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Finite Element Analysis using ANSYS

(Basic training on Dynamic Analysis)

Introduction

Free Vibrations

System oscillate under the action of inherent forces present in the system (No external forces)

Natural frequencies are dynamic characteristics of system based on mass and stiffness

Forced Vibrations

System oscillates under the action of external forces

If excitation occurs at one of the natural frequencies, then the condition of resonance occurs

Damping

All dynamic systems are subject to dissipative forces (friction, structural resistances)

Generally, damping in structural systems is small and has little effect on the natural frequency

However, damping has a large effect on minimizing the resonance of any structural system

Types of Dynamic Analysis

Modal Analysis - Harmonic - Spectrum - Random Vibrations - Transient

Modal Analysis

An automobile tailpipe assembly could shake apart if its natural frequency matched that of the engine. How can you avoid this?

A turbine blade under stress (centrifugal forces) shows different dynamic behavior. How

can you account for it?

Harmonic Analysis

Rotating machines exert steady, alternating forces on bearings and support structures. These forces cause different deflections and stresses depending on the speed of rotation.

Spectrum Analysis

Building frames and bridge structures in an earthquake prone region should be designed to withstand earthquakes.

Random Vibrations

Spacecraft and aircraft components must withstand random loading of varying

frequencies for a sustained time period.

Spacecraft and aircraft components must withstand random loading of varying frequencies for a sustained time period.
Spacecraft and aircraft components must withstand random loading of varying frequencies for a sustained time period.

Causes of Vibration

Vibration is a result of dynamic forces.

1. Imperfections in the Machine:

a)

Design

b)

Manufacture

c)

Assembly

d)

Installation

e)

Operation & Maintenance

Causes of Vibration

2. Common Machine Problems that generate vibrations

Misalignment

Unbalance

Worn Belts & Pulleys

Bearing Defects

Gear Problems

Bent Shafts

Rubbing

Certain Electrical Problems

Housing Distortion

Hydraulic Forces

Aerodynamic Forces

Reciprocating Forces

Certain Electrical Problems Housing Distortion Hydraulic Forces Aerodynamic Forces Reciprocating Forces

Causes of Vibration

3. Common Machine Problems that Amplify vibrations but do not cause it !!

A. Resonance

B. Looseness

Causes of Vibration 3. Common Machine Problems that Amplify vibrations but do not cause it !!

Effects of Vibration…Functional Performance

Noise
Noise
Effects of Vibration…Functional Performance Noise On machines & Structures FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE On Human beings 1.
Effects of Vibration…Functional Performance Noise On machines & Structures FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE On Human beings 1.

On machines & Structures

FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE

On Human beings

1. How it affects the Product - Endurance or Durability

2. What is its influence on the user - Annoyance or Harshness

Useful Applications of Vibration

Vibration is generated intentionally in Conveying machines, Component feeders, Concrete compactors, Ultrasonic cleaning baths, Pile drivers, Shakers in Modal analysis, Vibratory Screens, Shakers and Sieving machines in Foundries

cleaning baths, Pile drivers, Shakers in Modal analysis, Vibratory Screens, Shakers and Sieving machines in Foundries
cleaning baths, Pile drivers, Shakers in Modal analysis, Vibratory Screens, Shakers and Sieving machines in Foundries
cleaning baths, Pile drivers, Shakers in Modal analysis, Vibratory Screens, Shakers and Sieving machines in Foundries
cleaning baths, Pile drivers, Shakers in Modal analysis, Vibratory Screens, Shakers and Sieving machines in Foundries
cleaning baths, Pile drivers, Shakers in Modal analysis, Vibratory Screens, Shakers and Sieving machines in Foundries
cleaning baths, Pile drivers, Shakers in Modal analysis, Vibratory Screens, Shakers and Sieving machines in Foundries
cleaning baths, Pile drivers, Shakers in Modal analysis, Vibratory Screens, Shakers and Sieving machines in Foundries
cleaning baths, Pile drivers, Shakers in Modal analysis, Vibratory Screens, Shakers and Sieving machines in Foundries

Useful Applications of Vibration

Vibration Testing machines impart vibration to objects in order to test their resistance and function in vibratory environments.

their resistance and function in vibratory environments. The setting of rivets depends upon the application of

The setting of rivets depends upon the application of impact or shock

resistance and function in vibratory environments. The setting of rivets depends upon the application of impact

What is Modal Analysis

The modal analysis technique is used to determine the vibration characteristics (i.e., natural frequencies and mode shapes) of linear elastic structures.

