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Nov 16, 2016

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Antenna Teory

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Antenna Teory

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Performance

Valentino Trainotti, Senior Member, IEEE, and Luis A. Dorado, Member, IEEE

communication community attention.

This kind of antennas has been used since the 1920s.

Top-loaded monopoles are the logical antennas to be used in

order to get a low profile antenna and a performance according

to the broadcaster and communication needs.

In this paper, top-loaded monopoles have been studied exhaustively using the transmission line technique, obtaining improved

expressions for the antenna radiation resistance taking into

account the top-base current relationship and under different

top-loading conditions.

This idea of using an equivalent transmission line technique

has been used since the 1920s in order to obtain the antenna

input reactance.

Using this old idea, the novel approach here permits to obtain

the near and far field expressions from the current distribution on

the antenna structure. Near field calculation is used to determine

the surface current density on the ground plane.

From the artificial and natural ground plane surface current

density, the power dissipation is calculated and the ground plane

equivalent loss resistance is obtained.

In all cases, as a first approximation, a half-wavelength ground

plane radius has been used, because this is the maximum distance

covered by the ground surface current under the antenna, closing

the antenna electric circuit. Beyond this distance, the ground

currents do not return to the antenna generator and are taken

into account in the surface wave propagation calculations. The

half-wavelength ground plane surface is partially occupied by the

metallic radial ground system and the remainder by the natural

soil.

Artificial ground plane behavior is paramount in obtaining

the best performance of a short antenna. This kind of antennas

could perform very close to a standard quarter-wave monopole if

they work with optimum dimensions. For these reasons, a short

antenna and the corresponding artificial ground plane have been

analyzed modifying the number of radials and their lengths, in

order to achieve an optimum performance or to obtain maximum

field strength on several soil conditions of the earth surface.

A very simple and efficient antenna could be obtained, giving

to the broadcast and communication community a product that

could fulfill the required performance to radiate a high quality

AM or digital transmission on MF band, and good speech quality

on LF band.

Index Terms Antennas, Antenna Theory, LF Antennas, LF

Broadcast Antennas, LF Broadcast Transmitting Antennas,

LF Top-Loaded Antennas, LF AM Broadcast Antennas, LF

Monopole Antennas, MF Antennas, MF Broadcast Antennas, MF

Broadcast Transmitting Antennas, MF Top-Loaded Antennas, LF

Short Transmitting Antennas, MF Short Transmitting Antennas,

MF AM Broadcast Antennas, MF Monopole Antennas, Artificial

Ground Plane Antenna, Artificial Ground Plane Metallic Radials,

Artificial Ground Plane Impedance, Antenna Input Impedance,

Antenna Efficiency, Antenna Gain, Antenna Performance, Antenna Bandwidth, Antenna Wiring.

V. Trainotti is with University of Buenos Aires, Argentina

(e-mail: vtrainotti@ieee.org).

L. A. Dorado consulting engineer (e-mail: luis dorado@ieee.org).

Fig. 1.

Top-loaded antennas.

I. I NTRODUCTION

antennas have been pointed out.

Efficiency and gain of short antennas have been focused

here, in order to determine the importance of those factors

affecting the radiation properties of these radiators [12], [14].

These factors are taken into account within the low frequency

(150 250 kHz) and medium frequency (535 1705 kHz)

broadcast bands.

The most important factors affecting the antenna efficiency

are the wire resistance, the insulator equivalent loss resistance

and the ground plane equivalent loss resistance.

These factors are responsible of the antenna efficiency,

because they dissipate part of the antenna input power and,

for this reason, the antenna gain can be much smaller than the

antenna directivity.

It was pointed out that the antenna directivity is an antenna

natural property, and it depends on the antenna radiation

pattern, which is close to the elevation angle cosine function

(cos or sin ) in the case of a short monopole, like a toploaded antenna (see (116) in Appendix C).

The monopole top-load does not modify the antenna radiation pattern, but it only modifies the antenna current distribution.

In general, insulator equivalent loss resistance is relatively

less important than the wire resistance or the ground plane

equivalent loss resistance and, for this reason, it can practically

be ignored in the efficiency calculation.

Wire resistance can easily be obtained using the high

Fig. 2.

and the soil-metallic radials combination impedance using

the same technique as Abbott [16]. These parameters, soil

resistance and near magnetic field, permit the ground plane

dissipated power calculation. Then, the ground plane equivalent loss resistance can be determined from this dissipated

power and from the antenna effective input current.

The ground plane equivalent loss resistance is generally

not calculated by the standard softwares. Nevertheless, this

parameter is very important to calculate the antenna efficiency.

Antenna current distributions on the vertical part and on the

top-load are determined quite accurately using the equivalent

transmission line theory, and the tip voltages can also be

determined from it.

Interesting results were obtained from the determination

of the resonant antenna dimensions for different top-loading

conditions. These results permit the choice of the more

economical antenna or the antenna whose bandwidth and

gain are better approaching the transmission necessities. The

determination of these parameters permits a clear vision of the

antenna possibilities and limitations, according to the antenna

height and operation frequency.

II. T OP -L OADED A NTENNAS

It is well known that short monopole antennas have a

linear current distribution when their heights are lower than

0.15 and a zero current at the top. Under these conditions,

the radiation resistance depends on the following expression,

determined from the power density space integration or the

antenna total radiated power, divided by the square of the

effective input current [4]. Then,

Rrad = 40 2

their currents and voltages.

2

H

Also

Rrad = 10 (H)2

into account. Under these circumstances, the ground plane

equivalent loss resistance is of paramount importance, and its

determination constitutes a very difficult task.

In the case of a monopole antenna, the ground plane under

it, to be taken into account, is not only the artificial ground

plane laid down with metallic radials, but also the natural

soil from the radial ends to a distance of half-wavelength

from the monopole base or feeding point. Within this halfwavelength radius, the ground plane currents are part of the

antenna electric circuit, and they are represented as a current I 0

flowing through the ground plane loss resistance in the antenna

equivalent circuit.

The dissipated power is calculated knowing the near tangential magnetic field or the surface current density on this

ground plane, whose radius is half-wavelength.

Using the current distribution on the antenna vertical part,

the vector magnetic potential is calculated. Near and far

magnetic and electric fields are obtained from this potential.

(1)

(2)

Where

Rrad is the antenna radiation resistance [].

H is the antenna height [m].

is the wavelength [m].

= 2 / is the space phase constant or wave number

[rad/m].

These expressions can be obtained from any antenna book

[4], [5], [6], [7].

This radiation resistance is quite small when the ratio H/

is less than 0.1. This is due to the small area of the current

distribution along the antenna, calculated from the base to the

top. In this case, the current distribution area is the area of a

triangle H in height and the antenna input current I 0 as the

triangle base. The top current I t is, of course, a null.

In order to increase the current distribution area, a top-load

is used. In this specific case, the top current I t is not a null

and it depends on the top-loading conditions.

(n > 1) branches installed parallel to the surface of the earth

and connected to the top of the antenna vertical wire.

If the top-load consists of only one branch (n = 1), an

Inverted-L antenna is obtained.

If two branches are used (n = 2), a T antenna is obtained

and if the branch quantity is four (n = 4), the antenna is

called an X antenna. Otherwise, a Star antenna is obtained.

This kind of antennas can be seen in Fig. 1.

For the antenna vertical wire, there are several expressions that can be used to calculate the average characteristic

impedance, and all of them give results very close to those

obtained here [2], [3].

The input impedance at the top of the antenna, looking along

the top-load, is equivalent to the input impedance of n open

end low loss transmission lines in parallel. Therefore,

Where

Zt is the antenna top impedance [].

Xt is the antenna top reactance [].

Z0t is the top-load characteristic impedance [].

L is the top-load length [m].

n is the number of top-load branches.

= 2 / is the space phase constant or wave number

[rad/m].

its image under the ground plane can be seen. Since currents

flowing on the vertical part of the antenna and its image are

in phase, it follows that they will produce a net field intensity

close and far away in the surrounding space. Currents flowing

on the top-load and its image are out of phase and, because of

the short distance in wavelengths between them (2 H ),

the net field intensity in the surrounding space is practically

zero and they do not make any contribution to the antenna

radiated power.

The current distribution on the antenna vertical wire starts

as the base current I 0 , at the antenna base, and ends as the

top current I t , at the antenna top. For an n-branch top-loaded

antenna, the current distribution on any branch starts as I t /n,

at the antenna top, and, finally, goes down to zero at the tip

of the top-load wires, I L = 0.

In order to determine the antenna input impedance the

transmission line technique can be used. The equivalent transmission lines, corresponding to the antenna top-load, depend

on the antenna type. In Fig. 3 a sketch of the antenna

equivalent transmission lines can be seen, where the current

and voltage distributions are indicated.

In the Inverted-L antenna case (n = 1), only one transmission line is attached to the top of the antenna vertical wire. In

the other cases, there are several transmission lines or branches

(n > 1), depending on the antenna type, and they will be

connected in parallel to the antenna top.

Each top-load branch transmission line can be made up of

one (nc = 1) or several wires (nc > 1), taking into account

the potential gradient when high power is employed.

The characteristic impedance of the top-load, considered as

a transmission line, can be calculated using the logarithmic potential theory. If one wire is used (n c = 1), the corresponding

characteristic impedance Z 0t is given by [3]

2H

Z0t = 60 ln

(3)

a

Where

H is the antenna height [m].

a is the wire radius [m].

The antenna vertical wire can also be considered as another

transmission line, with an average characteristic impedance

Z0m given by [3]

H

Z0m = 60 ln

(4)

a

Zt = j Xt = j

Z0t

n tan L

(5)

capacitance can easily be found as follows

Ct =

1

[F]

2 f | Xt |

(6)

The antenna input impedance Z a is equal to the top

impedance Z t translated to the antenna input terminals.

