Picture of Odessa from satellite


Astronautics provides communication between distant Earth regions (TV,
radio, telephone and telegraph). More and more abundant are
international navigation systems for marine- and aircrafts. Astronautics
also helps during rescue expeditions.

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Fig. 116 Satellite connections (scheme based on 3 satellites)


Different physical, chemical and biological tests are carried out in space,
which are impossible in the Earth conditions. Different new materials and
substances can be obtained only in space conditions.
Space and astronomic objects study gives lots of information about
physical conditions we live in, about planets of Solar system.
Astronautics has 2 aspects:
Astronautics as a science studies the theory of space flight, its energy
and life support.
Astronautics as an industry solves practical problems (Complex for flight
provision: spacecraft, rocket-carrier, cosmodrome with all systems and
stuff, spacecraft rocket and carrier control systems).
Direct problem of the astronautics: acting forces calculation, using which
it`s possible to control the spacecraft and make it to move along the definite
trajectory. This problem is solving when the goal is practical control problems.
Inverse problem of the astronautics: Trajectory calculation under given
forces. This problem is solved when it`s necessary to send the spacecraft to a
given destination point, if all flight condition data is available.
Spacecraft classification is given on the fig. 117:

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Returnable
Disposable
According to the oppo
Reusable

S
According to application
Orbital
Interplanetary
Galactic
Fig. 117 Spacecraft classification
24. Required flight velocities of rocket (Orbital and parabolic velocities)
Neglecting the atmospheric resistance, spacecraft without energy sources,
with velocity near the earth surface 7912 m/s moves along the elliptical trajectory,
one focus of which is coincided with gravity center of the Earth. Spacecraft with
such velocity cant leave the gravity field of the Earth. It becomes the Earth
satellite. Velocity 7912 m/s is known as orbital velocity.

Fig. 118 Spacecraft trajectories

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If, in the same conditions, spacecraft, with velocity 11,2 km/s, has parabolic
trajectory. It is able to leave Earth gravity field, but it will never leave Solar system.
This velocity is known as parabolic velocity.
And finally, when the velocity is more than 11,2 km/s the trajectory of the
spacecraft is hyperbola. With velocity more than 17 km/s, added to orbital velocity
of the Earth (which is approximately 30 km/h) the spacecraft is able to leave the
Solar system.
Orbital velocity is the velocity of the satellite, which circulates of Earth
radius. Moving along the circular trajectory the satellite is acting by two forces:

m v 2
F

r
Fw m g

weight
and centrifugal
forces:
To keep the circular trajectory it is necessary to satisfy next requirement:

Fw Fc
m v 2
mg
.
r

When the radius equals Earth radius


equals:

3939\* MERGEFORMAT ()

r REarth 6378 km

V g REarth 9,815 6378 1000

the velocity

7912

4040\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
Let`s write down the Law of universal gravitation:
M
m
F const Earth 2 satellite , N .
r

4141\* MERGEFORMAT

()
Then for flight altitude equal to H we get:
2

F REarth
=
.
F REarth +H

According to the Newton`s law

F m a

4242\* MERGEFORMAT ()

, and in case of F is the gravity force:

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g REarth

.
g REarth +H

And substituting

4343\* MERGEFORMAT ()

from eq. (43) to eq. (40):

REarth
v g REarth +H g

REarth +H

REarth +H
v

R Earth

REarth +H

REarth
m
, .
REarth +H s

4444\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
Period of the satellite neat round the Earth (altitude equals to the Earth
T 84
radius) equals to
minutes and 25 seconds. For example, first cosmonaut
Yury Gagarin made his first revolution round the Earth in 90 minutes. That means
that the altitude of the revolution was very low.
Period of satellite rotation on the altitude equal to H can be described with
next equation:
2
R
Earth H
2
2
T

REarth H
0,5

V
V REarth

2
R Earth R

Earth
1,5
REarth

0,5

REarth

0,5

REarth H

R
H
H T Earth
REarth

1,5

1
, .
s

4545\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
From eq. (45) it is clear that orbit radius increase causes decrease in orbital
velocity, acceleration, gravity force and increase in satellite turning period.
For example, geostationary satellites are used for connection purposes
(3 satellites, which are over certain points of the Earth's surface fig. 115), have
zero velocities relatively the Earth surface. Using previous conclusions, it is
possible to calculate that such satellites must be at the altitude about:
H 5,65REarth 36000km.
Parabolic velocity is a velocity, necessary for leaving the gravity field of the
Earth. Let`s calculate it.
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Potential energy of an object with mass

on the Earth surface equals:

P m g REarth

and distantly

REarth H

4646\* MERGEFORMAT ()

from Earth gravity center:

P m g REarth H .

As

g REarth

g REarth H

, then:

REarth
P m g

REarth H

REarth H

2
m g REarth

REarth H

REarth
, N .
REarth H

4747\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
To lift an object to the altitude
PH P
proportional to
.

H R H R Earth

it`s necessary do the work,

H
Initial energy, necessary for lifting an object to the altitude
equals
mV 2
P P
2
That means, that
. From this equation the velocity is:

2 P P

REarth

2 P
1
REarth H
m

mV 2
2

R
2 P Earth
1
R

H
Earth

2 m g REarth Earth
1
REarth
m
REarth H 2 g R
1, .
Earth
m
REarth H
s

4848\* MERGEFORMAT ()

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When the radius goes to infinity
v 2 g REarth

the eq. (48) transforms into:

2 9,815

6378

103

11190

11,19

km

s .

