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Railway Electrification - Lessons for the future

Railway Electrification - Lessons for the future Interfaces between AC and DC Systems An Inconvenient Coexistence
Railway Electrification - Lessons for the future Interfaces between AC and DC Systems An Inconvenient Coexistence

Interfaces between AC and DC Systems An Inconvenient Coexistence

Tony Fella Atkins Technical Authority DC Traction Power Supply Systems

Once upon a time…… 2
Once upon a time…… 2

Once upon a time……

Once upon a time…… 2

2

life …

life … was simple (or maybe just less complicated). There were DC electrified railways and there
life … was simple (or maybe just less complicated). There were DC electrified railways and there

was simple (or maybe just less complicated).

There were DC electrified railways and there were non-electrified railways.

simple (or maybe just less complicated). There were DC electrified railways and there were non-electrified railways.

3

Then one day, along came the AC electrified railway…….and a potentially complex interface was created.
Then one day, along came the AC electrified railway…….and a potentially complex interface was created.

Then one day, along came the AC electrified railway…….and a potentially complex interface was created.

Then one day, along came the AC electrified railway…….and a potentially complex interface was created. 4

4

AC and DC System Interfaces

The number of occasions where interfaces between AC and DC electrified systems is greater now that ever before.

Looking to the future, the number and complexity of similar interfaces is likely to increase even further.

Will the lessons of the past be remembered?

AC and DC System Interfaces

The growth of light rail and tram systems, not only in the UK but worldwide, often requires AC and DC electrified systems to interface, either because of inter-operation or because of physical proximity.

Often these interfaces share infrastructure between the systems and if the interface is not considered at an early design stage significant issues can arise later when they are more difficult to resolve.

AC and DC System Interfaces

 
 
  25 kV Interface Station
  25 kV Interface Station
  25 kV Interface Station

25

kV Interface Station

25 kV Interface Station
and DC System Interfaces   25 kV Interface Station 750V DC Interface Station 25kV & 750V
and DC System Interfaces   25 kV Interface Station 750V DC Interface Station 25kV & 750V

750V DC Interface Station

25kV & 750V DC Interface Station

25 kV Parallel Running

750V NR Overrunning NR owned Power supply Insulated Fourth Rail25kV & 750V DC Interface Station 25 kV Parallel Running 750V NR Overrunning LUL owned Power

750V NR Overrunning LUL owned Power supply Fourth rail bonded to railsNR Overrunning NR owned Power supply Insulated Fourth Rail 750V NR running and LUL overrunning NR

750V NR running and LUL

overrunning NR owned power supply with 4 t h rail bonded to rails supply with 4 th rail bonded to rails

25 kV Interface Under or Over bridges Under or Over bridges

Depot Area Parallel to 25kVrail bonded to rails 25 kV Interface Under or Over bridges LU and NR 25kV and

Interface Under or Over bridges Depot Area Parallel to 25kV LU and NR 25kV and 750V

LU and NR 25kV and 750V DC Interfaces This drawing will be updated Please note Date and Issue Drawn by R D White Date 05/12/05 DRAFT Issue 0

AC and DC System Interfaces

‘Transitional Running’ DC to AC (or vice versa) interfaces are well understood and often reasonably well managed

Examples in the UK include North London Line (Acton), Thameslink, West London Line and original Network Rail/Eurotunnel interface

AC and DC System Interfaces

Principle of AC and DC Dual Electrified Area Dual Third Rail and 25 kV Electrification Overrunning

AC and DC Dual Electrified Area Third Rail and 25 kV Electrification © R D
AC and DC Dual Electrified
Area
Third Rail and 25 kV
Electrification
© R D White 2005
DC Area Only
Third rail only
DC Isolation Area
AC Isolation Area
AC 25 kV Electrification
Electrified Only
DC Traction
Power
Third Rail
Insulated
Insulated
Insulated
Insulated
Rail Joints
Rail Joints
Rail
Joints
Rail Joints
25 kV
Overhead Line

Additional Earth Wires bonding of masts and metallic objects

AC and DC System Interfaces

AC and DC System Interfaces 10
AC and DC System Interfaces 10

AC and DC System Interfaces

AC and DC System Interfaces 11
AC and DC System Interfaces 11

AC and DC System Interfaces

Inter-running between AC and DC electrified lines is not always so well managed

Earthing and Bonding not adequately considered

Structures inadequately bonded to protect against 25kV faults

Metalwork in public areas earthed to DC Traction Negative or DNO earth within the 25kV Drop Zone

Metalwork bonded to 25kV earth in the DC Drop Zone (for DC OCS)

DC system protection not always capable of reliably detecting positive to earth faults (No OVPD’s Installed)