If the transmission lines are considered to be of low losses,

the input impedance will be a pure reactance, nevertheless, the

real part of this impedance depends on the antenna radiation

resistance and other losses.

Then, the antenna input impedance will be

Za = Ra + j Xa

(7)

Where

Za is the antenna input impedance [].

Ra is the real part of the antenna input impedance [].

Xa is the antenna input reactance [].

The real part of the antenna input impedance, R a , depends

on the antenna radiation resistance R rad and the equivalent

loss resistance Rloss . The loss resistance Rloss depends on

the conductor resistance R c , the insulator equivalent loss

resistance Ri and the ground plane equivalent loss resistance

Rgp .

Therefore,

Ra = Rrad + Rloss

(8)

Rloss = Rc + Ri + Rgp

(9)

Where

smaller than the other loss resistances, R c and Rgp . For this

reason, a very small error is introduced in all calculations if

Ri is neglected (Ri

= 0).

The current distribution on the antenna vertical wire, considered as a piece of transmission line (see Appendix A), will

be

Xa

sin z

I(z) = I0 cos z +

Z0m

0zH

Xa

It = I0 cos H +

sin H

Z0m

(13)

(14)

It

Xa

= cos H +

sin H

I0

Z0m

Fig. 4. Antenna geometry used to calculate the electromagnetic field in

cylindrical coordinates.

ground plane equivalent loss resistance R gp will be determined

in Sections VII, VIII and IX, respectively.

Antenna reactance X a , according to the transmission line

theory [8], [9], is given by

Xa = Z0m

Z0m tan H + Xt

Z0m Xt tan H

It

sin

I() =

cos

0L

n

tan L

(16)

In general, a resonant antenna is convenient to be chosen

(Xa = 0) modifying the top-load length to L = L res .

In this case, the current expressions are simplified. Therefore,

I(z) = I0 cos z

(10)

Where

Xa is the antenna input reactance [].

Z0m is the antenna average characteristic impedance [].

Xt is the antenna top reactance [].

H is the antenna height [m].

The top-loaded antenna is resonant if X a = 0. Under this

condition, the top reactance X t becomes

(15)

I() =

It

n

0zH

(17)

It = I0 cos H

(18)

It

= cos H

I0

(19)

cos

sin

tan Lres

0 Lres

(20)

Xt = Z0m tan H

(11)

for a resonant antenna, becomes

Lres =

arctan

2

Z0t

n Z0m tan H

(12)

antenna, because the input voltage is very small compared to

a series inductance resonant antenna, where the input voltage

is Q times the applied voltage. This condition can be fulfilled

choosing a proper top-load length (L = L res ) for any antenna

height.

It is interesting to notice that the top reactance X t and

capacitance Ct of any resonant top-loaded antenna, at a

given frequency, are of the same value and independent of

the top-load type. They depend only on the self-resonant

antenna height.

top voltage and the voltage at the tips of the top-load wires.

These voltages permit to choose the convenient insulators to

support the top wires.

The voltage distribution on the antenna vertical wire is given

by (see Appendix A)

V(z) = j I0 (Xa cos z Z0m sin z)

0zH

(21)

Vt = j I0 (Xa cos H Z0m sin H)

(22)

Z0t

sin

V() = j It Xt cos

n

0 L (23)

The top-load wire tip voltage, V L = V( = L), becomes

400

(z z )2 + 2 is the distance from the

Where R =

antenna current element I(z ) dz to the observation point

(, , z).

In Appendix B the magnetic vector potential has been

obtained, so the magnetic field H can be calculated using the

following classical expression:

90

|Z |

[deg]

|Z |

[]

Z00 = 377

300

67.5

200

45

100

22.5

H=

0

0

Fig. 5.

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0

1

(24)

expressions are simplified. Therefore,

0zH

Vt = j I0 Z0m sin H

1 Az

(31)

0

Thus, for a resonant top-loaded antenna, the magnetic field

intensity on the ground plane, at z = 0, becomes

I0 ejr1 H

cos H + j sin H

(32)

H =

2

r1

Where r1 = H2 + 2 is the distance from the antenna top

to a point on the ground surface, and is the distance from

the antenna base to the same point.

This is the magnetic field corresponding to a perfectly conducting ground plane. The actual magnetic field is practically

of the same value close to the antenna base, as measurements

indicate [17], because it is not appreciably affected by the

finite soil conductivity [10], [11].

The electric field intensity E is obtained by means of the

Maxwell equation

H =

(25)

(26)

Z0t

sin

V() = j I0 cos H Z0m tan H cos +

n

(27)

rot H = j 0 E

0 Lres

VL = j I0

Z0t cos H

n sin Lres

(30)

In cylindrical coordinates,

Z0t

sin L

VL = j It Xt cos L

n

1

rot A

0

(28)

as the number of branches n of the top-load increases. For this

reason, the Inverted-L antenna has the maximum tip voltage

VL , while the top voltage V t is the same for any resonant

top-loaded antenna of height H.

VI. E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELDS

A. Near Field

The general procedure is used to calculate the electromagnetic fields around a resonant top-loaded antenna. For instance,

the magnetic vector potential can be calculated taking into

account the current distribution on the antenna vertical wire,

I(z) = I0 cos z, because this is the only current that produces

the net electromagnetic field.

The antenna geometry used to calculate the electromagnetic

field can be seen in Fig. 4, where, as a first approximation,

the ground plane conductivity is considered to be infinite.

Under this condition, the magnetic vector potential in free

space, according to the current distribution, has only one

component in the z-direction, that is

H

0

ejR

dz

I(z )

(29)

Az =

4 H

R

(33)

Thus, for a resonant top-loaded antenna, the electric field intensity on the earth surface, at z = 0, has only one component

Ez for a perfectly conducting ground plane. Therefore,

H cos H j H cos H sin H

+

r31

r21

r1

(34)

The near magnetic and electric fields on the earth surface,

H and Ez , are clearly more complex functions of the radial

distance than in the case of the Hertz monopole, where H

is infinitesimal.

When the ground plane is not perfectly conducting, the

electric field develops a small radial component E . This

electric field component E is related to the magnetic field

H as follows

Zg H for 0 < < R0

(35)

E =

Zs H for > R0

j I0 ejr1

Ez =

2 0

Where

Zg is the parallel impedance of the soil and ground screen

[].

Zs is the soil impedance [].

R0 is the metallic ground screen radius [m].

The E and H field components produce a wave that

propagates into the soil under the antenna and is dissipated

as heat.

Fig. 6. Sketch of one instant near electric field and ground plane conduction

currents.

B. Wave Impedance

The ratio between the near electric and magnetic fields, E z

and H , is the wave impedance Z 0 just above the earth surface

in the air.

The wave impedance is a complex magnitude, almost purely

imaginary very close to the antenna and almost a real magnitude at the distance of half-wavelength from the antenna base.

This can be seen as an example in Fig. 5.

This is a good representation of the antenna behavior, and it

means that the half-wavelength radius space surrounding the

antenna is part of the wave generator (oscillator). The antenna

is not only the conductive wires, but a hemispherical free space

wave generator half-wavelength in radius.

Through this hemispherical surface, a wave is radiated into

the surrounding free space. The earth area under this hemisferical space is a circle, which is very important, because all the

conductive currents flowing on it are part of the antenna circuit

and, for this reason, it must have the maximum conductivity in

order to achieve the maximum antenna efficiency. This circle

is half-wavelength in radius, as can be seen in Fig. 6.

Fig. 7.

can be obtained from the near field

expressions (32) and (34),

considering that H, r 1 = H2 + 2

= and neglecting

the terms in 1/2 and 1/3 in favor of the terms in 1/.

Therefore, for a resonant top-loaded antenna, it follows that

I0 ej

sin H

2

(36)

I0 ej

sin H

0 2

(37)

H = j

Ez = j

field observation point on the earth, at z = 0.

In the case of a very short top-loaded antenna, H 1

and sin H

= H, then the far field expressions are exactly

the same of the Hertz monopole.

Taking into account that / 0 is the free space intrinsic

impedance Z 00 , the electric field intensity will be

Ez = j Z00

I0 ej

sin H

2

efficiency, it is very important to take into account the

power dissipated by the near field on this circular surface.

or

real and imaginary parts as a function of the distance from

the antenna base. Near to half-wavelength, its value is almost

purely real and close to the resistive 377 of the free space

intrinsic impedance Z 00 . This is an indication of a radiated

wave, where the power density is practically real or active,

flowing through the hemispherical surface.

C. Far Field

For broadcast use, in low and medium frequencies, field

intensity on the surface of the earth is of interest and, as a

first approximation, a planar earth can be considered.

Ez = Z00 H

(38)

(39)

H = 1 H

(40)

E = 1z Z00 H

(41)

they depend only on the inverse distance law. The actual

field intensities along the earth are affected by the physical

constants of the soil and the diffraction due to the spherical

earth [13].

The power density, P = (1/2) E H , becomes

Rc

0.7

[]

0.6

Where

Rrad is the antenna radiation resistance [].

H is the antenna height [m].

is the wavelength [m].

= 2 / is the space phase constant or wave number

[rad/m].

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

2

4

8

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

monopole can be seen.

If the base current is normalized, I 0 = 1 [A], and the antenna

height is H in meters or H in radians, the current distribution

area A, normalized to 1 Ampere, is given by

0.1

H/

in wavelengths, for different numbers of top-load branches n, at 200 kHz.

(nc = 1, a = 6 103 m).

