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Thesis for a Master in Music Production

Music Production in Heavy Metal Music:


How can Genre-Specific Post-Production Techniques Increase
Heaviness in Heavy Metal Music?

September 2016

Key words: metal music studies, heaviness, genre-specific production

Emilio Mayoral Rizzi


Exam # Y3835636

Emilio M Rizzi

Music Production in HM Music

Exam # Y3835636

Contents

I. ABSTRACT AND AIM ........................................................................................................... 4

1. HEAVINESS ......................................................................................................................... 7
2. GENRE-SPECIFIC PRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 15
2.1 JOEY STURGIS ............................................................................................................................ 17
3. IMPACT OF PRODUCTION ON HEAVINESS ................................................................... 25
4. CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 27

APPENDICES ......................................................................................................................... 30

- This thesis is available as a PDF download: tinyurl.com/Y3835636thesis -

Emilio M Rizzi

Music Production in HM Music

Exam # Y3835636

Please find attached a data DVD with important audio files to be called upon
throughout this thesis.

DVD file system:


Files beginning with the letter A are linked to an appendix, while files beginning
with the letter B do not have an accompanying graph and are stand-alone audio
files.

Graphs presented in the appendices can also be found as .PNG files on said DVD in
case a higher quality version of the graphs is required.

Emilio M Rizzi

Music Production in HM Music

Exam # Y3835636

i. Abstract and Aim


As Louis Niebur from the University of Nevada writes1 as a book review on Greene and
Porcellos (2005)i writing: the role of the sound engineer has until recently received little
scholarly attention this may be in part due to a vast percentage of a listening audience
believing that they are actually hearing their favourite musicians in records. As if the only
engineering work done was setting up the microphone and pressing record. However, there
is no questioning that the role of the mixing engineer plays a vital role in any kind of
commercially released track, no matter the genre. The question I pose is an exploration of
the extent to which a mixing engineer is able to intensify a very particular timbral quality,
heaviness, in a heavy metal (abbreviated to HM hereafter) track.
To do this I will first set out to define the phenomenon of heaviness with the help of
current works by authors with experience in the field of HM who have played the part of
academic, producer, engineer and/or performer. The topics covered include: modern HM
production (Mynett, 2013, and Mynett, Wakefield and Till, 2011), heaviness in the perception
of heavy metal guitar timbres (Berger and Fales, 2005)ii, production influenced by society
(Reyes, 2008)iii, and tracking timbral changes in recorded HM production (Williams, 2015)iv.
With the help of these authors investigations and writings I will fully understand and be able
to define what the phenomenon of heaviness is and will be able to determine what the
outcome should be for a heavy mix.
As this will be an investigation of the extent to which post-production techniques can
enhance the heaviness in a HM mix I will not be doing any recording of my own, even though
the recording stage, specifically the techniques used therein, can have an incredible impact
on the outcome. Instead, I will take professionally recorded multi-track files downloaded from
NailTheMix.com of Machine Heads recent track Is There Anybody Out There? and
Peripherys Prayer Position. Said website was created by Joey Sturgis, amongst other highly
regarded producers in the metal genre, and it will help me identify production techniques
through their content, such as podcasts and videos, so that I can use those to analyse how
they impact the music hopefully for the better, for more heaviness. The websites multi-

Niebur, Louis. Notes 63, no. 1 (2006): 95-97. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4487728.pdf


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track accessibility will allow me to work with real-world material that professionals have
recorded in treated environments with great equipment and professionally run sessions to
eliminate the pre-production, recording and editing, processes completely to solely focus on
post-production - the mixing stage of record production. In addition, the two tracks are
excellent examples to work with as they are very recent releases that have both been released
this very year in July, 2016. Any and all processing will be done to the already recorded and
edited 120 tracks of the Machine Head and 50 tracks of the Periphery multi-track folder that
was purchased and downloaded through NailTheMix.com. To recapitulate, I will be focusing
on the mixing of the tracks, on what Mynett (2013) calls the secondary domains of heaviness.
While the primary domain is concentrated in the performance and composition facet,
something that is looked at from a musicological standpoint in Berger and Fales and the likes,
the secondary domains focus on timbral properties - something that can be severely altered
in the post-production process. The resulting track, after processing, will then be listened to
and visually analysed to determine what the processes did and in what ways the alterations
may increase perceived heaviness.
The inspiration for this thesis is the ever-growing importance and dependence of
technology in recorded music, particularly in the digital realm. I will be looking at the process
of post-production, the stage after the recording and editing process, and determine in what
ways a mixing and/or mastering engineer may use different techniques to increase perceived
heaviness of a heavy metal track. An additional muse for this paper, when working on my own
productions, occurred once I noticed a natural shift of how I approached mixing pieces of
different genres, especially HM songs. I realized that extreme measures had to be taken to
tame and largely control all frequency areas, especially in terms of dynamics, more so than
when working on Blues and Pop tracks. Genre-specific production is something that will be
explored more in depth at a later stage and it is definitely a central muse for this paper.
This thesis aims to merger the work of HM engineers and musicologists. Mynetts work
will form the basis, analysing the aesthetics involved in a HM production in depth, and so will
the work of musicologists such as Berger, analysing timbres and heaviness. Defining
heaviness will be very important to truly discover whether processes and mixing techniques
used in post-production for HM music will result in what should be perceived at the listening
stages: heaviness consisting of sonic weight, intelligibility, and other factors to be explored.

Emilio M Rizzi

Music Production in HM Music

Exam # Y3835636

The outcome for this thesis will be the following: a definition of heaviness in metal music and
identifying common production techniques used by HM producers and then analysing how
they affect an original signal. The analysis of the data will be done through the program
MATLAB with the use of its Time Domain, FFT and Spectrogram graphs to enable me to
accurately portray resulting frequencies and artefacts that occur by using the different
production processes. After analysing the data, I will finally arrive at the conclusion that
genre-specific production techniques, some exclusive to HM, serve to enhance and extend
the materials natural frequency range (especially obvious in the electric bass guitar) and that
drums are relentlessly processed to achieve hyper-real sounds to suit modern HM. This
means that HM production that strives for heaviness achieves said heaviness partly by
saturating the frequency spectrum.