4949\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
Thus, theoretical velocities, distances, and altitudes of spacecraft flight are
km
11,19
s
unlimited. When the flight velocity is more than
, the flight trajectory
km
17
s
becomes hyperbolic. When the velocity is more than
, the spacecraft leaves
the Sun gravity field and leaves the Solar system.
There is an interesting question: Where is the most suitable place for
cosmodrom building? It`s reasonable to launch rockets form equator, where Earth
surface velocity is maximal. In this case, it`s possible to put into orbit more
payload with the same available work. That`s why the cosmodrom in Brazil is
more profitable than Baikonur in Kazakhstan.

Fig. 119 Project Sea Launch


Project Sea Launch is an alternative to land cosmdromes. Before launch,
rocket-carrier is transported to equator for maximal profitability.

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25. Basic spacecraft systems and assemblies
Main special feature of most spacecrafts is an ability of durable operation in
space conditions. That`s why special temperature conditions are kept up, power
supply of satellite orientation equipment and connection with Earth are
maintained.
Piloted spacecraft, except of these features, has food supply for astronauts.
Also leak proofness and atmosphere presence are secured. This spacecrafts are
equipped with safeness facilities and system of returning from the space.
As spacecrafts are run in the low-density conditions, their flight takes place
with low resistance. That`s why their shape is determined not with aerodynamic
requirements, but with functional purposes.
It`s evident spacecraft to have case, which is equipped with facilities, payload
and power plant for initial acceleration, deceleration and position correction, solar
batteries for energy supply, antenna for connection with Earth and other
spacecrafts. Piloted spacecrafts are also equipped with life support system.
Spacecraft mass varies from some kilograms to some tons.
As it was mentioned previously, spacecraft can be disposable or reusable. In
the second case spacecraft is able to land on the Earth surface.
Generally the form of reusable spacecraft is not necessarily like an aircraft.
Such spacecraft is able to have the form, which creates the lift force necessary
enough for normal landing.
Spacecrafts can be conditionally divided into some types:
Sattellites are pilotless spacecrafts, used for long orbital flight. To move
along the orbit round the Earth, satellite is accelerated to the orbital velocity or a
150160 km
bit more. It is important for satellite to operate at altitudes more than
, to prevent the fast deceleration in dense atmospheric layers. The rotation period
depends on average flight altitude and may be from 1,5 hours to some days.

Fig. 120 Satellite: 1 solar battery, 2 receiving aerial,


3 transmitting aerial, 4 solar orientation sensor, 5 planetary orientation
sensor, 6 pneumatic system, 7 optical sensors, 8 orientation and
stabilization systems, 9 correcting power plants, 10 thermal control system
heater

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Piloted spacecrafts are spacecrafts, designed for a human flight in the
space. Their specific feature is the presence of cabin with life support system,
special apparatus for returning the crew from the space, navigation system,
control system and power plant. Last two systems allow to change the flight orbit
of the spacecraft for maneuvering and landing.

Fig. 121 Piloted spacecraft (Voskhod 2): 1, 8, 10 communication aerial, 2


TV camera, 3 spare brake block, 4 line aerial for regulations, 5 - sluice, 6
landing module, 7 equipment bay, 9 break block.
Cargo spaceships are spacecrafts designed for the cargo delivery to the
populated orbital station and crew change. In some cases spacecrafts designed
for cargo delivery to the Moon or interplanetary expeditions are also called cargo
spaceships.

Fig. 122 Cargo spacecraft: 1 rendezvous system aerial, 2 docking and


orientation engines, 3 closening corrective engine; 4 equipment bay;
5 equipment complex of on-board systems; 6 refueling components bay;
7 cargo bay; 8 docking assembly with the transfer hatch.
Space shuttles (air/space crafts) are spacecrafts, designed for flights as in
space as in dense atmosphere. There are only two systems had the practical
flight: Shuttle (the USA) and Buran (the USSR).
The space shuttle Buran has an airplane scheme. This is caused by the
aerodynamic flight principle, during landing the Earth surface. Putting into the orbit
happens with special rocket-carriers.

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During putting into the orbit, engines of space shuttle Buran are not working
while Shuttle engines work together with the rocket-carrier engines. After the
accelerators separation only power plant of the space shuttle continues operation.
The space shuttle Buran had an option of transportation by the biggest
airplane in the word An-225.
The space shuttle Shuttle is a system, that involves spacecraft, fuel tank
and two accelerators. The spacecraft itself also has an aircraft scheme.

Fig. 123 Space shuttle Shuttle


Landers are spacecrafts or their parts, designed for a descent and landing
the Earth surface or any other celestial body. They can be very different according
to the design.
Let`s consider the simplified classification of landers.
According to human presence landers can be manned or automatic (nonmanned).
Manned landers, designed for returning of the crew, are equipped with lifesupport system and devices for manual control of the descent and landing. This
influences greatly the structure and the payload purpose, the lander external view,
the descent and the landing trajectory, landing and rescue systems.
Generally landers are equipped with next systems:
Crew module involves life-support system, spacesuits, profiled seats, the
seat belt system, the leak-proof hatch, the control panel, the energy
source, control and orientation systems, etc.
Descent system, that involves parachutes (the pilot parachute, brake and
main parachutes) and the jet breaking system.
Heat shielding system that involves front and rear screens, system of the
rear screen separation.
Orbital slowing down module, that involves control and order formation
equipment, control and orientation actuators, slowing down and
orientation power plants, fuel tank.
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Lander docking system.
Automatic landers have their own features. For example, they are able to
stand much bigger overloads. That`s why they differ in the external view (mostly
because automatic landers do not need high aerodynamic performances).

