Sei sulla pagina 1di 11


National Institute of
Construction Management And Research


Course Number



Course Title

Technology and Management of High Rise and

special building


Assignment Number



Date of Dispatch


Last Date of receipt of Assignment at SODE


Submitted By:
Name :


Course :


Module :


Reg Number :


1. Write a detail note on concreting for high rise buildings with regards to following points
a) Slab cycle; its design and implementation
b)Various aspects and strategies related to concreting at various heights.
c) Use of batching plant. Its significance
d) Concrete quality assurance and control etc.

Page 1 of 11

High Rise Building

A building is an enclosed structure that has walls, floors, a roof, and usually
windows. A tall building is a multi-story structure in which most occupants depend
on elevators [lifts] to reach their destinations. The most prominent tall buildings are
called high-rise buildings in most countries and tower blocks in Britain and some
European countries. The terms do not have internationally agreed definitions.
However, a high-rise building can be defined as follows:
Any structure where the height can have a serious impact on evacuation
For most purposes, the cut-off point for high-rise buildings is around seven stories.
Sometimes, seven stories or higher define a high-rise, and sometimes the definition is
more than seven stories. Sometimes, the definition is stated in terms of linear height
(feet or meters) rather than stories.
Generally, a high-rise structure is considered to be one that extends higher than the
maximum reach of available fire-fighting equipment. In absolute numbers, this has
been set variously between 75 feet (23 meters)+ and 100 feet (30 meters), or about
seven to ten stories (depending on the slab-to-slab distance between floors).
The exact height above which a particular building is deemed a high-rise is specified
by fire and building codes for the country, region, state, or city where the building is
located. When the building exceeds the specified height, then fire, an ever-present
danger in such facilities, must be fought by fire personnel from inside the building
rather than from outside using fire hoses and ladders.
For practicality and convenience such a multi-level or multi-story structure uses
elevators as a vertical transportation system and, in addition, some utilize escalators
to move people between lower floors.

During the last decades of the twentieth century and what has so far transpired of the
twenty-first century, a new and exciting explosion in the design and construction of high-rise
buildings has taken place. The speed with which the height of buildings is growing has
greatly increased. While the maximum height attained during the twentieth century was of
the order of 500 m, during the next few years this value is likely to be more than doubled,
with credible projects achieving heights of about 1200 m. Concrete, with its new
performance features, presents itself as an ideal material in view of solving some of the
problems of this type of structure, especially for medium heights, fib Is about to form a new
task group in order to bring together the experience gathered in the last few years and to
study the new challenges involved in the use of structural concrete for this type of building.

Page 2 of 11

Structural concrete has been widely used together with steel and composite elements.
Different types of concrete have been used depending on the structural element and tower
(a) cast-on-site or precast
(b) normal density or lightweight
(c) normal or high strength
(d) normal workability conditions or selfcompacting
(e) reinforced or prestressed (/) pretensioned or post-tensioned with bounded or unbounded
The foundations of high-rise buildings have generally been designed using structural
concrete. However, new possibilities for concrete offer alternatives that have not been used
extensively up to now. Some of the advantages that have been used in these towers are
(a) the use of self-compacting concrete in foundation mats with very dense reinforcement
(b) the use of prestressing that allows the transmission of very large concentrated loads to
distribute the ground pressures under the foundation mats, the reduction of passive
reinforcement density and adequate crack control; prestressing is also used in the pile caps
of deep foundations with a large number of piles or very large pile diameters.
In the towers, concrete columns or composite columns shall be used, The use of steel
profiles embedded in the composite columns in tower construction, simplifies the
construction of the composite slabs, because a standard bolted connection between
columns and steel beams of the slab can be used. The use of reinforced concrete, reaching
a C- 70 grade (all concrete strength classes refer to cylinder strength) up to level +140 m,
made it possible to reduce unit costs significantly owing to its higher resistance/cost ratio
compared to structural steel ). The connection between sections of the steel columns was
quite simple, as the bolted connection had to resist the tensile forces due to wind only during
construction. The compressive forces resisted by the steel profiles are transmitted simply by
contact between them, whereas the tensile forces in the composite section are resisted only
by the reinforcement. In spite of the significant concentration of reinforcement bars and the
incidence of the lap length (almost one-third of the reinforcement corresponds to lapping
reinforcement), mechanical connections were avoided because of their higher cost. In the
perimeter columns of Torre de Cristal ('glass tower'), which are working mainly as
compression members, a composite cross-section with a constant diameter of 0-95 m has
been used. The column shall filled with selfcompacting C-45 grade concrete and reinforced
with steel profiles of decreasing area as height increases. In the lower floors, steel profiles of
type HD with Histar S460 steel and varying thickness of up to 120 mm were used . Owing to
the unusually large thickness of the profiles and the need to speed up the construction, the
profiles were considered solely as compression members working by R contact. In order to
resist tension forces due to local bending between floors, only the resistance of ordinary
reinforcement bars was considered. From the point of view of construction, it became

