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Interim Data

Average Angle Exercise

CL = 155.00
= 19.80

MD

= 74.95

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Survey 10 4787.00 19.30 72.00 4764.05 106.25 90.84 125.14 1.13


Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90

Step 1
Calculate the Course Length, Average Inclination, and
Average Azimuth (use vector averaging if necessary)
Course Length

Average Inclination

CL = MD 2 MD1

I =

I1+ I
2

Average Azimuth

A=

A1 + A 2
2
72 .00 + 77 .90
2

CL = 4942.00 4787.00 I = 19.30 + 20.30


2

A=

CL = 155.00'

A = 74.95

I = 19.80

16

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Average Angle Exercise


Now from a different perspective . . .

North
East

North

106.25

East
90.84

Interim Data

Average Angle Exercise

CL = 155.00
= 19.80

MD

= 74.95

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Survey 10 4787.00 19.30 72.00 4764.05 106.25 90.84 125.14 1.13

Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90 4909.89


Step 2
Calculate the change in True Vertical Depth

()

TVD = CL cos I

TVD = 155' cos(19.80)

TVD = 155
' (0.9409)

CL

TVD

TVD = 145 .84 '

145.84
145.84

TVD11

TVD11 = TVD10 + TVD

4909.89
4909.89

TVD11 = 4764.05'+145.84'
TVD 11 = 4909 .89 '

Make a Triangle!

Interim Data

Average Angle Exercise

CL = 155.00
= 19.80

MD

= 74.95

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Survey 10 4787.00 19.30 72.00 4764.05 106.25 90.84 125.14 1.13


Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90 4909.89

Step 3
Calculate the Horizontal Deviation

()

HD = CL sin I
HD = 155' sin(19.80)

CL

HD = 155' (0.3387 )

HD = 52 .50 '
HD

52.50
52.50

Average Angle Exercise


Back to Horizontal Plane

North

106.25

HD

52.50
52.50

East
90.84

Interim Data

Average Angle Exercise

CL = 155.00
HD = 52.50

MD

= 74.95

Inc

Az

TVD

VS

DLS

Survey 10 4787.00 19.30 72.00 4764.05 106.25 90.84 125.14 1.13


Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90 4909.89

Step 4
Calculate the change in rectangular coordinates (N, E)

N = HD cos( A)

Make another Triangle!


North

N = 52.50' cos(74.95)
N = 52.50'(0.2597)

North

N = 13.63'

106.25

E = HD sin( A)
E = 52.50' sin(74.95)
E = 52.50' (0.9657)

E 50.70
50.70
N

13.63
13.63

HD

East
90.84

E = 50.70'

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21

10

Interim Data
CL = 155.00
N = 13.63

Average Angle Exercise

E = 50.70

MD

Inc

Az

TVD

Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90 4909.89

Step 4 (Cont.)
Calculate the rectangular coordinates (Total)
From Tie In Survey:

N10 = 106.25

From Previous Calculation:

Add to obtain Survey 11 N

From Tie In Survey:


From Previous Calculation:

VS

DLS

Survey 10 4787.00 19.30 72.00 4764.05 106.25 90.84 125.14 1.13

13.63

119.88 141.54

North

119.88
119.88
E10 =
E =

90.84
50.70

Add to obtain Survey 11 E

50.70
50.70
13.63
13.63

141.54
141.54

East

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22

Vertical Section
Sometimes called:
VSA = 83
Vertical Section Azimuth
Target Direction
Proposed Direction
Vertical Section Plane
Azimuth

North
Closure Distance

Target
Location

East

Total Vertical
Section

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23

11

Average Angle Exercise


MD

Inc

Az

TVD

Survey 10 4787.00 19.30 72.00 4764.05 106.25

VS

DLS

90.84 125.14 1.13

Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90 4909.89 119.88 141.54

Step 5
Calculate Closure Distance (calculated from last survey)

North
Closure Azimuth

Closure Distance

Closure Distance

CD = ( N ) 2 + ( E ) 2
CD = (119 .88) 2 + (141 .54 ) 2

CD = 185.49 ft

East

24

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Be Careful with Closure Azimuth


