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Linde Engineering: Air separation

Packaged
air separation plants.

02

Linde Engineering: Air separation

Contents.

4 Packaged air separation plants

5 The process

6 Features of packaged plants


Product range of nitrogen plants
Product range of oxygen plants

8 In-house manufacturing of key components


Pre-fabricated equipment

10 Sophisticated plant control


Project execution

12 Contact

Linde Engineering: Air separation

The Linde Engineering Division is a leading international


manufacturer of capital goods and equipment.
Linde Engineerings areas of activity cover design and construction of turnkey industrial plants as well as a full range
of engineering services for process plants. To date, the
Engineering Division has built nearly 4,000 plants and has
numerous patents registered in the Linde name. With extensive engineering know-how accompanied by many
years of experience in project management and general
contracting, the Engineering Division has established its
standing as an expert partner in international plant construction.

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Linde Engineering: Air separation

Packaged air separation plants.


Packaged air separation plants are standard and modularly designed plants with a daily capacity of
850 tpd (approx. 25,000 Nm3/h) of oxygen (GOX and LOX), 2,000 tpd (approx. 66,000 Nm3/h) of nitrogen (GAN and LIN) and argon (GAr and LAr). The plant modules are pre-fabricated in the workshop to
the maximum extent possible.
GOX 3000

GOX 6000 Ar

GOX 9000 Ar

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Production of 3,000 Nm /h GOX
in Rauha, Finland

3
Production of 6,000 Nm /h GOX
in Shlobin, Belarus

3
Production of 9,000 Nm /h GOX
in Hwasung, South Korea

Packaged air separation plant GOX 6000 Ar in Otelu Rosu, Romania

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Linde Engineering: Air separation

The process.
Linde draws on its extensive know-how in air
separation plant operation to select the process that best meets the customers requirements. All state-of-the-art air separation technologies such as internal compression for GOX
and GAN and cryogenic argon production are
available.

The schematic illustration below shows a typical configuration of a packaged air separation
plant. Air is drawn through an air filter to remove dust and other particles before it enters
the main air compressor. Downstream from the
main compressor the air enters the process air
cooling stage. Here it is washed and cooled in
countercurrent against a stream of water. This
washing process also removes harmful components of the process air such as SO2, SO3 and NH3.
Remaining contaminants in the process air such
as water vapour, CO2, N2O and potentially hazardous hydrocarbons are adsorbed from the air
by passing it through one of the two molecular
sieve adsorbers. One adsorber is in operation
while the other is in regeneration mode.
After further cooling the dry, pure air in the
main heat exchanger, the air enters the pressure column where it is separated into pure
nitrogen. The nitrogen is yielded from the top,
and oxygen enriched liquid collects at the

bottom. The required reflux for rectification is


provided by condensation of gaseous nitrogen
against boiling oxygen in the condenser/reboiler.
A part of the liquid nitrogen is used as reflux
for the pressure column. The rest is sub-cooled
and passed to the top of the low-pressure column. Liquid nitrogen for the customer is then
drawn off and sent out to the LIN tank. Liquid
oxygen is taken from the bath of the condenser
and fed to the LOX tank.
Liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen are pumped
through the main heat exchanger and vaporised at the customers specified gas pressure
for GOX and GAN.
Refrigeration needs of the plant necessitated
by insulation losses, heat exchanger losses and
removal of cold liquids from the low-temperature section are mainly met by isentropic expansion of air in the expansion turbine.

Typical process configuration of a packaged air separation plant

HP GOX
99.8 %
HP GAN
1 ppm O2

Coldbox
GOX 6000
Molecular sieve
station with
electric heater

Low
pressure
column

Main heat
exchanger

LOX
99.8 %

Condenser/
reboiler
Process air
cooling with
DCAC and EVC

Air
compression

Pressure
column

Air

LAr
1 ppm O2/
1 ppm N2

Air filter

LIN
1 ppm O2

GOX CI pump
2 x 100 %

GAN CI pump
2 x 100 %

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Linde Engineering: Air separation

Features of packaged plants.


Plant designs are created with the use of advanced engineering tools
including process calculation and modelling with the Linde in-house
developed OPTISIM simulation program. 3D CAD modelling is also employed as well as isometric and material list generator for plant design
and model review.
Control equipment is ready installed in containers equipped with plug
& play functionality. The highest quality standards are achieved through
the application of a stringent quality system in accordance with ISO
9000 for engineering design and manufacturing.

Highly developed and proven control philosophy and software ensure


reliable, convenient and economic plant operation.
Protection measures are applied wherever the safety of operating personnel may be jeopardized by the process, rotating machinery or exposure to extreme temperatures.

Erection and start-up time is minimised through the delivery of completely pre-packaged and tested units like the air compressor, refrigeration unit, molecular sieve valve skid and coldbox units. Electrical and
control equipment are ready installed in containers featuring plug &
play operation.
Sophisticated interlock functions protect the plant against unforeseen
failures or maloperation and keep the plant in a safe condition in the
event of power failure.

