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Nov 18, 2016

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Directional Drilling Survey Calculations

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Directional Drilling Survey Calculations

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CL = 155.00

= 19.80

MD

= 74.95

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90

Step 1

Calculate the Course Length, Average Inclination, and

Average Azimuth (use vector averaging if necessary)

Course Length

Average Inclination

CL = MD 2 MD1

I =

I1+ I

2

Average Azimuth

A=

A1 + A 2

2

72 .00 + 77 .90

2

2

A=

CL = 155.00'

A = 74.95

I = 19.80

16

Now from a different perspective . . .

North

East

North

106.25

East

90.84

Interim Data

CL = 155.00

= 19.80

MD

= 74.95

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Step 2

Calculate the change in True Vertical Depth

()

TVD = CL cos I

TVD = 155

' (0.9409)

CL

TVD

145.84

145.84

TVD11

4909.89

4909.89

TVD11 = 4764.05'+145.84'

TVD 11 = 4909 .89 '

Make a Triangle!

Interim Data

CL = 155.00

= 19.80

MD

= 74.95

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90 4909.89

Step 3

Calculate the Horizontal Deviation

()

HD = CL sin I

HD = 155' sin(19.80)

CL

HD = 155' (0.3387 )

HD = 52 .50 '

HD

52.50

52.50

Back to Horizontal Plane

North

106.25

HD

52.50

52.50

East

90.84

Interim Data

CL = 155.00

HD = 52.50

MD

= 74.95

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90 4909.89

Step 4

Calculate the change in rectangular coordinates (N, E)

N = HD cos( A)

North

N = 52.50' cos(74.95)

N = 52.50'(0.2597)

North

N = 13.63'

106.25

E = HD sin( A)

E = 52.50' sin(74.95)

E = 52.50' (0.9657)

E 50.70

50.70

N

13.63

13.63

HD

East

90.84

E = 50.70'

21

10

Interim Data

CL = 155.00

N = 13.63

E = 50.70

MD

Inc

Az

TVD

Step 4 (Cont.)

Calculate the rectangular coordinates (Total)

From Tie In Survey:

N10 = 106.25

From Previous Calculation:

VS

DLS

13.63

119.88 141.54

North

119.88

119.88

E10 =

E =

90.84

50.70

50.70

50.70

13.63

13.63

141.54

141.54

East

22

Vertical Section

Sometimes called:

VSA = 83

Vertical Section Azimuth

Target Direction

Proposed Direction

Vertical Section Plane

Azimuth

North

Closure Distance

Target

Location

East

Total Vertical

Section

23

11

MD

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Step 5

Calculate Closure Distance (calculated from last survey)

North

Closure Azimuth

Closure Distance

Closure Distance

CD = ( N ) 2 + ( E ) 2

CD = (119 .88) 2 + (141 .54 ) 2

CD = 185.49 ft

East

24

CLOSURE AZIMUTH = DIRECTION OF

CLOSURE DISTANCE

North

1

1

4

2

East

3

2

3

E

CA = tan -1

N

30.0

CA = tan -1

40.0

36.87

36.87

CA = 36.87

25.0

CA = tan -1

30.0

180+(180+(-39.81)=

35.0

CA = tan -1

50.0

180+(34.99)=

CA = 39.81

140.19

140.19

CA = 34.99

214.99

214.99

50.0

CA = tan -1

20.0

360+(360+(-68.20)=

CA = 68.20

291.80

291.80

25

12

MD

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Step 6

Calculate Closure Azimuth (direction of closure distance)

North

Closure Distance

Closure Azimuth

Closure Azimuth

E

CA = tan-1

N

141.54

CA = tan -1

119.88

CA = 49.74

East

26

Interim Data

CD = 185.49

CA = 49.74

MD

VSA = 83.00

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Step 7

Calculate Vertical Section (totalnot incremental)

DD = VSA CA

North

Closure Azimuth

Closure Distance

9

5.4

18

33.26

33.26

East

155.10

155.10

Target

Location

DD = 83 49.74

DD = 33.26

VS = CD cos(DD)