CLOSURE AZIMUTH = DIRECTION OF
CLOSURE DISTANCE
North

1
1
4

2
East

3
2
3

E
CA = tan -1
N

30.0
CA = tan -1

40.0

36.87
36.87

CA = 36.87

25.0
CA = tan -1

30.0

180+(180+(-39.81)=

35.0
CA = tan -1

50.0

180+(34.99)=

CA = 39.81

140.19
140.19

CA = 34.99

214.99
214.99

50.0
CA = tan -1

20.0

360+(360+(-68.20)=

CA = 68.20

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291.80
291.80
25

12

Average Angle Exercise


MD

Inc

Az

TVD

Survey 10 4787.00 19.30 72.00 4764.05 106.25

VS

DLS

90.84 125.14 1.13

Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90 4909.89 119.88 141.54


Step 6
Calculate Closure Azimuth (direction of closure distance)
North
Closure Distance

Closure Azimuth

Closure Azimuth

E
CA = tan-1
N

141.54
CA = tan -1

119.88

CA = 49.74
East

26

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Interim Data

Average Angle Exercise

CD = 185.49
CA = 49.74

MD

VSA = 83.00

Inc

Az

TVD

Survey 10 4787.00 19.30 72.00 4764.05 106.25

VS

DLS

90.84 125.14 1.13

Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90 4909.89 119.88 141.54


Step 7
Calculate Vertical Section (totalnot incremental)

DD = VSA CA

North
Closure Azimuth

Closure Distance

9
5.4
18

33.26
33.26
East

155.10
155.10

Target
Location

DD = 83 49.74
DD = 33.26

VS = CD cos(DD)
VS = 185.49' cos(33.26)
VS = 155.10'

Target Direction

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27

13

Average Angle Exercise


Dogleg
The change in inclination and azimuth between two points
Measured in degrees
Dogleg Severity
The dogleg over a defined distance
Measured in degrees /100 ft
Severe dogleg severity may produce
Keyseats
Problems with running casing
Stuck pipe
Drill pipe wear
28

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Average Angle Exercise


MD

Inc

Az

TVD

Survey 10 4787.00 19.30 72.00 4764.05 106.25

VS

DLS

90.84 125.14 1.13

Survey 11 4942.00 20.30 77.90 4909.89 119.88 141.54 155.10 1.44

Step 8
Calculate Dogleg and Dogleg Severity
Dogleg

DL = cos1[sin(I 1)sin(I 2 ) cos( A2 A1) + cos(I 1) cos(I 2 )]

DL = cos 1[sin( 19 .3) sin( 20 .3) cos( 77 .9 72 ) + cos(19 .3) cos( 20 .3)]

DL = cos 1[0.99924]

DL = 2.23

Dogleg Severity

DLS =
DLS =

DL Interval
CL

2.23 (100) ft
155'

DLS = 11.44
.44 / 100'
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29

14

Survey Calculations
Dogleg and Dogleg Severity
Closure and Vertical Section

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Objectives

The student will be able to


- demonstrate proficiency with their hand calculator.
- list the main types of survey calculation.
- perform average angle hand calculations.
- explain what is meant by the terms Dogleg and Dogleg Severity.
- hand calculate DL and DLS.
- describe what these calculations indicate re Directional Drilling .
- calculate closure.
- calculate vertical section.
- explain what the resulting calculation indicates.
- list the information available from a standard drilling plot.

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Calculating The Wellbore Position

When we survey a wellbore, we typically have MD, Inc and Az


measurements at specific points along the wellbore

To plot/calculate the position of the wellbore, we need to somehow


join-the-dots

There are many different mathematical ways to join the dots

Each method makes assumptions about the path between the survey
stations

The most common survey calculation methods used in the drilling


industry are
Minimum curvature
Radius of curvature
Average angle

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Survey Calculation Methods

Minimum curvature
Is generally recognised as the most appropriate survey calculation
method in most circumstances
Is the most commonly used survey calculation method
Most of our customers worldwide use this (and want us to use this)
Assumes the line joining any two successive survey stations is a 3D
curve (with curvature in 3 dimensions i.e. the wellpath lies on the
surface of a sphere)

Radius of curvature
Used to be more common than it is now
Rarely used nowadays in the drilling industry
Assumes the line joining any two successive survey stations is a 3D
curve (with curvature in 2 dimensions i.e. the wellpath lies on the
surface of a cylinder)

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Survey Calculation Methods

Both minimum curvature and radius of curvature calculations are


computationally complex

They are therefore typically done only with the aid of a computer
program (e.g. WellArchitect, Advantage) or with a programmable
calculator (with appropriately validated program)

