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TABELLE CON LE PROPRIETA DI SOSTANZE DI

IMPIEGO COMUNE NELLA FISICA TECNICA

dipartimento di energetica

TABELLE DI CONVERSIONE DELLE UNITA DI


MISURA

PIANI TERMODINAMICI

dipartimento di energetica

TABELLE CON LE PROPRIETA DI SOSTANZE DI IMPIEGO COMUNE NELLA FISICA TECNICA

pesi atomici e molecolari e propriet critiche di alcuni elementi e componenti comuni. 1


propriet termodinamiche dellacqua in condizioni di saturazione (temperatura) 2
propriet termodinamiche dellacqua in condizioni di saturazione (pressione) . 4
propriet termodinamiche dellacqua surriscaldata.. 6
propriet termodinamiche dellR134a in condizioni di saturazione (temperatura) . 10
propriet termodinamiche dellR134a in condizioni di saturazione (pressione) .. 11
propriet termodinamiche dellR134a surriscaldato 12
propriet dellaria come gas ideale. 15
calori specifici medi impiegabili nellintervallo 0100C. 16
coefficienti sperimentali per il calcolo del calore specifico a pressione costante per gas ideale 16
fattore acentrico di alcune sostanze 16
calori specifici di alcuni liquidi e solidi.. 17
propriet dei liquidi. 18
propriet dei solidi metallici 19
propriet dei solidi non metallici 20
propriet termofisiche dell'aria a pressione atmosferica. 21
propriet termofisiche dellacqua... 22
propriet termofisiche dellR134a.. 23
emissivit di alcune superfici (a) metalli... 24
emissivit di alcune superfici (b) non metalli... 25

(materiale didattico a diffusione interna e distribuzione gratuita)

pesi atomici e molecolari e propriet critiche di alcuni elementi e componenti comuni


(tratta da International Critical Tables e L.C. Nelson e E.F. Obert, Generalized Compressibility Charts, Chem Eng.)

sostanza
Acetilene
Aria
Ammoniaca
Argon
Benzene
n-Butano
Carbonio
Biossido di Carbonio
Monossido di Carbonio
Rame
Etano
Alcool etilico
Etilene
Elio
Idrogeno
Metano
Metil alcool
Azoto
Ottano
Ossigeno
Propano
Propilene
Refrigerante R134a
Biossido di Zolfo
Acqua

formula chimica
C2H2
NH3
Ar
C6H6
C4H10
C
CO2
CO
Cu
C2H6
C2H5OH
C2H6
He
H2
CH4
CH3OH
N2
C5H18
O2
C3H8
C3H6
CF3CH2F
SO2
H2O

M
26.04
28.97
17.04
39.94
78.11
58.12
12.01
44.01
28.01
63.54
30.07
46.07
28.05
4.003
2.018
16.04
32.05
28.01
114.22
32.00
44.09
42.08
102.03
64.06
18.02

R [kJ.kg-1.K]
0.3193
0.2870
0.4882
0.2081
0.1064
0.1430
0.6922
0.1889
0.2968
0.1308
0.2765
0.1805
0.2964
2.0769
4.1240
0.5182
0.2594
0.2968
0.0729
0.2598
0.1885
0.1976
0.08149
0.1298
0.4615
1

Tc [K]
309
133
406
151
563
425

pc [bar]
62.8
37.7
112.8
48.6
49.3
38.0

Zc=(pcVc)/(RTc)
0.274
0.284
0.242
0.290
0.274
0.274

304
133

73.9
35.0

0.276
0.294

305
516
283
5.2
33.2
191
513
126
569
154
370
365
374
431
647.3

48.8
63.8
51.2
2.3
13.0
46.4
79.5
33.9
24.9
50.5
42.7
46.2
4.1
78.7
220.9

0.285
0.249
0.270
0.300
0.304
0.290
0.220
0.291
0.258
0.290
0.276
0.276
0.268

propriet termodinamiche dellacqua in condizioni di saturazione temperatura(1/2)


temp.
T
[C]
0.01
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195

press.
p
[bar]
0.006112
0.008722
0.01275
0.01745
0.02337
0.03166
0.04241
0.05621
0.07374
0.09581
0.12334
0.15740
0.1992
0.2501
0.3116
0.3855
0.4736
0.5780
0.7011
0.8453
1.0132
1.2080
1.4326
1.6905
1.9853
2.3208
2.7011
3.131
3.614
4.155
4.760
5.433
6.180
7.008
7.920
8.925
10.027
11.234
12.552
13.989

volume specifico
vl
vvs
.
.
[dm3 kg-1]
[m3 kg-1]
1.0002
1.0000
1.0002
1.0008
1.0017
1.0029
1.0043
1.0059
1.0078
1.0099
1.0121
1.0146
1.0172
1.0200
1.0229
1.0260
1.0293
1.0327
1.0363
1.0400
1.0438
1.0479
1.0520
1.0563
1.0608
1.0654
1.0702
1.0751
1.0802
1.0855
1.0910
1.0966
1.1024
1.1085
1.1147
1.1211
1.1278
1.1347
1.1418
1.1491

206.3
147.1
106.4
77.96
57.84
43.41
32.94
25.26
19.56
15.28
12.05
9.583
7.682
6.205
5.048
4.135
3.410
2.829
2.361
1.982
1.673
1.419
1.210
1.036
0.8913
0.7700
0.6679
0.5817
0.5074
0.4459
0.3924
0.3464
0.3068
0.2724
0.2426
0.2166
0.1939
0.1740
0.1564
0.1409

sl
.
.
[kJ kg-1 K-1]
0
0.0764
0.1511
0.2244
0.2963
0.3660
0.4364
0.5046
0.5718
0.6379
0.7031
0.7672
0.8304
0.8928
0.9542
1.0149
1.0747
1.1337
1.1920
1.2495
1.3063
1.3625
1.4179
1.4728
1.5270
1.5807
1.6338
1.6863
1.7383
1.7899
1.8409
1.8915
1.9416
1.9913
2.0407
2.0896
2.1382
2.1864
2.4233
2.2820

entropia specifica
svs-sl
svs
.
.
.
.
[kJ kg-1 K-1]
[kJ kg-1 K-1]
9.1545
9.0234
8.8985
8.7793
8.6652
8.5561
8.4516
8.3514
8.2553
8.1631
8.0745
7.9893
7.9074
7.8286
7.7526
7.6794
7.6088
7.5407
7.4749
7.4114
7.3500
7.2906
7.2331
7.1775
7.1236
7.0714
7.0208
6.9717
6.8240
6.8776
6.8325
6.7885
6.7456
6.7037
6.6628
6.6227
6.5833
6.5447
6.5067
6.4692

