Laboratory Report
Patrick Santos, Melissa Suelto, Byron Leander Tan, Chelsea Leigh Tan, Kyle Gabriel Tanchuling,
Angelica Uy
Department of Chemistry
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
Espaa, Manila Philippines
Abstract
A state in which opposing forces or
influences are balanced is called
equilibrium. Any object in equilibrium is
acted upon by a force (or a number of
forces) called the resultant which is
balanced by its equilibrant force. In this
experiment, the members of the group
tackled on the conditions for equilibrium,
equilibrant force and center of gravity.
I. Introduction
There are two conditions that must be
met for an object to be in equilibrium. The
first condition is that the net force on the
object must be zero. If net force is zero, then
net force along any direction is zero. Motion
of a body on a linear path, without
deformation or rotation, i.e. such that every
part of the body moves at the same speed
and in the same direction. Also, the linear
motion of a body is considered
independently of its rotation. For an object
to be in equilibrium, it must not be
experiencing acceleration. This means that
both the net force and the net torque on the
experiment,
students
are
1|Group 8
( x ) +( y )
Where
resultant vector
is the summation of
horizontal components
is the summation of
vertical components
=tan 1
Where
| |
y +180
x
is the summation of
horizontal components
Activity 1
Three pans pf the force table, labeled A,
vertical components
B and C were weighed. Pan A and pan B
were hanged at 30 and 240 marks on the
% Error:
force table. 100g was place on pan A and
150g| on pan B. The tension acting on the
|Theoretical ValueExperimental Value
Error=
X 100
string is the weight of the pan plus the
Theoretical Value
weight added to the pan. By placing weights
on pan C or adjusting is position in the table
Tension T2 in the other string:
the tension were balanced. The magnitude
T2= T1cos T2cos
and position of the equilibrant is recorded.
The theoretical equilibrant of the two
Weight of cylinder:
tension was solved by component method.
The % error was computed using the values
W=T2 sin
obtained by the component method as the
Center of gravity:
accepted value for magnitude as well as for
directions.
X c wc + x s w s
X c wc + x s w s
x =
y =
w
w
Activity 2
Using the force table, a cylinder of
unknown weight by means of two strings is
Where xc and yc are the
suspended. A spring scale is attached to one
coordinates of the center of gravity of the
of the strings. The string is pulled until the
circle
pin on the force board is exactly at the
middle of the ring. The reading on the spring
xs
and
ys are
the
scale is recorded as T1. The angle that the
coordinates of the center of gravity of the
other string makes with the horizontal is
square
recorded. It is recorded as theta. A free body
diagram pf the ring was drawn. The tension
x
y are the
and
was solved in the other string and the weight
coordinates of the center of gravity of the
of the cylinder. The cylinder is weighed for
composite figure
the accepted value. % error was computed.
is the summation of
III.
Methodology
T s LW c (.05 m)
L
2
Activity 3
A circle pf a diameter of 10cm and a
square of a side of 10cm was cut from card
boards. The circle and the square was
weighed and recorded. The center of gravity
pf the composite figure was determined by
balancing method and plumb line method.
3|Group 8
Activity 4
The center of gravity of the aluminum
bar was located by balancing it on a pencil
or other knife edge and was marked. The
cylinder was hanged from one end of the
bar, using the force board, support for ye
aluminum bar by means of a spring scale on
end and a string on the other end until the
bar assumes a horizontal position. The
forces a ting on the bar are now balanced. A
free body diagram of the bat was drawn. The
second condition of equilibrium was used to
determine the weight of the bat and the
tension in the string. The bar was weighed
for the accepted value, and the % error was
computed.
IV.
%Error
83
Free Body
Diagram of
Ring
T2
T1
Activity 1:
In the first activity, the equilibrium
force was determined using the force table
and the component method.
Tensions
TA
TB
Experimental Equilibrant
Theoretical Equilibrant
%Error
W=T2 sin
Magnitude (N)
Activity 3:
1.38
1.82
In the third activity, the center of
-0.56
gravity of the circle and the square were
-0.52
computed for using the balancing method,
7.69%
the plumb line method and the ff. equations:
Activity 2:
x =
T2 (N)
Experimental Weight (N)
Theoretical Weight (N)
7.35
7
7.41
0.9
0.49
y =
XcWc+ XsWs
,
W
YcWc +YsWs
W
the square,
x and
are thye
Plumb line
method
Balancing
method
Computation
Activity 4:
Center of Gravity
XYcoordinate
coordinate
9.8
5.3
10
4.6
9.5
V. Conclusion
In examining the conditions for the
equilibrium, it is achieved only when two
conditions are satisfied. First, the resultant
of the forces acting upon a body is zero.
Second, the counter-clockwise moment and
the clockwise moment must equal each
other.
1.10
Free Body
Diagram of Bar
0.49
5cm
0.49
1.10
0.85
29.41
%
*Based on the free body diagram:
50g
T s LW c (.05 m)
L
2
49 cos 26
49 sin 26
49 cos 24
49 sin 24
x=88.81 N
y =41.41 N
F= (88.81)2 +( 41.41)2
F=97.99 N
=tan 1
|41.41
88.81|
=25.00
6|Group 8
forearm
arm
ankle (tendon of Achilles)
leg (lower)
References
[1] Boundless. First Condition. (2016,
November 3). Retrieved from
https://www.boundless.com/physics/t
extbooks/boundless-physicstextbook/static-equilibriumelasticity-and-torque-8/conditionsfor-equilibrium-74/first-condition308-6359/
[2] Boundless. Second Condition. (2016,
November 3). Retrieved from
https://www.boundless.com/physics/t
extbooks/boundless-physicstextbook/static-equilibriumelasticity-and-torque-8/conditionsfor-equilibrium-74/second-condition309-4760/
[3] Equilibrium. (2016, Novermber 3).
Retrieved from Britannica
Encyclopedia:
http://www.britannica.com/EBcheck
ed/topic/190745/equilibrium
[4] Padua, A. L., & Crisostomo, R. M.
(2007). Practical and Explorational
Physics Modular Approach. Quezon
City: Vibal Publishing House.
7|Group 8
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.