According to the
According to la
trajectory

Ballistic trajectory descent (without aerodyna

Aerodynamic
trajectory descent
Fig. 124 Manned landers classification
Orbital stations are spacecrafts, designed for extremely long operation in
orbit of Earth, Moon or any other planet. Orbital stations can be divided into
manned and automatic. Their main purposes are circumterrestrial space, Earth
and other planets study from the OS orbit, meteorological and astronomic
monitoring, medico-biological test carrying out, materials characteristics and
equipment conditions in space study, etc. It`s possible to assemble spacecrafts,
designed to travel to other planets of Solar system, inside the orbital station.
Time of the active OS operation on the orbit, crew size, orbital parameters ,
mass and size characteristics are determined by the OS purposes.
Orbital station design is determined by way of assembling.
First way is to assemble the orbital station on the Earth and launch it with the
rocket-carrier. After this, when the orbital station becomes artificial Earth satellite,
it`s ready for operation. Mass and size of these orbital stations are limited by the
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rocket-carrier capabilities, and nowadays this way may be applied only to orbital
stations with mass less than few tons.
Second way is to assemble the orbital station in space from some blocks,
sections, elements or spacecrafts, which are put into orbit by rockets-carriers. The
orbital station is ready for operation after assembling on the orbit, checking for
bugs.
The crew of the orbital station can be transported to the OS together with one
of the blocks, inside the orbital station or separately (by any spacecraft, launched
from the Earth). Nowadays the duration of the astronauts stay at the orbital station
varies from some months to some years.

Fig. 125 International orbital space station


Unmanned interplanetary probes are designed for studying the space,
practicing long-distant spaceflights, astronomic bodies and planets exploration.
They are equipped with navigation system, power plant for position correction,
long radio haul system, set of scientific equipment and other equipment.

Fig. 126 - Unmanned interplanetary probe

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VII. POWER PLANTS
26. Bases of power plants. Main requirements for a power plant and an
engine. The general engine classification.
Power plants are designed to create the thrust, necessary for aircraft
(spacecraft) movement. They also drive different devices and equipment, which
provide normal operation of an aircraft as a whole. They also power life-support
system for crew and passengers.
Main requirements for power plants are:
To create the necessary thrust on all flight modes in predefined
environmental conditions.
To have the definite level of reliability, persistence and safety.
Reliability is an object capability to keep all parameters and characteristics in
predefined limits during whole period of operation at all operation modes, and to
meet operation, maintenance, storing and transporting conditions.
Persistence is an object capability to continue operation during and after a
natural or man-made disturbance.
Safety is an object condition, when internal and external factors does not
cause the system deterioration or impossibility of its operation.
To be comfortable during all operation period.
To have the specified lifetime.
To create as low as possible aerodynamic drag.
To have low vibration level.
To satisfy requirements for harmful emissions.
A power plant consists of different systems and devices. They are an engine,
a propulsor; fuel, lubrication, starting, oxidizer supply, engine fastening systems
e.t.c.
Main requirements for aircraft (spacecraft) engines are:
thrust or power, produced by an engine should provide definite flight
performances.
to have the minimal specific mass:
msp

mENG
,
PENG

kg
N .

5050\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Eq. (50) can be applied only to engines which produce thrust. In this eq.
mENG
PENG
is an engine mass,
is an engine thrust. For engines, which produce
power, the next equation applied:

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msp

mENG
,
NENG

kg
kW .

5151\* MERGEFORMAT ()

NENG

where.
is an engine power.
To have the maximal frontal thrust (frontal power):
Pfront

PENG N
,
.
Smid m2

5252\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Smid

where.
an engine area of midship section (section with maximal area). Eq.
(52) is used for engines, producing thrust. For engines, producing power, the next
equation must be used.
Nfront

NENG
,
Smid

kW
m2 .

5353\* MERGEFORMAT ()

To have minimal specific fuel consumption:


sp

Gfuel kg
,
.
PENG s N

5454\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Gfuel

Eq. (54) is for engines, which produce thrust. In this eq.


fuel
consumption. For engines, producing power the next equation must be used.
Gfuel

sp

Gfuel kg
,
.
NENG s kW

5555\* MERGEFORMAT ()

To require minimal time for diagnostics and overhaul.