9.1545
8.9470
8.7474
8.5549
8.3689
8.1892
8.0152
7.8468
7.6835
7.5252
7.3714
7.2221
7.0770
6.9358
6.7984
6.6645
6.5341
6.4070
6.2829
6.1619
6.0437
5.9281
5.8152
5.7047
5.5966
5.4907
5.3870
5.2854
5.1857
5.0877
4.9916
4.8970
4.8040
4.7124
4.6221
4.5331
4.4451
4.3583
4.2724
4.1872

hl
.
[kJ kg-1]
0.00
21.05
42.03
62.96
83.86
104.74
125.61
146.47
167.34
188.22
209.11
230.00
250.91
271.84
292.78
313.74
334.72
355.72
376.75
397.80
418.88
439.99
461.13
482.31
503.5
524.8
546.1
567.5
588.9
610.4
631.9
653.5
675.2
696.9
718.8
740.7
762.7
784.8
807.0
829.4

entalpia specifica
hvs
hvs- hl
.
.
[kJ kg-1]
[kJ kg-1]
2500.5
2509.7
2518.9
2528.1
2537.3
2546.4
2555.5
2564.5
2573.5
2582.4
2591.3
2600.1
2608.8
2617.4
2628.9
2634.2
2642.5
2650.7
2658.7
2666.6
2674.4
2682.1
2689.0
2697.0
2704.2
2711.4
2718.3
2725.1
2731.8
2738.3
2744.5
2750.6
2756.5
2762.2
2767.6
2772.7
2777.6
2782.1
2786.3
2790.2

2500.5
2488.6
2476.9
2465.1
2463.4
2441.7
2429.9
2418.0
2406.2
2394.2
2382.2
2370.1
2357.9
2345.5
2333.1
2320.5
2307.8
2295.0
2281.9
2268.8
2255.5
2242.1
2228.5
2214.7
220.7
2186.6
2172.2
2157.6
2142.9
2127.9
2112.6
2097.1
2081.3
2054.3
2048.8
2032.0
2014.9
1997.3
1979.3
1960.8

energia interna specifica


ul
uvs
uvs- ul
.
.
.
[kJ kg-1] [kJ kg-1]
[kJ kg-1]
0
21.05
42.03
62.96
83.86
14.74
125.61
146.46
167.33
188.21
209.10
229.98
250.89
271.81
292.75
313.70
334.67
355.66
374.68
397.71
418.77
439.86
460.98
482.13
503.3
524.6
545.8
567.2
588.5
610.0
631.4
652.9
674.5
696.1
717.9
739.7
761.6
783.3
805.6
827.8

2374.5
2360.4
2388.3
2395.2.
2402.1
2409.0
2415.7
2422.5
2429.3
2436.0
2442.7
2449.3
2455.8
2462.2
2468.6
2474.8
2481.0
2487.2
2493.2
2499.1
2504.9
2510.7
2516.3
2521.9
2527.3
2532.7
2537.9
2543.0
2548.1
2553.1
2557.7
2562.4
2566.9
2571.3
2575.5
2579.4
2583.2
2586.6
2590.0
2593.1

2374.5
2339.5
2346.3
2332.2
2318.2
2304.3
2290.1
2276.0
2262.0
2247.8
2333.6
2219.3
2204.9
2190.4
2175.8
2161.1
2146.3
2131.5
2116.5
2101.4
2086.1
2070.8
2055.3
2039.8
2024.0
2008.1
1992.1
1975.8
1959.6
1943.1
1926.3
1909.5
1892.4
1875.2
1857.6
1839.7
1821.6
1803.1
1784.4
1765.3

propriet termodinamiche dellacqua in condizioni di saturazione - temperatura(2/2)


temp.
T
[C]

press.
p
[bar]

200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
250
255
260
265
270
275
280
285
290
295
300
305
310
315
320
325
330
335
340
345
350
355
360
365
370
371
372
373
374
374.15

15.551
17.245
19.080
21.063
23.201
25.504
27.979
30.635
33.480
36.524
39.78
43.24
46.94
50.87
55.05
59.49
64.19
69.17
74.45
80.03
85.92
92.14
98.70
105.61
112.90
120.57
128.65
137.14
146.08
155.45
165.37
175.77
186.74
198.30
210.52
213.06
215.62
218.22
220.86
221.29

volume specifico
vl
vvs
.
.
[dm3 kg-1]
[dm3 kg-1]
1.1568
1.1647
1.1729
1.1814
1.1903
1.1994
1.2090
1.2190
1.2293
1.2402
1.2515
1.2633
1.2757
1.2888
1.3025
1.3169
1.3322
1.3483
1.3665
1.3837
1.4033
1.424
1.447
1.471
1.498
1.527
1.560
1.597
1.638
1.687
1.746
1.817
1.908
2.03
2.23
2.30
2.37
2.49
2.79
3.18

0.1273
0.1151
0.1043
0.09471
0.08611
0.07841
0.07150
0.06528
0.05967
0.05460
0.05002
0.04586
0.04209
0.03865
0.03552
0.03266
0.03005
0.02766
0.02546
0.02345
0.02160
0.01989
0.01832
0.01687
0.01549
0.01420
0.01298
0.01184
0.010777
0.009765
0.008803
0.007878
0.006967
0.00604
0.00499
0.00474
0.00447
0.00415
0.00362
0.00318

sl
.
.
[kJ kg-1 K-1]

entropia specifica
svs-sl
svs
.
.
.
.
[kJ kg-1 K-1]
[kJ kg-1 K-1]

2.3293
2.3764
2.4232
2.4698
2.5162
2.5625
2.6086
2.6545
2.7004
2.7461
2.7818
2.8375
2.8832
2.9289
2.9747
3.0206
3.0666
3.1128
3.1593
3.2061
3.2532
3.3008
3.3489
3.3977
3.4473
3.4978
3.5495
3.6026
3.6577
3.7154
3.7768
3.8431
3.9159
4.0013
4.1131
4.1437
4.1801
4.229
4.325

6.4322
6.3955
6.3593
6.3233
6.2875
6.2518
6.2162
6.1807
6.1452
6.1096
6.0738
6.0380
6.0019
5.9656
2.9290
5.8921
5.8549
5.8174
5.7794
5.7410
5.7022
5.6620
5.6232
5.5837
5.5401
5.4924
5.4422
5.3884
5.3321
5.2733
5.2087
5.1371
5.0545
4.9541
4.8069
4.7675
4.7211
4.6625
4.548
4.430

4.1029
4.0191
3.9361
3.8535
3.7713
3.6893
3.3076
3.5262
3.4448
3.3635
3.2820
3.2005
3.1187
3.0367
2.9543
2.8715
2.7883
2.7046
2.6201
2.5349
2.4490
2.3621
2.2743
2.1860
2.0928
1.9946
1.8927
1.7858
1.6744
1.5579
1.4319
1.2940
1.1386
0.9528
0.6938
0.6238
0.5410
0.434
0.223
0

hl
.
[kJ kg-1]

entalpia specifica
hvs
hvs- hl
.
.
[kJ kg-1]
[kJ kg-1]

851.8
874.4
897.1
920.0
943.0
966.2
989.6
1013.2
1036.9
1060.9
1085.1
1109.5
1134.3
1159.3
1184.5
1210.2
1236.1
1262.5
1289.3
1316.5
1344.2
1372.5
1401.3
1430.9
1461.3
1492.5
1524.8
1558.4
1593.5
1630.5
1670.3
1714.5
1762.2
1817.9
1893.7
1914.2
1938.1
1972.0
2043.2

2793.7
2796.8
2799.4
2801.7
2803.4
2804.6
2805.4
2805.5
2805.1
2804.1
2802.5
2800.3
2797.4
2793.8
2789.5
2784.5
2778.7
2772.2
2764.9
2756.9
2748.0
2738.3
2727.7
2716.8
2702.4
2685.7
2666.4
2644.3
2620.2
2593.4
2562.3
2527.4
2483.1
2425.9
2339.9
2316.1
2287.1
2252.3
2187.5
2099.7