0.35

[]

0.3

A = I0 H = H

The radiation resistance of any current distribution is proportional to the square of the area [3], that is

Rrad = K A2

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

(46)

(47)

because the squared area is A 2 = (H)2 in (45). Then, for

any other antenna, the radiation resistance will be

2

4

8

Rrad = 40 A2

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

H/

in wavelengths, for different numbers of top-load branches n, at 1 MHz.

(nc = 1, a = 6 103 m).

the normalized current distribution area is A = H/2, so the

radiation resistance will be

Rrad = 40

P = (1z 1 )

1

Z00 | H |2

2

(42)

or

1

Z00 | H |2 = 1 P

(43)

2

It can be seen that the power density P is pointing outward,

i.e. the antenna generated wave is an outgoing wave.

In the far field, the ratio between the electric and magnetic

field intensities is the free space impedance, Z 00 = 377 .

This ratio is clearly obtained at a distance greater than halfwavelength from the antenna base.

In Appendix C the far field expressions in the upper

hemisphere and in spherical coordinates are obtained.

P = 1

H

2

2

= 10 (H)2

(49)

current distribution area is given by

H

It

A=

(50)

1+

2

I0

Therefore, the radiation resistance for any top-loaded antenna will be

Rrad

H

= 40

2

2

It

1+

I0

(51)

Rrad

2

It

= 10 (H)

1+

I0

(52)

or

2

Also

with a constant current distribution. In this case, the radiation

resistance is given by [4]

2

H

(44)

Rrad = 160 2

Also

Rrad = 40 (H)2

(48)

(45)

Rrad = 40 2

2

2

H

It

1+

I0

(53)

any top-loaded antenna, where I t /I0 is given by (15).

If the antenna is resonant, X a = 0, L = Lres (12) and

It /I0 = cos H (19). Then, the radiation resistance of any

resonant top-loaded antenna, including the Hertz monopole

(H 1 and cos H

= 1), will be

10

[] 100

10

soil

[]

10

soil

4

8

10

10

30

10

30

10

60

60

3

10

10

120

10

180

180

10

10

10

120

10

10

10

10

10

10

[m]

Fig. 10.

Artificial ground plane resistance as a function of distance ,

for different numbers of radials N and over average soil, at 200 kHz.

( = 102 S/m, r = 10).

10

[m]

10

Fig. 12.

Artificial ground plane resistance as a function of distance

, for different numbers of radials N and over average soil, at 1 MHz.

( = 102 S/m, r = 10).

10

10

Xg

soil

4

[]

soil

[]

4

8

10

10

30

30

0

60

10

60

1

10

120

120

1

180

10

180

2

10

N

2

10

10

10

10

Fig. 11.

Artificial ground plane reactance as a function of distance ,

for different numbers of radials N and over average soil, at 200 kHz.

( = 102 S/m, r = 10).

Rrad

2

H

= 40

(1 + cos H)2

10

[m]

10

Antenna vertical wire and top-load wires do not have infinite

conductivity. For this reason, the conductor or wire loss

resistance Rc must be calculated taking into account the wire

conductivity c and the wire equivalent radius a, according to

the current distribution on the antenna vertical wire and on the

top-load wires.

The wire loss resistance dissipates part of the antenna input

power, and can be placed in series with the radiation resistance

in the antenna equivalent circuit.

Conductor resistance per unit length R l can be calculated by

means of the following expression, which takes into account

the skin effect [4], that is

10

Fig. 13.

Artificial ground plane reactance as a function of distance ,

for different numbers of radials N and over average soil, at 1 MHz.

( = 102 S/m, r = 10).

1

Rl =

a

(54)

the exact expression due to a very small error introduced in

all calculations.

In Appendix E the exact expression for the radiation resistance has been determined and in Table XV a comparison

between both expressions can be seen.

[m]

f 0

4 c

(55)

space, 0 = 4 107 [H/m], and copper conductivity,

c

= 5.8 107 [S/m], the last expression becomes

Rl =

4.16

f 108 [/m]

a

(56)

Wc , taking into account the current distribution, is given by

Wc =

1

2

I2 (z) Rl dz +

0

n

2

Lres

I2 () Rl d

(57)

the antenna vertical wire, while the second one is the power

dissipated in the antenna n top-load branches.

The wire loss resistance Rc will be

Rc =

or

2 Wc

I20

(58)

From the electromagnetic theory, it is well known that a

medium, like the soil, can be a conductor or a dielectric,

depending on the ratio /, where is the soil conductivity,

is the soil permittivity, = 2 f and f is the operation

frequency.

For any non-magnetic medium ( = 0 ) like the earth

soil, the impedance Z s can be calculated from the physical

constants, and , as follows [4]

j 0

(60)

Zs = Rs + j Xs =

+ j

This is the impedance of the natural ground plane.

When a star of N conductive radials or ground screen is laid

down into the soil, in order to increase the soil conductivity,

the impedance of this screen is given by [16]

Fig. 14. View of the ground plane used to calculate the soil dissipated power.

Zr () = j Xr = j 2 f 0 sin

Rc =

Rl

I20

I2 (z) dz + n

0

Lres

I2 () d

ln

(61)

sin

a0

N

0 R0

(59)

and can be seen in Appendix F.

In Fig. 8 the wire loss resistance R c for different resonant

top-loaded antennas can be seen as a function of the antenna

height at the frequency of 200 kHz and for a single (n c = 1)

copper conductor 6 mm in radius.

Also, in Fig. 9 the wire loss resistance R c for different

resonant top-loaded antennas can be seen as a function of the

antenna height at the frequency of 1 MHz and for a single

(nc = 1) copper conductor 6 mm in radius.

From these figures, it is interesting to observe that, for

any height (H/), the wire loss resistance for the resonant

Inverted-L antenna (n = 1) is practically constant.

IX. G ROUND P LANE

Previously, it was pointed out that a monopole antenna

is equivalent to a hemispherical surface, where the wave

generator is placed. This hemispherical surface has a radius

of half-wavelength. The corresponding ground plane, where

the conduction currents are flowing, is the circular surface

of the earth soil. This circular surface is half-wavelength in

radius, and it is used to calculate the power dissipated by

the conductive currents due to the finite ground conductivity.

Within this surface, all the ground currents are part of the

antenna electric circuit and, for this reason, this is the area to

be taken into account, and not only the surface occupied by

the artificial ground plane metallic radials.

Therefore, within this half-wavelength radius circular surface there are two zones,

(a)

The artificial ground plane zone [15], [16], where the

metallic radials are buried, for the distance varying

in the range 0 R0 .

(b)

The natural ground plane zone, for the distance

varying in the range R 0 /2.

Where

Zr () is the screen impedance at the distance from the

antenna base [].

f is the operation frequency [Hz].

is the distance from the star center [m].

N is the number of radials.

a0 is the radius of the radial conductors [m].

R0 is the radius of the star or ground screen [m].

Placing both impedances Z s and Zr in parallel, the artificial

ground plane impedance Z g will be

Zs Zr

Zs + Zr

Zg = Rg + j Xg =

(62)

and the distance = R0 . Beyond this point, the impedance is

that of the natural soil Z s .

R

gp

[]

0

N

4

8

30

60

1

0.8

120

0.6

0.4

0

180

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Fig. 15.

Ground plane equivalent loss resistance

Inverted-L antenna over average ground as a function

ground plane radius R0 at 200 kHz, and for different

(n = 1, nc = 1, H = 105 m, Lres = 276.2 m, a

= 102 S/m, r = 10).

R0 [m]

for a resonant

of the artificial

radial numbers.

= 6 103 m,

10

gp

[]

2.8

10

Rgp

4

8

0.1

2.6

[]

30

2.4

0.09

2.2

0.08

0.07

60

1

1.8

120

0.06

1.6

180

0

50

100

1.4

R [m]

1.2

0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19

150

Fig. 16.

Ground plane equivalent loss resistance

Inverted-L antenna over average ground as a function

ground plane radius R0 at 1 MHz, and for different

(n = 1, nc = 1, H = 21 m, Lres = 55.46 m, a

= 102 S/m, r = 10).

for a resonant

of the artificial

radial numbers.

= 6 103 m,

The antenna currents flowing on the ground plane are

dissipating power, due to the finite soil conductivity or losses.

This dissipated power can be calculated knowing the near

magnetic field H, which is equal to the surface current density

Jsu on the soil.

In Fig. 14 a view of the ground plane used to calculate

the ground plane dissipated power can be seen. The ground

plane dissipating power surface is made up by two surfaces,

the artificial ground plane surface g with the buried metallic

radials, and the natural ground plane surface s up to a

distance of half-wavelength.

Thus, the ground plane dissipated power is given by

1

2

| Jsu |2 Rg dg +

g

1

2

0.2

f [MHz]

impedance can be seen for the LF band center frequency of

200 kHz.

In Figs. 12 and 13 an example of the artificial ground plane

impedance can be seen for the MF band center frequency of

1 MHz.

It is interesting to note that the artificial ground plane

impedance, Z g = Rg + j Xg , is increasing as the distance is

increasing, due to the divergence of the star wires.

Wd =

0.05

H/

Fig. 17. Ground plane equivalent loss resistance for a resonant Inverted-L

antenna as a function of frequency, for different antenna heights and over

an average ground, for LF band.

(n = 1, nc = 1, a = 6 103 m,

R0 = 0.05, N = 30, = 102 S/m, r = 10).

dissipated power becomes

Wd =

Where

Wd is the power dissipated in the ground plane [W].

Jsu is the surface current density [A/m].

g is the surface of the artificial ground plane for

0 R0 .

Rg is the real part of the artificial ground plane impedance

Zg [].

s is the surface of the natural ground plane for

R0 /2.