VS = 185.49' cos(33.26)

VS = 155.10'

Target Direction

27

13

Dogleg

The change in inclination and azimuth between two points

Measured in degrees

Dogleg Severity

The dogleg over a defined distance

Measured in degrees /100 ft

Severe dogleg severity may produce

Keyseats

Problems with running casing

Stuck pipe

Drill pipe wear

28

MD

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Step 8

Calculate Dogleg and Dogleg Severity

Dogleg

DL = cos 1[sin( 19 .3) sin( 20 .3) cos( 77 .9 72 ) + cos(19 .3) cos( 20 .3)]

DL = cos 1[0.99924]

DL = 2.23

Dogleg Severity

DLS =

DLS =

DL Interval

CL

2.23 (100) ft

155'

DLS = 11.44

.44 / 100'

2008 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All rights reserved.

29

14

Survey Calculations

Dogleg and Dogleg Severity

Closure and Vertical Section

Objectives

- demonstrate proficiency with their hand calculator.

- list the main types of survey calculation.

- perform average angle hand calculations.

- explain what is meant by the terms Dogleg and Dogleg Severity.

- hand calculate DL and DLS.

- describe what these calculations indicate re Directional Drilling .

- calculate closure.

- calculate vertical section.

- explain what the resulting calculation indicates.

- list the information available from a standard drilling plot.

measurements at specific points along the wellbore

join-the-dots

Each method makes assumptions about the path between the survey

stations

industry are

Minimum curvature

Radius of curvature

Average angle

Minimum curvature

Is generally recognised as the most appropriate survey calculation

method in most circumstances

Is the most commonly used survey calculation method

Most of our customers worldwide use this (and want us to use this)

Assumes the line joining any two successive survey stations is a 3D

curve (with curvature in 3 dimensions i.e. the wellpath lies on the

surface of a sphere)

Radius of curvature

Used to be more common than it is now

Rarely used nowadays in the drilling industry

Assumes the line joining any two successive survey stations is a 3D

curve (with curvature in 2 dimensions i.e. the wellpath lies on the

surface of a cylinder)

computationally complex

They are therefore typically done only with the aid of a computer

program (e.g. WellArchitect, Advantage) or with a programmable

calculator (with appropriately validated program)

complex and can be hand calculated on a basic scientific calculator

The average angle method is adequate for field calculations, but would

only be used in situations where for some reason a minimum

curvature calculation is not available

The average angle method assumes that the path between any two

survey stations is a straight line

the survey stations at each end of the straight line

The direction of the straight line is the average of the directions of the

survey stations at each end of the straight line

properties of the right-angled triangle and basic trigonometry

Denote the average azimuth of this straight line by

Az

Then, for the straight line between any two survey stations

Az = Az + Az

2

1

And

I = I + I

2

1

TVD

TVD = CL CosI

CL

HD

HD = CL Sin I

N

E

N = HD Cos Az

N

HD

E = HD Sin Az

Az

TVD = CL CosI

HD = CL Sin I

N = HD Cos Az

E = HD Sin Az

these parameters from one survey station to the next

appropriate absolute values on the previous line

mistake in any line of the calculation will mean all subsequent

calculations of that parameter will also be incorrect

Clearly, to start off we need to have a tie-on line with the TVD, N, and E

coordinates specified this is usually, but not always, ultimately a tieon line at surface

Note that you can usually spot gross errors if you pay a little attention

to the numbers e.g. if the course length is 100 ft, then N cannot be

300 ft

N and E should be increasing or decreasing

N should be bigger or smaller than the E

This means that the inclination is above 90

This means the wellbore is going south and/or west

by column

You can either store previous line values on your calculator, or handenter them as appropriate

Depending on which you do, over multiple lines youll get very slight

differences in your answers

Dogleg

(inclination and direction) of a bore-hole between two survey stations,

expressed as a 3D angle.

With the same change in inclination and azimuth between two survey

stations, the dogleg will be higher at higher inclinations.

The same amount of turn in the hole will produce a higher dogleg at

higher inclinations.

the case with azimuth change except for when the hole is horizontal.