1941.9
1922.4
1902.3
1881.7
1860.4
1838.4
1815.8
1792.4
1768.2
1743.3
1717.4
1690.7
1663.1
1634.5
1604.9
1574.3
1542.5
1509.6
1475.6
1440.2
1403.6
1365.5
1326.0
1285.8
1241.3
1193.1
1141.5
1086.0
1026.7
963.0
892.2
812.8
720.9
608.0
446.2
401.9
349.0
280.4
144.4
0

energia interna specifica


ul
uvs
uvs- ul
.
.
.
[kJ kg-1] [kJ kg-1]
[kJ kg-1]
850.0
872.4
894.9
917.5
940.2
963.1
986.2
1009.5
1032.8
1056.4
1080.1
1104.0
1128.3
1152.8
1177.3
1202.4
1227.5
1253.2
1279.1
1305.4
1332.1
1359.4
1387.0
1415.4
1444.4
1474.1
1504.7
1536.5
1569.6
1604.3
1641.4
1682.6
1726.6
1777.6
1846.8
1865.2
1887.0
1917.7
1981.6

2595.7
2598.3
2600.4
2602.3
2603.6
2604.6
2605.4
2605.5
2605.3
2604.7
2603.5
2602.0
2599.8
2597.2
2594.0
25902
2585.8
2580.9
2575.4
2569.2
2562.4
2555.1
2546.9
2538.6
2527.5
2514.5
2499.4
2481.9
2462.9
2441.6
2416.7
2388.8
2353.0
2306.1
2234.9
2214.2
2190.7
2161.7
2107.5
2029.3

1745.7
1725.9
1705.5
1684.8
1663.4
1641.5
1619.2
1596.0
1572.5
1548.3
1523.4
1498.0
1471.5
1444.4
1416.7
1387.8
1358.3
1327.7
1296.3
1263.8
1230.3
1195.7
1159.9
1123.2
1083.1
1040.4
994.7
945.4
893.3
837.3
775.3
706.2
626.4
528.5
388.1
349.0
303.7
244.0
125.9
0

propriet termodinamiche dellacqua in condizioni di saturazione pressione(1/2)


press.
p
bar
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0

temp.
T
C
6.98
13.03
17.51
21.09
24.10
28.98
32.90
36.19
41.54
45.84
49.45
54.00
60.09
64.99
69.12
75.89
81.35
85.95
89.96
93.51
96.71
99.63
102.32
104.81
107.13
109.32
111.37
113.32
116.93
120.23
123.27
126.09
128.73
131.21
133.54
135.76
137.86
139.87
141.79
143.63

vol. spec.
vvs
K

280.14
286.19
290.67
294.25
297.26
302.14
306.06
309.35
314.70
319.00
322.61
327.16
333.25
338.14
342.28
349.05
354.51
359.11
363.12
366.67
369.87
372.79
375.48
377.97
380.29
382.48
384.53
386.48
390.09
393.39
396.43
399.25
401.89
404.37
406.70
408.92
411.02
413.03
414.85
416.79

sl

entalpia specifica
hl
hvs
hvs hl

kJ kg-1 K-1

kJ kg-1 K-1

kJ kg-1 K-1

kJ kg-1

kJ kg-1

kJ kg-1

kJ kg-1

kJ kg-1

kJ kg-1

129.2
87.99
67.02
54.27
45.68
34.81
28.20
23.75
18.11
14.68
12.37
10.03
7.652
6.206
5.231
3.994
3.241
2.732
2.365
2.087
1.869
1.694
1.549
1.428
1.325
1.236
1.159
1.091
0.9769
0.8852
0.8096
0.7462
0.6923
0.6458
0.6054
0.5698
0.5383
0.5102
0.4849
0.4621

0.1061
0.1957
0.2607
0.3119
0.3543
0.4223
0.4761
0.5206
0.5922
0.6489
0.6959
0.7545
0.8216
0.8927
0.9435
1.0255
1.0906
1.1449
1.1915
1.2324
1.2690
1.3022
1.3324
1.3603
1.3862
1.4104
1.4331
1.4544
1.4938
1.5295
1.5622
1.5923
1.6203
1.6465
1.6711
1.6942
1.7161
1.7370
1.7568
1.7757

8.9734
8.8256
8.7214
8.6409
8.5754
8.4725
8.3930
8.3283
8.2266
8.1480
8.0841
8.0061
7.9060
7.8287
7.7657
7.6667
7.5903
7.5280
7.4754
7.4300
7.3901
7.3544
7.3222
7.2928
7.2658
7.2409
7.2177
7.1960
7.1565
7.1212
7.0893
7.0602
7.0335
7.0088
6.9859
6.9644
6.9442
6.9252
6.9072
6.8902

8.8673
8.6299
8.4607
8.3290
8.2211
8.0502
7.9169
7.8077
7.6344
7.4991
7.3882
7.2516
7.0744
6.9360
6.8222
6.6412
6.4997
6.3831
6.2839
6.1976
6.1211
6.0522
5.9898
5.9325
5.8796
5.8305
5.7846
5.7416
5.6627
5.5917
5.5271
5.4679.
5.4132
5.3623
5.3148
5.2702
5.2281
5.1182
5.1504
5.1145

29.35
54.72
73.45
88.43
100.97
121.36
137.71
151.42
173.76
191.71
206.80
225.82
251.28
271.81
289.11
317.46
340.37
359.73
376.58
391.53
405.02
417.33
428.66
439.18
449.01
458.24
466.94
475.20
490.52
504.52
517.4
529.5
540.7
551.3
561.2
570.7
579.7
588.3
596.5
604.4

2513.4
2524.5
2532.7
2539.3
2544.7
2553.6
2460.7
2566.7
2576.3
2583.9
2590.3
2598.3
2608.9
2617.4
2624.4
2635.7
2644.7
2652.2
2658.6
2664.3
2669.3
2673.8
2678.0
2681.8
2685.3
2688.6
2691.6
2694.5
2699.8
2704.6
2708.9
2712.9
2716.6
2720.0
2723.0
2726.2
2729.0
2731.6
2734.1
2736.5

2484.0
2469.8
2459.3
2450.8
2443.8
2432.3
2423.0
2415.2
2402.5
2392.2
2383.5
2372.5
2357.6
2345.6
2335.3
2318.3
2304.4
2292.5
2282.1
2272.7
2264.3
2256.5
2249.3
2242.6
2236.3
2230.3
2224.7
2219.3
2209.3
2200.1
2191.5
2183.4
2175.9
2168.7
2161.9
2155.5
2149.2
2143.3
2137.6
2132.1

29.35
54.7
73.45
88.43
100.97
121.36
137.71
151.42
173.76
191.70
206.79
225.80
251.26
271.78
289.08
317.42
340.32
359.67
376.51
391.45
404.93
417.23
428.55
439.05
448.78
458.09
466.79
475.03
490.33
504.31
517.2
529.2
540.4
551.0
560.9
570.4
579.3
587.9
596.1
604.0