Rs is the real part of the natural ground plane impedance

Zs [].

The surface current density J su is equal to the near magnetic

field H (32) on the artificial and natural ground planes.

/2

| H | Rg d +

2

| H | Rs d

2

R0

(64)

The first integral is the power dissipated in the artificial

ground plane surface g and the second one is the power

dissipated in the natural ground plane surface s .

C. Ground Plane Equivalent Loss Resistance

The ground plane equivalent loss resistance R gp is necessary

to be known, because it is an important factor in the antenna

electric circuit, and it permits the calculation of the total

equivalent loss resistance Rloss in (9).

The ground plane equivalent loss resistance R gp is given by

the ratio between the power dissipated in the ground plane and

the square of the antenna effective input current. Therefore,

Rgp =

2 Wd

I20

(65)

From (64) and (65), it follows that

| Jsu |2 Rs ds (63)

s

R0

Rgp

2

= 2

I0

R0

| H | Rg d +

2

/2

| H | Rs d

2

R0

(66)

The first integral cannot be evaluated in closed form, and it

will be resolved numerically. The second one can be evaluated

analytically and is given in Appendix G.

The ground plane equivalent loss resistance R gp depends

on the antenna height H, the number of radials N, the radius

R0 of the artificial ground plane and the physical constants of

the soil under the antenna.

In Figs. 15 and 16 the ground plane equivalent loss resistance Rgp has been calculated for a resonant Inverted-L

antenna. As an example, this resistance can be seen as a

function of the artificial ground plane radius R 0 , for different

radial numbers N, at the frequencies of 200 kHz and 1 MHz

11

Rgp

1.6

[]

1.4

0.1

1.2

0.09

0.08

12

0.8

0.07

10

0.6

0.06

20

[]

18

16

14

8

6

0.05

0.4

H/

0.2

N

4

8

30

120

0.6

0.8

1.2

2

1.4

1.6

f [MHz]

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

H/

Fig. 18. Ground plane equivalent loss resistance for a resonant Inverted-L

antenna as a function of frequency, for different antenna heights and over

an average ground, for MF band.

(n = 1, nc = 1, a = 6 103 m,

R0 = 0.25, N = 120, = 102 S/m, r = 10).

height and for different numbers of radials N at 200 kHz. (n = 4, nc = 1,

a = 6 103 m, R0 = 0.05, a0 = 1.5 103 m, = 102 S/m,

r = 10).

100

Rgp

25

/ r

[]

10

10

/4

[]

102 / 10

15

3102 / 20

1

N

0

4

8

20

30

120

10

5 / 80

0.1

0.1

10

f [MHz]

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

H/

Fig. 19. Ground plane equivalent loss resistance for a resonant Inverted-L

antenna as a function of frequency and for different soil physical conditions.

(n = 1, nc = 1, H = 0.07, a = 6 103 m, R0 = 0.01, N = 180).

of the low (150 250 kHz) and medium (535 1705 kHz)

broadcast AM bands. In these figures, N = 0 corresponds to

the bare soil.

In Figs. 17 and 18 the ground plane equivalent loss resistance Rgp has been calculated for a resonant Inverted-L antenna, as a function of frequency for different antenna heights,

over an average ground, and for the low (150 250 kHz) and

medium (535 1705 kHz) frequency bands.

In Fig. 19 the ground plane equivalent loss resistance R gp

has been calculated for a resonant Inverted-L antenna

(H = 0.07), over a very small artificial ground plane

(R0 = 0.01), as a function of frequency and for different soil

physical conditions. This is a good representation of the effect

of the soil on the ground plane equivalent loss resistance R gp

to be included in the antenna equivalent series circuit, when

practically no artificial ground plane is used.

X. R ESONANT A NTENNA I NPUT R ESISTANCE

Antenna input resistance R a can be calculated as the sum

of the three main antenna resistances, or radiation resistance

Rrad , wire loss resistance Rc and ground plane equivalent loss

resistance Rgp (Ra = Rrad + Rc + Rgp ).

In Figs. 20 and 21 the resonant X antenna input resistance

has been calculated for the frequencies of 200 kHz and 1 MHz,

height and for different numbers of radials N at 1 MHz. (n = 4, nc = 1,

a = 6 103 m, R0 = 0.25, a0 = 1.5 103 m, = 102 S/m,

r = 10).

ground plane radial numbers and average soil.

In the medium frequency case, the zero radial number result

corresponds to the bare soil. In the low frequency case, the

zero and four radial numbers have practically the same result.

In Fig. 22 an example of the antenna equivalent series

electric circuit can be seen for a resonant X antenna, with a

quarter-wave 120 radials artificial ground plane over average

soil, at a frequency of 1 MHz.

The calculated radiation resistance is R rad = 7.02 ,

conductor resistance R c = 0.15 , ground plane equivalent

loss resistance Rgp = 0.72 , efficiency = 0.89, gain

G = 4.26 dBi, an effective current I 0ef = 11.3 A and input

voltage V0ef = 88.5 V for an input power W in = 1 kW.

XI. A NTENNA E FFICIENCY AND G AIN

Antenna efficiency is determined as the ratio between the

antenna radiated power W rad and the antenna input power

Win . Both powers are calculated using the square of the

antenna effective input current. Therefore,

=

Then

Wrad

Win

(67)

12

TABLE I

I NVERTED -L ANTENNA EFFICIENCY AND GAIN .

f = 200 kHz, H = 105 m, R0 = 75 m, N = 30.

r

S/m

dBi

103

0.585

2.44

102

10

0.743

3.48

3 102

20

0.789

3.74

80

0.897

4.30

TABLE II

T ANTENNA EFFICIENCY AND GAIN .

f = 200 kHz, H = 105 m, R0 = 75 m, N = 30.

H = 21 m, Lres = 25 m, a = 6 103 m, R0 = 75 m, N = 120,

a0 = 1.5 103 m, = 102 S/m, r = 10).

G

[dBi]

r

S/m

dBi

103

0.594

2.51

102

10

0.758

3.57

3 102

20

0.806

3.84

80

0.919

4.41

4.77

1

2

3

4

2

2 Wet soil, = 3 102 S/m, = 20

r

2

3 Average soil, = 10 S/m, r = 10

3

4 Dry soil, = 10 S/m, = 4

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

H/

Fig. 23. Resonant X antenna gain as a function of the antenna height and

for several soil conditions at 200 kHz. (n = 4, nc = 1, a = 6 103 m,

R0 = 75 m, N = 30, a0 = 1.5 103 m).

Rrad

(68)

Ra

Where Ra = Rrad + Rc + Rgp is the antenna input

resistance, and the insulator equivalent loss resistance R i has

been neglected.

The monopole antenna directivity D depends on the antenna

far field radiation pattern and, in spherical coordinates, it is

defined as

=

D = 2

0

4 Pmax

/2

d 0 P(, ) sin d

(69)

For a short top-loaded antenna, the directivity D is practically equal to 3 or D = 4.77 dBi (see Appendix D).

The antenna gain G depends on the directivity D and

efficiency , and it is given by

G = D

bands.

As an example, in Fig. 23 the resonant X antenna gain was

calculated at the frequency of 200 kHz as a function of the

antenna height H/ and for several soil conditions. In low

frequency band, the artificial ground plane radius R 0 is equal

to 0.05 (R0 = 75 m at 200 kHz) and the number of radials

is N = 30.

In Table I the resonant Inverted-L antenna efficiency and

gain, for H = 0.07, have been calculated at the frequency of

200 kHz and for several soil conditions.

In Table II the resonant T antenna efficiency and gain, for

H = 0.07, have been calculated at the frequency of 200 kHz

and for several soil conditions.

In Table III the resonant X antenna efficiency and gain, for

H = 0.07, have been calculated at the frequency of 200 kHz

and for several soil conditions.

In Fig. 24 the resonant X antenna gain can be seen as a

function of the antenna height, for different radial numbers N

and over average ground at 200 kHz.

In Fig. 25 a resonant X antenna gain was calculated at the

frequency of 1 MHz as a function of the antenna height H/

and for several soil conditions. In medium frequency band, the

artificial ground plane radius R 0 is equal to 0.25

(70)

several top-loaded antennas, for different frequencies and soil

TABLE III

X ANTENNA EFFICIENCY AND GAIN .

f = 200 kHz, H = 105 m, R0 = 75 m, N = 30.

r

S/m

dBi

103

0.598

2.54

102

10

0.764

3.60

3 102

20

0.813

3.87

80

0.928

4.45

13

TABLE IV

I NVERTED -L ANTENNA EFFICIENCY AND GAIN .

f = 1.00 MHz, H = 21 m, R0 = 75 m, N = 120.

r

G

[dBi]

4.77

120/180

60

30

S/m

dBi

103

0.777

3.67

102

10

0.877

4.20

3 102

20

0.896

4.29

80

0.940

4.50

4

5

TABLE V

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

H/

f = 1.00 MHz, H = 21 m, R0 = 75 m, N = 120.

r

S/m

dBi

103

0.784

3.71

102

10

0.886

4.25

3 102

20

0.906

4.34

80

0.951

4.55

Fig. 24. Resonant X antenna gain as a function of the antenna height, for

different numbers of radials N and over average ground at 200 kHz. (n = 4,

nc = 1, a = 6 103 m, R0 = 75 m, a0 = 1.5 103 m, = 102 S/m,

r = 10).

G

[dBi]

4.5

4.77

2

3

4

3.5

In Table IV the resonant Inverted-L antenna efficiency and

gain, for H = 0.07, have been calculated at the frequency of

1 MHz and for several soil conditions.

In Table V the resonant T antenna efficiency and gain, for

H = 0.07, have been calculated at the frequency of 1 MHz

and for several soil conditions.

