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Experiment 6: Conditions for Equilibrium

Laboratory Report

Patrick Santos, Melissa Suelto, Byron Leander Tan, Chelsea Leigh Tan, Kyle Gabriel Tanchuling,
Angelica Uy
Department of Chemistry
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
Espaa, Manila Philippines

Abstract
A state in which opposing forces or
influences are balanced is called
equilibrium. Any object in equilibrium is
acted upon by a force (or a number of
forces) called the resultant which is
balanced by its equilibrant force. In this
experiment, the members of the group
tackled on the conditions for equilibrium,
equilibrant force and center of gravity.
I. Introduction
There are two conditions that must be
met for an object to be in equilibrium. The
first condition is that the net force on the
object must be zero. If net force is zero, then
net force along any direction is zero. Motion
of a body on a linear path, without
deformation or rotation, i.e. such that every
part of the body moves at the same speed
and in the same direction. Also, the linear
motion of a body is considered
independently of its rotation. For an object
to be in equilibrium, it must not be
experiencing acceleration. This means that
both the net force and the net torque on the

object must be zero. In order to achieve this


condition,
the
forces
acting
along each axis of motion must sum to zero.
The second condition necessary to
achieve equilibrium involves
avoiding
accelerated rotation. A rotating body or
system can be in equilibrium if its rate of
rotation is constant and remains unchanged
by the forces acting on it. An object in static
equilibrium is one that has no acceleration in
any direction. While there might be motion,
such motion is constant. If a given object is
in static equilibrium, both the net force and
the net torque on the object must be zero.
The net force acting on the object must be
zero. Therefore all forces balance in each
direction. The second condition necessary to
achieve equilibrium involves avoiding
accelerated rotation or maintaining a
constant angular velocity. A rotating body or
system can be in equilibrium if its rate of
rotation is constant and remains unchanged
by the forces acting on it.
In this
expected to

experiment,

students

are

1|Group 8

Determine the equilibrant force


using the force table and component
method
Determine unknown forces using
the first condition and second
conditions for equilibrium
Locate the center of gravity of a
composite body
Demonstrate rotational equilibrium
II.Theory
An object is said to be in equilibrium if
its net force is equals zero; this means that
an object can either be at rest or moving
with a constant velocity given that is has no
acceleration. This stems from Newtons first
law of motion: an object maintains its
velocity unless acted upon by a net force.
Simply said, an object is at equilibrium if it
obeys Newtons first law.
There are two conditions for
equilibrium and the recently mentioned is
the first condition. It is denoted in vector
and component force as F=0, Fx=0
Fy=0.
On the other hand, the second condition
of equilibrium is that the body should have
no tendency to rotate. It, referring to the
object in equilibrium, should not and can not
start rotating at any given point. This
connotes that the sum of all the external
torques must be zero at any given point. It
can be written as t=0 about any point.
An object in equilibrium is said to be in
both translational and rotational equilibrium.

center of gravity, cg, is a point where the


weight of an entire body is concentrated.
Since weight is distributed throughout the
body, calculations are done by assuming that
the force is applied on at a certain point,
hence, the center of gravity. The center of
gravity in shapes that are symmetrical is at
its geometric center. The center of gravity
and the application of force matters since
applying the forces at different points would
have an effect on the rotational equilibrium
of the body.
The following equations were used:
Theoretical equilibrant:
R=

( x ) +( y )