Emilio M Rizzi

Music Production in HM Music

Exam # Y3835636

1. Heaviness
It is under constant dispute as to the exact date and the occurrence that caused the term HM
to be coined, as Sam Dunns documentary Metal: A Headbangers Journey suggests with
various interviews with artists in the genre. Nonetheless, it is a term commonly used by bands
and their fans in the genre of metal music: The concept of heaviness is applied by
members of the heavy metal subculture to a range of instrumentational timbres []
compositional elements [] and heaviness is the defining feature of the genre. (Berger and
Fales, 2005) Metalheads affirm that they hear a quality X, heaviness, that defines the genre
that contains it [] (Greene and Porcello 2005). In this regard, most, if not every, academic
is in agreement that this phenomenon of heaviness exists, but what is heaviness?
Before tackling heaviness, the sonic quality of timbre has to be defined. According to
Williams (2015), who looks into timbral changes of electric guitar tones in HM, timbre is
usually defined as everything (sonically) that is not loudness, pitch, reverberation or
duration and a perceptual attribute by which a listener can judge two sounds, with same
loudness and pitch (p42) that are yet dissimilar to one another. Similarly, Enderbyv (et al.,
2016) writes that timbre refers to the properties of a sound, other than loudness and pitch,
which allow it to be distinguished. (p1) The American Standards Association (1960)vi states
the same, with the addition of timbral identity depending primarily upon the spectrum of
the stimulus, but also upon the waveform, the sound pressure, the frequency location of
the spectrum, and the temporal characteristics of the stimulus. (p45) In addition, Berger and
Fales (2005) write timbre is the result of multiple interacting acoustic factors (p182) which
makes comparisons between two signals difficult because it cannot be linked to one specific
attribute of a wave.
Berger and Fales state that making correlations of timbre is not an easy undertaking,
and heaviness is a timbral quality of audio. In a perfect environment, where auditory illusions
cannot take place, the perception of pitch is directly linked to frequency and loudness is
directly correlated to the amplitude of a wave. There is no scale or tool to accurately measure
timbre further than using ones ears to identify that this section sounds brighter or this

Emilio M Rizzi

Music Production in HM Music

Exam # Y3835636

section sounds warmer, and subjective descriptions alike. Berger and Fales state the
following:
Distortion tends to modify the electric guitars sound by increasing sustain, boosting
upper harmonics, flattening the dynamic envelope, and changing the textural blend
when

two

of

more

guitar

strings

are

played

simultaneously.

(p184)

In simple terms: low tones often appear as dull [] while high-pitched tones appear
as bright. (Bader, 2013)vii While that may be true for pitch alone, high pitches can still be
perceived as having a dull timbre, and low pitches can be still be perceived as having a bright
timbre and/or harsh harmonics. Distortion, which is extremely common in HM music, is not
exclusive to having a warm or bright sound, however the upper harmonics generated by
introducing distortion and/or distorting the signal may produce a brighter, but not exclusively
bright, sound. Lower harmonics, often referred to as sub-harmonics, can also be enhanced
by distortion - these are harmonics that are present below the fundamental note but are
generally high-pass filtered by engineers because of their tendency to cloud (make less
intelligible) the bass frequencies of a mix.
Heaviness, first and foremost, describes distorted guitar timbres (Berger 1999, 59).
Guitarists in the metal genre, as Walser (1993, 44)viii writes, pay very close attention to their
timbre created by a combination of countless pieces of equipment and different playing
techniques. Walser claims that all guitarists want The Classic Tube Sound2 and so do
various guitar magazines such as Guitar Player, Guitar World, and more. These claim that
the clipping distortion and other sonic artifacts of 50s-designed tube amplifiers supply the
sonic signature required for a successful guitar amp. (spectrum.ieee.org)ix Although that kind
of tone may be strived for in rock music or for early metal artists, such as Black Sabbath, Deep
Purple, and the like, I think that this statement is outdated for HM music. Many HM guitarists,
such as Dimebag Darrell of Pantera, play with solid-state amplifiers and rely on transistors as
opposed to tubes for their distortion. With improvements in technology of transistors,
manufacturers are able to design products with their own signature distortions, reminiscent

Excerpt of an advertisement for Dean Markleys Overlord effects pedal for guitar. Claiming that the pedal
will give your music the power and mystery, color and range of the classic tube sound But beware, for
Overlord takes no prisoners - I admit that their marketing team really know their customer base well.

Emilio M Rizzi

Music Production in HM Music

Exam # Y3835636

of tube amplifiers smooth clipping distortion, which feature a tube-amplifiers auditory mass
in the lower end of the frequency spectrum but still retain high-frequency clarity very well
without introducing too much harshness - not to mention the vast number of software-based
amp-simulators out there with the ability to emulate any amplifiers with the help of impulse
response plug-ins. Generally speaking, according Hamm in an article for the Audio
Engineering Societyx, transistors have a tendency towards higher distortion than equivalent
tubes and feature sharp clipping which can add to the harshness of the sound, in a positive
way since HM calls for more aggressive timbres. Tubes on the other hand are highly linear
and feature smooth clipping which many consider to be a more musical distortion.
Furthermore, the same article continues that odd harmonics (third and fifth) produce a
stopped or covered sound whereas even harmonics (second, fourth and sixth) produce
choral or singing sounds. Meanwhile, the second is an octave above the fundamental and
is almost inaudible; yet it adds body to the sound, making it fuller this is important for
achieving a thick texture in the guitars. Finally, and whats important in HM distorted guitar
timbres in particular, is that higher harmonics, above the seventh, give the tone edge or
bite. This is crucial for an intelligible HM guitar tone that features aggression, or bite.
Please turn to Appendix 7, notice the heightened 9kHz, 10kHz and 14kHz regions which
would normally be considered as overly harsh, but it suits the genre.
In an interview with GuitarWorld, Darrell claimed the following: Solid-state to me is
more in your face, while tube sounds like its surrounding your body. (GuitarWorld.comxi) In
conclusion, it is a fair assumption to make: that not all guitarists, in this age and especially in
this genre, are looking for an old-school, vintage, tube sound which warms your heart and
surrounds your body, as Darrell says. A tube sound may, as above, be identified with
warmth or lack of high-frequency energy that may cause intelligibility of individual notes to
severely suffer. While a warm sound may suit a rock ballad, the high-frequency emphasis
associated with transistor distortion is an absolute must for the metal genre because of the
sheer speed a performance can reach. With a warm sound the notes may be heard but the
listener would struggle to make out individual transients, causing the guitar to be buried
under the repeating kick, snare, toms and electric bass guitar. The mid to upper mid range
(specifically 500kHz to 4kHz) is crucial and has to be well defined when dealing with the
heavily distorted timbres that HM music is known for.