Average Angle is a calculation method which is less computationally


complex and can be hand calculated on a basic scientific calculator

The average angle method is adequate for field calculations, but would
only be used in situations where for some reason a minimum
curvature calculation is not available

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Average Angle Survey Calculations

We know the MD, Inc, and Az values at each survey station

The average angle method assumes that the path between any two
survey stations is a straight line

This straight line will have an inclination and a direction

The inclination of the straight line is the average of the inclinations of


the survey stations at each end of the straight line

The direction of the straight line is the average of the directions of the
survey stations at each end of the straight line

The TVD, N and E coordinates can then be calculated using the


properties of the right-angled triangle and basic trigonometry

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Average Angle Survey Calculations

For the straight line joining any two survey stations


Denote the average azimuth of this straight line by

Az

Denote the average inclination of this straight line by

Then, for the straight line between any two survey stations

Az = Az + Az
2
1

And

I = I + I
2
1

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Average Angle Survey Calculations

So we have, looking from the side

TVD

MD1, I1, Az1

TVD = CL CosI
CL

HD

HD = CL Sin I

MD2, I2, Az2

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Average Angle Survey Calculations

And looking from above

N
E

N = HD Cos Az
N
HD

E = HD Sin Az

Az

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Average Angle Survey Calculations

So we have the average angle formulae

TVD = CL CosI

HD = CL Sin I
N = HD Cos Az
E = HD Sin Az

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Average Angle Survey Calculations

Note that the calculated values of TVD, N and E are changes in


these parameters from one survey station to the next

Therefore each of these values needs to be added on to the


appropriate absolute values on the previous line

Thus the survey calculation is an incremental calculation and a


mistake in any line of the calculation will mean all subsequent
calculations of that parameter will also be incorrect

Clearly, to start off we need to have a tie-on line with the TVD, N, and E
coordinates specified this is usually, but not always, ultimately a tieon line at surface

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Average Angle Survey Calculations

Note that you can usually spot gross errors if you pay a little attention
to the numbers e.g. if the course length is 100 ft, then N cannot be
300 ft

The direction of the average azimuth will tell you whether


N and E should be increasing or decreasing
N should be bigger or smaller than the E

TVD may be a negative number


This means that the inclination is above 90

N and/or E may be a negative number


This means the wellbore is going south and/or west

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Average Angle Calculation Exercise

Note that it is typically better to do the calculation by line rather than


by column

Typically, these calculated values are quoted to 2 decimal places

You can either store previous line values on your calculator, or handenter them as appropriate

Depending on which you do, over multiple lines youll get very slight
differences in your answers

Calculate TVD, N, and E for the first few lines on Exercise 1

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Dogleg and Dogleg Severity

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Dogleg

Dogleg (DL) is a measure of the 3 dimensional change in trajectory


(inclination and direction) of a bore-hole between two survey stations,
expressed as a 3D angle.

DL = Cos-1 [ Sin I1 Sin I2 Cos (A2 - A1) + Cos I1 Cos I2 ]

With the same change in inclination and azimuth between two survey
stations, the dogleg will be higher at higher inclinations.

The same amount of turn in the hole will produce a higher dogleg at
higher inclinations.

1 degree of inclination change will give a 1 degree dogleg. This is NOT


the case with azimuth change except for when the hole is horizontal.

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Dogleg changing with inclination


Inclination

Azimuth

Dogleg

1
1

0
180

2.00

5
7

20
20

2.00

5
7

20
24

2.04

10
12

20
24

2.14

20
22

20
24

2.46

30
32

20
24

2.87

45
47

20
24

3.50

60
62

20
24

4.03

90
92

20
24

4.47

90
90

20
24

4.00

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Dogleg Severity

The dogleg calculation is a function of inclination and azimuth values at


each of two survey points

As such, it has limited practical value

It is much more useful to have a measure which takes account of course


length (CL)

Dogleg severity is dogleg expressed over a particular interval (usually


100ft or 30m)

DLS = DL Interval
CL

Dogleg and Dogleg Severity are NOT the same thing although the terms
are often used interchangeably

A very short course length may give misleading DLS values

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DLS Calculation Exercise

Once again, DLS values are usually quoted to 2 decimal places

Set your calculator to display 2 decimal places

What is Cos 1, Cos 2, Cos 3, Cos 4 (to 2 decimal places)?