In Table VI the resonant X antenna efficiency and gain, for

H = 0.07, have been calculated at the frequency of 1 MHz

and for several soil conditions.

The small gain increase, in both low and medium frequency

bands, of the T and X antennas compared to the Inverted-L,

is due to the decreased wire loss resistance of the top-load

wires. This wire loss resistance decrease is due to the increase

of the top-load branches n, so the top-load current is divided

accordingly.

It is important to understand that the wire dissipated power

is proportional to the square of the current, so the smaller the

current, the much smaller the wire dissipated power and the

wire loss resistance.

The relative smaller gain of the top-loaded antenna in the

low frequency band, compared to the medium frequency band,

is due to the better artificial ground plane used in the latter.

In Fig. 26 the resonant X antenna gain can be seen as a

TABLE VI

X ANTENNA EFFICIENCY AND GAIN .

f = 1.00 MHz, H = 21 m, R0 = 75 m, N = 120.

r

S/m

dBi

103

0.787

3.73

102

10

0.890

4.26

3 102

20

0.909

4.36

80

0.955

4.57

2

2 Wet soil, = 3 10 S/m, r = 20

3 Average soil, = 102 S/m, r = 10

4 Dry soil, = 103 S/m, = 4

r

2.5

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

H/

Fig. 25. Resonant X antenna gain as a function of the antenna height and

for several soil conditions at 1 MHz. (n = 4, nc = 1, a = 6 103 m,

R0 = 75 m, N = 120, a0 = 1.5 103 m).

N, over average ground at 1 MHz.

In low frequency band (150250 kHz), resonant X antenna

gain has been calculated as a function of number and length

of radials, as it can be seen in Tables VII, VIII and IX for

different soil conditions. This gain is quite similar (within

0.5 dB) in the cases of the Inverted-L and T antennas, and

these tables can be taken as a good reference.

In the case of dry soil ( = 10 3 S/m, r = 4), it can be

seen a gain increase of around 1 dB changing the artificial

ground plane from R 0 = 0.05 and N = 30 to R0 = 0.15

and N = 120.

It can be appreciated from these calculations that the increase of the antenna gain is around 0.5 dB increasing the

ground plane from R 0 = 0.05 and N = 30 to R0 = 0.15

and N = 120 for an average soil ( = 10 2 S/m, r = 10).

In the case of wet soil ( = 3 10 2 S/m, r = 20),

the improvement in gain is less than 0.5 dB increasing the

ground plane in the same manner. In these last cases, the gain

improvement is quite small and it possibly does not pay the

investment in labor and materials, and it must carefully be

analyzed.

In medium frequency band (535 1705 kHz), resonant X

antenna gain has been calculated as a function of number N

and length of radials R 0 , as it can be seen in Tables X, XI

14

TABLE X

4.77

G

[dBi]

f = 1 MHz, H = 21 m, = 103 S/m, r = 4.

120/180

60

30

R0 /

N=4

N=8

N = 30

N = 60

N = 120

N = 180

0.01

-1.92

-1.87

-1.85

-1.85

-1.85

-1.85

0.05

-0.10

0.50

1.01

1.05

1.06

1.07

0.10

0.19

1.08

2.21

2.37

2.42

2.42

0.15

0.26

1.23

2.69

2.97

3.06

3.08

0.20

0.29

1.29

2.93

3.32

3.45

3.48

0.25

0.30

1.32

3.08

3.55

3.73

3.77

0.50

0.32

1.37

3.37

4.07

4.47

4.58

2

3

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

H/

TABLE XI

Fig. 26. Resonant X antenna gain as a function of the antenna height, for

different numbers of radials N and over average ground at 1 MHz. (n = 4,

nc = 1, a = 6 103 m, R0 = 75 m, a0 = 1.5 103 m, = 102 S/m,

r = 10).

f = 1 MHz, H = 21 m, = 102 S/m, r = 10.

R0 /

N=4

N=8

N = 30

N = 60

N = 120

N = 180

0.01

1.36

1.50

1.57

1.58

1.58

1.58

TABLE VII

0.05

1.93

2.41

3.09

3.21

3.25

3.26

0.10

1.98

2.52

3.47

3.73

3.84

3.86

0.15

1.99

2.55

3.57

3.91

4.07

4.11

0.20

1.99

2.55

3.62

3.99

4.19

4.25

0.25

2.00

2.56

3.64

4.04

4.26

4.33

0.50

2.00

2.57

3.68

4.12

4.42

4.53

R0 /

N=4

N=8

N = 30

N = 60

N = 120

N = 180

0.01

0.49

0.63

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.05

1.21

1.77

2.54

2.67

2.71

2.72

0.10

1.29

1.92

3.03

3.34

3.46

3.49

0.15

1.30

1.96

3.18

3.57

3.76

3.81

0.20

1.31

1.97

3.24

3.69

3.92

3.99

0.25

1.31

1.98

3.28

3.75

4.03

4.11

0.50

1.32

1.99

3.33

3.88

4.24

4.38

TABLE VIII

X ANTENNA GAIN G [dBi].

f = 200 kHz, H = 105 m, = 102 S/m, r = 10.

R0 /

N=4

N=8

N = 30

N = 60

N = 120

N = 180

0.01

2.59

2.77

2.95

2.97

2.97

2.97

0.05

2.73

3.04

3.60

3.78

3.87

3.89

0.10

2.74

3.06

3.69

3.95

4.11

4.16

0.15

2.74

3.06

3.72

3.99

4.18

4.25

0.20

2.75

3.07

3.72

4.01

4.22

4.29

0.25

2.75

3.07

3.73

4.02

4.23

4.32

0.50

2.75

3.07

3.73

4.03

4.26

4.36

It can be appreciated from these calculations that the increase of the antenna gain is less than 1 dB increasing the

ground plane from R 0 = 0.25 and N = 30 to R0 = 0.25

and N = 120 for dry soil ( = 10 3 S/m, r = 4).

From N = 60 to N = 120 (R0 = 0.25), the increase

in gain is very small, around 0.2 dB for every soil and, for

this reason, the 120 radial case can be considered an optimum

artificial ground plane, especially for frequencies higher than

1 MHz.

Also, from these tables, an increase in the artificial ground

plane radius R0 more than 0.25 is really not necessary, as it

can be appreciated, due to a very small increase in gain, less

than 0.5 dB. The same can be said for an increase in radial

number from N = 120 to N = 180.

In the case of very dry soil, it must be used the largest

artificial ground plane as possible or maximum radius R 0 and

number of radials N, taking into account that the antenna

TABLE IX

X ANTENNA GAIN G [dBi].

TABLE XII

X ANTENNA GAIN G [dBi].

R0 /

N=4

N=8

N = 30

N = 60

N = 120

N = 180

0.01

3.20

3.35

3.54

3.57

3.58

3.58

0.05

3.26

3.46

3.87

4.03

4.12

4.15

0.10

3.26

3.47

3.91

4.10

4.24

4.29

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.50

3.26

3.26

3.26

3.26

3.47

3.48

3.48

3.48

3.91

3.92

3.92

3.92

4.12

4.12

4.13

4.13

4.27

4.28

4.29

4.30

4.33

4.35

4.36

4.38

R0 /

N=4

N=8

N = 30

N = 60

N = 120

N = 180

0.01

2.36

2.52

2.64

2.65

2.65

2.65

0.05

2.62

2.99

3.59

3.74

3.79

3.80

0.10

2.64

3.03

3.76

4.02

4.15

4.18

0.15

2.65

3.04

3.81

4.10

4.27

4.32

0.20

2.65

3.04

3.82

4.13

4.32

4.39

0.25

2.65

3.05

3.83

4.15

4.36

4.43

0.50

2.65

3.05

3.85

4.18

4.42

4.52

15

f

[kHz]

2.5

4.5

VSWR

f

[kHz]

10 / 4

102 / 10

3102 / 20

3.5

/ r

3

10 / 4

102 / 10

2

310 / 20

VSWR

1.5

2.5

1.5

1.5

1

1.5

1.25

0.5

1.25

1

0.5

0

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

H/

0.1

height and for different soil conditions at 200 kHz. (n = 1, nc = 1,

a = 6 103 m, R0 = 0.05, N = 30, a0 = 1.5 103 m).

f 4

[kHz]3.5

/ r

10 / 4

102 / 10

3102 / 20

3

2.5

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

H/

0.1

and for different soil conditions at 200 kHz. (n = 4, nc = 1, a = 6103 m,

R0 = 0.05, N = 30, a0 = 1.5 103 m).

f 14

[kHz] 12

VSWR

0

0.04

10

VSWR

103 / 4

102 / 10

2

310 / 20

1.5

1.5

1

1.5

1.25

0.5

1.25

2

0

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

H/

0.1

and for different soil conditions at 200 kHz. (n = 2, nc = 1, a = 6103 m,

R0 = 0.05, N = 30, a0 = 1.5 103 m).

half-wavelength. This is not so important for high conductivity

soils, because the increase in gain is very small from the

optimum artificial ground plane.

XII. A NTENNA BANDWIDTH

The antenna bandwidth is defined according to a maximum

value of the reflection coefficient max or maximum standing

wave ratio (VSWR) presented by the antenna input impedance

within the bandpass band, with respect to the antenna input

resistance at the center frequency f 0 .

Due to the small variation in the antenna input resistance

within the bandpass band, the antenna input reactance is

responsible of the antenna bandwidth and, for this reason, its

variation must carefully be taken under control. This input

reactance is a function of the top-load type and operation

frequency. The lower the frequency, the greater the input reactance variation, and more difficult is to achieve the necessary

bandwidth for a broadcast transmission.