2384.2
2392.5
2398.7
2403.6
2407.7
2414.4
2419.7
2424.2
2431.4
2437.1
2441.9
2447.9
2455.9
2462.3
2467.5
2475.9
2482.7
2488.3
2493.1
2497.3
2501.1
2504.4
2507.6
2510.4
2513.1
2515.6
2517.8
2519.9
2624.0
2527.6
2531.2
2533.8
2536.6
2539.2
2537.0
2543.9
2546.0
2547.9
2549.8
2551.7

2354.0
2337.8
2325.3
2315.2
2306.7
2293.0
2282.0
2272.8
2257.6
2245.4
2235.1
2222.1
2204.6
2190.5
2478.4
2158.5
2142.4
2128.6
2116.6
2105.9
2096.2
2087.2
2079.1
2071.4
2064.3
2057.5
2051.0
2044.9
2033.7
2023.3
2014.2
2004.6
1996.2
1988.2
1976.1
1973.5
1966.7
1960.0
1953.7
1947.7

energia interna specifica


ul
uvs
uvs ul

m3 kg-1

entropia specifica
svs
svs sl

propriet termodinamiche dellacqua in condizioni di saturazione pressione(2/2)


press.
p
bar

temp.
T
C

vol. spec.
vvs
K

3.

m kg

-1

sl

entropia specifica
svs
svs sl

kJ kg-1 K-1

5.0
151.85 425.01
0.3746
1.8596
6.0
158.84 432.00
0.3155
1.9300
8.0
170.41 443.57
0.2403
2.0447
10.0
179.88 453.04
0.1944
2.1370
11.0
184.06 457.22
0.1775
2.1774
12.0
187.96 461.12
0.1633
2.2148
14.0
195.04 468.20
0.1408
2.2823
16.0
201.37 474.53
0.1238
2.3422
18.0
207.11 480.27
0.1104
2.3961
20.0
212.37 485.53
0.09964
2.4453
22.0
217.24 490.40
0.09074
2.4906
24.0
221.78 494.94
0.08328
2.5327
26.0
226.03 499.19
0.07682
2.5720
28.0
230.04 503.20
0.07144
2.6089
30.0
233.84 507.00
0.06667
2.6438
32
237.44 510.60
0.06247
2.6739
34
240.88 514.04
0.05874
1.7084
36
244.16 517.32
0.05542
2.7385
38
247.31 520.47
0.04243
2.7672
40
250.33 523.49
0.04973
2.7949
42
253.24 526.40
0.04728
2.8215
44
256.05 529.21
0.04504
2.8471
46
258.76 531.92
0.04299
2.8718
48
261.38 534.54
0.04111
2.8958
50
263.92 537.58
0.03937
2.9190
55
259.94 543.10
0.03556
2.9741
60
275.56 548.72
0.03236
3.0257
65
280.83 553.99
0.02964
3.0743
70
285.80 558.96
0.02729
3.1203
75
190.51 563.67
0.02525
3.1640
80
294.98 568.14
0.02346
3.2059
85
299.24 572.40
0.02187
3.2460
90
303.31 576.47
0.02045
3.2847
100
310.96 584.12
0.01803
3.3582
120
324.64 597.80
0.01429
3.4941
140
336.63 609.69
0.01149
3.6203
160
347.32 620.48
0.009314
3.7433
180
356.96 630.12
0.007518
3.8707
200
365.71 638.87
0.00591
4.0151
220
373.7
646.86
0.00385
4.2802
221.29
374.15 647.31
0.00318
4.430
tratta da: J.Kestin. A Course in Thermodynamics. Mc Graw Hill 1979.

entalpia specifica
hl
hvs
hvs hl

kJ kg-1 K-1

kJ kg-1 K-1

kJ kg-1

kJ kg-1

kJ kg-1

kJ kg-1

kJ kg-1

kJ kg-1

6.8161
6.7555
6.6594
6.5843
6.5519
6.5221
6.4689
6.4221
6.3802
6.3422
6.3072
6.2748
.6.2445
6.2159
6.1890
6.1634
6.1389
6.1155
6.0931
6.0714
6.0506
6.0134
6.0109
5.9919
5.9735
5.9294
5.8880
5.8487
5.8113
5.7755
5.7412
5.7081
5.6762
5.6155
5.4971
5.3726
5.2471
5.1062
4.9375
4.6023

4.9565
4.8255
4.6147
4.4473
4.3745
4.3073
4.1866
4.0799
3.9841
3.8969
3.8166
3.7421
3.6725
3.6070
3.5452
3.4865
3.4305
3.3770
3.3259
3.2765
3.2291
3.1833
3.1391
3.0961
3.0545
2.9553
2.8623
2.7744
2.6910
2.5115
2.5253
2.4621
2.3915
2.2573
2.0030
1.7523
1.5038
1.2355
0.9224
0.3221
0

639.9
670.1
720.6
762.2
780.7
797.9
829.5
858.0
884.0
908.0
930.3
951.3
971.0
989.8
1007.7
1024.7
1041.1
1056.9
1072.1
1086.7
1100.9
1114.7
1128.1
1141.1
1153.8
1184.2
1213.1
1240.5
1266.7
1282.0
1316.4
1339.9
1362.9
1407.0
1490.2
1569.6
1648.5
1732.9
1826.7
2009.7

2746.8
2755.2
2768.0
2777.5
2781.3
2784.7
2790.2
2794.6
2798.0
2800.6
2802.5
2803.9
2804.8
2805.4
2805.5
2805.4
2805.0
2804.4
2803.3
2802.4
2801.2
2799.7
2798.2
2796.5
2794.6
2789.6
2783.9
2777.7
2771.1
2764.1
2756.9
2749.4
2741.6
2725.6
2687.2
2637.7
2581.2
2511.4
2416.0
2218.0

2107.0
2085.1
2047.5
2015.3
2000.6
1986.7
1960.7
1936.6
1914.0
1892.6
1872.2
1852.7
1833.8
1815.6
1797.9
1780.7
1763.9
1747.5
1931.4
1715.7
1700.2
1685.0
1670.1
1655.3
1640.8
1605.3
1570.8
1537.2
1504.3
1472.0
1444.4
1409.2
1378.5
1318.2
1196.3
1066.7
929.9
778.5
589.3
208.4
0

639.4
669.4
719.7
761.1
779.5
796.5
827.9
856.2
881.9
905.7
927.7
948.4
967.9
986.4
1004.1
1020.8
1036.9
1052.4
1079.4
1071.7
1095.6
1109.1
1122.3
1135.0
1147.4
1177.0
1205.2
1231.8
1257.2
1281.5
1305.7
1328.0
1350.2
1392.5
1471.9
1547.1
1621.1
1699.6
1785.5
1951.6

2559.5
2565.9
2575.8
2583.1
2586.1
2588.7
2593.1
2596.5
2599.3
2601.3
2602.9
2604.0
2604.8
2605.4
2605.5
2605.5
2605.3
2604.9
2604.3
2603.3
2602.6
2601.5
2600.4
2599.2
2597.8
2594.0
2589.7
2585.0
2580.1
2574.7
2569.2
2563.5
2557.6
2545.3
2515.7
2476.8
2432.2
2376.1
2297.8
2133.3

1920.1
1896.5
1856.1
1822.0
1807.6
1792.2
1765.2
1740.4
1717.4
1685.7
1675.2
1655.5
1636.9
1619.0
1601.4
1584.7
1568.4
1552.5
1536.9
1521.8
1507.0
1492.4
1478.1
1464.2
1450.4
1417.0
1384.5
1353.2
1322.9
1293.2
1263.5
1235.5
1207.4
1152.8
1044.2
929.7
811.1
676.5
512.3
181.7
0

2099.7

energia interna specifica


ul
uvs
uvs ul
.