To have good response (velocity of operation modes change).
Except of these requirements engines should have noise level less than
determined by standards.
If to compare thrust creation in propeller and jet power plants it becomes
clear that:
Propeller power plants produce thrust by throwing big air mass
backwards with comparatively low velocity.
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Jet power plants produce thrust by comparatively low gas masses efflux
with high velocity.
Engines can be classified by the way used for the aircraft driving:

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BASES OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING


Fig. 127 General engines classification
27. Piston engines
Piston engine is a heat engine, which uses one or more pistons to transform
energy of compressed gas into kinetic energy of rotational movement. It is the
most abundant type of engines in the world.
Main benefits of piston engines:
High power with small sizes.
Low specific mass.
High reliability of operation.
Low specific fuel consumption.
Stable operation in inverted flight conditions and under the action of
permissible overloads.
The principle of a piston engine operation is to burn the air/fuel mixture and,
using the released gas energy, to convert the pressure into rotation energy.
The basic parts of such engine are a cylinder and a piston, because they form
the working volume of the engine. During the engine operation 4 strokes are
permanently performed (so called four-stroke piston engine):
First stroke Suction: A piston moves in the way that clearance volume,
between cylinder head and a piston, increases. During the suction stroke the
intake valve is opened and exhaust valve is closed. Air/fuel mixture is sucked.
Second stroke Compression: Piston moves in the way that clearance
decreases. Both valves are closed. The compression happens. During this stroke
the mixture ignition happens, pressure and temperature inside the cylinder rise.
Third stroke Power: The piston starts moving under the pressure from
combustion products action. During this stroke both valves are closed. This stroke
is the only one to produce the energy.
Fourth stroke Exhaust: The piston moves again in the way that cylinder
volume decreases. During this stroke the intake valve is closed and the exhaust
valve is opened. The combustion products ejection happens.

Fig. 128 Crank mechanism of the piston engine: 1 piston, 2 - connecting


rod, 3 crankshaft, 4 cylinder, 5 cylinder head, 6 intake pipe, 7 - exhaust
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pipe, 8 valves (intake and exhaust), 9 piston pin, 10 gas and oil scraper
rings.

Fig. 129 Operation process of the piston engine

Prop

Piston engines classification is presented in fig. 130:

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Fig. 130 Piston engine classification
Piston engine can be characterized by many parameters, but the main of
them are:
Indicated horsepower (Ni) is an power, which is produced by gases in the
cylinder. It can be calculated by the next equation:

Ni

Li i n
, W.
2 60

5656\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Li

Where
indicated work (work, made by one piston during one working cycle (2
or 4 strokes), i number of cylinders, n rotational speed (rpm).
Specific indicated fuel consumption (c sp i) characterizes the engine
efficiency. It can be calculated by next equation:
c sp

where:

ch

c h kg
,
.
Ni h W

5757\* MERGEFORMAT ()

a hourly fuel consumption (kg/h).

Indicated efficiency i characterizes the usage degree of heat, which was


transmitted to the engine by fuel burning to produce power. It depends on
compression ratio () and excess air ratio ().
Excess air ratio is a ratio of real amount of the air in the air-fuel mixture to
1
theoretically needed amount. If
then this mixture is known as theoretical or
1
1
stoichiometric. If
then this mixture is known as enriched. And if

then this mixture is known as lean mixture.


For piston engines, which have the cylinder diameter less than 160mm, the
1
excess air ratio
can be calculated as:

i =1

0,23

.
5858\* MERGEFORMAT ()

The maximal indicated efficiency factor of the piston engines is

i 0,3...0,37.
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The indicated power doesn`t takes into account losses (suction losses,
combustion product ejection, friction losses, auxiliary units driving).
To estimate the power, transmitted to the receiver (for example, aircraft
propeller) brake horsepower is used.
To calculate the efficiency of the engine including all this loses brake
efficiency is used:

e mech auxil i,

5959\* MERGEFORMAT ()

mech auxil

where
factor, which indicates losses for suction losses, combustion
product ejection, friction losses, auxiliary units driving.
Similarly to specific indicated fuel consumption the brake fuel consumption
can be calculated as:
c sp

c h kg
,
.
Ne h kW

6060\* MERGEFORMAT ()

0,250,3 kg/kWh
As usual it is within

28. Compressorless engines. Ramjet and pulse jet engine


Ramjet is a form of airbreathing jet engine using the engine's forward motion
to compress incoming air.
Originator of such engine type is M. Loren (France, 1913).
This engine consist of air intake, diffuser, combustion chamber and jet nozzle
(fig. 131).
The incoming air decelerates in the intake and in the diffuser. During this
process the major part of its kinetic energy transforms into pressure. Pressure rise
depends on flight velocity and a design of an intake and a diffuser.
In case of incoming air supersonic velocity, it`s necessary to decelerate it up
to subsonic.

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Fig
. 131 Ramjet scheme: 1 incoming air, 2 intake, 3 fuel injection system,
4 flame stabilizer, 5 combustion chamber, 6 nozzle,
7 hot gases exhaust.
As it`s clear from the fig. 131 the ramjet doesn`t have movable parts. Only
control devices have movable parts necessary for engine correct operation. That`s
why its design and maintenance are very simple.
Ramjet operation principle:
Atmospheric air is compressed in an intake and in a diffuser. After diffuser, air
passes to combustion chamber. There, it is heated by constant fuel burning up to
temperature 17001900C. Hot gases from combustion chamber pass through
jet nozzle outside. There, expansion happens and gases are thrown off to the
atmosphere with much bigger velocity than flight velocity. Because of reaction
masses moment increase, while passing through the engine, jet thrust is
produced.
The ramjet is able to operate only from definite velocity. That means that it`s
not able to operate stably at low or zero flight velocity. To start operation it`s
necessary to accelerate the engine to definite initial velocity.
That`s why, aircrafts, powered with ramjet engines must be started:
from the aircrafts, which already have the definite flight velocity;
from the great altitude, while descending the necessary velocity for
starting is reached;
using launching devices, to accelerate aircraft up to necessary velocity.
Because air is used as an oxidizer in ramjets, their maximal flight altitude is
limited.
Ramjets are used mostly at UAV`s, which have subsonic and supersonic
flight velocities.
Basic ramjet parameters
Thrust (P):
P mv mf cN mv Vf pN patm FN ,