Where

R is the magnitude of the

resultant vector

is the summation of

horizontal components

is the summation of

vertical components
=tan 1

Where

| |

y +180
x

is the position of the

resultant vector, but oppositely directed

is the summation of

horizontal components

In mechanics, calculations are often


done with respect to the center of mass. The
2|Group 8

Activity 1
Three pans pf the force table, labeled A,
vertical components
B and C were weighed. Pan A and pan B
were hanged at 30 and 240 marks on the
% Error:
force table. 100g was place on pan A and
150g| on pan B. The tension acting on the
|Theoretical ValueExperimental Value
Error=
X 100
string is the weight of the pan plus the
Theoretical Value
weight added to the pan. By placing weights
on pan C or adjusting is position in the table
Tension T2 in the other string:
the tension were balanced. The magnitude
T2= T1cos T2cos
and position of the equilibrant is recorded.
The theoretical equilibrant of the two
Weight of cylinder:
tension was solved by component method.
The % error was computed using the values
W=T2 sin
obtained by the component method as the
Center of gravity:
accepted value for magnitude as well as for
directions.
X c wc + x s w s
X c wc + x s w s
x =
y =
w
w
Activity 2
Using the force table, a cylinder of
unknown weight by means of two strings is
Where xc and yc are the
suspended. A spring scale is attached to one
coordinates of the center of gravity of the
of the strings. The string is pulled until the
circle
pin on the force board is exactly at the
middle of the ring. The reading on the spring
xs
and
ys are
the
scale is recorded as T1. The angle that the
coordinates of the center of gravity of the
other string makes with the horizontal is
square
recorded. It is recorded as theta. A free body
diagram pf the ring was drawn. The tension
x
y are the
and
was solved in the other string and the weight
coordinates of the center of gravity of the
of the cylinder. The cylinder is weighed for
composite figure
the accepted value. % error was computed.
is the summation of

Tension in the string: T= WC +WB - Ts

Weight of the bar: WB

III.

Methodology

T s LW c (.05 m)
L
2

Activity 3
A circle pf a diameter of 10cm and a
square of a side of 10cm was cut from card
boards. The circle and the square was
weighed and recorded. The center of gravity
pf the composite figure was determined by
balancing method and plumb line method.
3|Group 8

Activity 4
The center of gravity of the aluminum
bar was located by balancing it on a pencil
or other knife edge and was marked. The
cylinder was hanged from one end of the
bar, using the force board, support for ye
aluminum bar by means of a spring scale on
end and a string on the other end until the
bar assumes a horizontal position. The
forces a ting on the bar are now balanced. A
free body diagram of the bat was drawn. The
second condition of equilibrium was used to
determine the weight of the bat and the
tension in the string. The bar was weighed
for the accepted value, and the % error was
computed.
IV.

%Error

83
Free Body
Diagram of
Ring

*Based on the free body diagram:

T2

T1

Results and Discussion


Tension T2 in the other string:

Activity 1:
In the first activity, the equilibrium
force was determined using the force table
and the component method.
Tensions
TA
TB
Experimental Equilibrant
Theoretical Equilibrant
%Error

T2= T1cos T2cos


Weight of cylinder:

W=T2 sin
Magnitude (N)
Activity 3:
1.38
1.82
In the third activity, the center of
-0.56
gravity of the circle and the square were
-0.52
computed for using the balancing method,
7.69%
the plumb line method and the ff. equations:

Activity 2:

x =

In the second activity, the unknown


forces were determined using the first
condition for equilibrium.
T1 (N)

T2 (N)
Experimental Weight (N)
Theoretical Weight (N)

7.35
7
7.41
0.9
0.49

y =

XcWc+ XsWs
,
W

YcWc +YsWs
W

Where Xc and Yc are the coordinates of the


center of gravity of the circle, Xs and Ys are
the coordinates of the center of gravity of
4|Group 8

the square,

x and

are thye

coordinates of the center of gravity of the


composite figure.

Tension in the string: T= WC +WB - Ts


Weight of the bar: WB

Weight of Square = 0.087 N

Weight of Circle = 0.070 N


Method

Plumb line
method
Balancing
method
Computation
Activity 4:

Center of Gravity
XYcoordinate
coordinate
9.8
5.3
10

4.6

9.5

V. Conclusion
In examining the conditions for the
equilibrium, it is achieved only when two
conditions are satisfied. First, the resultant
of the forces acting upon a body is zero.
Second, the counter-clockwise moment and
the clockwise moment must equal each
other.