Emilio M Rizzi

Music Production in HM Music

Exam # Y3835636

Data from Berger and Fales research (2005, 194) demonstrates that the perceptual
quality of heaviness is related to a change in the location of energy in the frequency
spectrum. In practice, playing chord X on the electric guitar through an amplifier with
distortion will be perceived as unquestionably heavier then if note X were played without
any distortion, through the amplifiers clean channel for instance. Not only is this because
distortion enhances the frequency range by the added harmonics in the signal, making the
sound bear more overall weight, but it also shifts the perceptual focus of the listener. Instead
of simply hearing chord X the listener hears chord X with the addition of acoustic noise
which, as Berger and Fales write, may provoke a sensation that is called heaviness - even
though the sensation is not simply more noise or louder noise but [] noise that is different
in location relative to the original clean signal. To an extent, guitar timbres are perceived
as heavier when more high frequency energy is introduced (Mynett, 2013, 233) xii.
Berger (2009, 62)xiii appreciated a change of the ADSR (attack, decay, sustain and
release) in the timbre of a metal guitar from what he calls an impulsive sound source (a
source with a fast attack, sustain and release, as is featured in most percussive instruments)
to a driven sound source (a source defined by its long sustain, such as a drum cymbal or a
persistently bowed instrument). He suggests that a non-amplified, presumably acoustic,
guitar is an impulsive instrument seen as a single notes decay is relatively short - unlike a
bowed instrument where a single note can be sustained by continuing to move the bow and
maintaining the vibration of the string. With more and more distortion being introduced since
metals beginnings, the guitar has shifted from being an impulsive sound to a driven sound
partly due to the increased signal level that is associated with overdrive and distortion, and
different combinations and types thereof, by its increase in sub-harmonic and upper harmonic
content. The general increase in the signals complexity, of course, originates primarily from
from an amplifiers controlled, so-called, infinite sustain effect because of the way the signal
compression interacts with the acoustic feedback from the guitar strings. (spectrum.ieee.org)
The addition of more frequencies results in a broadening of the frequency spectrum of a
guitars timbre. This is something Walser (1993) also noticed, writing that distortion in power
chords is the expansion of the guitars perceived frequency spectrum. Please see Appendix
1 and notice the immense increase in amplitude as well as increased harmonic content,
resulting in an increased frequency range. Similar to Berger and Fales (2005) research, the

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diagrams demonstrate that distortion produces, what Walser (1993) calls, resultant tones
with the perceived impression that there more energy below the actual acoustic fundamental
than there normally would be, which is perhaps where the term heaviness may have
subconsciously originated - lowering the perceived pitch, but not the actual pitch, by adding
distortion. Arguably more importantly, Berger and Fales use spectrographic analysis and
listening tests to come to the conclusion that distortion strengthens the upper harmonics of
the guitars frequency range and timbres [that are] perceived as heavier have greatly
increased upper harmonics compared to those perceived as lighter. (193-194) Of course,
this doesnt mean that dull sounds do not sound heavy. What this proves is that heaviness in
timbres of distorted HM guitar comes from a good balance of bass, middle and treble
frequencies - as they are referred to on guitar amplifiers meaning that the groundwork laid
out with the fundamental frequencies of a guitar and its natural harmonics are important, but
are strengthened and made heavier once amalgamated with upper harmonics that are added
through distortion. Furthermore, Berger and Fales analysis proves Mynetts (2013) point that
the frequency ranges of high-mid to highs have an incredibly important impact on heaviness
in metal music, in addition to being important for inter-intelligibility between the various
elements of the mix.
Returning to Bergers writing (2009), I would suggest that a modern guitar sound, later
than the year 2010 (representing todays distorted guitar timbre in HM), has moved away
again from the impulsive sound source notion that is proposed and has evolved past the
driven sound source signature as well. Id like to suggest a tertiary evolution in metal
guitars timbral progression which draws upon the impulsiveness of an acoustic guitar in
addition to the driven sound referred to by Berger. From listenings by bands such as
Periphery, Tesseract, Animals as Leaders and more - particularly bands of a recent subgenre
of metal music referred to by fans as Djent3 - one can hear this signature guitar sound. The
term Djent is of onomatopoeic origin derived from a single highly distorted, palm-muted and
low-pitched guitar string being picked once with a plectrum: djent.4 The guitar in this
particular sub-genre is extremely impactful, a key word and defining quality of HM production

Pronounced as the abbreviation for gentleman: gent - even though there is nothing gentle about this
genre.
4
Please listen to Periphery - The Walk as an audio reference - See Discography for link to audio

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that Mynett (2013) explores in detail and will be looked at later. With a combination of audio
gates and playing techniques such as slapping or simply fast picking, the performer is able
to achieve percussive-like timbres while still preserving the tonal component of the signal in the decay, sustain and release section of the transient. The new timbre draws upon both
evolutions of Bergers analysis, impulsive as well as driven.
A worthwhile mention is Mark Mynetts SoundOnSound interview on YouTubexiv with
master producer Russ Russell, who has produced HM giants such as Napalm Death, Dimmu
Borgir and Evile, amongst many others. As a seasoned producer with 20 years of experience
in metal music production, Russell notes that people listen in a different way these days.
Listeners of HM music have a different expectation the threshold of [acceptable] accuracy
and tightness has significantly increased (0:40) partly due to HM songs increase in both
tempo and complexity. He says that delivering a mix nowadays with the production quality
of 20-30 years ago - of say Iron Maiden for instance - would be unacceptable to audiences
today. The perspective from a professional mixing engineer is very important as Russell, in
this case, has hands-on experience mixing HM and has witnessed a change in how he must
approach a HM mix. For example, recording to a click track is a must to maximize the
drummers consistency from beat to beat, or note to note. As Till and Wakefield (2011)xv write:
keeping drum tones tight and well defined is essential for HM music. Sample enhancement,
which is now the standard with digital technology, is also a must to strengthen transient clarity
for more impact, which in turn augments the intelligibility of drum hits when the drums are
mixed in with the bass, guitars, etc.
As Berger (1999, 58)xvi suggests, increasing heaviness can be characterized as a rich
and complex concept. He very aptly states that understanding heaviness is a crucial
component in the understanding of metal music in general, not just HM. In his writing,
heaviness refers to various textural, structural and affective aspects of a musical sound such
as distorted guitar timbres, composition and the theme or themes of the song.
Green and Porcello (2005, 193)xvii describe heaviness in metal, particularly heaviness
in the guitars timbre, by proposing that acoustic noise provokes a sensation that is called
heaviness by listeners. Waves Vitamin plug-in is called a sonic enhancer because it adds
upper harmonics to adjustable bands, we better perceive heaviness if there is more equality
in the entirety of the audible frequency spectrum the same phenomenon as loud music