2029.3

propriet termodinamiche dellacqua surriscaldata (1/4)

t
C

v
3.

m kg

-1

Sat
50
100
150
200
250
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

14.674
14.869
17.196
19.512
21.825
24.136
26.445
31.063
35.679
40.295
44.911
49.526
54.141
58.757

Sat.
150
200
250
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100

0.8857
0.9596
1.0803
1.1988
1.3162
1.5493
1.7814
2.013
2.244
2.475
2.705
2.937
3.168

Sat.
200
250
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100

0.3749
0.4249
0.4744
0.5226
0.5701
0.6173
0.7109
0.8041
0.8969
0.9896
1.0822
1.1747
1.2672

u
.

-1

-1

kJ kg
kJ kg
p = 0.01 MPa (45.81 C)
2437.9
2443.9
2515.5
2587.9
2661.3
2736.0
2812.1
2968.9
3132.3
3302.5
3479.6
3663.8
3855.0
4053.0

2584.7
2592.6
2687.5
2783.0
2879.5
2977.3
3076.5
3279.6
3489.1
3705.4
3928.7
4159.0
4396.4
4640.6

-1.

kJ kg K

-1

3.

m kg

2706.7
2768.8
2870.5
2971.0
3071.8
3276.6
3487.1
3704.0
3927.6
4158.2
4395.8
4640.0
4890.7
2748.7
2855.4
2960.7
3064.2
3167.7
3271.9
3483.9
3701.7
3925.9
4156.9
4394.7
4639.1
4889.9

-1

-1

-1.

kJ kg
kJ kg K
kJ kg
p = 0.05 MPa (81.33 C)

-1

3.

m kg

-1

u
.

h
.

kJ kg-1
kJ kg-1 K-1
kJ kgp = 0.10 MPa (99.63 C)

3.240

2483.9

2645.9

7.5939

1.6940

2506.1

2675.5

7.3594

3.418
3.889
4.356
4.820
5.284
6.209
7.134
8.057
8.981
9.904
10.828
11.751

2511.6
2585.6
2659.9
2735.0
2811.3
2968.5
3132.0
3302.2
3479.4
3663.6
3854.9
4052.9

2682.5
2780.1
2877.7
2976.0
3075.5
3278.9
3488.7
3705.1
3928.5
4158.9
4396.3
4640.5

7.6947
7.9401
8.1580
8.3556
8.5373
8.8642
9.1546
9.4178
9.6599
9.8852
10.0967
10.2964

1.6958
1.9364
2.172
2.406
2.639
3.103
3.565
4.028
4.490
4.952
5.414
5.875

2506.7
2582.8
2658.1
2733.7
2810.4
2967.9
3131.6
3301.9
3479.2
3663.5
3854.8
4052.8

2676.2
2776.4
2875.3
2974.3
3074.3
3278.2
3488.1
3704.4
3928.2
4158.6
4396.1
4640.3

7.3614
7.6134
7.8343
8.0333
8.2158
8.5435
8.8342
9.0976
9.3398
9.5652
9.7767
9.9764

7.1272
7.2795
7.5066
7.7086
7.8926
8.2218
8.5133
8.7770
9.0194
9.2449
9.4566
9.6563
9.8458

0.6058
0.6339
0.7163
0.7964
0.8753
1.0315
1.1867
1.3414
1.4957
1.6499
1.8041
1.9581
2.1121

6.9919
7.0778
7.3115
7.5166
7.7022
8.0330
8.3251
8.5892
8.8319
9.0576
9.2692
9.4690
9.6585

0.4625
0.4708
0.5342
0.5951
0.6548
0.7726
0.8893
1.0055
1.1215
1.2372
1.3529
1.4685
1.5840

6.8213
7.0592
7.2709
7.4599
7.6329
7.7938
8.0873
7.3522
8.5952
8.8211
9.0329
9.2328
9.4224

0.3157
0.3520
0.3938
0.4344
0.4742
0.5137
0.5920
0.6697
0.7472
0.8245
0.9017
0.9788
1.0559

6.7600
6.9665
7.1816
7.3724
7.5464
7.7079
8.0021
8.2674
8.5107
8.7367
8.9486
9.1485
9.3381

0.2404
0.2608
0.2931
0.3241
0.3544
0.3843
0.4433
0.5018
0.5601
0.6181
0.6761
0.7340
0.7919

p = 0.30 MPa (133.55 C)

p = 0.50 MPa (151.86 C)


2561.2
2642.9
2723.5
2802.9
2882.6
2963.2
3128.4
3299.6
3477.5
3662.1
3853.6
4051.8
4256.3

8.1502
8.1749
8.4479
8.6882
8.9038
9.1002
9.2813
9.6077
9.8978
10.1608
10.4028
10.6281
10.8396
11.0393

p = 0.20 MPa (120.23 C)


2529.5
2576.9
2654.4
2731.2
2808.6
2966.7
3130.8
3301.4
3478.8
3663.1
3854.5
4052.5
4257.0

u
-1

2543.6
2570.8
2650.7
2728.7
2806.7
2965.6
3130.0
3300.8
3478.4
3662.9
3854.2
4052.3
4256.8

2725.3
2761.0
2865.6
2967.6
3069.3
3275.0
3486.0
3703.2
3927.1
4157.8
4395.4
4639.7
4890.4

p = 0.40 MPa (143.63 C)

p = 0.60 MPa (158.85 C)


2567.4
2638.9
2720.9
2801.0
2881.2
2962.1
3127.6
3299.1
3477.0
3661.8
3853.4
4051.5
4256.1

2756.8
2850.1
2957.2
3061.6
3165.7
3270.3
3482.8
3700.9
3925.3
4156.5
4394.4
4638.8
4889.6

2553.6
2564.5
2646.8
2726.1
2804.8
2964.4
3129.2
3300.2
3477.9
3662.4
3853.9
4052.0
4256.5

2738.6
2752.8
2860.5
2964.2
3066.8
3273.4
3484.9
3702.4
3926.5
4157.3
4395.1
4639.4
4890.2

6.8959
6.9299
7.1706
7.3789
7.5662
7.8985
8.1913
8.4558
8.6987
8.9244
9.1362
8.3360
9.5256

p = 0.80 MPa (170.43 C)


2576.8
2630.6
2715.5
2797.2
2878.2
2959.7
3126.0
3297.9
3476.2
3661.1
3852.8
4051.0
4255.6

2769.1
2839.3
2950.0
3056.5
3161.7
3267.1
3480.6
3699.4
3924.2
4155.6
4393.7
4638.2
4889.1

6.6628
6.8158
7.0384
7.2328
7.4089
7.5716
7.8673
8.1333
8.3770
8.6033
8.8153
9.0153
9.2050

propriet termodinamiche dellacqua surriscaldata (2/4)

t
C

v
3.

m kg

-1

Sat
200
250
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.19444
0.2060
0.2327
0.2579
0.3066
0.3542
0.4011
0.4478
0.4943
0.5407
0.5871
0.6335
0.6798
0.7261

Sat.
225
250
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100

0.12380
0.13287
0.14184
0.15862
0.17456
0.19005
0.2203
0.2500
0.2794
0.3086
0.3377
0.3668
0.3958

Sat.
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100

0.07998
0.08700
0.09890
0.10976
0.12010
0.13014
0.13993
0.15930
0.17832
0.19716
0.21590
0.2346
0.2532

u
.