Inclination

Azimuth

Dogleg

1

1

0

180

2.00

5

7

20

20

2.00

5

7

20

24

2.04

10

12

20

24

2.14

20

22

20

24

2.46

30

32

20

24

2.87

45

47

20

24

3.50

60

62

20

24

4.03

90

92

20

24

4.47

90

90

20

24

4.00

Dogleg Severity

each of two survey points

length (CL)

100ft or 30m)

DLS = DL Interval

CL

Dogleg and Dogleg Severity are NOT the same thing although the terms

are often used interchangeably

record 6 decimal places

automatically be using sufficient precision

Calculate DLS for the first few lines of the given survey in Exercise 1

Drilling Map

Closure and Vertical Section

Drilling Map

Location information

Well information

Slot information (particularly slot coordinates)

Target information

Surface information (north reference, spheroid model, depth offsets, depth

units)

Tie-on information

Logo

Wellplan

North arrow (correction to TN/GN, Dip, Bt)

Approval box

Plan view (wellpath map)

Etc.

10

Drilling Map

When we plot a survey on the plan view, what does that tell us?

It lets us know whether the drilled well is left or right of the plan (on the

projection)

information than just one survey tell us this

Most people do not find this a particularly easy calculation

As with most of the other survey calculations, it is very rarely done

manually

Before you can calculate VS, you first have to do a calculation to find

something we call closure

Calculating closure involves calculating two values

Closure distance

Closure direction

You need both of these values in order to calculate VS

Both closure and VS are calculated for a specific point on the wellbore,

usually every survey station

11

Closure

point P on an actual wellpath

Closure distance is typically measured from the slot (assume the

slot has coordinates (0,0)

Closure direction is typically given as an azimuth, which like all

azimuths is measured clockwise from N

N

P

1600

Cl o

Closure Direction

e

sur

t

Di s

ce

an

E

2250

Closure Distance

N

Closure Distance =

1600

ce

an

t

s

i

eD

ur

s

lo

2250

12

Closure Direction

N

2250

= 54.58

1600

1600

2250

Closure Calculation

interest

a directional well

example

used to determine steering behaviour

13

Directional Difference

The difference between these two values is the Directional Difference (DD)

Directional Difference

N

VS Azimuth = 60

2250

= 54.58

1600

1600

VS Azimuth

Directional Difference

Closure Direction

2250

14

Vertical Section

i.e. cos DD x closure distance

= 0.996 x 2760.89

= 2749.85

1600

27

42

5.

60

9

.8

2250

Vertical Section

VS is a distance

vertical plane oriented at a particular azimuth

Both the VS origin and the VS azimuth are defined (by a well-planner or

the customer) and will be found on the drilling plot

the section view of a drilling map

compared to where it should be (above or below the line)

15

Drilling Map

Location information

Well information

Slot information (particularly slot coordinates)

Target information

Surface information (north reference, spheroid model, depth offsets, depth

units)

Tie-on information

Logo

Wellplan

North arrow (correction to TN/GN, Dip, Bt)

Approval box

Plan view (wellpath map)

VS view (cross-section view)

VS azimuth

VS origin

2008 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All rights reserved.

Drilling Map

When we plot a survey on the section view, what does that tell us?

This vertical plane is oriented at some azimuth (the vertical section azimuth)

plan (on the projection)

Strictly speaking, this is only true if we are drilling in a direction close to the

VS azimuth

information than just one survey tell us this

16

The VS azimuth (aka VS plane or VS direction)

The VS origin

The local N and E coordinates of point P

The closure distance

The closure direction

direction (this is the directional difference, DD)