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sounds better. By introducing distortion to a signal and adding harmonic content we are
essentially boosting frequencies, making everything louder. This is partly why distortion is
essential in a HM guitar timbre. The necessity for heaviness to feature a broad frequency
content is important, and it is described in Mynett alongside two further aspects of heaviness
besides guitar timbre: sonic weight and intelligibility.
Heaviness in a HM song needs to be persistent despite its tendency to often
explore different dynamics, styles and expressions in a single song (Hoffstaft and
Nagenborn, 2010, p. 41)xviii. This is especially true of the progressive metal music acts such
as Dream Theater who have vast number of timbral, rhythmic, time-signature and other
changes. Neither extreme complexity, nor upmost simplicity, can deteriorates a songs
heaviness. Dream Theaters The Dance Of Eternity5 shows extreme rhythmical complexity
and virtuosic playing, with over 100 changes in time signature throughout the piece none
of which are in a 4/4 time signature. Panteras Walk is on the exact opposite of the complexity
spectrum, that is to say that its a very simple song. The riff itself consists of two notes, E and
F, but is a widely acknowledged riff, or hook, in the metal community as a heavy riff.
A worthwhile mention is lack of depth, in HM production, such as that created by
introducing reverberation to simulate space or lowering the volume of a track to simulate
distance. Depth is something that is, in most cases, avoided in HM production because it
would interfere with the intelligibility of the entire piece, as weve looked at in Mynetts
writing.

In conclusion to this section, heaviness, as a timbral property of sound, is a term that falls
subject to an individuals perception but has certain identifiers. It is a term generally used to
describe sonic weight created by a balanced frequency content, impactful transients, huge
width, in-your-face (up-front) mixing - as opposed to having ample depth.

If possible, please see the following short video on YouTube.com demonstrating this tracks time-

signature changes: "The Odd Time Signatures Of "The Dance Of Eternity"". 2016. Youtube. Accessed
September 5 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FwkcRTNMsWs.

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The thick and saturated sound that is produced by heavily distorting electric guitars
is an essential component in heaviness, especially to add aggression by adding upper
harmonics through distortion and overall balancing the frequency spectrum.
Although most of a tracks heaviness originates from particular distorted guitar
timbres, as seen with Berger (1999), the rest of the instrumentation plays an immense role,
of course. Mynett (2013) described the drums in metal as hyper-real - a very appropriate
term - and Williams (2015) seconds this via a private conversation with veteran audio
engineer Clay Neely, describing the drum sounds in HM as doctored, unauthentic and
over-processed and acknowledges that this way of treating the drum set is not necessarily
a negative, but suits the genre and is the engineering standard for HM music. The hyperreal sound of course is not something that can be achieved in the recording stages, but is
something that has to be worked on in the post-production stage. Editing, quantization,
sample reinforcement and possible drum replacement is key to achieving this hyper-real
aesthetic, and compression, equalization and other processes also help to bring out extra
hyper-reality that is to say, emphasize and synthesize frequencies that arent naturally
present in the spectrum of a recorded drum kit.

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Exam # Y3835636

2. Genre-Specific Production
What does a metal mix need to be?
In HM there seems to be a lean towards a similar, and at times equal, aesthetic as with modern
hard rock music, the live concert aesthetic. A HM listener thrives to be in the concert situation
surrounded by equal-minded individuals. Much like the concept of the Kiss Army by the rock
band Kiss A way to unite listeners of Kiss. The band Slipknot has a similar, less appealing,
concept of Maggots at least the thought is there.
Reyes (2008) comments that, although there is without a doubt something as genrespecific production, there is even production-styles to the extent of individual sub-genres
within HM music. The sub-genre of Djent calls for even more impact-focused production than
general HM, for instance. In terms of HM in a universal sense, Reyes writes that it features
prominent bass frequencies, high volume and dominant rhythmic elements (p3). However,
the way that the mix occupies the sound box up front and big - can also greatly impact
and add to the aggression, as Reyes explains. Panning the guitars hard left and hard right is
a common approach to clear up the center image for clarity while presenting ample width in
a mix. Furthermore, she continues (p68), that heaviness doesnt only come from the low-end,
but HM music requires aggressiveness in the presence range so that things sound thick and
aggressive again, the idea of balance across the frequency spectrum. In addition, elements
of a mix are represented as very close to the listener which adds to the feeling of aggression
very in your face. The non-threatening nature of a distant sound is something to be avoided
as its over there instead of over here, so spatially everything is very close to the listener
to portray aggression, and in turn: heaviness. Width can also add to aggression, even though
the why is not discussed further than if something appears to be very wide coming out a
stereo image, that can add to aggression. (p69) To sum up, what does a HM mix need to
be? Its dry, its in your face, its wide, its deep, its big, from an interview with Miller in
Reyes thesis (p69

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Difficulties of mixing HM music


The biggest issue that Mark Mynett (2013) comments on is presenting each element of the
mix in an intelligible way (p6). One of the most, if not the most, important factors in HM
music production is intelligibility because of the sheer density of the sound very generally
speaking: fast-played drums, thick bass tones and saturated guitars.
Engineers will do certain things to ensure good preparation for when the postproduction stage dawns upon them. As mixing engineers Eyal Levi and Lasse Lammert
comment in an interview (via NailTheMix.com), they always use different amplifier/s, with
different cabinets (speaker cones in groups such as the common 2x12 or 4x12), when
recording lead guitar and different amplifier/s yet again when recording rhythm guitar - even
when recording the guitars DI, they still make use of different emulated amplifiers and
cabinets mostly through impulse response plug-ins.xix Tracking (a common synonym for
recording) different parts with different equipment will give each individual part its own tone
which can be easily, or at least more easily, differentiated in post-production when 10s and
100s of tracks converge down to 2.0 Stereo.6
This is just one example of how to impart a more intelligible sound from the recording
process. As for the post-production process, there are countless number of plug-ins available,
all with different uses and combinations to achieve different results and tackle specific
problems. The previously mentioned Waves Vitamin (sonic enhancer) adds harmonics to
boost presence of certain tracks, while limiters at the end of a track will ensure that nothing
passes a certain threshold. In addition, more techniques will be look at in the following pages.

2.0 stereo speaker systems and files being the most common audio format for home consumption, but
music is in no way limited to 2.0 as there are countless other formats such as 2.1, 5.1, and even 16.4 and
up for ambisonic systems.