For a high fidelity AM transmission, a bandwidth of

10 kHz minimum is necessary, and for a VSWR less than

1.25 should be the ideal.

This is a very difficult task to be achieved, especially in the

low frequency band. Bandwidth calculations have been carried

out for different top-loaded antennas, in both low and medium

0

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

H/

0.1

Fig. 30.

Resonant Inverted-L antenna bandwidth as a function of the

antenna height and for different soil conditions at 1 MHz. (n = 1, nc = 1,

3

a = 6 10

m, R0 = 0.25, N = 120, a0 = 1.5 103 m).

compatible with the previous task. For this reason, bandwidth

calculations for VSWR of 1.25, 1.50 and 2.00 have been

carried out on each band.

In the low frequency band (150 250 kHz), the antenna

bandwidths calculated at 200 kHz for the Inverted-L, T and X

antennas and for different soil conditions can be seen in Figs.

27, 28 and 29.

Clearly, the antenna impedance is very sharp and the VSWR

is very high at the specified bandwidth of 10 kHz. This

problem does not permit a high fidelity transmission, but only

speech transmissions. At the same time, it can be seen that

the best result is obtained using the X antenna, because an

improved bandwidth is obtained compared to the L and T

antenna types. Using a top-load with more branches, like an

8-Star antenna, the bandwidth is quite similar to the X antenna,

and it does not pay the investment in wiring and support

towers.

In the medium frequency band (535 1705 kHz), the

antenna bandwidths calculated at 1 MHz for the Inverted-L

and T antennas and for different soil conditions can be seen

in Figs. 30 and 31.

From these figures, an improved bandwidth has been

achieved compared to the low frequency band behavior of

these antennas, nevertheless, for a low VSWR operation the

16

f 20

[kHz] 18

18

f

[kHz] 16

VSWR

14

12

10 / 4

102 / 10

3102 / 20

/ r

16

14

10

10

1.5

1.25

1.25

0

0.04

2

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

H/

0.1

and for different soil conditions at 1 MHz. (n = 2, nc = 1, a = 6 103 m,

R0 = 0.25, N = 120, a0 = 1.5 103 m).

8

7

12

1.5

f 10

[kHz] 9

VSWR

10 / 4

102 / 10

3102 / 20

/ r

3

10 / 4

102 / 10

3102 / 20

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

H/

0.1

and for different soil conditions at 1 MHz. (n = 4, nc = 1, a = 6 103 m,

R0 = 0.25, N = 120, a0 = 1.5 103 m).

f 40

[kHz] 35

VSWR

0.05

VSWR

103 / 4

102 / 10

3102 / 20

30

25

6

20

1.5

1.5

15

4

10

1.25

2

1

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

1.25

H/

0.1

0

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

H/

0.1

and for different soil conditions at 550 kHz. (n = 4, nc = 1, a = 6103 m,

R0 = 0.25, N = 120, a0 = 1.5 103 m).

and for different soil conditions at 1.7 MHz. (n = 4, nc = 1, a = 6103 m,

R0 = 0.25, N = 120, a0 = 1.5 103 m).

antenna, it can be seen that a bandwidth of 5 kHz is achieved

for a VSWR of 1.5 and, in the T antenna case, a bandwidth

of 8 kHz is achieved for the same VSWR, for H = 0.08.

From previous calculations, the X antenna has an improved

bandwidth compared to both the Inverted-L and T antennas.

For this reason, the X antenna bandwidth was calculated, and

it is shown in Figs. 32, 33 and 34, for 550 kHz, 1 MHz and

1.7 MHz, respectively.

Clearly, the X antenna has a bandwidth of 10 kHz for

a VSWR of 1.5 at the frequency of 1 MHz, for an antenna

height close to 0.08. Of course, it is sharper at 550 kHz and

it has a wider bandwidth at 1.7 MHz, exceeding the required

10 kHz, as it can be appreciated in the figures.

According to these results, care must be taken in order

to choose these antennas for a high fidelity operation, especially taking into account the frequency within the medium

frequency AM band, because, in the lower part, the required

10 kHz bandwidth is difficult to be obtained for a very low

VSWR operation.

This problem can be attenuated choosing a higher antenna,

because the antenna bandwidth can be improved increasing

the antenna height. This problem can be very difficult to be

solved if the antenna height is lower than 0.07, especially in

the lower part of the medium frequency band. In the upper

part, even an antenna height close to 0.05 can be used with

low radiation resistance, especially for dry soils.

In a low budget case and in the upper part of the band, the

Inverted-L and T antennas can be used, because in this part

of the band they can offer enough bandwidth for a moderate

broadcast operation.

XIII. T OP - LOAD TIP VOLTAGE

The top-load tip voltage V L (28) has been calculated for

the resonant Inverted-L (n = 1), T (n = 2), X (n = 4) and

8-Star (n = 8) antennas. This knowledge is very important in

order to design the supporting insulators, especially when the

antenna has to work with high power.

In Figs. 35 and 36 the tip effective voltage can be seen as

a function of the antenna height, for an antenna input power

of 1 kW and for average soil. The tip voltage calculation

requires the knowledge of the antenna equivalent circuit,

whose components permit the antenna current determination.

This voltage is very high in the case of the Inverted-L

antenna and for the lower antenna heights. At the same time,

it can be seen that this voltage is smaller as the branches of

the top-load are increasing. When the antenna height is close

to 0.1, this voltage is quite similar for any type of loading.

For an X antenna, the tip voltage is moderate and almost

independent of the antenna height for heights higher than

0.04.

17

18

1.6

[kV]

16

Htot/

14

1.2

12

10

8

6

4

2

4

8

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

H/

Fig. 35. Top-load tip effective voltage for resonant top-loaded antennas as

a function of the antenna height at 200 kHz. (nc = 1, a = 6 103 m,

R0 = 0.05, N = 30, a0 = 1.5 103 m, = 102 S/m, r = 10).

VL

20

[kV]

18

16

14

12

10

8

4

4

2

Antenna Type

1

2

4

8

"Inverted L"

"T"

"X"

"8Star"

1.4

8

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

H/

Fig. 36. Top-load tip effective voltage for resonant top-loaded antennas as

a function of the antenna height at 1 MHz. (nc = 1, a = 6 103 m,

R0 = 0.25, N = 120, a0 = 1.5 103 m, = 102 S/m, r = 10).

Low and medium frequency top-loaded antennas are made

up of metallic wiring and, for achieving the antenna resonance

for a given height, the top-load wire length L must be varied

to a value of L res (12).

In Fig. 37 the antenna total length H tot = H + n Lres value

for the Inverted-L (n = 1), T (n = 2), X (n = 4) and 8-Star

(n = 8) antennas is presented as a function of the antenna

height (H/) calculated at 1 MHz.

This figure shows that the Inverted-L antenna is using

the minimum top-load length L res , compared to the other

antenna types. At the same time, it is interesting to see that,

approximately, a quarter-wave total wire length H tot is needed

for this antenna to achieve the resonance condition, and this

effect occurs for any antenna height. This result is practically

the same for any frequency expressing the dimensions in

wavelengths, and the small difference is due to the equivalent

transmission lines characteristic impedance ratio Z 0t /Z0m , as

it is indicated in (12).

This effect is exclusive for the resonant Inverted-L

antenna and it does not occur for the other antenna types.

XV. G AIN AND F IELD S TRENGTH

The antenna community is using the term antenna gain G

with a reference to an isotropic source. This term is expressed

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

8

4

2

n

0.02

1

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

H/

Fig. 37. Resonant top-loaded antenna total length (Htot = H + n Lres ) as

a function of the antenna height, for different top-load branches n at 1 MHz.

field strength is a magnitude that depends on the distance and,

for this reason, a reference distance is of common use.

This reference distance is generally chosen to be 1 km

and field strength E is expressed in mV/m or dBV/m for

an antenna input power of 1 kW. Usually, this distance is

assumed to be adequate for analyzing a radiated field, free of

induction effects. This is almost true for the medium frequency

band, where 1 km is a distance close to 1.8 wavelengths at

the band lowest frequency.

Nevertheless, a distance of 1 km is half-wavelength at

150 kHz.

In this latter case, this distance should be increased to higher

values, at least to 5 km, in order to measure an actual radiating

field free of any induction component.

In Table XIII antenna gains are indicated and the unattenuated E-field strength values are presented at the distance of

1 km for an antenna input power of 1 kW .

XVI. C ONCLUSION

Top-loaded antennas have been analyzed. From this analysis, it is pointed out the following:

Efficiency could be very high when the antenna height is

higher than 0.07 and with an artificial ground plane of

0.25 and 120 radials in medium frequency band. Field

strength will be close to a quarter-wave monopole case. In

low frequency band, an optimum artificial ground plane

is achieved with a radius of 0.1 and 30 or 60 radials.

Radiation resistance is not only a function of the antenna

height, but a function of the top-base current relationship

too.

Radiation pattern is found to be a complicated mathematical function of the zenith angle . In the case of

a very short top-loaded antenna, this function reduces

to a simple sin (see (116) in Appendix C). As a

consequence, the directivity is a little bit greater than

4.77 dBi (see Appendix D).