This means if you are hand-entering intermediate values, you need to


record 6 decimal places

If you are storing intermediate values in your calculator, you will


automatically be using sufficient precision

Calculate DLS for the first few lines of the given survey in Exercise 1

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Drilling Map
Closure and Vertical Section

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Drilling Map

What information might be displayed on a drilling map?


Location information
Well information
Slot information (particularly slot coordinates)
Target information
Surface information (north reference, spheroid model, depth offsets, depth
units)
Tie-on information
Logo
Wellplan
North arrow (correction to TN/GN, Dip, Bt)
Approval box
Plan view (wellpath map)
Etc.

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10

Drilling Map

When we plot a survey on the plan view, what does that tell us?

It is a projection on a horizontal plane

It lets us know whether the drilled well is left or right of the plan (on the
projection)

It doesnt tell us how far off the line we are

It doesnt always tell us if we need to steer right or left we need more


information than just one survey tell us this

More on the drilling map later

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Closure and Vertical Section

Later on well talk about why we calculate VS and what it indicates

Well start by covering how to calculate Vertical Section


Most people do not find this a particularly easy calculation
As with most of the other survey calculations, it is very rarely done
manually
Before you can calculate VS, you first have to do a calculation to find
something we call closure
Calculating closure involves calculating two values
Closure distance
Closure direction
You need both of these values in order to calculate VS
Both closure and VS are calculated for a specific point on the wellbore,
usually every survey station

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11

Closure

Is the distance and direction on a horizontal projection to a given


point P on an actual wellpath
Closure distance is typically measured from the slot (assume the
slot has coordinates (0,0)
Closure direction is typically given as an azimuth, which like all
azimuths is measured clockwise from N
N
P

1600

Cl o

Closure Direction

e
sur

t
Di s

ce
an

E
2250

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Closure Distance
N

Closure Distance =

1600 2 + 2250 2 = 2760.89

1600

ce
an
t
s
i
eD
ur
s
lo

2250

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12

Closure Direction
N

Closure Direction = tan -1

2250
= 54.58
1600

1600

2250

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Closure Calculation

On a vertical well, there is no VS azimuth and hence no VS calculation

On a vertical well, therefore, closure parameters are typically of some


interest

Closure information is not typically that useful for practical purposes on


a directional well

It does not typically determine our future steering behaviour, for


example

It is however necessary for calculating vertical section, which may be


used to determine steering behaviour

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13

Directional Difference

We have calculated the closure direction

We define the VS azimuth (more on this later)

In our example we define the VS azimuth to be 60

The difference between these two values is the Directional Difference (DD)

Thus, in our example, the DD = 60 54.58 = 5.42

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Directional Difference
N

Closure Direction = tan -1


VS Azimuth = 60

2250
= 54.58
1600

So the Directional Difference = 60 - 54.58 = 5.42


1600

VS Azimuth

Directional Difference

Closure Direction

2250

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14

Vertical Section

The VS at point P is the length of the green line


i.e. cos DD x closure distance

= cos 5.42 x 2760.89


= 0.996 x 2760.89
= 2749.85

1600

27
42
5.

60

9
.8

2250

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Vertical Section

Mathematically, VS = Cos DD x Closure distance

VS is a distance

It is the distance drilled (from some defined VS origin) projected onto a


vertical plane oriented at a particular azimuth

The particular azimuth is called the VS azimuth (or plane, or direction)

Both the VS origin and the VS azimuth are defined (by a well-planner or
the customer) and will be found on the drilling plot

For any particular point on the wellpath, VS is plotted against TVD on


the section view of a drilling map

VS is used to give a visual indication of where a drilled wellpath is


compared to where it should be (above or below the line)

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15

Drilling Map

So we can add some additional information to the list we saw previously


Location information
Well information
Slot information (particularly slot coordinates)
Target information
Surface information (north reference, spheroid model, depth offsets, depth
units)
Tie-on information
Logo
Wellplan
North arrow (correction to TN/GN, Dip, Bt)
Approval box
Plan view (wellpath map)
VS view (cross-section view)
VS azimuth
VS origin
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Drilling Map

When we plot a survey on the section view, what does that tell us?