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2.1 Joey Sturgis


There are countless producers, recording and mixing engineers who have made an impact in
metal music production such as Andy Sneap, known for Arch Enemy amongst others, and
Juan Urteaga, known for Machine Head amongst others. In this section however, I would like
to highlight a widely acknowledged producer of HM music for his endeavours to implement
theatrical and cinematic instances in his music showing breakthrough new ways of
producing music with a strong focus on post-production to bring out the best out of music
he mixes in new ways. Joey Sturgis, much like Mynett (2013), has a strong focus on
impactfulness in his works in metal music. See Appendix 4, where a time domain plot
demonstrates how introducing a single sample can seriously alter a complex waveform. In
that example, the sample is emphasized, more than it would and should be in a mix, for
dramatic effect.
Joel Wanasek, through a live mixing session via Joey Sturgis website
NailTheMix.com, claims that producers nowadays need to re-adapt to maximize their tracks.
Clients request heavier and heavier tracks and producers are finding new ways to make HM
heavier, such as by using samples to enhance their tracks thats just one example. Joel
claims that an ideal post-producer needs to get in to post-production in general by
familiarizing him or herself with cinematic sounds and/or epic orchestration such as Hans
Zimmers Batman The Dark Knights soundtrack. Some of these sounds include synths,
explosions and gunshots for ultimate impact. Although the listener doesnt hear the
gunshot in particular it helps to bring across and emphasize a transient onset. Joel thinks of
music production as telling a story, when mixing Is There Anybody Out There? By Machine
Head he cleverly thinks to add textural components in the background such as a heartbeat,
and effect kick and snare and a midi loop.
This mind-set and technique of introducing samples was translated into Machine
Heads track mixed by esteemed Colin Richardson, as well as Peripherys track, produced by
Peripherys own Misha Mansoor and Adam Nolly Getgood. The samples in the Machine
Head and Periphery tracks both manage to add textural elements and help translate more
impact to the listener.

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3. Production Techniques
It seems that producers nowadays, HM producers in particular, have adapted themselves to
maximize their tracks with post-production, as seen with Russ Russell. The techniques
highlighted in this paper will appear below with a description and an analysis.

The Guitar tone


As previously established, the distorted electric guitar tone is responsible for most of the
heaviness in a HM track, whether it be through an amplifier or an impulse response plug-in
such as Toontracks EZMix. The simple addition of distortion / saturation can enhance the
aggressiveness of the guitar sound by adding upper harmonic distortion, as previously seen
with Reyes (2008). Andy Sneap, one of the mixing engineers for the Machine Head track, has
engineered and released, through Toontrack, a guitar impulse pack. Please see Appendix
7.1 and 7.2, showing a 1kHz sine wave and then the resulting signal when sent through
Toontrack EZMixs Andy 51 Dark guitar amplifier emulator preset. The files are also
available as audio files: A7.1 and A7.2.

Side-chaining
As the name suggests, a side-chain is a secondary signal. The chain is a signal which is sent,
via a physical patch cable or DAWs bus, from an output of a track to a compressor or gate,
in most cases. The side-chain signal is usually not routed to the main outputs of a track and
is not usually directly heard by the listener, instead it is used to control a parameter and/or
be the factor by which a process is performed by to a targeted track. For example, by sending
an output of a kick drum track into the auxiliary (ProTools calls it a key input, Reaper calls it
and AUX) of a compressor for a bass track, one will have successfully side-chained the kick
track to the bass track
Experimenting with compression ratios and other parameters on the compressor will
yield different results. With fast attack and release times on the compressor one will impart
the same, or at least very similar, wave shape onto the bass track, as the kick has. It is
important, unless used as an effect, that the gain reduction done by the compressor has the
same or at least similar ADSR shape as the original side-chain signal to prevent excessive

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compression, when compressing. If the release time is too long, the gain reduction will still
be in effect after the kicks release has faded. This will result in the bass signal being too weak
after the kicks release and one will hear a pumping-like effect as seen in Appendix 2s first
diagram where the bass is represented unaccompanied, this can also be heard in Audio File
A2.1.
Please see Appendix 2, showing: firstly the side-chained bass track where the kick
signal is compressing the steady bass signal (Audio File A2.3), secondly showing the soloed
side-chain signal (the kick signal, Audio File A2.2), and finally showing both signals together
(Audio File A2.3). Alternatively, please see Appendix 3 for an example of the release time on
the side-chain compression on the bass being excessively slow (Audio File A3). The bas signal
was harshly limited before compression so one can better visualize the reduction done bt the
sidechained compressor. Back to Appendix 3, one can very clearly see that the release setting
used, of 150ms, was much too long and artifacts of poor side-chain compression are left
pumping-like compression and unexpected jolts of energy from when the compressor is
released. Finally, listen to Audio File B1 to hear firstly the kick and bass alone, and secondly
the sidechain compression kicking in notice the significant increase in low-end energy from
the kick even though the attack around the 1kHz region is still retained.
A technique used by Russ Russell on the kick drum is to use drum triggers to open up
gates. Instead of using a trigger as it was intended, much like a MIDI instrument: play a key
and a sample is played with a certain velocity and intensity, Russell uses triggers to act as an
auxiliary input on a sidechained gate. Instead of manually adjusting the gates attack and
threshold, the trigger allows for ultimate precision, as the trigger is activated the gate opens.
This allows for maximum precision, especially if there is a kick hit that does not pass a
manually set gates threshold, with a trigger it wouldnt matter.

Advanced side-chaining
FabFilters Pro-MB7 plug-in is an advanced multiband compressor where the user is able to
sidechain a particular frequency range or multiple ranges to an outside source. This gives one
the ability to nearly eliminate masking by, for example, side chaining the guitars to the 1kHz

YouTube. FabFilter Pro-MB. Accessed June 20, 2016. https://youtu.be/LNkaGACWuhs?t=5m34s


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attack of the snare, the snares attack would pierce through while the guitars range would
remain intact.
If access to this plug-in is absent, this technique could also be done manually. By
directly outputting one track, via buses, to three separate tracks one is able to create a threeband crossover much like a front of house live-sound engineer would use. Carefully
adjusting the crossover one could start a high-pass filter at 900kHz and a low-pass filter at
1100Hz, then insert a compressor with a side-chain feature. Again, side-chaining the snare
signal to the compressor on the high- and low-passed track would only reduce the range of
900-1100Hz by whatever the compression settings are. Alternatively, one could do the
opposite and expand instead of compress, instead of ducking 900-1100Hz one could
increase frequencies below 900Hz and above 1100Hz by setting the compression ratio to
below 1:1, such as 0.5:1 the signal is amplified by double its amplitude above the
threshold.