VS = Cos DD x Closure distance

diagram

If youre drilling in a direction other than N and E, the formulae will take

care of the different quadrants, as long as the directions are azimuths

measured clockwise from N

angles, be careful to label accordingly and correct to azimuths as

appropriate

When calculating the DD, just subtract the smaller number from the

bigger for ease of calculation

17

The vertical section origin is usually, but not always, the slot

The customer may specify a point for VS origin that is not the slot

If the slot coordinates are not (0,0), you may have to correct

appropriately when calculating the closure distance i.e. subtract the N

and E of the slot coordinates from the coordinates of the point on the

wellpath

When drilling a sidetrack, the sidetrack point may be the VS origin, with

coordinates referenced to platform centre

The vertical section azimuth is typically chosen to give the most useful

view of the wellpath on the section view of the drilling plot

direction of a straight line drawn from the slot to the end of the wellpath

This gives the most useful view of the drilled versus planned wellpaths

to this

obvious process

18

Sometimes for a 3D plan it will be the same as for a 2D wellplan, i.e. the

direction of a straight line drawn from the slot to the end of the wellpath

Or it could be the direction of a straight line from the origin to the end of

the wellpath

azimuth

Sometimes it will be chosen to give a better view of the more critical part

of the wellpath

the well, each with different vertical section azimuths

means the point lies on the VS azimuth i.e. precisely on the line (of the

plan view) for a simple 2D plan

perpendicular to the VS azimuth (in the plan view)

If the calculated VS is negative, this means the drilled well has gone

backwards with respect to the VS azimuth and origin

The plotted drilled versus proposed section view will only truly tell you

if youre above or below the line if youre drilling in a direction close to

the VS azimuth

19

Curtain Section

Incremental Section

This is not the same as VS, is now history, and can safely be forgotten

about

as Curtain Section, in which a 3D wellpath is flattened out along a

straight plane

in WellArchitect

earth models (formations)

VS Calculation Exercise

20

Projecting Ahead

Objectives

The student will be able to

explain why we might project from the last survey to the bottom of the hole

Calculate Inc and Az at BOH for a given build & turn

Calculate TVD for a projected Inc at a specified BUR

Calculate BUR required for a given TVD

Projecting Ahead

wellbore may be after a certain amount of drilling which we havent done yet

happen to the wellbore over this as yet undrilled section

The current inclination and/or direction at the bottom of the hole

The bottom hole location after a specified additional MD has been drilled

What inclination we will have at a certain TVD

Whether we will hit a specified target

etc

Projecting Ahead

To estimate where the wellbore will be compared to the plan

To monitor potential collision issues

To find out if he needs to take remedial action

own routine, or it may be laid down in procedures, either from INTEQ or

from the customer

that the DD will have a good idea what he hopes to get in advance of the

survey being taken

the rigsite or in town, dedicated to doing projection calculations

Projecting Ahead

For any specific BHA, the survey sensor is some fixed distance behind the

bit

Surveys are almost always taken with the BHA off bottom

while drilling

It is usually good practice to project ahead from the last survey station to

the bottom of the hole, and then to do any further projection from the

bottom of the hole

Projecting Ahead

done with WA (Projection To Bit)

Projecting Ahead

There are various formulae that can be used when projecting ahead

These formulae are typically developed from the geometry of the circle

and of the right-angled triangle

For most people, the derivation of these formulae is not a great matter

of interest

What is important is how to use them to get the information you want

Derivation of formulae

circle with a specific radius, rc, the radius of curvature

on the precision with which it is defined

There is a fixed ratio between any arc length (AL) and the angle angle

(AA) by that arc

Lets assume were drilling in feet, so a typical arc length would be 100

So AL/AA = 100/BUR

Arc angle

Arc length

Derivation of formulae

In the limiting case of the entire circle the expression above would

equal C/360

So 100/BUR = 2rc/360

rc = 360 x 100 / (2 x BUR) = 5729.58/BUR

rc = 360 x 30 / (2 x BUR) = 1718.87/BUR

So if youre using these formulae, the first thing you need to check is

whether the BUR is expressed per 100, per 30, or whatever

Projecting Ahead

I

CL

MD

TVD

Az

VS

BUR

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

rc

TF

DL

DLS

BOH

LSS

=

=

=

=

=

=

inclination (degrees)

course length (feet or metres)

measured depth (feet or metres)

true vertical depth (feet or metres)

azimuth (hole direction) (degrees)

vertical section (feet or metres)

build up rate (/interval) e.g. a BUR of 12/100ft would

be input into the formulas as 12

radius of curvature (feet or metres)