AC and DC System Interfaces

DC Railways

AC Railways

Rails insulated,

Rail: low resistance to DC current 20 Rail high impedance to AC current 0.7

Rails earthed,

milliohms/km

ohms/km

Traction loads 2kA – 8kA or more

Short Circuit Current 150kA

Station earth metallic structures not connected to running rails

Requirements for control of stray current

Traction Loads typically 300A - 500A

50Hz

Short Circuit 6kA to 12kA 50Hz

Metallic structures bonded to running rails

Induction effects due to 50Hz

300A - 500A 50Hz Short Circuit 6kA to 12kA 50Hz Metallic structures bonded to running rails

AC and DC System Interfaces

AC and DC System Interfaces
AC and DC System Interfaces   Typical Earthing and Return Conductor Arrangements of 25kV ac and
 
 

Typical Earthing and Return Conductor Arrangements of 25kV ac and 1500V dc Railways

Typical Earthing and Return Conductor Arrangements of 25kV ac and 1500V dc Railways

25kV ac Railway

Steel Section of Interface Station

1500V dc Railway

2 5 k V a c R a i l w a y Steel Section of
Earth Return Wire Conductor Parallel Feeds Return Conductor Parallel Earth Feeds Wire RC Tie Down
Earth
Return
Wire
Conductor
Parallel
Feeds
Return
Conductor
Parallel
Earth
Feeds
Wire
RC
Tie
Down
Traction
Impedance
of the train
short circuit
on roof
Maximum
Impedance
of the train
short circuit
on roof
Maximum
Transformer
RC Tie
Substation
Rectifier
down
Converter
Substation
Double Insulated
Earth
Rail Clips
Busbar
Rail Leakage 8-
Mast
Foundation
Stray Current Mat
Resistivity
Earthing and Traction Return Current of an ac Railway

of soil

Fully bonded to metallic structures

Negative pole of the 25kV is connected to earth

Rails bonded to earth via the foundations of the

masts Earth is the path back to the feeder station for the

short circuit current if an insulator fails Bonding of masts will control rail potentials

Substation

Earth

Diode

AC and DC System Interfaces

AC and DC System Interfaces 15
AC and DC System Interfaces 15

AC and DC System Interfaces

AC railway earthed structures are bonded to rail

DC railway earthed structures are not bonded to rail

Corrosion of AC and DC Railway and Non Railway Assets

Metallic Services: Utilities, Water, Gas, Electricity

Earthed structures of 25kV railway, earth mats, the grid substations, earthing of buildings, reinforced structures, tunnel linings, interchange stations

Unintended Traction Return Currents

DC currents in AC system and earth paths AC currents in DC traction return system

AC and DC System Interfaces

AC and DC System Interfaces
AC and DC System Interfaces
AC and DC System Interfaces
AC and DC System Interfaces
AC and DC System Interfaces
AC and DC System Interfaces

AC and DC System Interfaces

Looking to the future Conversion of Network Rail 750V DC to 25kV AC

The proposed conversion of existing DC electrified routes on Network Rail in the south of the UK to 25kV would create more AC/DC interfaces.

The transitional period during conversion will need careful consideration to limit creating additional hazards.

The final arrangements will need to be suitable for an AC electrified railway, not a DC railway

AC and DC System Interfaces

AC and DC System Interfaces
AC and DC System Interfaces   Conversion of Network Rail 750V DC to 25kV AC A
 
 
AC and DC System Interfaces   Conversion of Network Rail 750V DC to 25kV AC A

Conversion of Network Rail 750V DC to 25kV AC A few thoughts:

Conversion of Network Rail 750V DC to 25kV AC A few thoughts:

Track Circuits – many track circuits are already dual immune

Earthing and bonding at stations, bridges, interfaces with third parties, etc

Managing the transition?

Programme for Conversion from DC to AC Systems

AC and DC System Interfaces

Conversion of Network Rail 750V DC to 25kV AC

Increased risk of rail potentials – more earthed metal close to DC tracks during construction and before conversion

Transitional arrangements during energisation for testing and commissioning

Earthing and bonding in stations and other public areas

AC and DC System Interfaces

Conversion of Network Rail 750V DC to 25kV AC

What might it look like?

AC and DC System Interfaces

AC and DC System Interfaces 24
AC and DC System Interfaces 24
AC and DC System Interfaces 24

AC and DC System Interfaces

AC and DC System Interfaces 25
AC and DC System Interfaces 25
AC and DC System Interfaces 25

AC and DC System Interfaces

AC and DC System Interfaces 26
AC and DC System Interfaces 26
AC and DC System Interfaces 26

Conclusions

Requirements AC/DC needs to be identified

• Failure to address

Programme Risk

Commercial Risk

Operational Risk

Interface Locations

• Stations, Bridges etc

• Overrunning (e.g. Thameslink)

Systems Compatibility

• Signal immunisation

• Touch Accessible Potentials

• Corrosion

Thank you for listening

Thank you for listening

Thank you for listening