-1

-1

-1.

kJ kg
kJ kg K
kJ kg
P = 1.00 MPa (179.91 C)
2583.6
2621.9
2709.9
2793.2
2957.3
3124.4
3296.8
3475.3
3660.4
3852.2
4050.5
4255.1
4465.5
4681.3

1778.1
2827.9
2942.6
3051.2
3263.9
3478.5
3697.9
3923.1
4154.7
4382.9
4637.6
4888.6
5145.4
5407.4

-1

3.

m kg

6.5865
6.6940
6.9247
7.1229
7.4651
7.7622
8.0290
8.2731
8.4996
8.7118
8.9119
9.1017
9.2822
9.4543

0.16333
0.16930
0.19234
0.2138
0.2548
0.2946
0.3339
0.3729
0.4118
0.4505
0.4892
0.5278
0.5665
0.6051

6.4218
6.5518
6.6732
6.8844
7.0694
7.2374
7.5390
7.8080
8.0535
8.2808
8.4935
8.6938
8.8837

0.11042
0.11673
0.12497
0.14021
0.15457
0.16847
0.19550
0.2220
0.2482
0.2742
0.3001
0.3260
0.3518

6.2575
6.4085
6.6438
6.8403
7.0148
7.1746
7.3234
7.5960
7.8435
8.0720
8.2853
8.4861
8.6762

0.06668
0.07058
0.08114
0.09053
0.09936
0.10787
0.11619
0.13243
0.14838
0.16414
0.17980
0.19541
0.21098

p = 1.60 MPa (201.41C)


2596.0
2644.7
2682.3
2781.1
2866.1
2950.1
3119.5
3293.3
3472.7
3685.3
3850.5
4049.0
4253.7

2794.0
2857.3
2919.2
3034.8
3145.4
3254.2
3472.0
3693.2
3919.7
4152.1
4390.8
4635.8
4887.0
2803.1
2880.1
3008.8
3126.3
3239.3
3350.8
3462.1
3686.3
3914.5
4148.2
4387.6
4633.1
4884.6

-1

-1

-1.

kJ kg
kJ kg K
kJ kg
p = 1.20 MPa (187.99 C)
2588.8
2612.8
2704.2
2789.2
2954.9
3122.8
3295.6
3474.4
3659.7
3851.6
4050.0
4254.6
4465.1
4680.9

2784.8
2815.9
2935.0
3045.8
3260.7
3476.3
3696.3
3922.0
4153.8
4392.2
4637.0
4888.0
5144.9
5407.0

-1

3.

m kg

-1

6.5233
6.5898
6.8294
7.0317
7.3774
7.6759
7.9435
8.1881
8.4148
8.6272
8.8274
9.0172
7.1972
9.3698

0.14084
0.14302
0.16350
0.18228
0.2178
0.2521
0.2860
0.3185
0.3528
0.3861
0.4192
0.4524
0.4855
0.5186

6.3794
6.4808
6.6066
6.8226
7.0100
7.1794
7.4826
7.7523
7.9983
8.2252
8.4386
8.6391
8.8290

0.09963
0.10377
0.11144
0.12547
0.13857
0.15120
0.17568
0.19960
0.2232
0.2467
0.2700
0.2933
0.3166

6.1869
6.2872
6.5390
6.7428
6.9212
7.0834
7.2338
7.5085
7.7571
7.9862
8.1999
8.4009
8.5912

0.05707
0.05872
0.06842
0.07678
0.08453
0.09196
0.09918
0.11324
0.12699
0.14056
0.15402
0.14743
0.18080

p = 1.80 MPa (207.15 C)

p = 2.50 MPa (233.99C)


2603.1
2662.6
2761.6
2851.9
2939.1
3025.5
3112.1
3288.0
3468.7
3655.3
3847.9
4046.7
4251.5

u
-1

2598.4
2636.6
2686.0
2776.9
2863.0
2947.7
3117.9
3292.1
3471.8
2657.6
3849.9
4048.5
4253.2

2797.1
2846.7
2911.0
3029.2
3141.2
3250.9
3469.8
3691.7
3918.5
4151.2
4390.1
4635.2
4886.4

2804.2
2855.8
2993.5
3115.3
3230.9
3344.0
3456.5
3682.3
3911.7
4145.9
4385.9
4631.6
4883.3

h
.

kJ kg-1
kJ kg-1 K-1
kJ kgp = 1.40 MPa (195.07 C)
2592.8
2603.1
2698.3
2785.2
2952.5
3121.1
3294.4
3473.6
3659.0
3851.1
4049.5
4254.1
4464.7
4680.4

2790.0
2803.3
2927.2
3040.4
3257.5
3474.1
3694.8
3920.8
4153.0
4391.5
4636.4
4887.5
5144.4
5406.5

6.4693
6.4975
6.7467
6.9534
7.3026
7.6027
7.8710
8.1160
8.3431
85556
8.7559
8.9457
9.1262
9.2984

p = 2.00 MPa (212.42 C)

p = 3.00 MPa (233.90 C)


2604.1
2644.0
2750.1
2843.7
2932.8
3020.4
3108.0
3284.0
3466.5
3653.3
3846.5
4045.4
4251.3

u
.

2600.3
2628.3
2679.6
2772.6
2859.8
2945.2
3116.2
3290.9
3470.9
3657.0
3849.3
4048.0
4252.7

2799.5
2836.8
2902.5
3023.5
3137.0
3247.6
3467.6
3690.1
3917.4
4150.3
4389.4
4634.6
4885.9

6.3409
6.4147
6.5453
6.7664
6.9563
7.1271
7.4317
7.7024
7.9487
8.1764
8.3895
8.5901
8.7800

p = 3.50 MPa (242.60 C)


2603.7
2623.7
2738.0
2835.3
2926.4
3015.3
3103.0
3285.1
3464.3
3651.8
3845.0
4044.1
4249.2

2803.4
2829.2
2977.5
3104.0
3222.3
3337.2
3450.9
3678.4
3908.8
4143.7
4384.1
4630.1
4881.9

6.1253
6.1749
6.4461
6.6579
6.8405
7.0052
7.1572
7.4339
7.6837
7.9134
8.1276
8.3288
8.5192

propriet termodinamiche dellacqua surriscaldata (3/4)

t
C

v
3.

m kg

-1

Sat
275
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.04978
0.05457
0.05884
0.06645
0.07341
0.08643
0.09885
0.11095
0.12287
0.13469
0.14645
0.15817
0.16987
0.18156

Sat.
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.03244
0.03616
0.04223
0.04739
0.05665
0.06525
0.07352
0.08160
0.08958
0.09749
0.10536
0.11321
0.12067

Sat.
350
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.02048
0.02580
0.02993
0.03350
0.03677
0.04285
0.04857
0.05409
0.05950
0.06485
0.07016
0.07544
0.08072

u
.

