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Section 0.2 Water Treatment Process

Section 0.2 Water Treatment Process 清华大学环境学院 Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering Physicochemical

清华大学环境学院

Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

Physicochemical Technology

1. Properties of natural water

1. Properties of natural water Surface water Ground water Pics obtained from Internet 清华大学环境学院 Water and
Surface water Ground water
Surface water
Ground water
1. Properties of natural water Surface water Ground water Pics obtained from Internet 清华大学环境学院 Water and

Pics obtained from Internet

清华大学环境学院

Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

Physicochemical Technology

1. Properties of natural water

1. Properties of natural water Impurity: grit, bacteria, humics, salts, etc. Unacceptable for domestic or industrial
Impurity: grit, bacteria, humics, salts, etc. Unacceptable for domestic or industrial use Treatment
Impurity: grit, bacteria, humics, salts, etc.
Unacceptable for domestic or industrial use
Treatment

River water (sample)

Meet water quality standards

清华大学环境学院

Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

Physicochemical Technology

2. Water quality standards in China

Drinking water

Standards for drinking water quality” (GB 5749-2006): 106 items

Industrial water

Classified according to different use:

Industrial process, boiler, washing, cooling, etc.

Water quality requirements differ in industries:

Code for design of industrial recirculating cooling water treatment” (GB 50050-2007) “Water quality for industrial boilers” (GB 1576-2001) ……

quality for industrial boilers ” (GB 1576-2001) …… 清华大学环境学院 Water and Wastewater Treatment

清华大学环境学院

Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

Physicochemical Technology

3. Drinking water treatment process

Uncontaminated surface water as the source:

Disinfectant
Disinfectant

Coagulant

Coagulation
Coagulation

Water

supply

network

Sedimentation
Sedimentation
Filtration Disinfection residual particles intercepted
Filtration
Disinfection
residual particles intercepted
Filtration Disinfection residual particles intercepted Influent Clarification To remove suspended solids ,

Influent

Clarification
Clarification

To remove suspended solids, colloids and pathogenic microorganisms to meet the turbidity and microbial quality standards.

to meet the turbidity and microbial quality standards. • Total coliforms, heat-resistant coliform bacteria and

Total coliforms, heat-resistant coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli should not be detected in 100 mL water sample.

The total bacteria < 100 CFU/mL

Turbidity < 1 NTU

清华大学环境学院

Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

Physicochemical Technology

3. Drinking water treatment process

Uncontaminated surface water as the source:

Beijing No. 9 waterworks
Beijing No. 9 waterworks
Influent Clarification Filtration Disinfection Water supply network
Influent
Clarification
Filtration
Disinfection
Water supply
network

清华大学环境学院

Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

Physicochemical Technology

Water supply network 清华大学环境学院 Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering Physicochemical Technology

3. Drinking water treatment process

Uncontaminated ground water (without specific pollutants) as the source:

The main objective: pathogenic microorganisms

Well water
Well water
Chlorine Clean-water tank
Chlorine
Clean-water tank
microorganisms Well water Chlorine Clean-water tank Water supply network To meet the water standards of
Water supply network
Water supply
network

To meet the water standards of microbial quality.

network To meet the water standards of microbial quality. 清华大学环境学院 Water and Wastewater Treatment

清华大学环境学院

Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

Physicochemical Technology

3. Drinking water treatment process

Treatment process for micro-polluted source water

Biological pretreatment
Biological
pretreatment
for micro-polluted source water Biological pretreatment Powdered activated carbon (PAC) Oxidant Pretreatment

Powdered

activated

carbon

(PAC)

Oxidant

pretreatment Powdered activated carbon (PAC) Oxidant Pretreatment Polluted source water (organics, ammonia, etc.)
Pretreatment
Pretreatment

Polluted source water (organics, ammonia, etc.)

Conventional treatment

Conventional treatment Disinfectant Coagulant Coagulation Sedimentation Filtration Water supply network

Disinfectant

Coagulant

Coagulation Sedimentation Filtration
Coagulation
Sedimentation
Filtration

Water

supply

network

Advanced treatment
Advanced
treatment
Clean-water tank
Clean-water
tank
supply network Advanced treatment Clean-water tank Disinfector Activated carbon Ozone Source water

Disinfector

Activated carbon
Activated
carbon
Ozone
Ozone
Clean-water tank Disinfector Activated carbon Ozone Source water •Additional pretreatment •Enhanced

Source

water

•Additional pretreatment •Enhanced conventional treatment •Advanced treatment 清华大学环境学院 Water and
•Additional pretreatment
•Enhanced conventional treatment
•Advanced treatment
清华大学环境学院
Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering
Physicochemical Technology

3. Drinking water treatment process

Treatment processes for specific source water:

For high turbidity water:

Pre-sedimentation

For ground water with iron and manganese:

Remove iron and manganese

For ground water with high hardness:

Softening

For water from eutrophication lakes:

Enhanced removal of algae

water from eutrophication lakes: Enhanced removal of algae 清华大学环境学院 Water and Wastewater Treatment

清华大学环境学院

Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

Physicochemical Technology

4. Industrial water treatment process

Softening & desalination

Filtration permeate
Filtration
permeate

Cation exchange
Cation
exchange
& desalination Filtration permeate ⇒ Cation exchange 清华大学环境学院 Water and Wastewater Treatment

清华大学环境学院

Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

Physicochemical Technology

Anion exchange
Anion
exchange

Desalinated water
Desalinated
water

5. Hot research topics

Removal of trace organics
Effective control of pathogenic microorganisms
Control of disinfection by-products
Improvement of biological stability
……

• Improvement of biological stability • …… 清华大学环境学院 Water and Wastewater Treatment
• Improvement of biological stability • …… 清华大学环境学院 Water and Wastewater Treatment

清华大学环境学院

Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineering

Physicochemical Technology