Inverted-L antenna has been found to have the minimum

wiring in order to achieve the self-resonance. It was

found that the wire total length (H tot ) is independent

18

TABLE XIII

A NTENNA GAIN AND E- FIELD S TRENGTH

dBi

mV/m

dBV/m

5.0

3.16

307.9

109.76

4.8

3.02

301.0

109.57

4.6

2.88

294.0

109.37

4.4

2.75

287.2

109.16

4.2

2.63

280.9

108.97

4.0

2.51

274.4

108.77

3.8

2.40

268.3

108.57

3.6

2.29

262.1

108.37

3.4

2.19

256.3

108.18

3.2

2.09

250.4

107.97

3.0

2.00

244.9

107.78

2.8

1.90

238.7

107.56

2.6

1.82

233.7

107.37

2.4

1.74

228.5

107.18

2.2

1.66

223.2

106.97

2.0

1.58

217.7

106.76

1.8

1.51

212.8

106.56

1.6

1.45

208.6

106.38

1.4

1.38

203.5

106.17

1.2

1.32

199.0

105.98

1.0

1.26

194.4

105.77

minimum bandwidth compared to the other top-loaded

antennas, so this effect must be taken into account before

choosing the right antenna model.

This antenna can advantageously be used for other services when the bandwidth is not a constraint, due to its

simple construction.

Wire loss resistance depends on the top-load type and on

the current distribution along the antenna wiring.

Separation between radiated and dissipated power is a

very difficult task. For these reason, these calculations

have a logical limitation, due to the use of a hemispherical

surface half-wavelength in radius for the ground plane

power dissipation. However, measurements indicate that

very good results are obtained from this approach.

Ground plane equivalent loss resistance is not only a

function of the lengths and number of radials and soil

constants, but it is a function of the antenna height too.

Antenna bandwidth is highly dependent on the antenna

type and on the operation frequency. An important bandwidth increase can be achieved using an X antenna type,

instead of an Inverted-L or T. Increasing the top-load

branches more than four, the increase in bandwidth is

quite small, and the antenna complexity is going to be

very high.

In the low frequency band, bandwidth is quite scarce for

any top-loaded antenna type and must carefully be evaluated in order to obtain a good quality speech transmission.

In this band, this kind of antennas is practically the only

choice, due to the antenna size.

to obtain a high fidelity bandwidth. This antenna property

improves with the frequency and, in the upper end of this

band, even an Inverted-L or T type can give the necessary

bandwidth for a broadcast high fidelity transmission.

Ground plane must carefully be chosen in order to get an

optimum performance, and it must be free of obstacles

up to a half-wavelength radius for several reasons:

(a)

For an optimum antenna operation.

(b)

For personnel protection, due to the high intensity fields close to the antenna when the input

power is higher than 1 kW.

(c)

A short antenna does not mean that it can

be installed in the small plot surrounded by

obstacles, because its performance can suffer

notably and, for this reason, the transmitting

house must be installed at a minimum distance

of half-wavelength away from the antenna place.

(d)

These conditions must be fulfilled.

A PPENDIX A

C URRENT AND VOLTAGE D ISTRIBUTIONS

For the antenna vertical wire, it is well known that the

current and voltage distributions along a low loss transmission

line, of characteristic impedance Z 0m , are given by [8]

I(z) = I0 cos z j

V0

sin z

Z0m

(71)

(72)

0zH

Where I0 and V0 are the antenna input current and voltage.

V0 = j Xa I0

(73)

Xa

I(z) = I0 cos z +

sin z

Z0m

(74)

(75)

0zH

At the antenna top, z = H,

It

I(z = H)

Xa

=

= cos H +

sin H

I0

I0

Z0m

Vt = V(z = H) = j I0 (Xa cos H Z0m sin H)

(76)

(77)

considered as a low loss transmission line, of characteristic

impedance Z 0t , will be [8]

I() =

It

Vt

cos j

sin

n

Z0t

(78)

19

V() = Vt cos j

It

Z0t sin

n

A PPENDIX B

N EAR F IELD

(79)

according to Fig. 4. Therefore,

0L

Where It and Vt are the antenna top current and voltage.

R2 = (z z )2 + 2

(93)

Vt = j Xt It

r21 = (z H)2 + 2

(94)

r22 = (z + H)2 + 2

(95)

r 2 = z 2 + 2

(96)

(80)

It

sin

I() =

cos

n

tan L

Z0t

sin

V() = j It Xt cos

n

(81)

(82)

current distribution along the z-axis, has only one component

in the z-direction, that is

H

0

ejR

dz

I(z )

(97)

Az =

4 H

R

(83)

becomes

0L

At the top-load wire tip,

IL = I( = L) = 0

Z0t

VL = V( = L) = j It Xt cos L

sin L

n

(84)

I(z) =

Im sin ( + + z) for H z 0

Im sin ( z) for

0zH

Where

I(z) = I0 cos z

2

Xa

I m = I0 1 +

Z0m

Xa

= arctan

Z0m

(85)

(86)

0zH

(87)

Vt = j I0 Z0m sin H

(88)

It

n

cos

sin

tan Lres

VL = j I0

Z0t cos H

n sin Lres

0 Im

Az =

4

(89)

0 Lres

(91)

(92)

(99)

(100)

(101)

Thus,

Z0t

sin

V() = j I0 cos H Z0m tan H cos +

n

(90)

IL = 0

It

= cos H

I0

I() =

(98)

H

H

sin ( + + z )

sin ( z )

ejR

dz

R

(102)

ejR

dz

R

or

0 Im j H ej(R+z )

Az = j

e

dz

8

R

0

H j(Rz )

e

ej

dz

R

0

0 j(Rz )

+

e

dz

ej

R

H

0 j(R+z )

+

e

dz

+ ej

R

H

Then, the magnetic and electric fields are given by

(103)

20

1 Az

0

(104)

r1

= r H cos

(111)

j 1 ( H )

0

(105)

r2

= r + H cos

(112)

H =

Ez =

it follows that

Im

H

H =

ej 1

ej(r1 +H) ej (106)

4

r1

H

j

j(r1 H)

j

e

e

1+

e

r1

j(r1 +H)

j Im

H

H

j e

Ez =

e

j 1

(107)

4 0

r1

r21

r1

+j ej

ej

ej(r1 H)

r1

H

H

+ j 1 +

r21

r1

+j ej

magnetic and electric fields, for z = 0, will be

H =

I0 ejr1

2

H

cos H + j sin H

r1

A PPENDIX C

FAR F IELD

The far fields can be obtained from (104) and (105) using

the transformation from cylindrical to spherical coordinates.

Therefore,

= r sin

=

(110)

z = r cos

Im ejr

f ()

2 r

E = j Z00

Im ejr

f ()

2 r

(113)

(114)

Where

sin (H ) cos (H cos )

(115)

sin

sin cos (H ) cos sin (H cos )

+

sin

is the top-loaded monopole antenna field radiation pattern, Z00 = 377 is the free space intrinsic impedance, I m

is given by (99) and by (100).

f () =

the resonant top-loaded monopole antenna field radiation

pattern is given by

(108)

H = j

f0 () =

H cos H j H cos H sin H

+

r31

r21

r1

(109)

The magnetic field expression is exactly the same obtained

by Wait and Surtees [11] by means of a different approach,

assuming a sinusoidal antenna current distribution. In this

presentation, the current distribution has been obtained by

means of an equivalent transmission line model. In this case,

the maximum current I m in (99) depends on the antenna

reactance Xa and is going to be I 0 when the antenna is

resonant (Xa = 0), while the parameter in (100) is going

to be zero.

j I0 ejr1

Ez =

2 0

hemisphere (0 /2), are given by

sin

(116)

(116), then the far magnetic and electric fields are exactly the

same of the Hertz monopole. Therefore,

H = j

H I0 ejr

sin

2

r

E = j Z00

H I0 ejr

sin

2

r

(117)

(118)

Where

f() = sin

(119)

If = /2, then r = , z = 0 and f 0 (/2) = sin H. Thus,

the far magnetic and electric fields on the earth surface, for

any resonant top-loaded antenna, become

H = j

I0 ej

sin H

2

E = j Z00

I0 ej

sin H

2

(120)

(121)

of the far electric field on the earth surface becomes

21

TABLE XIV

Ez = j Z00

I0 e

2

sin H

(122)

H/

dBi

0.010

3.0008

4.7724

0.015

3.0018

4.7738

0.020

3.0032

4.7758

0.025

3.0049

4.7783

0.030

3.0071

4.7814

0.035

3.0096

4.7851

0.040

3.0125

4.7893

0.045

3.0158

4.7941

0.050

3.0195

4.7993

(124)

0.055

3.0235

4.8051

0.060

3.0279

4.8114

its maximum value. When the antenna beam has cylindrical

symmetry, the power density is only a function of the zenith

angle , so P(, ) = P().

For a resonant top-loaded antenna,

0.065

3.0327

4.8182

0.070

3.0377

4.8255

0.075

3.0432

4.8332

0.080

3.0489

4.8414

0.085

3.0549

4.8500

0.090

3.0613

4.8591

0.095

3.0680

4.8685

0.100

3.0749

4.8783

A PPENDIX D

D IRECTIVITY

The antenna directivity D can be expressed as

4

D=

B

(123)

Where

B=

/2

d

0

P(, )

sin d

Pmax

f 2 ()

P()

= 20

Pmax

f0 (/2)

(125)

The integration in (124) can be carried out to give

sin 4H sin 2H

+

B=

4H

2H

2 sin2 H

(126)

Where

0

4H

1 cos u

du

u

sin 4H sin 2H

+

cos 2H 1 + Cin(4H)

4H

2H

(130)

Where the Cin function is given by (127).

In Table XV the resonant top-loaded antenna radiation

resistance has been calculated using the exact expression

(130), the approximate equation (54), where the top to base

current ratio I t /I0 = cos H is taken into account, and the

Hertz monopole radiation resistance (44), where I t /I0 = 1.

It can be seen that the Hertz monopole expression (44) can

only be used for antenna heights less than 0.04, while the

approximate expression (54) is valid up to 0.1 with an error

less than 5%.