It is a projection on a vertical plane

This vertical plane is oriented at some azimuth (the vertical section azimuth)

It gives us an indication of whether the drilled well is above or below the


plan (on the projection)

Strictly speaking, this is only true if we are drilling in a direction close to the
VS azimuth

It doesnt tell us how far off the line we are

It doesnt always tell us if we need to steer up or down we need more


information than just one survey tell us this

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16

Vertical Section Calculation (summary)

To calculate the VS at point P, you need to know


The VS azimuth (aka VS plane or VS direction)
The VS origin
The local N and E coordinates of point P

Calculate the closure of point P, both


The closure distance
The closure direction

Calculate the difference between the VS azimuth and the closure


direction (this is the directional difference, DD)

Calculate the VS for point P


VS = Cos DD x Closure distance

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Vertical Section Calculation

If youre doing this calculation manually, its always good to draw a


diagram

If youre drilling in a direction other than N and E, the formulae will take
care of the different quadrants, as long as the directions are azimuths
measured clockwise from N

If youre using any right-angled triangles to calculate distances and


angles, be careful to label accordingly and correct to azimuths as
appropriate

When calculating the DD, just subtract the smaller number from the
bigger for ease of calculation

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17

Choice of Vertical Section Origin

The vertical section origin is usually, but not always, the slot

The customer may specify a point for VS origin that is not the slot

If the slot coordinates are not (0,0), you may have to correct
appropriately when calculating the closure distance i.e. subtract the N
and E of the slot coordinates from the coordinates of the point on the
wellpath

When drilling a sidetrack, the sidetrack point may be the VS origin, with
coordinates referenced to platform centre

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Choice of Vertical Section Azimuth

The vertical section azimuth is typically chosen to give the most useful
view of the wellpath on the section view of the drilling plot

For a 2D wellplan, the vertical section azimuth will usually be the


direction of a straight line drawn from the slot to the end of the wellpath

This gives the most useful view of the drilled versus planned wellpaths

The least useful view would be a vertical section azimuth perpendicular


to this

For a 3D wellplan the choice of vertical section azimuth is a less


obvious process

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18

Choice of Vertical Section Azimuth

The choice of vertical section azimuth will usually be up to us

Sometimes for a 3D plan it will be the same as for a 2D wellplan, i.e. the
direction of a straight line drawn from the slot to the end of the wellpath

Or it could be the direction of a straight line from the origin to the end of
the wellpath

Or it could be the direction of a straight line from any point on any


azimuth

Sometimes it will be chosen to give a better view of the more critical part
of the wellpath

Sometimes there will be multiple plots created, for different sections of


the well, each with different vertical section azimuths

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Vertical Section Calculation

If the calculated VS is exactly the same as the closure distance, this


means the point lies on the VS azimuth i.e. precisely on the line (of the
plan view) for a simple 2D plan

If the calculated VS is 0, this means the point lies on a line


perpendicular to the VS azimuth (in the plan view)

If the calculated VS is negative, this means the drilled well has gone
backwards with respect to the VS azimuth and origin

This is fairly common in some types of hole

The plotted drilled versus proposed section view will only truly tell you
if youre above or below the line if youre drilling in a direction close to
the VS azimuth

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19

Curtain Section

In the MWD world, there has historically been something called


Incremental Section

This is not the same as VS, is now history, and can safely be forgotten
about

There is however another type of cross section calculation referred to


as Curtain Section, in which a 3D wellpath is flattened out along a
straight plane

Both types of cross-section (VS and Curtain Section) can be generated


in WellArchitect

Curtain section may be useful for visualisation of wellpaths in relation to


earth models (formations)

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VS Calculation Exercise

Calculate VS for a few lines of the given survey in Exercise 1

Note that the VS Origin is the slot with coordinates (0 N, 0 E)

Check your answers

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20

Projecting Ahead

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Objectives
The student will be able to

explain what is meant by Projecting Ahead

explain why we might project from the last survey to the bottom of the hole

do simple hand calculation projections to


Calculate Inc and Az at BOH for a given build & turn
Calculate TVD for a projected Inc at a specified BUR
Calculate BUR required for a given TVD

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Projecting Ahead

Is the process of calculating, one way or another, where we think the


wellbore may be after a certain amount of drilling which we havent done yet

As such, it always involves some guesswork on our part as to what will


happen to the wellbore over this as yet undrilled section

For example, it may build or turn at a relatively predictable rate

And if it does, then we may be interested in calculating various things:


The current inclination and/or direction at the bottom of the hole
The bottom hole location after a specified additional MD has been drilled
What inclination we will have at a certain TVD
Whether we will hit a specified target
etc

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Projecting Ahead

It is common for a DD to project ahead, often after every survey


To estimate where the wellbore will be compared to the plan
To monitor potential collision issues
To find out if he needs to take remedial action

Projecting ahead may be something the DD does as an integral part of his


own routine, or it may be laid down in procedures, either from INTEQ or
from the customer

Either way, it is a useful, and often necessary, thing to do

Sometimes multiple projections are done using different parameters, so


that the DD will have a good idea what he hopes to get in advance of the
survey being taken

In collision-critical situations, there may be a designated hand, either at


the rigsite or in town, dedicated to doing projection calculations

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Projecting Ahead

For any specific BHA, the survey sensor is some fixed distance behind the
bit

Surveys are almost always taken with the BHA off bottom

Therefore we never have definitive surveys of the bottom of the wellbore


while drilling

It is usually good practice to project ahead from the last survey station to
the bottom of the hole, and then to do any further projection from the
bottom of the hole

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Projecting Ahead

Simple projections can be done on a hand-calculator, but can also be


done with WA (Projection To Bit)

More complicated projections are usually done with WA (Project Ahead)

We will do some of the simpler hand-calculations now

We will do projections using WA later

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Projecting Ahead

There are various formulae that can be used when projecting ahead

These formulae are typically developed from the geometry of the circle
and of the right-angled triangle

For most people, the derivation of these formulae is not a great matter
of interest

What is important is how to use them to get the information you want

However, if you are interested

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Derivation of formulae

Any curved section in the wellbore can be regarded as an arc of a


circle with a specific radius, rc, the radius of curvature

The circumference, C, of this circle is 2rc

Since there is no exact value of , any calculations using will depend


on the precision with which it is defined

If doing manual calculations, use the button on your calculator

There is a fixed ratio between any arc length (AL) and the angle angle
(AA) by that arc

Lets assume were drilling in feet, so a typical arc length would be 100

So AL/AA = 100/BUR

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Arc Length and Arc Angle

Arc angle

Arc length

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Derivation of formulae

In the limiting case of the entire circle the expression above would
equal C/360

So 100/BUR = 2rc/360

Rearranging this gives


rc = 360 x 100 / (2 x BUR) = 5729.58/BUR

If were using metres, the BUR is usually expressed in /30 m

So the expression becomes


rc = 360 x 30 / (2 x BUR) = 1718.87/BUR

So if youre using these formulae, the first thing you need to check is
whether the BUR is expressed per 100, per 30, or whatever

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Projecting Ahead

Some of the abbreviations used are

I
CL
MD
TVD
Az
VS
BUR

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

rc
TF
DL
DLS
BOH
LSS

=
=
=
=
=
=

inclination (degrees)
course length (feet or metres)
measured depth (feet or metres)
true vertical depth (feet or metres)
azimuth (hole direction) (degrees)
vertical section (feet or metres)
build up rate (/interval) e.g. a BUR of 12/100ft would
be input into the formulas as 12
radius of curvature (feet or metres)
toolface (degrees from highside)
dogleg (degrees)
dogleg severity (degrees/100 ft or degrees/30m)
bottom of hole
last survey station

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Calculating Inc and Az at BOH for given build & turn

Assume we have taken two successive surveys at different depths

If we assume that the hole curvature between these two surveys


continues to the bottom of the hole, then we can easily calculate first
the BUR, then the inc and az at the bottom of the hole

Remember that the interval (for BUR) is typically 100 if using feet, and
30 for m

To determine the inclination and direction at the bottom of the hole:


Formulae
BUR = (

I 2 - I1
MD 2 - MD1

I BOH = ( CL LSS -BOH

) Interval

BUR
) + I2
Interval

Turn Rate = (

Az 2 - Az1
) Interval
MD 2 - MD1

Az BOH = ( CL LSS -BOH

Turn Rate
Interval

) + Az 2

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Calculating Inc and Az at BOH for given build & turn


Example

The following are the last two surveys a directional driller obtained (depths in
ft):
MD
Inc
Az
TVD
4653
30
15
4643.99
4713
39
18
4693.38

The bit to sensor distance is 33 ft and surveys are taken 5 ft off of bottom

Assume the curvature between the last two survey stations will accurately
reflect the build rate to the bottom of the hole

What is the projected inclination and direction at the bottom of the hole?