The drum kit, and introducing more impact


Going back to Joey Sturgis more cinematic approach, more and more bands, just like
Periphery and Machine Head, use samples to enhance their music. As covered in Appendix
4, impactful samples can hugely affect and enhance the opening of a new section of a song.
Please listen to audio files B2.1 and B2.2 for another example of sample enhancement going
into the first chorus of Is There Anybody Out There? the start is when the vocals say out
from is there anybody out there? Without the sample enhancement the beats before the
chorus feel quite empty and the first impact of the chorus is too weak. Once the samples
have been added, notice how not only the transient onset is enhanced, but also how the
frequency bandwidth broadens for that particular transient. The impacting sample features
extreme low and high frequency energy which allows for the first impact to have generally
more frequencies and broaden the frequency bandwidth of that instance.
This broadening of the spectrum is sometimes also done on the snare, where white
noise is introduced into the snare sound, but gated so that once the snare is struck, the onset
will open up the white noise gate to let through frequencies from 20-20,000Hz. This makes
the snare sound more impactful by broadening the frequencies heard. Its unlikely that the

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average listener will actively hear these samples, especially when buried under 10s of tracks,
but without the samples the track would seriously suffer.
Generally, the drum kit in a HM track needs to by hyper-real, as Mynett calls it. That
is to say, to emphasize and synthesize frequencies that arent naturally present in the
spectrum of a recorded drum kit. This may include, opening a gate with white noise when
the snare is played to amplify the snares onset, similarly opening a gate to let through a 60Hz
tone whenever the kick is played. It may also include distorting the kick and snare signals in
a parallel track to increase their presence in the upper mids and high frequencies to increase
their clarity. Please listen to audio file B6.1 now, where the drums play without any distortion
being applied to them. Now the following file, B6.2, where only the distorted kick and snare
tracks are being played. Finally, please listen to B6.3, where the distorted track, with a subtle
boost around 1.4kHz and attenuation around 500Hz to prevent mid-frequency boxiness, is
added to the mixed drum track in B6.1. Notice the superior transient clarity created by
introducing the distorted version of the shells of the kit, this is especially prominent after
boosting the snares crack-sound and kicks click-sound region in the region of 1.4kHz. With
the added parallel distortion track, listen out for punchier bass frequencies, even though no
extra compression was added, and more focused mid-frequency energy on onsets of both
the kick and the snare.

Producer and composer


Although not directly linked to heaviness, as heaviness is a timbral quality, composition can
have a big impact in terms of build-up. Introducing more samples, not necessarily for
transient-to-transient impact but for drama, can increase the impact of a section. Please listen
to Audio File B3.1, the introduction the Machine Head track which has been stripped of any
effects tracks. Following this, please listen to the following file, B3.2, which includes the
effects tracks. Notice the added virtual instrumentation in bars five and six before we are
presented with the first struck guitar chord and hard drum hit of the song at bar seven. The
kick-like thump, snare-like crack and ominous heartbeat help to present the listener with a
more dramatic introduction to the song.

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Bass DI through a guitar amplifier


This is a very common and useful technique for any HM producer to have in their arsenal of
mixing tricks, especially for home studios who cannot necessarily afford recording spaces and
have to record bass via a DI signal. Recording DI appears to be a must in HM production for
its better editing capabilities and so that the producer can change the timbre of the
instrument by re-amping it. For one, recording with a DI from the electric or bass guitar allows
for better and more precise edits. Editing the block-shaped waveform, see Appendix 1s FFT
analysis of an electric guitars distorted tone, is extremely hard because there is no visual
onset as it seems like one sustained block of sound. With the DI however, it is easy to
accurately locate a transients onset and edit from there.
In addition, recording DI yields infinite capabilities in terms of possible timbres. Please
listen to B4.0 for Peripherys bass DI track thats included in the multi-track. The low-end
energy is present and the transients are clear, but the bass would have no power when mixed
into the track because it is a relatively weak signal, not in terms of its low amplitude in dBFS,
but in terms of its frequency content. Now, please listen to audio file B4.1 for the bass signal
being sent through Toontrack EZMixs Ola Dirty Bass pre-set created by Ola Englund, a
highly regarded producer and musician. Notice the significant increase in upper harmonic
content and compression-like characteristic associated with distortion. Finally, please listen
to B4.2 for the DI, which is now compressed, and the emulated bass amplifier track mixed
together. The combined tracks meld together for a fitting timbre for the HM genre, in
addition, the upper-harmonic distortion enhances the picking technique, with a plectrum, for
better note-to-note intelligibility which is usually lost when adding high distortion.
Alternatively, please listen to B5.1. This file demonstrates firstly the electric bass and
electric guitars playing in unison with the bass having no additional distortion applied to it.
Now please listen to the second file, B5.2, which mixes in the distorted bass track with the
electric rhythm guitars. Notice how before, the bass and electric guitar seemed like separate
entities because of their difference not only in timbre, but frequency location too. After the
distortion is applied they merge for a thicker and saturated wall of sound and for more sonic
weight, which is essential to heaviness in HM music. The higher frequency distortion in the
parallel bass track glues together the clean electric bass timbre with the highly saturated
electric guitars by sharing a similar timbre. While the electric bass is lower in frequency

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position, the bass high frequency distortion is able to merge' with the distortion from the
electric guitars as they now share a similar timbre in the frequency range of the distorted
parallel track.

Scalar EQ-ing
A self-developed technique is designed as an attempt to increase harmonic intelligibility for
melodic instruments and to be applied to a dense, saturated guitar sound in particular.
Peripherys introductory theme is in D-minor (D, E, F, G, A, Bb, and C) so one would only
need to boost the frequencies for those notes, for example a D5 is 587Hz (rounded to an
integer for simplicity and use with Waves Q-10 equalization plug-in8). In this case, the riff
starts on an A1 (55Hz) but I decided it best to equalize starting at A4 (440Hz) to bring out the
higher mid range of the guitar. This was followed by moving up the scale to B-flat 4 at 466Hz,
C-5 at 523Hz, D at 587Hz, E at 659Hz, F at 698Hz, G at 784Hz, A at 880Hz, Bb at 988Hz, and
finally C6 at 1047Hz all these were equalized with a Q setting of 45, a very narrow Q, and
a dB boost of 1.6. Please see Appendix 5 and listen to files A5.1 (pre) and A5.2 (post) for a
comparison from before and after this equalization technique is implemented samples have
been level matched. Also listen to file A5.3 showing files A5.1 and .2 out of phase of each
other, revealing solely the change made by the equalization process. Notice the increase in
clarity after the EQ is switched on in file A5.2, particularly the decrease in boominess, a
common timbral issue in an electric guitars lower register in the 120Hz range, particularly
when the very common playing technique of palm muting is employed. Also notice the
overall decrease in broadness in the spectrogram in Appendix 5. The EQs input gain was
turned down to compensate for the gain caused after the boosting of individual bands - this
allows the level to be the same as pre-EQ, but be more focused on the 440-1000Hz range.
Although the sound may appear thinner at first, due to the lowering of the overall spectrum
and increasing in the essential mid to high-mid range, this will not be a problem when the
guitars are mixed into the track as the bass will be responsible for creating most, if not all, of
the content below 120Hz. Besides, frequencies higher than the 4kHz range, especially in
distorted electric guitar, will yield excessive harshness - an unwanted quality in guitar timbre.