-1

-1

-1.

kJ kg
kJ kg K
kJ kg
p = 4.00 MPa (250.40 C)
2602.3
2667.9
2725.3
2826.7
2919.9
3099.5
3279.1
3462.1
3650.0
3843.6
4042.9
4248.0
4458.6
4674.3

2801.4
2886.2
2960.7
3092.5
3213.6
3445.3
3674.4
3905.9
4141.5
4382.3
4628.7
4880.6
5138.1
5400.5

-1

3.

m kg

6.0701
6.2285
6.3615
6.5821
6.7690
7.0901
7.3688
7.6198
7.8502
8.0647
8.2662
8.4567
8.6378
8.8100

0.04406
0.04730
0.05135
0.05840
0.06475
0.07651
0.08765
0.09847
0.10911
0.11965
0.13013
0.14056
0.15098
0.16139

5.8892
6.0674
6.3335
6.5408
6.8803
7.1677
7.4234
7.6566
7.8727
8.0751
8.2661
8.4474
8.6199

0.02737
0.02947
0.03524
0.03993
0.04814
0.05565
0.06283
0.06981
0.07669
0.08350
0.09027
0.09703
0.10377

5.6772
6.0361
6.2854
6.4844
6.6576
6.9589
7.2221
7.4596
7.6783
7.8821
8.0740
8.2556
8.4284

0.018026
0.02242
0.02641
0.02975
0.03279
0.03837
0.04358
0.04859
0.05349
0.05832
0.06312
0.06789
0.07265

p = 6.0 MPa (275.64C)


2589.7
2667.2
2789.6
2892.9
3082.2
3266.9
3453.1
3643.1
3837.8
4037.8
4243.3
4454.0
4669.6

2784.3
2884.2
3043.0
3177.2
3422.2
3658.4
3894.2
4132.7
4375.3
4622.7
4875.4
5133.3
5396.0
2742.1
2956.6
3117.8
3256.6
3386.1
3633.7
3876.5
4119.3
4364.8
4614.0
4867.7
5126.2
5389.2

-1

-1

-1.

kJ kg
kJ kg K
kJ kg
P = 4.5 MPa (257.49C)
2600.1
2650.3
2712.0
2817.8
2913.3
3095.3
3276.0
3459.9
3648.3
3842.2
4041.6
4246.8
4457.5
4632.1

2798.3
2863.2
2943.1
3080.6
3204.7
3439.6
3670.5
3903.0
4139.3
4380.6
4627.2
4879.3
5136.9
5399.4

-1

3.

m kg

-1

6.0198
6.1401
6.2828
6.5131
6.7047
7.0301
7.3110
7.5631
7.7942
8.0091
8.2108
8.4015
8.5825
8.7549

0.03944
0.04141
0.04532
0.05194
0.05781
0.06857
0.07869
0.08849
0.09811
0.10762
0.11707
0.12648
0.13587
0.14526

5.8133
5.9305
6.2283
6.4478
6.7975
7.0894
7.3476
7.5822
7.7991
8.0020
8.1933
8.3747
8.5475

0.02352
0.02426
0.02995
0.03432
0.04175
0.04845
0.05481
0.06097
0.06702
0.07301
0.07896
0.08489
0.09080

5.6141
5.9443
6.2120
6.4190
6.5966
6.9029
7.1687
7.4077
7.6272
7.8315
8.0237
8.2055
8.3783

0.013495
0.016126
0.02000
0.02299
0.02560
0.03029
0.03460
0.03869
0.04267
0.04658
0.05045
0.05430
0.05813

p = 7.0 MPa (285.88 C)

p = 9.0 MPa (303.40C)


2557.8
2724.4
2848.4
2955.2
3055.2
3248.1
3439.3
3632.5
3829.2
4030.3
4236.3
4447.2
4662.7

u
-1

2580.5
2632.2
2769.4
2878.6
3073.4
3260.7
3448.5
3639.5
3835.0
4035.3
4240.9
4451.7
4667.3

2772.1
2838.4
3016.0
3158.1
3410.3
3650.3
3888.3
4128.2
4371.8
4619.8
4872.8
5430.9
5393.7

2724.7
2923.4
3096.5
3240.9
3373.7
3625.3
3870.5
4114.8
4361.2
4611.0
4865.1
5123.8
5387.0

h
.

kJ kg-1
kJ kg-1 K-1
kJ kgp = 5.0 MPa (263.99 C)
2597.1
2631.3
2698.0
2808.7
2906.6
3091.0
3273.0
3457.6
3646.6
3840.7
4040.4
4245.6
4456.3
4672.0

2794.3
2838.3
2924.5
3068.4
3195.7
3433.8
3666.5
3900.1
4137.1
4378.8
4625.7
4878.0
5135.7
5398.2

5.9734
6.0544
6.2084
6.4493
6.6459
6.9759
7.2589
7.5122
7.7440
7.9593
8.1612
8.3520
8.5331
8.7055

p = 8.0 MPa (295.06 C)

p = 10.0 MPa (311.06 C)


2544.4
2699.2
2832.4
2943.4
3045.8
3241.7
3434.7
3628.9
3826.3
4027.8
4234.0
4444.9
4460.5

u
.

2569.8
2590.9
2747.7
2863.8
3064.3
3254.4
3443.9
3636.0
3832.1
4032.8
4238.6
4449.5
4665.0

2758.0
2785.0
2987.3
3138.3
3398.3
3642.0
3882.4
4123.8
4368.3
4616.9
4870.3
5128.5
6391.5

5.7432
5.7906
6.1301
6.3634
6.7240
7.0206
7.2812
7.5173
7.7351
7.9384
8.1300
8.3115
8.4842

p = 12.5 MPa (327.89 C)


2505.1
2624.6
2789.3
2912.5
3021.7
3225.4
3422.9
3620.0
3819.1
4021.6
4228.2
4439.3
4654.8

2673.8
2826.2
3039.3
3199.8
3341.8
3604.0
3855.3
4103.6
4352.5
4603.8
4858.8
5118.0
5381.4

5.4624
5.7118
6.0417
6.2719
6.4618
6.7810
7.0536
7.2965
7.5182
7.7237
7.9165
8.0937
8.2717

propriet termodinamiche dellacqua surriscaldata (4/4)

t
C

v
3.

m kg

-1

u
.

-1

-1

-1.

kJ kg
kJ kg K
kJ kg
p = 15.0 MPa (342.24 C)

Sat
350
400
450
500
550
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.010337
0.011470
0.015649
0.018445
0.02080
0.02293
0.02491
0.02861
0.03210
0.03546
0.03875
0.04200
0.04523
0.04845

2455.5
2520.4
2740.7
2879.5
2996.6
3104.7
3208.6
3410.9
3610.9
3811.9
4015.4
4222.6
4433.8
4649.1

375
400
450
500
550
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.0019731
0.006004
0.009162
0.011123
0.012724
0.014137
0.016646
0.018912
0.021045
0.02310
0.02512
0.2711
0.2910

1798.7
2430.1
2720.7
2884.3
3017.5
3137.9
3361.3
3574.3
3783.0
3990.9
4200.2
4412.0
4626.9

375
400
425
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.0016407
0.0019077
0.002532
0.003696
0.005622
0.008094
0.009941
0.011523
0.012962
0.014324
0.015642
0.016940
0.018229

1677.1
1854.6
2096.9
2365.1
2678.4
3022.6
3283.6
3517.8
3739.4
3954.6
4167.4
4380.1
4594.3

2610.5
2682.4
2975.5
3156.2
3308.6
3448.6
3582.3
3840.1
4092.4
4343.8
4596.6
4852.6
5112.3
5376.0

-1

3.

m kg

-1

-1.