Rrad = 15

cos 2H 1 + Cin(4H)

Cin(4H) =

The integration can be performed analytically to give

(127)

has been calculated as a function of the antenna height (H/).

Exact results are very close to the Hertz monopole directivity

of 4.77 dBi within 0.1 dB.

A PPENDIX E

R ADIATION R ESISTANCE

A PPENDIX F

W IRE L OSS R ESISTANCE

Rrad

2 Wrad

=

I20

(128)

Where Wrad is the power radiated into space by the toploaded antenna, and I 0 is the peak value of the antenna input

current.

Following the standard procedure [5], the radiation resistance of a resonant top-loaded antenna will be

/2

f02 () sin d

(129)

Rrad = 60

0

for a resonant antenna is given by

Rl

Rc = 2

I0

I (z) dz + n

0

Lres

I () d

(131)

Where

1

Rl =

a

and

f 0

4 c

(132)

22

TABLE XV

A PPENDIX G

G ROUND P LANE E QUIVALENT L OSS R ESISTANCE

was obtained as

H/

Exact

Approx.

Hertz

0.010

0.15766

0.15760

0.15791

0.015

0.35405

0.35373

0.35531

0.020

0.62768

0.62668

0.63165

0.025

0.97727

0.97485

0.98696

0.030

1.40120

1.39620

1.42120

0.035

1.89740

1.88810

1.93440

0.040

2.46360

2.44790

2.52660

0.045

3.09710

3.07200

3.19780

0.050

3.79500

3.75700

3.94780

0.055

4.55400

4.49870

4.77690

0.060

5.37070

5.29270

5.68490

0.065

6.24110

6.13440

6.67190

0.070

7.16140

7.01890

7.73780

0.075

8.12740

7.94090

8.88260

0.080

9.13460

8.89500

10.1060

0.085

10.1780

9.87570

11.4090

0.090

11.2540

10.8770

12.7910

0.095

12.3580

11.8940

14.2520

0.100

13.4830

12.9190

15.7910

I(z) = I0 cos z

I() =

I0 cos H

n

Rgp

sin

tan Lres

2

I20

(133)

sin 2Lres

4

(134)

Therefore,

sin 2H

H+

(137)

2

1

cos2 H Lres

1+

+

n

2

tan2 Lres

sin 2Lres

1

cos 2Lres 1

+

1

+

4

2 tan Lres

tan2 Lres

Rc = Rl

1

2

| H | Rs d

2

R0

/2

| H |2 Rs d =

R0

2 + H2

Rs

R

0

cos2 H

ln

2

R0 2 + 4 H2

sin2 H

+ ln

2 R0

1

cos H Lres

1+

(136)

2

2

n

2

tan Lres

1

cos 2Lres 1

1

+

2 tan Lres

tan2 Lres

I2 () d =

| H | Rg d +

/2

R0

(140)

A PPENDIX H

G LOSSARY OF S YMBOLS

and

I20

2

i=K

2

| H |2 Rg d

| H (i ) |2 Rg (i ) i wi

= 2

I0

0

i=1

(139)

Where {wi } are the weights of an adaptive Gauss-Lobatto

quadrature rule.

The second integration can be carried out to give

2

I20

H

I2

sin 2H

I2 (z) dz = 0 H +

(135)

2

2

0

R0

0 Lres

(138)

Where

H is the near magnetic field given by (108) [A/m].

Rg is the artificial ground plane resistance at the operation

frequency, given by (62) [].

Rs is the soil resistance at the operation frequency, given

by (60) [].

0zH

cos

2

= 2

I0

a

A

a0

B

Ct

D

E

r

f0 ()

f ()

G

H

H

I0

I()

It

I(z)

j

Magnetic vector potential [Wb/m].

Radius of wire used in artificial ground plane [m].

Radiation pattern beam area.

Top capacitance of a top-loaded antenna [F].

Antenna directivity.

Antenna efficiency.

Electric field intensity [V/m].

Soil relative permittivity.

Resonant top-loaded antenna field radiation pattern.

Top-loaded antenna field radiation pattern.

Antenna gain.

Magnetic field intensity [A/m].

Antenna height [m].

Peak value of the antenna input current [A].

Current distribution on the antenna top-load [A].

Peak value of the antenna top current [A].

Current distribution on the antenna vertical part [A].

1 imaginary unit.

23

Jsu

L

Lres

n

nc

Antenna top-load length [m].

Resonant antenna top-load length [m].

Number of top-load branches.

Number of wires in each equivalent transmission

line.

N

Number of radials.

P

Radiated power density [W/m 2 ].

Q

Antenna merit factor.

Artificial ground plane radius [m].

R0

Antenna input resistance [].

Ra

Rc

Wire loss resistance [].

Rg

Artificial ground plane resistance [].

Rgp Ground plane equivalent loss resistance [].

Ri

Insulator equivalent loss resistance [].

Wire resistance per unit length [/m].

Rl

Rrad Antenna radiation resistance [].

Rs

Soil resistance [].

Wire conductivity [S/m].

c

V0

Peak value of the antenna input voltage [V].

Peak value of the antenna top-load tip voltage [V].

VL

V() Voltage distribution on the antenna top-load [V].

Peak value of the antenna top voltage [V].

Vt

V(z) Voltage distribution on the antenna vertical part [V].

Wc Power dissipated in the antenna wires [W].

Wd Power dissipated in the antenna ground plane [W].

Win Antenna input power [W].

Wrad Antenna radiated power [W].

Antenna input reactance [].

Xa

Xt

Antenna top reactance [].

Near field space impedance [].

Z0

Z00 Free space intrinsic impedance (377 ).

Z0m Equivalent transmission line average characteristic

impedance of the antenna vertical part [].

transmission

line

characteristic

Z0t Equivalent

impedance of the antenna top-load [].

Antenna input impedance [].

Za

Zg

Artificial ground plane impedance [].

Zr

Ground screen impedance [].

Soil impedance [].

Zs

Zt

Antenna top impedance [].

Wiley & Sons, N. Y., 1982, 1998.

[8] W. C. Johnson, Transmission Lines and Networks, Mc. Graw Hill, N.

Y., 1950.

[9] J. J. Karakash, Transmission Lines and Filter Networks, The Macmillan

Company, N. Y., 1950.

[10] J. E. Storer, The Impedance of an Antenna over a Large Circular Screen,

J. of App. Physics, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1058-1066, August 1951.

[11] J. R. Wait and W. J. Surtees, Impedance of a Top-Loaded Antenna of

Arbitrary Length over a Circular Grounded Screen, J. of App. Physics,

vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 553-555, May 1954.

[12] C. W. Harrison and R. W. P. King, On the Impedance of a Base-Driven

Vertical Antenna with a Radial Ground System, IRE Trans. on Antennas

and Prop., vol. AP-10, no. 9, pp. 640-642, Sept. 1962.

[13] V. Trainotti, Simplified Calculation of Coverage Area for MF AM

Broadcast Station, IEEE A & P Magazine, pp. 41-44, June 1990.

[14] J. K. Breakall, M. W. Jacobs, T. F. King and A. E. Resnik, Testing and

Results of a New Efficient Low-Profile AM Medium Frequency Antenna

System, NAB 2003 Broadcast Engineering Conference Proceedings, pp.

235-243, April 2003.

[15] G. H. Brown, R. F. Lewis and J. Epstein, Ground System as a Factor in

Antenna Efficiency, Proc. IRE, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 758-787, June 1937.

[16] F. R. Abbott, Design of Optimum Buried-Conductor RF Ground System,

Proc. IRE, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 846-852, July 1952.

[17] V. Trainotti, MF AM Asymmetric Vertical Dipole Antenna Measurements, IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 333-339, Dec.

1996.

1935. He received the Electronic Engineering Degree from the Universidad Tecnologica Nacional,

Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1963.

His post-graduate coursework on antenna measurements and geometric theory of diffraction was

completed at California State University in 1981 and

Ohio State University in 1985.

He has worked from 1963 to 2003 at CITEFA

as the Antenna & Propagation Division Chief Engineer.

His work also includes being on the Engineering Faculty at the University

of Buenos Aires as a part-time Full Professor of Electromagnetic Radiation

and Radiating Systems for graduate students.

He is an IEEE Senior Member, Member of the IEEE Ad-Com BTS Society,

the IEEE BTS Argentina Chapter Chair, the URSI Commission B Argentina

Chair, and the 1993 IEEE Region 9 Eminent Engineer.

He has worked more than thirty years developing and measuring antenna

systems for several applications from LF to SHF.

R EFERENCES

[1] V. Trainotti, Short Medium Frequency AM Antennas, IEEE Trans. on

Broadcasting, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 263-284, Sept. 2001.

[2] S. A. Schelkunoff and H. T. Friis, Antenna Theory and Practice, John

Wiley & Sons, N. Y., 1952.

[3] E. Laport, Radio Antenna Engineering, Mc. Graw Hill, N. Y., 1952.

[4] E. C. Jordan, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems, PrenticeHall Inc., N. Y., 1950.

[5] J. D. Kraus, Antennas, Mc. Graw Hill, N. Y., 1950.

[6] C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons,

N. Y., 1982, 1997.

in 1976. He received the Electronic Engineering

Degree from the Universidad Nacional de Tucuman,

Tucuman, Argentina, in 2001, and is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree.

He has developed commercial and academic simulation software related to computational electromagnetics, especially moment method algorithms

for computing radiation and scattering from wire

structures and antennas.

He is currently working on new numerical and

analytical analysis tools and techniques for solving problems in these areas.

His research interest include computer simulation of EMC problems and

antennas over real ground.

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