6161\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
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BASES OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

kg
mv
cN
s mf
where:
massflow rate ,
mass fuel consumption,
velocity at the
vf
pN
nozzle discharge station,
flight velocity,
pressure at the nozzle crosspatm
FN
section,
atmospheric pressure,
nozzle discharge area.
Specific thrust (Pe):
Pe

p patm FN , N s .
P
m
1 f c N v f N
kg
mv
mv
mv

6262\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
If to consider that the fuel consumption is much less than airflow and an
pN patm
engine is designed for full expansion in the nozzle
the specific thrust
can be roughly calculated as:
N s
Psp cN v f ,
.
kg

6363\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Specific fuel consumption (csp) can be calculated by the next equation:


sp

3600 Q kg
,
,
Hu Pe
s N

6464\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Pulse jet engine is a type of compressorless engine in which combustion


occurs in pulses.
The originator of such engine type is Karavodin (France, 1906). First engines
were built in Germany, in 1928 by P. Shmidt.
Pulse jet engine consists of inlet diffuser, valve system, fuel nozzles,
combustion chamber, igniter plug and jet nozzle.
The inlet diffuser compresses air and directs it to combustion chamber.
Valves (look like simple metal plates) system is designed to transfer the air only in
one direction. Fuel nozzles inject the fuel in sprayed state to combustion chamber.
Through jet nozzle hot gases are released to the atmosphere.

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BASES OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

Fig. 132 Pulse jet engine: 1 incoming air, 2 fuel supply pipes,
3 fuel manifold, 4 fuel nozzles, 5 combustion chamber, 6 jet nozzle,
7 igniter plug, 8 valves system, 9 inlet,
Pulse jet operation principle: While engine starting the pressure rises,
because of fuel burning and makes valves to close. Gases, formed by fuel
burning, are thrown to the atmosphere, producing thrust. Gas ejection reduces
pressure in combustion chamber to definite value, which is less than a pressure
value, formed by incoming air. This makes valves to open and bring next air
portion to combustion chamber. After this cycle starts from the beginning.
Repeatability of the working cycle is determined by engine size. Generally it
can be 40300 repeats per second.
If to compare the ramjet and pulse jet engine the benefit of the last is that it is
able to produce thrust at zero velocity condition, but at high velocities
M 0,40,5
ramjet has bigger frontal thrust and specific mass.
The pulse engines are efficient at subsonic flight velocities.
29. Rocket engines: liquid propellant engine and solid fuel rocket engine.
Liquid propellant engine is a plant for partial transforming of the
thermochemical energy, which is stored in liquid propellant, to kinetic energy of
gas jet stream, ejected from nozzle at high velocity.

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Main parameters of LPE:
LPE thrust is determined by next equation:
P msec cN pN patm FN , N ,

6565\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
where

msec

total secondary mass flow of propellant components (fuel and


cN
pN
oxidizer),
velocity at the nozzle discharge station,
pressure at the
patm
FN
nozzle station,
atmospheric pressure,
nozzle area at nozzle discharge.
When LPE operates at conditions with full expansion in nozzle, pressure at
nozzle discharge equals to atmospheric pressure. Eq. (65) transforms to
P msec c N , N .

6666\* MERGEFORMAT ()

msec 1
LPE specific thrust is an engine thrust for massflow rate
be calculated as:
kN s
.
kg

kg
s

. It can

Psp c N,

6767\* MERGEFORMAT ()

From eq. (64) it is clear that LPE specific thrust is determined by gases efflux
velocity. This velocity is determined by the fuel heat capacity. That`s why the
specific engine thrust is determined by fuel type, which is used.
Specific fuel consumption can be calculated by next equation:
c sp

msec 3600 3600 kg

,
,
P
Pe
h

6868\*

MERGEFORMAT ()
From eq. (65) it`s clear that the more specific thrust engine has, the more
efficient it is. But if to compare with other engine types LPE has high specific fuel
consumption. This is explained by not only fuel consumption but also an oxidizer
consumption, which is 3-4 times bigger than fuel consumption.
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1,02,0
In modern LPEs specific fuel consumption is

kg
N h

LPE general arrangement:


Most LPE has two liquid components for burning arranging: fuel and oxidizer.
Such engine type is known as bipropellant engine.

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Bipropellant engine main parts and assemblies are:
fuel jets, which eject the fuel and oxidizer in definite proportion to
combustion chamber;
combustion chamber, where gases of high pressure and temperature are
formed;
Laval nozzle, where gases acceleration occurs to get necessary
supersonic gasflow velocity at nozzle discharge.
LPE power plant consists of:
one or some chambers;
fuel supply devices;
control devices and their executive devices, for control forces creation;
pipe lines;
different accessory devices.