Page 3 of 11

necessary to devise a coupling system for the successive columns' fragments, which would
guarantee conditions of flatness and perpendicularity in order to minimise contact problems
between two successive column parts. The steel profiles were built in parts, spanning three
floors, and were lifted into position with the reinforcement already in place .
Self-compacting concrete was important in order to minimise concreting problems, given the
great density of reinforcement and the presence of the steel profile. The use of composite
columns with highstrength concrete minimises the effect of the differential vertical
displacement between the columns and the central core. Structural steel reduces timedependent strains of the concrete and high-strength concrete shows smaller time-dependent
strains than conventional concrete. This design therefore results in a reduction of the
difference in vertical displacements between the columns located along the building
perimeter and the stiffening core.
At present, the structural typologies that can be used for floors are abundant. In towers
almost all possible types shall be used, generally conventional composite slabs supported
on grids of steel or composite beams shall be used. lightweight concrete is useful to reduce
the permanent loads on the supports and cores. The use of supplementary reinforcement
bars in the span regions of the composite slab in towers shall avoid the need of additional
fireproofing materials to reach the required fire resistance. The construction system , which
combines the advantages of steel and concrete structures, will enable the construction
speed to be maintain at one floor per week with moderate costs and level of complexity. In
the complex towers, conventional system, a composite horizontal structure coupled with
precast hollow-core slabs shall increase construction speed.With this system, one floor
could be built within 1 week. Compared to a steel or composite solution, fire protection
requirements and total static depth could be reduced, as only the lower flanges of the
beams had to be freproofed.
Prestressing shall be avoided if, requirement of tower slab is .owing to the curved shape of
the floor and the abundant presence of shafts that make the cable and anchorage layout
quite difficult intersection between the columns and the slabs, when they are made with
different concrete grades, can be solved by using confinement reinforcement.
In Tower building, it is common for some supports to be removed in lower floors in order to
enhance the functionality of the access areas. As the loads are especially high, these
transfer elements are usually complex structures that must take advantage of the best
properties of each material. For that purpose, a pair of inclined struts transfer the load to the
lower supports, shall be connected at the top by means of a powerful tie . These struts and
ties should be designed as composite members similar to the composite columns of the
tower, even though the higher values of the forces to be resisted required a higher use of
structural steel and reinforcement. Detailed analyses should be carried out for the force
transfer at the nodes and between the different structural materials.

Page 4 of 11

The new possibilities of concrete from the point of view of strength, technology and
construction demand a review of possible applications of this material in all existing
structural typologies and also, of course, in high-rise buildings. The appropriate intelligent
and creative use of the new types of concrete is widely extending the field of application of
this material and is opening new design possibilities which have hitherto been unexplored.
Use of Batching Plant & its Significance
A concrete batching plant is a facility where the ingredients of concrete are mixed and
blended skilfully. Once the quality concrete is prepared it is transported to the site on a truck
with a revolving drum which is known as transit mixer. The concrete produced out of the
concrete batching plant is used in the foundations of building construction, paving materials
for roads, plumbing and piping in construction projects etc. So, from this you can make out
that how important is the use of concrete in construction equipments. Concrete batching
plant is used to mix and blend cement, water, sand and aggregates to form quality concrete
without which building any construction project is not possible. It becomes necessary that
the concrete batching plant is efficient and speedy in order to complete a construction
project as soon as possible. The durability of a construction project highly depends on the
quality of the concrete used in that construction project. So, if you require a concrete
batching plant for your construction project, then you need to select with lot of precision as
the success and failure of your construction project depends on the concrete used which is
produced by a concrete batching plant.
Importance of Concrete Batching plant in developing urban areas.
The increasing development in urban centers has prompted the demand for a suitable
concrete batching plant. A concrete batching plant is a device that mixes various ingredients
to form concrete. The plants are used in various projects like construction of roads, bridges
and buildings. Urban areas are the hub of various activities thus will experience
developments in real estate and infrastructure. Middle East is among the fastest growing
regions and has experienced increased demand for concrete. Landmark buildings in the
region that have used the batching are Burj Khalifa and Dubai Marina to name a few.
Concrete batching plants are easy to transport from on site to another and the installation
and setup time is minimal. Earlier on the traditional plants had to be setup near the source of
raw materials; the modern batch plants have offered flexibility in site location. The batch
plant can be set up in an area where it will serve a town and the surrounding environments
where traffic congestion results to higher delivery costs. There are also scenarios where a
plant needs to increase its production capacity due to a limited timeline of completion of the
project, the plant can be easily be relocated. The plant has also reduced accidents which
are mainly caused by operator errors.
Environmental friendly
Pollution is reduced since the dust collector traps dust. As well as other environmental
concerns such as water and noise pollutions. Reduction of environmental degradation is
achieved by processing waste and treatment of municipal waste.
Improved quality