In the fourth activity, the unknown


force was determined using the second
condition for equilibrium
Reading of
Spring Scale
(N)
Weight of
Cylinder (N)
Tension of
the String
Experimenta
l Weight of
Bar (N)
Theoretical
Weight of
Bar (N)
%Error

1.10

With great care and focus, activities


1 and 2 were done with considerable
precision. Therefore it is concluded that
there is a force responsible for equilibrium:
the equilibrant force.

Free Body
Diagram of Bar

0.49
5cm

0.49
1.10

0.85

29.41
%
*Based on the free body diagram:

50g

T s LW c (.05 m)
L
2

In the third activity, all the used


methods were proven to be effectively
precise.
The torque is directly proportional to
the torques arm, as a mass was moved
farther from the pivot point. The torque arm
increased so that increasing the torque due
to the hanging mass. The experimental
design itself as the center of gravity is
moved farther from the support, the result
becomes more inaccurate. This is because
the torque is greater therefore; the nonconservative forces acting against this
torque also increases. Hence, the force that
is the resultant force of all forces acting on a
5|Group 8

body is defined as the net force. If the vector


sum of all the forces acting on an object is
equal to zero, then the object is in
equilibrium. Any force or system of forces
capable of balancing a system so that the net
force is zero is defined as an equilibrant.
VI.
Application
1. State the first condition for
equilibrium. If a body is in
equilibrium, are there no forces acting
on it?
-

The first condition for equilibrium


states that for a body to be in
equilibrium, the resultant of the
forces acting on that body must be
zero. A body in equilibrium does not
necessarily mean that there are no
forces acting on it but rather it means
that the forces acting on it are equal
and opposite. As per definition,
equilibrium means the sum of all
forces in all directions is equal to
zero.

2. The Russell traction system shown


below is used for a fractured femur.
Identify the forces acting on the
femur. If the weight hang is 5.0kg, find
the force needed to immobilize the
femur. What will supply this force?
-

The force needed to immobilize the


femur is
F=( 5 kg ) (9.8 m/ s2 )
F=49 N

49 cos 26

49 sin 26

49 cos 24

49 sin 24

x=88.81 N
y =41.41 N

F= (88.81)2 +( 41.41)2
F=97.99 N

=tan 1

|41.41
88.81|

=25.00

3. What happens to the center of gravity


of a person under the following
situations? A) His upper right
extremity is amputated. B) He carries
all his books using the right arm only.

6|Group 8

Hypothetically, an average adult man


has his center of mass at the second
sacral vertebra. If A) a mans upper
right extremity is amputated, his
center of gravity would shift to his
left since his there is more weight on
the left side of his body. However if
B) a man is carrying all his books
using the right arm, his center of
gravity would shift to the right where
the
weight
becomes
more
concentrated because of the books.

4. The human body is a mechanical


system designed by God and consists
mostly of levers. Give examples of
these human levers.
-

forearm
arm
ankle (tendon of Achilles)
leg (lower)

References
[1] Boundless. First Condition. (2016,
November 3). Retrieved from
https://www.boundless.com/physics/t

extbooks/boundless-physicstextbook/static-equilibriumelasticity-and-torque-8/conditionsfor-equilibrium-74/first-condition308-6359/
[2] Boundless. Second Condition. (2016,
November 3). Retrieved from
https://www.boundless.com/physics/t
extbooks/boundless-physicstextbook/static-equilibriumelasticity-and-torque-8/conditionsfor-equilibrium-74/second-condition309-4760/
[3] Equilibrium. (2016, Novermber 3).
Retrieved from Britannica
Encyclopedia:
http://www.britannica.com/EBcheck
ed/topic/190745/equilibrium
[4] Padua, A. L., & Crisostomo, R. M.
(2007). Practical and Explorational
Physics Modular Approach. Quezon
City: Vibal Publishing House.

7|Group 8