Fig. 133 The LPE scheme: 1 combustion chamber, 2 combustion


chamber head, 3 fuel supply pipes to starting fuel nozzles, 4 igniter, 5
oxidizer supply pipes, 6 fuel supply pipes, 7 nozzle insert, 8 jet nozzle, 9
cooling jacket.
From tanks, two components (fuel and oxidizer) are transported to fuel
nozzles, where mixing happens. Next, propellant is ejected to combustion
chamber, where burning process happens. Then, high-heated combustion gases
are accelerated in jet nozzle and guided outside, producing engine jet thrust.
LPE classification is shown in fig. 134:

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According to the Accordin


fuel type
Unitary
Separate supply

Oxigenous
NitrogenFig.134 The LPE classification
Two types of fuel supply system are used in LPEs. They are pumping and
pressurized fuel supply system.

a
b
Fig. 135 Fuel supply system schemes:
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a: Pressurized fuel supply system: 1 combustion chamber, 2 fuel cock,
3 oxidizer cock, 4 fuel tank, 5 oxidizer tank, 6 gas cock, 7 gas vessel;
b: Pumping fuel supply system: 1 fuel tank, 2 oxidizer tank, 3 pumps, 4
cocks, 5 fuel nozzles, 6 combustion chamber, 7 jet nozzle.
In pressurized system, fuel is supplied by its pressurizing from fuel tank by
inert gases (for ex. nitrogen). Gases can be stored at vessels with pressure
higher than pressure in combustion chamber or can be generated by chemical
reaction between solid or liquid substances.
In case of pumping system, fuel is supplied to combustion chamber by
pumps.
Solid fuel rocket engine is an engine that uses solid propellants (both
oxidizer and fuel).
General arrangement of solid fuel rocket engine is shown at the fig. 136.
Usually SFRE consists of next parts and assemblies: case (combustion chamber),
solid rocket fuel charge, nozzle unit, rocket igniter, electric starter, thermal
protection elements. In some cases SFRE can be equipped with some nozzles.

Fig. 136 The SFRE scheme: 1 combustion chamber, 2 nozzle,


3 end-burning grain, 4 diaphragm, 5 pyro cartridge (igniter).
Propellant charge can be placed in case in two ways. Charge is freely
embedded in case (combustion chamber) in a form of one or some grains, or the
charge is fastened to SFRE case ( as usual it is filled up with liquid propellant with
its further solidification inside).
Burning surface change during SFRE operation process determines the way
engine thrust changes.
Fuel charges can have different shapes. Charge section form determines
burning surface area change and, accordingly, thrust change during the aircraft
flight.

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Fig. 137 Cross-section forms examples of the SFRE charges


For case manufacturing high-strength steels, aluminum and titanium alloys,
and composites are used.
If to compare two engine types (LPE and SFRE) the last has simpler
structure, higher reliability and simpler maintenance. SFRE type can operate
without cooling and it can be stored charged for a long period of time. But this
engine has low specific thrust, high solid fuel charge cost. Also it is very hard to
control the thrust because of non-uniform burning at low pressure conditions,
because of dependence of fuel burning velocity from ambient temperature.
30. Electro jet and nuclear engines.
These engine types are not widely used, most of them are only prototypes or
used in spacecrafts.
Electro jet engine is an engine, that uses electric sources to produce thrust
and provide electricity for spacecraft needs. These engines can be inboard or
isolated as a separate unit.
These engine types include next systems:
devices, where initial energy type (chemical, nuclear or solar) is
transformed to more suitable energy type (electrical, heat or mechanical);
devices, which use new energy type;
devices for energy exhausting to the space (only when needed);
EJE control system;
starting devices;
redundancy system;
emergency equipment.
Electric engines may use two main energy sources: external or onboard.
Onboard energy sources are chemical (binary fuel), radio isotopic or nuclear
reactors. External energy is a solar energy and laser projector.
Electro jet engines classification is shown in fig. 138.
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Electro jet en
Electromagnetic
Stationary

Electro ther

Impulsive

Fig. 138 EJE classification


Most EJEs use working substance, in plasma form, which is accelerated by
interaction with electric or magnetic fields. That`s why each engine must have the
plasma source. Particles accelerator must be installed next. Some engines may
be additionally equipped with neutralizer. Its operation principle is to add contra
charged particles to main particles stream for charge compensation. As a resume
we can roughly say, that plasma source and accelerator form electro jet engine.
The thrust is applied to the part, where particles acceleration takes place.
Electro thermal engines are engines with thermal working substance
acceleration.
The example of electro thermal engine is shown in fig. 139.

Fig. 139 Electro thermal engine scheme: 1 case, 2 supply current,


3 insulator, 4 heater, 5 guard shield, w.s. working substance.
Electromagnetic engines are engines with electromagnetic acceleration type
of working substance. In this engine type working substance is transformed to
plasma condition and then accelerated by electromagnetic field action.
An example of electromagnetic engine is shown in fig. 140.