Product range of nitrogen plants

1 - 10 ppm O2

SPECTRA
7,000

SPECTRA
30,000
SPECTRA
15,000

SPECTRA
50,000

GAN
30,000
GAN
3,500

GAN
3,500

GAN
6,000

GAN
15,000

GAN
50,000

GAN
300/600/900/1,200/1,800

1 - 10 ppm O2

Purity class

1 ppb O2

SPECTRA
10,000

GAN
200/450/900/1,200/1,800

1,000

5,000

10,000

15,000
GAN flow [Nm/h]

20,000

25,000

50,000

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Linde Engineering: Air separation

Air separation plant GOX 3000 in Camacari, Brazil

GOX
1,000

GOX
3,000
GOX
2,000

GOX
6,000

GOX
12,000

GOX
4,500

GOX
9,000

GOX
19,000
GOX
15,000

GOX
23,000

Purity class

98 % - 99,8 %

Product range of oxygen plants

92 % - 97 %

GOX
4,500 - IMP
GOX
6,000 - IMP
GOX
9,000 - IMP

2,000

4,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000
14,000
GOX flow [Nm/h]

16,000

18,000

20,000

22,000

24,000

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Linde Engineering: Air separation

In-house manufacturing of key components.


The in-house capability to manufacture essential plant components is a contributing
factor to why Linde is regarded as a firstclass supplier and preferred vendor for air
separation plants.

Decades of experience in the field of cryogenic


process plant design are the basis for state-ofthe-art technology in the assembly of packaged air separation plants.

Linde manufactured key components such


as plate-fin heat exchangers, packings and
columns are the foundation for long-term,
trouble-free operation of a Linde air separation plant.

Aluminium plate-fin heat exchanger

Packings

Tray columns

One of Lindes main workshops close to Munich, Germany

Linde Engineering: Air separation

Pre-fabricated molecular sieve valve skid

Pre-fabricated control substation container

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Packaged unit coldbox ready for transport

Pre-fabricated equipment
In-house manufactured components such as plate-fin heat exchangers
and columns are installed in self-supporting steel casings. The sizes of
the cold boxes are designed for road transportation, which also eases
site handling.

A separate shop-assembled container is supplied for all electrical


medium-voltage switchgear, step-down transformers and low-voltage switchgear including VFDs for pumps and other electrical equipment.

Other modules such as molecular sieve valves and cryogenic pumps


are installed onto skids to the maximum degree possible for pre-fabrication and testing.

All above-mentioned plant modules and skids are equipped with remote
I/O modules for easy bus connection.

The plant control system together with operator station(s) and analyzing
equipment are supplied in an air-conditioned container, ready-cabled
and shop-tested with the configuration of the DCS already installed.

This high degree of pre-fabrication and testing results in short erection


periods with minimised start-up times.

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Linde Engineering: Air separation

Sophisticated plant control.


Instrumentation is selected from internationally renowned manufacturers
with regard to the highest quality standards and product reliability. The
instrumentation is connected to a safe and sophisticated process control
system using the latest proven design in digital control technology to
ensure optimal reliability and allow for easy and economic operation of
a Linde air separation plant.

ASU control container

ISDN/DSL
router
Ethernet
HUB

Operator
station 1

ISDN/DSL
router

Operation bus

Operator
station 2

Printer

Linde Engineering
Headquarters

System bus
Central control cabinet
CPU

Advanced control functions allow fully unattended operation, automatic


start-up from cold condition, automatic load changes and product adaptation. Finally, the remote operation function fully meets the needs of a
state-of-the-art air separation plant.

I/Os

Standard

I/Os

Advanced process control

Automatic
start-up (AST)
from cold state

Standard control
Automatic process stabilisation and monitoring
Operator interaction:
Process monitoring
Manual set point change

Online support for commissioning and after sales


service of the plant

Linear model
predicted control
(LMPC)

Operation options

Remote plant
operation

Remote operation
of advanced control

Advanced control

Remote control
(optional)

Automatic
load change (ALC)

Remote monitoring

Linde Engineering: Air separation

Linde air separation and CO2 plant applied to CCS technology,


Oxyfuel pilot plant in Schwarze Pumpe, Germany

Project execution
Quality, safety, health and environmental protection (QSHE) have critical importance in our work. Customers expect us to supply safe and
economical plants equipped with the latest technology. The Engineering Division fully responds to this, expectation in its projects all over
the world.
Our QSHE management and policy is in line with the following:
DIN EN ISO 9000 : 2000
ISO 14001
PED 97/23/EC (Modul H)
OHSAS 18001
SCC checklist
Work safety and environmental protection legislation

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Engineering excellence every step of the way.


Lindes Engineering Division, a leading player in the international plant engineering business, covers every step in the design, project
management and construction of turnkey industrial plants. Drawing on our extensive, proven process know-how, we set the standards
for innovation, flexibility and reliability with ground-breaking concepts and a dedication to engineering excellence.
The success of our customers and partners around the globe is of primary importance. With a clear focus on efficiency, sustainability
and growth, we develop customised solutions for projects of all sizes and degrees of complexity. We have already delivered more than
4,000 plants worldwide and always aim to find the best technical and economic solution for our customers.
Core competencies in plant engineering:
Air separation plants
LNG and natural gas processing plants
Petrochemical plants
Hydrogen and synthesis gas plants
Chemical plants
Adsorption plants
Cryogenic plants
Biotechnology plants
Carbon capture and utilisation plants
Furnaces, fired heaters, incinerators

Core competencies in component manufacturing:


Packaged units and coldboxes
Coil-wound heat exchangers
Plate-fin heat exchangers
Cryogenic columns
Cryogenic tanks
Air-heated vaporisers
Water bath vaporisers
Spiral-welded aluminium pipes

Get in touch find the best solution.

Linde AG
Engineering Division, Dr.-Carl-von-Linde-Strasse 614, 82049 Pullach, Germany
Phone +49.89.7445-0, Fax +49.89.7445-4908, info@linde-le.com, www.linde-engineering.com

13950_0914_LCS

Air separation plants


Phone +49.89.7445-2612
airseparation@linde-le.com