An paragraphic equalization plug-in limited to ten completely customizable bands, which only accept
frequency positions as integer numbers, not decimals.

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On the other hand, too little distortion could limit the aggression in harshness that is needed,
in HM guitars.

Limiting, or very harshly compressing, the vocals


A very common approach to controlling vocal dynamics is limiting, and this is used by many
producers of HM such as the following three. The vocals, as Joey Sturgis comment in a
YouTube interview for The Pro Audio Filesxx, are the most dynamic instrument that a producer
will deal with, featuring lots of fluctuations in terms of size and depth. Harshly compressing,
he goes on, can help bring out the characteristic of the screaming vocal style which positively
impact the song - the gargling-like vocal folds vibrating together but it also brings out
harshness in the higher frequencies, so a multi-band compressor is sometimes used after
limiting to de-ess the signal. Eyal Levi and Joel Wanasek both agree, they are also
interviewed in the video and continue that adding subtle distortion or saturation after
compressing can help to glue the vocals into the mix when all the other elements are brought
back with the vocals. Levi continues, Adding those harmonics [through distortion and
saturation] to a voice will really help to make it sound as aggressive as it needs to, and
conversely, you can smooth out the vocals if you need to as well with gentle saturation.
Please listen to audio file B7.1, an already mixed vocal excerpt without soft limiting (3dB gain
reduction), followed by audio file B7.2 which features Waves L1 limiter, widely used for its
ability to introduce distortion when its input is pushed. Notice the pronounced jolt of energy
in the initial breath of the vocal excerpt when the limiter is not engaged, and listen to how it
is severely reduced in file B7.2 when the limiter is switched on.
While the typical vocal style employed in HM of screaming is already considered as
heavy from the pre-production stages, the addition of compression and distortion help to
tame overly lively dynamics and particular frequency areas, while distortion helps to add
aggression an aesthetic commonly associated with HM music, signature of the genre.

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3. Impact of Production on Heaviness


There are ways to identify aspects of heaviness reflected in the audio files. As
previously mentioned, Mynett (2013) argues that high-mids and highs are extremely
important when trying the achieve heaviness in a HM mix and that can be an identifier for
added heaviness. We can estimate from visualizations of audio if something has been made
heavier or not and also by listening to the audio files. Often times the addition of upper
harmonics can make a sound heavier due to the increase in density, thickness, of the sound
by its increase in overall homogeneity in the frequency spectrum. It needs to be said though,
that simple EQ boosting to enhance upper frequencies is not the same, distortion-generated
harmonics are what are wanted in this case.

In addition to the previously studied techniques and analyses thereof I will now be comparing
the entirety of the audio tracks by Periphery and Machine Head.

At this point, please take a listen to audio files B8.0, a stereo file of the Machine Head track
that has not been mixed and solely contains the stems of the multi-track folder that was
downloaded. Notice the uncontrolled bass energy, especially when the kick drum and bass
guitar play in unison. The drum set is natural-sounding, but does not fit in at all with the genre
of the track. The sounds appear very sloppy, boxy and are in no way well-defined. Likewise,
the bass tone is very weak and the guitars are lacking. The overall appearance of the mix is
very lacking.
Now please listen to the mixed audio file B8.1. Notice the significantly more dense
guitars through added distortion and volume of course. The kick drum is very tight short
and defined and so it the rest of the drum kit, particularly the snare. Notice the overall
thicker sound, partially achieved through the additional distortion in the electric bass and
electric guitars. In general, everything is louder, but the frequency broadness is sternly
enhanced by added distortion, compression and subtle equalization.

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Please listen to audio file B9.0 containing Peripherys track - another unmixed version. Once
again, notice the very undefined and boxy drums and very boomy bass.
Please see Appendix A8 which demonstrates a spectrogram of before and after
processing the track. Following this, please listen to the mixed version, audio file B9.1. Notice
the significant increase in upper harmonic content which results in far superior intelligibility.
The overall spectrum is broadened through the use of distortion, compression and
equalization. Intelligibility is indispensable in achieving heaviness, and as previously
mentioned, sidechaining helps to achieve interdefinition between elements of a mix. Please
note the interaction between the kick and bass are vastly superior than before being mixed,
thanks to sidechaining.

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4. Conclusion
The definition of heaviness, as backed up by Mynett, and Berger and Fales, is a thick
textured sound that is mainly created by saturated and distorted guitar timbres that are
panned hard left and right in a stereo domain to accomplish a big concert-like image. The
distorted guitar timbre plays the most important role in achieving heaviness. However, other
instruments in a band may add to the perception of heaviness with the helps of sample
enhancement for extreme transient impact.
Sonic weight, especially in the bass frequencies, is the result of said saturation and

plays an immense part in heaviness.


Aggression is a common aesthetic in HM music in general, as is written by Reyes. It is

expressly heard when distorting the upper range of an electric bass guitar through a guitar
amplifier in a parallel processing track - often accompanied by the original electric bass track,
responsible for a clean low-end while the distortion helps merge the distorted guitar timbres
with the bass. A balanced frequency spectrum is also very important as a lot of that
aggressiveness comes from higher frequencies there seems to be a fine line between
harshness and aggressiveness in timbre.
Generally, close-micing yields a warm sound because of the proximity effect. It is
found that equality throughout the frequency spectrum, that is created by boosting the
upper-mid range by synthesizing upper harmonics by introducing distortion, is extremely
important to achieve a big and impactful sound. Harshness created through distortion,
which is a timbral quality that is usually not desired and to be avoided, can help add
aggression. Simple boosting of the bass frequencies is not an acceptable way of adding girth,
but distortion can help thicken the texture in the bass frequency region.
Lastly, as to heaviness itself, it has been explored that the most elementary
requirement and the most important sonic quality for HM to reach the status of heavy is
intelligibility achieved through highly technologically mediated production techniques

(Mynett 2013, p60). This is backed up by Mynetts interview with Russ Russell who takes
advantage of technology at his disposal to maximize intelligibility Mynetts comment on
modern highly technologically mediated production proves Russells argument that a mix

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presented in a production style of 20-30 years ago would not be deemed as acceptable
nowadays. Intelligibility is the biggest challenge when producing HM. Striving for heaviness,
especially by introducing distortion, is prone to have negative side-effects to a mix such as
masking of frequencies which makes intelligibility a constant consideration for every action
that a mixing engineer takes.