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Fig. 140 Electromagnetic engine scheme: 1 insulator, 2 anode, 3


cathode, 4 ionization zone, 5 heat acceleration zone, 6 electromagnetic
acceleration zone, w.s. working substance.
Electrostatic engines are engines, in which preliminary ionized working
substance is accelerated by electrostatic field. Ions of alkaline metals, mercury or
bismuth are generally used as working substance.
All electro jet engines have low thrust and therefore big relative mass of
power plant. They are used only for spaceflights. Trajectory correction or
acceleration needs low forces in space conditions. Besides, energy source is
always available (solar radiation). It`s reasonable to use electro jet engines if the
needed thrust is less than some tens of newtons.
Nuclear engines are engines which use nuclear energy for working
substance acceleration. These engines are prospective and nowadays have lots
of design problems.
Some experiments were carried out that proved the possibility of nuclear
engines existence, because they are more efficient than some chemical.
Basic unit of nuclear engine is a reactor. The nuclear fuel fission reaction
happens in reactor. This reaction causes heating of working substance. The
specific features of nuclear engines are small sizes, mass and life time.
The nuclear engines classification is shown in fig. 141.

Nuclear engin

Working on a heat energy of nuclearWorking


reactionon
produ
a ki
Radioisotope

Reactor

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BASES OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING


Fig. 141 Nuclear engines classification
The example of the nuclear engine, designed in the USA in 1958 is shown in
fig. 142.

Fig. 142 The nuclear engine HTRE 3 .


31. Gas turbine engines.
Gas turbine engine (GTE) is a heat machine that transforms chemical
energy, stored in fuel, into kinetic energy of jet stream or shaft rotation mechanical
energy.
Working substance for this engines` type is an atmospheric air. Air is mixed
with fuel to increase air temperature. Then, mixture of gas and air is emitted
through special devices (nozzles) for jet thrust obtaining. The emitted thrust is
known as heat jet thrust.
Main gas turbine engine types are:
turbo jet engine (TJE);
afterburning turbo jet engine (ATJE);
turbofan (TFE);
afterburning turbofan engine (TFE);
turboprop engine (TPE);
turboshaft engine (TShE);
propfan (PFE);
In TJE, ATJE, TFE, ATFE propelling force is produced by direct reaction of jet
stream. In TPE, PFE the most part of propelling force is produced by propeller and
the less part by jet stream. In TShE propelling force is produced only by
propeller or any other device, driven by TShE. GTEs are more efficient than rocket
engines because they use an atmospheric air as an oxidizer and need only fuel
onboard. But this benefit limits there use by atmosphere presence.
GTE main parameters are:

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Thrust (P) is a resultant force, caused by internal forces and external
pressures, applied to all engine surfaces. The thrust of modern engines
varies from some kilonewtons to 500kN, and power varies from 100 to
12000kW.
Thrust to weight ratio (t) is a parameter, calculated by matching the
maximal thrust to take-off weight. For TJE, ATJE, TFE, ATFE thrust to
weight ratio can be calculated by the eq. (69), for TPE, PFE by the eq.
(70), and for TShE by the eq. (72).

where

Pstart

take-off thrust,

mstart

Pstart
,
mstart g

6969\* MERGEFORMAT ()

aircraft takeoff mass.

Neq start

kW
,
mstart g N

,
7070\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Neq start

where
equivalent takeoff power (sum of the power, produced by
propeller and the thrust, produced by jet stream).
t

where

N start

N start
,
mstart g

kW
N ,

7171\* MERGEFORMAT ()

take-off power.

Specific thrust (Pe) is the ratio of engine thrust to the specific mass flow.
Pe

where

P
Gair sp

N s
,
.
kg

7272\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Gair

secondary massflow through engine.


N s
N s
1250
1000
kg
kg
Modern TJEs have specific thrust up to
, TFE up to

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Specific power (Ne sp) is the ratio of engine power (in case of TPE and PFE
it can be calculated by eq. (73), and in case of TShE by eq. (74)) to
secondary mass flow.
Neq sp

Ne sp

Neq

W s
;
kg

,
Gair

N W s
,
.
Gair kg

7373\* MERGEFORMAT ()

7474\* MERGEFORMAT ()
250

W s
kg

400

W s
kg

The specific power of the modern engines varies from


to
Frontal thrust (Pfr) is a ratio of maximal engine thrust to the maximal
section area:

Pfr

Pmax
,
Fmax

m 2 .

7575\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Specific fuel consumption (Csp) is the ratio of fuel consumption to engine


thrust (TJE, ATJE, TFE, ATFE), power (TShE) or equivalent power (TPE,
PFE). Specific fuel consumption can be calculated as
G
3600 kg
G
sp f f sec
,
;
P
P
h N
7676\* MERGEFORMAT
()

sp
MERGEFORMAT ()
sp

Gf G f sec 3600 kg

,
;
N
N
h kW

7777\*

G
3600 kg
Gf
f sec
,
,
Neq
Neq
h kW

7878\*

MERGEFORMAT ()

where Gf fuel consumption,

kg
h

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This parameter characterizes engine efficiency. It depends on operation
mode, engine type and working process parameters, efficiency factor. The lowest
fuel consumption has the TFE type. Modern TJE engines have fuel consumption
kg
kg
kg
0,11 0,14
0,2
0,058
h N
h N
h N
, ATJE

,
TFE

about
,
kg
0,240,34
h kW
TPE
.
Specific mass is a parameter, which characterizes the ratio of engine
mass to maximal engine thrust (eq. (79)) (power (eq. (80)) or equivalent
power (eq. (81))):
msp
msp
msp

mEN kg
,
;
Pmax N

mEN kg
,
;
Nmax kW

mEN
kg
,
.
Neq max kW

7979\* MERGEFORMAT ()