We first need to calculate the build rate and turn rate achieved between the last
two survey stations using the appropriate formula

Then we need to project the inclination and direction at the bottom of the hole
based on the calculated build rate and the distance from the survey sensor to
the bottom of the hole

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Calculating Inc and Az at BOH for given build & turn


Example
BUR = (

I 2 - I1
) Interval
MD 2 - MD1

Turn Rate = (

BUR = (

39 - 30
) 100
4713 - 4653

Turn Rate = (

BUR = 15 /100ft

BUR
) + I2
Interval

I BOH = (CL

I BOH = (38

15
) + 39
100

I BOH = 44.70

Az 2 - Az 1
) Interval
MD 2 - MD1

18 - 15
) 100
4713 - 4653

Turn Rate = 5/100 ft

Az BOH = (CL

Az BOH = (38

Turn Rate
) + Az 2
Interval
5
) + 18
100

Az BOH = 19.9

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Exercise

Do Ex 1 to find the inclination and direction at the bottom of the


hole given the last two surveys

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Calculating TVD for a projected Inc at a specified BUR

Assume that the DD now wants to know what the TVD will be (at a given
inc) if he continues to build at the rate defined by the last two surveys

rc
I1

TVD1
TVD2
TVD

I2

TVD1 = rc sinI 1
TVD 2 = rc sinI 2
So TVD = TVD 2 TVD1
= rcsinI 2 rcsinI 1
= rc (sinI 2 sinI 1 )

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Calculating TVD for a projected Inc at a specified BUR


Example

Using the same data as in the previous example, lets assume that the
build rate between the last two survey stations is continued to the BOH

So, we can calculate what the TVD will be at the bottom of the hole

BUR = 15 /100 ft.

rc =

5729.58
BUR

5729.58
15

= 381.97 ft

TVD LSS -BOH = rc (sinI BOH sinI LSS ) = 381.97 (sin 44.7 sin 39) = 28.29
TVD BOH = TVD LSS + TVD BOH -LSS = 4693.38 + 28.29 = 4721.67 ft

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Exercise

Do Ex 2 to find the TVD at a projected inclination

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Calculating BUR required for a given TVD

We may wish to do the previous calculation the other way round for a
given TVD (e.g. target TVD) and inclination, what is the required BUR?

From a previous slide, we have

TVD = rc (sin I 2 sinI 1 )


So rc =

(TVD2 TVD1 )
(sin I 2 sinI 1 ) (sin I 2 sinI 1 )
TVD

Since BUR =

5729.58
rc

Then BURRequired = 5729.58

(sin I 2 sinI 1 )
(TVD2 TVD1 )

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Calculating BUR required for a given TVD

So if we wish to calculate the BUR from the BOH to the target, then

BURRequired = 5729.58

(sin I 2 sin I1 )
(TVD 2 TVD1 )

becomes

BURRequired = 5729.58

(sin I
(TVD

target
target

sin I BOH )

TVDBOH )

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10

Calculating BUR required for a given TVD

So, again using the same example data, if we wish to calculate the
BUR from the BOH to the target, then

BURRequired = 5729.58

(sin I
(TVD

target
target

sin I BOH )

TVD BOH )

becomes

(sin 89 sin 44.7)


(4930 4721.67 )

BURRequired = 5729.58

= 8.15/100 ft

This 8.15/100 ft BUR can then be compared against the calculated


BUR when the next survey is taken

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Exercise

Do Ex 3 to find the BUR required to hit a particular TVD at a given


inclination

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11

Miscellaneous

Remember if the units are metres, use 1718.87 instead of 5729.58

These calculations have been concentrating on projections in the build


plane i.e. inclinations

Similar formulae can be derived and applied to the turn plane i.e.
azimuths

In practice, once the calculations become moderately complex, it is rare


to do them by hand

Typically, WA is used if calculations are required to estimate


whats required to hit the target (build, turn, front, back, top, bottom)
whats required to get back on the line (profile, DLS, by a given TVD) at a
given inc and az
etc.

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12