Page 5 of 11

High quality concrete is produced due to the accuracy in measuring and mixing the
Time saving
The batch plant located at the construction site saves transportation time and risk of delays
which will in turn save costs.
Accessibility of remote areas
Due to congestion in urban areas which makes some construction sites unreachable (e.g.
high rise building, bad inaccessible roads), a concrete pump enables conveyance of
concrete. Also in areas where there are weight and access restrictions the concrete pump
offers versatility where concrete is poured to a site by a concrete pump.
Small construction projects that require a small quantity of cement, they can have a mobile
batching plant near the construction site. After the concrete is ready it can be transported to
the site by a truck.
A mobile batching plant is more ideal since it can be disassembled within a short period and
moved to the next construction site. This makes relocation to be easy.
Minimal space
In urban areas where space is limited, a compact batching plant occupies little space at a
site in addition to being very easy to maintain. Also due to limited space for raw materials
storage makes it the most viable option.
Tailor made specifications
Urban areas have complex constructions that have different needs. The automation of the
plant ensures the right mix is obtained. For example in developing areas with road
construction or bridge construction will require hard concrete.
Reduced costs
Demolished concrete from a dismantled site is recycled to produce new concrete, resulting
in cost reduction. This eliminates the problem of waste disposal which can be an
environmental concern.
High production efficiency
Batch plants are automated to mix the ingredients evenly and quickly resulting to high
efficiency. It also increases production capacity.
Setup and go
Apart from relevant authorities, the batch plant requires no prior planning. The concrete
pump is set up immediately.
Labor costs
Construction sites have a large number of casual workers. The batch plants will reduce the
labor costs since it comes with an automated mixers and loaders.

Page 6 of 11

The same quality and standard concrete is maintained on every mix since it maintains the
same mixing ration and uniformly mixes the ingredients.
Concrete Quality ssurance and control etc
Definition: actions taken by an organization to provide and document assurance that what is
being done and what is being provided are in accordance with the contract documents and
standards of good practice for the work
Quality assurance is a method for the regular monitoring and evaluation of the various
aspects of a project to ensure that standards of quality are being met. The standards are
outlined in ISO 9001:2008, Quality Management Systems-Requirements. The standard is
based on a number of quality management principles including a strong customer focus, the
motivation and implication of top management, the process approach and continual
improvement Quality assurance should not be confused with quality control. The latter are
those tests and inspections designated to confirm that materials and installations meet
project specifications, as well as those internal policies and procedures of the concrete
producer, steel producer, contractor, and installer established to provide work that is
acceptable. Quality assurance seeks to verify that such quality control measures (for
example, testing and inspection) are being done and done properly. Quality control
measures specified in the contract documents are often delegated to the contractor
(although his/her own quality control should always be in place), whereas the owner
generally retains responsibility for quality assurance on a project.
QA consists of all the activities conducted by the owner, agency, or its representatives in
order to confirm that the delivered pavement product meets specifi cations. QC refers to all
activities conducted by the contractor to ensure that the product will meet or exceed QA
specifications. QA and QC test methods do not necessarily correlate for two reasons: Not all
performance specifications are directly measurable. Not all laboratory tests can be
completed in the field. Also, the contractor may require different and/or more frequent tests
than those specified to ensure quality control

Quality control is the part of quality management that ensures products and service comply
with requirements. It is a work method that facilitates the measurement of
the quality characteristics of a unit, compares them with the established standards, and
analyses the differences between the results obtained and the desired results in order to
make decisions which will correct any differences.

Page 7 of 11

Technical specifications define the type of controls that must be carried out to ensure the
construction works are carried out correctly. They include not only products materials, but
also the execution and completion of the works.
One way of controlling quality is based on the inspection or verification of finished products.
The aim is to filter the products before they reach the client, so that products that do not
comply with requirements are discarded or repaired. This reception control is usually carried
out by people who were not involved in the production activities, which means that costs can
be high, and preventative activities and improvement plans may not be effective. It is a final
control, located between producer and client, and although it has the advantage of being
impartial, it has a large number of drawbacks, such as slow information flows, and that the
inspectors are not familiar with the circumstances of production and are not responsible for
the production quality
When tests are destructive, the decision to accept or reject a full batch must be made on the
basis of the quality of a random sample. This type of statistical control provides less
information and contains sampling risks. However, it is more economical, requires fewer
inspectors, and speeds up decision-making, while the rejection of the whole batch
encourages suppliers to improve their quality. This type of control can also identify the
causes of variations and, so establish procedures for their systematic elimination.
Statistical control can be applied to the final product (acceptance control) or during the
production process (process control). Statistical controls at reception establish sampling
plans with clearly-defined acceptance or rejection criteria, and complete batches are tested
by means of random sampling. The sampling control can be based
on inspection by attributes in line with the ISO 2859 standard (Sampling procedures
for inspection by attributes), or on inspection by variables in line with the ISO 3951 standard
(Sampling procedures for inspection by variables).
A construction company should reduce the costs of bad quality as much as possible, and
ensure that the result of its processes comply with the client's requirements. Both internal
and external controls can be carried out. For example, the control of concrete received by
the contractor can be carried out by an independent entity; the execution of steelworks can
be controlled by the project manager (on behalf of the client), or the construction company
can establish an internal control for the execution of the building work.
Quality assurance in accordance with ISO 9001
Quality assurance is a set of planned and systematic actions to ensure that products and
services comply with specified requirements. It not only involves checking the final quality of
products to avoid defects, as is the case in quality control, but also checking
product quality in a planned way in all the production stages. It is the development of work