toolface (degrees from highside)

dogleg (degrees)

dogleg severity (degrees/100 ft or degrees/30m)

bottom of hole

last survey station

continues to the bottom of the hole, then we can easily calculate first

the BUR, then the inc and az at the bottom of the hole

Remember that the interval (for BUR) is typically 100 if using feet, and

30 for m

Formulae

BUR = (

I 2 - I1

MD 2 - MD1

) Interval

BUR

) + I2

Interval

Turn Rate = (

Az 2 - Az1

) Interval

MD 2 - MD1

Turn Rate

Interval

) + Az 2

Example

The following are the last two surveys a directional driller obtained (depths in

ft):

MD

Inc

Az

TVD

4653

30

15

4643.99

4713

39

18

4693.38

The bit to sensor distance is 33 ft and surveys are taken 5 ft off of bottom

Assume the curvature between the last two survey stations will accurately

reflect the build rate to the bottom of the hole

What is the projected inclination and direction at the bottom of the hole?

We first need to calculate the build rate and turn rate achieved between the last

two survey stations using the appropriate formula

Then we need to project the inclination and direction at the bottom of the hole

based on the calculated build rate and the distance from the survey sensor to

the bottom of the hole

Example

BUR = (

I 2 - I1

) Interval

MD 2 - MD1

Turn Rate = (

BUR = (

39 - 30

) 100

4713 - 4653

Turn Rate = (

BUR = 15 /100ft

BUR

) + I2

Interval

I BOH = (CL

I BOH = (38

15

) + 39

100

I BOH = 44.70

Az 2 - Az 1

) Interval

MD 2 - MD1

18 - 15

) 100

4713 - 4653

Az BOH = (CL

Az BOH = (38

Turn Rate

) + Az 2

Interval

5

) + 18

100

Az BOH = 19.9

Exercise

hole given the last two surveys

Assume that the DD now wants to know what the TVD will be (at a given

inc) if he continues to build at the rate defined by the last two surveys

rc

I1

TVD1

TVD2

TVD

I2

TVD1 = rc sinI 1

TVD 2 = rc sinI 2

So TVD = TVD 2 TVD1

= rcsinI 2 rcsinI 1

= rc (sinI 2 sinI 1 )

Example

Using the same data as in the previous example, lets assume that the

build rate between the last two survey stations is continued to the BOH

So, we can calculate what the TVD will be at the bottom of the hole

rc =

5729.58

BUR

5729.58

15

= 381.97 ft

TVD LSS -BOH = rc (sinI BOH sinI LSS ) = 381.97 (sin 44.7 sin 39) = 28.29

TVD BOH = TVD LSS + TVD BOH -LSS = 4693.38 + 28.29 = 4721.67 ft

Exercise

We may wish to do the previous calculation the other way round for a

given TVD (e.g. target TVD) and inclination, what is the required BUR?

So rc =

(TVD2 TVD1 )

(sin I 2 sinI 1 ) (sin I 2 sinI 1 )

TVD

Since BUR =

5729.58

rc

(sin I 2 sinI 1 )

(TVD2 TVD1 )

So if we wish to calculate the BUR from the BOH to the target, then

BURRequired = 5729.58

(sin I 2 sin I1 )

(TVD 2 TVD1 )

becomes

BURRequired = 5729.58

(sin I

(TVD

target

target

sin I BOH )

TVDBOH )

10

So, again using the same example data, if we wish to calculate the

BUR from the BOH to the target, then

BURRequired = 5729.58

(sin I

(TVD

target

target

sin I BOH )

TVD BOH )

becomes

(4930 4721.67 )

BURRequired = 5729.58

= 8.15/100 ft

BUR when the next survey is taken

Exercise

inclination

11

Miscellaneous

plane i.e. inclinations

Similar formulae can be derived and applied to the turn plane i.e.

azimuths

to do them by hand

whats required to hit the target (build, turn, front, back, top, bottom)

whats required to get back on the line (profile, DLS, by a given TVD) at a

given inc and az

etc.

12

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