8080\* MERGEFORMAT ()

8181\* MERGEFORMAT ()

Specific mass depends on engine type and decreases with design


improvement. Specific masses of modern gas turbine engines are: TJE
kg
kg
kg
0,020,025
0,01650,022
0,270,33
N
N
kW
, TFE
, TPE
.
The general gas turbine engine structure: is described in fig. 143:

Fig. 143 TJE general scheme

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Intake is an assembly for air intake and its preliminary compression, caused
by narrowing geometry of the intake unit.
Compressor is an assembly that uses arrays of fan-like airfoils to
progressively compress working substance.
Combustion chamber is a gas turbine engine assembly, designed for efficient
fuel burning at constant pressure.
Turbine is an assembly that uses arrays of airfoils to extract energy from a
gas flow and to convert it into useful work to drive the compressor.
Nozzle is an assembly designed to control the direction or characteristics of a
gas flow (especially to increase velocity) as it is thrown off to the atmosphere.
GTE operation principle: The operation principle of gas turbine engine is
described on the turbojet engine example. Atmospheric air gets into intake. The
intake partially transforms kinetic energy of incident flow into potential energy of
pressure. During airflow moving through the intake, its velocity decreases,
pressure and temperature increase. Then airflow leaves the intake and enters
compressor. Compression there occurs by blades rotational energy transmission
to flow. During this process part of airflow kinetic energy is transformed to
potential and another part heats airflow. Air, which was compressed in both intake
and compressor, enters combustion chamber. In combustion chamber fuel burning
happens. Air is mixed with fuel in proportion most suitable for efficient burning.
Combustion causes pressure and temperature rise. Combustion chamber ignition
is provided by electric ignition plug. After combustion chamber gasflow with high
potential and heat energy is guided to turbine. The turbine is an assembly for gas
energy transformation into mechanical work. This work is spending on driving
compressor, propeller, lift rotor, auxiliary units, etc. In turbine pressure and
temperature decrease, but velocity rises. Final gas expansion happens in nozzle.
Here gas potential energy transforms again into kinetic. Because of energy stored
in fuel (chemical energy) exhaust flow velocity is much higher than incident, which
causes thrust formation.
Turboprop engine works similarly to turbojet, because both of them are gas
turbine engines.

Fig. 144 The turboprop genegal scheme

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But this engine type has some differences:
Turboprop engine turbine rotates with rotational speed 7000
12000 rpm, up to 20000 rpm. Propeller rotational speed must be lower
(7501500 rpm), or efficiency will be very low. That`s why gear box
must be installed between turbine and propeller to reduce rotational
speed (reduction ratio varies from 6 to 12). Gear box has very high
mass, which decreases specific mass of an engine.
The TPE turbine has difference to TJE. TJE turbine takes minimal energy
to rotate the compressor and auxiliary units. The major energy part
produces thrust in the nozzle. TPE turbine takes as much energy as
possible for transferring it to propeller to produce thrust. As usual turbine
rotational speed of TPE is much lower than in TJE. The residual energy
creates about 1015% of engine total thrust in jet nozzle.
Some TPEs appear gearbox to be the separate part, which is carried out from
the engine structure.
Turboshaft engines are used in helicopters, rotocrafts and vertical take-off
airplanes. They are principally the same design as turboprop, but have some
differences.

Fig. 145 TshE general scheme


The main difference is the gearbox position. The gearbox in TPE is an engine
assembly, but in TShE it`s a single part. The TShE power is transmitted with the
shaft to gearbox. The gearbox, as usual, is installed at the engine tail end.
That is why the exhaust arrangement must be designed with a glance of the
shaft presence. Usually, TShEs are designed with free turbine that facilitates the
engine control.
Turbofan engine is used at cargo and passenger airplanes.
To produce the high power by TPE usage, it is necessary to have the
propeller of big diameter. This causes difficulties with chassis, engine installation
onboard. Besides, the propeller has low efficiency at high flight velocities. This
problem was solved by propeller diameter reducing with blades number increase.
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Propeller was transformed into fan, which rotates at high velocity in the cowl. That
is the TFE (see fig. 148).

Fig. 146 TFE general scheme


The reason for such name is that incident flow is divided into two flows:
primary flow passes through fan, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and
nozzle, and the secondary flow passes only through fan and nozzle. TFE engine
thrust is produced by separate nozzles of primary and secondary flows or by
common nozzle. In case of common nozzle application mixture chamber is
installed.
The secondary flow application made TFEs more efficient than TJEs. During
design process, a lot of attention is paid to noise reduction problem. The TFE has
the lowest noise level.
Propfan is a compromise between TPE and TFE. PFE is equipped with
propfan (not with propeller as in TPE or fan in TFE). Some propfans can be
installed at single shaft one after another. They can be contra rotating or have the
same rotation direction. The propfan has high efficiency (efficiency factor is more
than 0.8) at velocities close to sonic. Propfan is interconnected with turbine by
shaft with gearbox. The PFE application allowed to decrease specific fuel
consumption (about 1520%), noise level and vibration stresses on an airplane
case. This is great prospect for airplanes that have high subsonic velocities.

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