Finally, I get to answer the question: How can Genre-Specific Post-Production Techniques
Increase Heaviness in Heavy Metal Music?
As weve seen, genre-specific production techniques, some which are exclusive to HM such
as adding an emulated bass track to increase the electric bass timbral effectiveness in the
track, serve to enhance the material by extending its natural frequency range. Likewise, drums
also have additional content added beyond their fundamental by introducing further
distortion and, at times, severe sample enhancement to increase the amount by which
transients are impactful. The drum set is relentlessly processed to achieve hyper-real sounds
to suit modern HM - this means that production adds perceived heaviness, partially by
saturating the frequency spectrum.
The previously identified production techniques used by HM producers, such as sidechaining, are taken advantage of to counter masking, negative interaction between elements
and to maximize intelligibility.
This thesis finds that the way post-production impacts recorded HM music, in an attempt
to increase heaviness, is by:
-

Adding ample distortion

Saturating the frequency spectrum balancing bass, mid and high frequencies

A possible continuation of this paper may be looking into pre-production and how that affects
the post-production stage, or how pre-production alone can alter heaviness. Russ Russell
talks about rarely ever using drum room or drum ambient microphones in his tracks because
he feels the extra space presented by introducing more distant microphones clouds the mix
and causes intelligibility to suffer. Pre-production, especially the actual recording process of
placing microphones, has a massive impact in any kind of music production, but it would be

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interesting to explore to what extent heaviness can suffer or benefit from particular
microphone, or other post-production, techniques.

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Appendices
(graphs are available as .png files in the included data DVD)

1.

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2. Compressed bass track, via side-chain from kick, solo Kick drum, and soloed kick and

bass together.

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3. Example of bad use of side-chain compression

4. Sample enhancement (Periphery)

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5. Showing the guitars of the Periphery track, before and after the Scalar EQ technique

Before

After

6. Spectrograms showing before and after production for the drum tracks in the Periphery
track, followed by a level-matched and out of phase version showing only what was
added through processing.

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7. FFT analysis of a 1kHz sine wave, followed by another FFT graph showing how the

Andy Sneap preset treats the tone.

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8. Spectrogram showing before and after processing of Peripherys Prayer Position


Before

After

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Bibliography
(In order of appearance)

Greene, Paul D., and Thomas Porcello Porcello. Wired for sound : engineering and technologies in
sonic cultures. Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press, 2005.

ii
Berger, H. M. and C. Fales. 2005. Heaviness in the Perception of Heavy Metal Guitar Timbres. Written
in: P. Greene and T. Porcello. 2005. Wired for Sound, Engineering and Technology in Sonic Cultures.
Conneticut: Wesleyan University Press. 181-193.

iii
Reyes, I. 2008. Sound, Technology, and interpretation in Subcultures of Heavy Music production.
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iv
Williams, D. 2015. Tracking Timbral Changes in Metal Production from 1990 to 2013, Metal Music
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"American Standard Acoustical Terminology (Including Mechanical Shock And Vibration) Sponsor:
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Bader, Rolf. 2013. Sound Perception Performance: 1 (Current Research in Systematic
Musicology). Amazon.co.uk e-Book. 82. Accessed August 20, 2016.
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viii
Walser, R. 1993. Running with the Devil: Power, Gender and Madness in Heavy Metal Music.
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"The Cool Sound Of Tubes". 2016. IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, And Science News.
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sound-of-tubes.

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Hamm, Russell O. Tubes vs Transistors: Is there an audible difference? Journal of the Audio
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xi
"Dimebag Darrell Talks 'Far Beyond Driven,' Amps And More: Previously Unreleased 1994
Interview". 2014. Guitar World. Accessed August 2, 2016. http://www.guitarworld.com/dimebag-
darrell-talks-far-beyond-driven-amps-and-more-previously-unreleased-1994-interview.

xii
Mynett, Mark. 2013. Contemporary Metal Music Production. Doctoral thesis, University of
Huddersfield.

xiii
Berger, Harris M. 2009. Stance : ideas about emotion, style, and meaning for the study of expressive
culture. Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press.

xiv
"Extreme Metal Production Masterclass Pt.1". 2016. Youtube. Accessed September 6 2016.
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xv

J. Wakefield, and R. Till. 2011. Sound at Source: The Creative Practice of re-heading, dampening and
drum tuning for the Contemporary Metal Genre. Journal of the Art of Record Production July. Issue 5.

xvi
Berger, Harris M. 1999. Metal, rock, and jazz : perception and the phenomenology of musical
experience. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

xvii
Greene, Paul D., and Thomas Porcello. 2005. Wired for sound : engineering and technologies in
sonic cultures. Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press.

xviii
Hoffstadt, C. and Nagenborg, M. 2010. Youre too Fuckin Metal for Your Own Good! Controlled
Anger and the Expression of Intensity and Authenticity in Post-modern Heavy Metal. In: Niall W. R.
Scott (Ed.): The Metal Void. First Gatherings. Oxford: Interdisciplinary Press, p. 37-45.

xix
NailTheMix.Com. Interview in podcast form with Eyal Levi and Lasse Lammbert. Filename:
URMPC068-GuitarProductionMasterClass-LasseLammert.mp3. Accessed August 16, 2016.

xx
"Tips For Mixing Screamed Vocals". 2016. Youtube. Accessed December 15, 2015.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHK1LgKiaTo.

Discography


Machine Head. (2016) Is There Anybody Out There? Nuclear Blast Entertainment.
Via: YouTube. Accessed July 22, 2016. http://tinyurl.com/machinehead-itaot
7 vinyl: NE 3791-8

Periphery. (2011) The Walk. Sumerian Records.

Via: YouTube. Accessed July 22, 2016. http://tinyurl.com/periphery-tw

Periphery. (2016) Player Position. Century Media. BG 3746-2

Pantera. (1992) Walk. ATCO Records. CD 91758

Dream Theater. (1999) The Dance Of Eternity. Elektra. CD 62448

DAW and stand-alone plug-ins mentioned


Toontrack.coms EZMix and the following expansions:
- "Metal Guitar Gods 3 Ezmix Pack | Toontrack". 2016. Toontrack. Accessed September 2 2016.
https://www.toontrack.com/product/metal-guitar-gods-3-ezmix-pack/.
- "Andy Sneap Ezmix Pack | Toontrack". 2016. Toontrack. Accessed January 12, 2016.
https://www.toontrack.com/product/andy-sneap-ezmix-pack/.

"Q10 10 Band Paragraphic EQ Plugin | Waves". 2016. Waves.Com. Accessed September 9, 2014.
http://www.waves.com/plugins/q10-equalizer.

"Sonic Enhancer Plugin Vitamin | Waves". 2016. Waves.Com. Accessed September 6 2016.
http://www.waves.com/plugins/vitamin#enhance-audio-tracks-with-vitamin.

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