The most fundamental of all dynamic analysis types.

Allows the design to avoid resonant vibrations or to vibrate at a specified frequency.

Gives engineers an idea of how the design will respond to different types of dynamic loads.

Helps in calculating solution controls for other dynamic analyses.

Assumptions and restrictions

The structure is linear (i.e. [M] and [K] matrices are constant).

No loads (forces, displacements, pressures, or temperatures) are allowed; i.e., free vibration.

Application of Modal Analysis

Troubleshooting

Correlation of finite element model and experimental results

Structural modification

Sensitivity analysis

Forced response prediction

Substructure coupling

Structural damage detection

Active vibration control

Participation factor & Effective mass

Measures the amount of mass moving in each direction for each mode.

A high value in a direction indicates that the mode will be excited by forces in that direction.

The “Ratio” is simply another list of participation factors, normalized to the largest.

Note :

Ideally, the sum of the effective masses in each direction should equal total mass of structure, but will

depend on the number of modes extracted .

The ratio of effective mass to total mass can be useful for determining whether or not a sufficient number of modes have been extracted .

What is Harmonic Analysis

Input

Harmonic loads (forces, pressures, and imposed displacements) of known magnitude and frequency.

May be multiple loads all at the same frequency.

Forces and displacements can be in-phase or out-of phase.

Output

Harmonic displacements at each DOF, usually out of phase with the applied loads.

Other derived quantities, such as stresses and strains.

Assumptions and Restrictions

The entire structure has constant or frequency-dependent stiffness, damping, and mass effects.

No nonlinearities are permitted.

Transient effects are not calculated.

Acceleration, bearing, and moment loads are assumed to be real (in-phase) only.

What is Harmonic Analysis

Assumptions and Restrictions

All loads and displacements vary sinusoidally at the same known frequency (although not necessarily in phase).

All loads and displacements, both input

and output, are assumed to occur at the same frequency.

Calculated displacements are complex if:

damping is specified, or

applied load is complex.

frequency. • Calculated displacements are complex if: − damping is specified, or − applied load is

Contact in Modal & Harmonic Analysis

Contact regions are available in modal analysis; however, since this is a purely linear analysis,

contact behavior will differ for the nonlinear contact types, as shown below:

since this is a purely linear analysis, contact behavior will differ for the nonlinear contact types,

Case study

Case study 16
Case study 16
Case study 16
Case study 16

Case study

Case study 17
Case study 17
Case study 17
Case study 17

Case study

Mode

Ansys

Experimental

Frequency

Frequency

1

915

868

2

1212

1275

3

1583

1543

4

1856

1775

Description

Number of teeth

Speed

Gear mesh frequency

rpm

Hz

First gear

68

403

457

Second gear

73

689

838

Third gear

64

1108

1182

Forth gear

56

1592

1486

Fundamental

f x 2

f x 3

f x 4

f x 5

f x 6

457

914

1371

1828

2285

2742

838

1676

2514

3352

4190

5028

1182

2364

3546

4728

5910

7092

1486

2972

4458

5944

7430

8916

Case study

Mode

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

8555

2113

2769

4491

4786

5394

5757

5913

6166

6808

6851

6555

2112

2768

4489

4787

5398

5759

5919

6167

6814

6852

4555

2110

2732

4478

4786

5389

5749

5918

6161

6730

6844

8455

2113

2769

4491

4786

5392

5749

5907

6161

6808

6850

6455

2110

2721

4470

4784

5344

5745

5904

6157

6728

6843

4455

2110

2721

4470

4784

5344

5745

5904

6157

6728

6843

8545

2112

2768

4484

4786

5392

5757

5911

6166

6796

6850

6545

2110

2731

4469

4786

5389

5745

5916

6160

6721

6844

4455

2110

2721

4470

4784

5344

5745

5904

6157

6728

6843

8554

2110

2761

4471

4787

5394

5758

5897

6166

6805

6850

6554

2110

2759

4462

4788

5404

5762

5903

6165

6805

6848

4554

2108

2724

4456

4787

5388

5749

5903

6160

6728

6843