Page 8 of 11

and product design procedures to prevent errors from occurring in the first place, based on
planning backed up by quality manuals and tools.
When a consensus has been reached on the requirements of a quality management
system, it is possible to define a series of generic standards applicable to any type of
organisation. The international standards, generically called ISO 9000, are the most
widespread and generally accepted in developed countries. The ISO 9000 standards
consists of four basic interdependent standards supported by guides, technical reports and
technical specifications:

ISO 9000: Quality management.

ISO 9001: Quality management systems - Requirements.

ISO 9004: Managing for the sustained success of an organization -A quality management approach.

ISO 19011: Guidelines on internal and external audits of quality management

Companies can only be certified under the requirements of the ISO 9001 standard. It is a
standard that can be used to certify the efficiency of a quality management system.
Nevertheless, if the aim is to improve efficiency, the objectives of the ISO 9004 standard are
broader in scope. The principles that underlie the management of quality in these standards
are the following: customer focus, leadership, involvement of people, process approach,
system approach to management, continual improvement, factual approach to decision
making and mutually beneficial supplier relationships.
The ISO 9001 standard specifies requirements for a quality management system where an
organisation needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide products that meet the
requirements of clients and applicable regulations requirements. Regulatory requirements
focus on the quality management system, management responsibility, resources
management, product realisation and measurement, analysis and improvement.
When a quality system is applied to a product as complex and unique as construction, a
specific quality plan must be drafted by applying the company's global system to the specific
project. The plan must be drafted by the contractor before the start of the construction works
and will be reviewed throughout its execution. The quality plan is applicable to the materials,
work units and services that have been specifically chosen by the construction company in
order to comply with the quality requirements stipulated in the contract. The quality plan is
drafted for the construction works when a preventive strategy is needed to guarantee the
construction quality, even though there might also be a quality manual, in compliance with
the ISO 9001 standard requirements.
The construction company determines the need to prepare execution documents, work
instructions, inspection regimes, process files, action plans, etc. for the execution and
control of processes, depending on the complexity of the activity, the qualifications of the
personnel and the experience of the team. The plan establishes the resources required and
associated documents (lists, purchasing documentation, machinery, equipment, etc.). The

Page 9 of 11

control activities (verification of compliance with specifications, validation of specific

processes, monitoring of activities, inspections and tests), which the units, materials or
services undergo must also be established. These activities can be defined
through inspection, testing plans, action plans and where applicable specific tests (for
example, load tests for structures).
Standards and procedures
When the aim is to guarantee the uniformity of a system, process or product, reference
patterns are established in documents called standards or norms. The general objectives of
standards are simplification, communication between the parties involved, production
economy, safety and health, protection of consumer interests and the removal of trade
In any type of company, the set of tasks carried out is so complex that they have to be
written down to ensure internal consistency, to preserve them and to make sure they are
methodically applied. These documents are called procedures, and describe the way in
which an activity or process must be carried out.
Therefore, standards establish the requirements of products or processes. Procedures are
documents drawn up by the company itself and take into account the requirements
established in the standards. These documents must include the purpose of the procedure,
references to other documents, scope, method and sequence of tests, acceptance and
rejection criteria, key control points and time of inspection. In all cases the control of a
procedure should be documented in the quality records and filed in the quality log at the
construction site.
Technical or administrative procedures can also be part of a quality management system. In
this case, the manual provides a generic description of the company's quality system, while
procedures, whether general or specific, establish what is required to attain the objectives
listed in the manual. Procedures must link the ISO standards' requirements and the activities
of the company. They should include the people involved, information
about materials and equipmentand a description of key activities. Each organisation should
decide which processes should be documented on the basis of client and regulatory
requirements, the nature of its activities, and its corporate strategy.

Page 10 of 11

Bibliography / References
Text book of NICMAR Construction and Environment.

Page 11 of 11