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Finite Element Analysis using ANSYS

(Basic training on Dynamic Analysis)

Introduction

Free Vibrations

System oscillate under the action of inherent forces present in the system (No external forces)

Natural frequencies are dynamic characteristics of system based on mass and stiffness

Forced Vibrations

System oscillates under the action of external forces

If excitation occurs at one of the natural frequencies, then the condition of resonance occurs

Damping

All dynamic systems are subject to dissipative forces (friction, structural resistances)

Generally, damping in structural systems is small and has little effect on the natural frequency

However, damping has a large effect on minimizing the resonance of any structural system

Types of Dynamic Analysis

Modal Analysis - Harmonic - Spectrum - Random Vibrations - Transient

Modal Analysis

An automobile tailpipe assembly could shake apart if its natural frequency matched that of the engine. How can you avoid this?

A turbine blade under stress (centrifugal forces) shows different dynamic behavior. How

can you account for it?

Harmonic Analysis

Rotating machines exert steady, alternating forces on bearings and support structures. These forces cause different deflections and stresses depending on the speed of rotation.

Spectrum Analysis

Building frames and bridge structures in an earthquake prone region should be designed to withstand earthquakes.

Random Vibrations

frequencies for a sustained time period.

Causes of Vibration

Vibration is a result of dynamic forces.

1. Imperfections in the Machine:

 a) Design b) Manufacture c) Assembly d) Installation e) Operation & Maintenance

Causes of Vibration

2. Common Machine Problems that generate vibrations

Misalignment

Unbalance

Worn Belts & Pulleys

Bearing Defects

Gear Problems

Bent Shafts

Rubbing

Certain Electrical Problems

Housing Distortion

Hydraulic Forces

Aerodynamic Forces

Reciprocating Forces

Causes of Vibration

3. Common Machine Problems that Amplify vibrations but do not cause it !!

A. Resonance

B. Looseness

Effects of Vibration…Functional Performance

Noise

On machines & Structures

FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE

On Human beings

1. How it affects the Product - Endurance or Durability

2. What is its influence on the user - Annoyance or Harshness

Useful Applications of Vibration

Vibration is generated intentionally in Conveying machines, Component feeders, Concrete compactors, Ultrasonic cleaning baths, Pile drivers, Shakers in Modal analysis, Vibratory Screens, Shakers and Sieving machines in Foundries

Useful Applications of Vibration

Vibration Testing machines impart vibration to objects in order to test their resistance and function in vibratory environments.

The setting of rivets depends upon the application of impact or shock

What is Modal Analysis

The modal analysis technique is used to determine the vibration characteristics (i.e., natural frequencies and mode shapes) of linear elastic structures.

The most fundamental of all dynamic analysis types.

Allows the design to avoid resonant vibrations or to vibrate at a specified frequency.

Gives engineers an idea of how the design will respond to different types of dynamic loads.

Helps in calculating solution controls for other dynamic analyses.

Assumptions and restrictions

The structure is linear (i.e. [M] and [K] matrices are constant).

No loads (forces, displacements, pressures, or temperatures) are allowed; i.e., free vibration.

Application of Modal Analysis

Troubleshooting

Correlation of finite element model and experimental results

Structural modification

Sensitivity analysis

Forced response prediction

Substructure coupling

Structural damage detection

Active vibration control

Participation factor & Effective mass

Measures the amount of mass moving in each direction for each mode.

A high value in a direction indicates that the mode will be excited by forces in that direction.

The “Ratio” is simply another list of participation factors, normalized to the largest.

Note :

Ideally, the sum of the effective masses in each direction should equal total mass of structure, but will

depend on the number of modes extracted .

The ratio of effective mass to total mass can be useful for determining whether or not a sufficient number of modes have been extracted .

What is Harmonic Analysis

Input

Harmonic loads (forces, pressures, and imposed displacements) of known magnitude and frequency.

May be multiple loads all at the same frequency.

Forces and displacements can be in-phase or out-of phase.

Output

Harmonic displacements at each DOF, usually out of phase with the applied loads.

Other derived quantities, such as stresses and strains.

Assumptions and Restrictions

The entire structure has constant or frequency-dependent stiffness, damping, and mass effects.

No nonlinearities are permitted.

Transient effects are not calculated.

Acceleration, bearing, and moment loads are assumed to be real (in-phase) only.

What is Harmonic Analysis

Assumptions and Restrictions

All loads and displacements vary sinusoidally at the same known frequency (although not necessarily in phase).

All loads and displacements, both input

and output, are assumed to occur at the same frequency.

Calculated displacements are complex if:

damping is specified, or

Contact in Modal & Harmonic Analysis

Contact regions are available in modal analysis; however, since this is a purely linear analysis,

contact behavior will differ for the nonlinear contact types, as shown below:

Case study

Case study

Case study

 Mode Ansys Experimental Frequency Frequency 1 915 868 2 1212 1275 3 1583 1543 4 1856 1775
 Description Number of teeth Speed Gear mesh frequency rpm Hz First gear 68 403 457 Second gear 73 689 838 Third gear 64 1108 1182 Forth gear 56 1592 1486
 Fundamental f x 2 f x 3 f x 4 f x 5 f x 6 457 914 1371 1828 2285 2742 838 1676 2514 3352 4190 5028 1182 2364 3546 4728 5910 7092 1486 2972 4458 5944 7430 8916

Case study

 Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 8555 2113 2769 4491 4786 5394 5757 5913 6166 6808 6851 6555 2112 2768 4489 4787 5398 5759 5919 6167 6814 6852 4555 2110 2732 4478 4786 5389 5749 5918 6161 6730 6844 8455 2113 2769 4491 4786 5392 5749 5907 6161 6808 6850 6455 2110 2721 4470 4784 5344 5745 5904 6157 6728 6843 4455 2110 2721 4470 4784 5344 5745 5904 6157 6728 6843 8545 2112 2768 4484 4786 5392 5757 5911 6166 6796 6850 6545 2110 2731 4469 4786 5389 5745 5916 6160 6721 6844 4455 2110 2721 4470 4784 5344 5745 5904 6157 6728 6843 8554 2110 2761 4471 4787 5394 5758 5897 6166 6805 6850 6554 2110 2759 4462 4788 5404 5762 5903 6165 6805 6848 4554 2108 2724 4456 4787 5388 5749 5903 6160 6728 6843