-1

3.

m kg

-1

u
.

h
.

kJ kg-1
kJ kg-1 K-1
kJ kgp = 20.0 MPa (365.81 C)

5.3098
5.4421
5.8811
6.1404
6.3443
6.5199
6.6776
6.9572
7.2040
7.4279
7.6348
7.8283
8.0108
8.1840

0.007920

2390.2

2528.8

5.1419

0.005834

2293.0

2409.7

4.9269

0.012447
0.015174
0.017358
0.019288
0.02106
0.02434
0.02738
0.03031
0.03316
0.03597
0.03876
0.04154

2684.0
2844.2
2970.3
3083.9
3191.5
3398.7
3601.8
3804.7
4009.3
4216.9
4428.3
4643.5

2902.9
3109.7
3274.1
3421.4
3560.1
3824.6
4081.1
4335.1
4589.5
4846.4
5106.6
5370.5

5.7213
6.0184
6.2383
6.4230
6.5866
6.8736
7.1244
7.3507
7.5589
7.7531
7.9360
8.1093

0.009942
0.012695
0.014768
0.016555
0.018178
0.02113
0.02384
0.02645
0.02897
0.03145
0.03391
0.03636

2619.3
2806.2
2942.9
3062.4
3174.0
3386.4
3592.7
3797.5
4003.1
4211.3
4422.8
4638.1

2818.1
3060.1
3238.2
3393.5
3537.6
3809.0
4069.7
4326.4
4582.5
4840.2
4101.0
5365.1

5.5540
5.9017
6.1401
6.3348
6.5048
6.7993
7.0544
7.2830
7.4925
7.6874
7.8707
8.0442

4.0320
5.1418
5.6744
5.9592
6.1765
6.3602
6.6707
6.9345
7.1680
7.3802
7.5765
7.7605
7.9342

0.0017892
0.002790
0.006735
0.008678
0.010168
0.011446
0.013661
0.015623
0.017448
0.019196
0.020903
0.022589
0.24266

1737.8
2067.4
2619.3
2820.7
3970.3
3100.5
33.5.8
3555.5
3768.5
3987.8
4189.2
4401.3
4616.0

3.9305
4.4728
5.4424
5.7905
6.0342
6.2331
6.5606
6.8332
7.0718
7.2867
7.4845
7.6692
7.8432

0.0017003
0.002100
0.004961
0.006927
0.008345
0.009527
0.011533
0.013278
0.014883
0.016410
0.017895
0.019360
0.020815

1702.9
1914.1
2498.7
2751.9
2921.1
3062.0
3309.8
3536.7
3754.0
3966.7
4178.3
4390.7
4605.1

3.8290
4.1135
4.5029
4.9459
5.4700
6.0144
6.3750
6.6662
6.9150
7.1356
7.3364
7.5224
7.6969

0.0015594
0.0017309
0.002007
0.002486
0.003892
0.006112
0.007727
0.009076
0.010283
0.011411
0.012496
0.013561
0.014616

1638.6
1788.1
1959.7
2159.6
2525.5
2942.0
3230.5
3479.8
3710.3
3930.5
4145.7
4659.1
4572.8

3.7639
4.0031
4.2734
4.5884
5.1726
5.8178
6.2189
6.5290
6.7882
7.0146
7.2184
7.4058
7.5808

0.0015028
0.0016335
0.0018165
0.002085
0.002956
0.004834
0.006272
0.007459
0.008508
0.009480
0.010409.
0.011317
0.012215

1609.4
1745.4
1892.7
2053.9
2390.6
2861.1
3177.2
3441.5
3681.0
3906.4
4124.1
4338.2
4551.4

p = 30.0 MPa

P = 40.0 MPa
1742.8
1930.9
2198.1
2512.8
2903.3
3346.4
3681.2
3978.7
4257.9
4527.6
4793.1
5057.7
5323.5

-1

kJ kg
kJ kg K
kJ kg
p = 17.5 MPa (354.75C)

P = 25.0 MPa
1848.0
2580.2
2949.7
3162.4
3335.6
3491.4
3777.5
4047.1
4309.1
4568.5
4828.2
5089.9
5354.4

u
-1

1791.5
2151.1
2821.4
3081.1
3275.4
3443.9
3745.6
4024.2
4291.9
4554.7
4816.3
5079.0
5344.0

p = 35.0 MPa

p = 50.0 MPa

1716.6
1874.6
2060.0
2284.0
2720.1
3247.6
3616.8
3933.6
4224.4
4501.1
4770.5
5037.2
5303.6

1762.4
1987.6
2682.4
2994.4
3213.0
3395.5
3713.5
4001.5
4274.9
4541.1
4804.6
5068.3
5333.6

3.8722
4.2126
5.1962
5.6282
5.9026
6.1179
6.4631
6.7450
6.9386
7.2064
7.4037
7.5910
7.7653

p = 60.0 MPa
1699.5
1843.4
2001.7
2179.0
2567.9
3151.2
3553.5
3889.1
4191.5
4475.2
4748.6
5017.2
5284.3

3.7141
3.9318
4.1626
4.4121
4.9321
5.6452
6.0824
6.4109
6.6805
6.9127
7.1195
7.3083
7.4837

propriet termodinamiche dellR134a in condizioni di saturazione - temperatura


temperatura
C
t
-40
-36
-32
-28
-26
-24
-22
-20
-18
-16
-12
-8
-4
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
48
52
56
60
70
80
90
100

pressione
MPa
psat
0.05164
0.06332
0.07704
0.09305
0.10199
0.11160
0.12192
0.13299
0.14483
0.15748
0.18540
0.21704
0.25274
0.29282
0.33765
0.38756
0.44294
0.50416
0.57160
0.64566
0.68530
0.72675
0.77006
0.81528
0.86247
0.91168
0.96298
1.0164
1.0720
1.1299
1.2526
1.3851
1.5278
1.6813
2.1162
2.6324
3.2435
3.9742

volume specifico
m3.kg-1
vl
vvs
0.0007055
0.0007113
0.0007172
0.0007233
0.0007265
0.0007296
0.0007328
0.0007361
0.0007395
0.0007428
0.0007198
0.0007569
0.0007644
0.0007721
0.0007801
0.0007884
0.0007671
0.0008062
0.0008157
0.0008257
0.0008309
0.0008362
0.0008417
0.0008473
0.0008430
0.0008490
0.0008651
0.0008714
0.0008780
0.0008847
0.0008989
0.0009142
0.0009308
0.0009488
0.0010027
0.0010766
0.0011949
0.0015443

0.3569
0.2947
0.2451
0.2052
0.1882
0.1728
0.1590
0.1464
0.1350
0.1247
0.1068
0.0919
0.0794
0.0689
0.0600
0.0525
0.0460
0.0405
0.0358
0.0317
0.0298
0.0281
0.0265
0.0250
0.0236
0.0223
0.0210
0.0199
0.0188
0.0177
0.0159
0.0142
0.0127
0.0114
0.0086
0.0064
0.0046
0.0027

energia interna
kJ.kg-1
ul
uvs
-0.04
4.68
9.47
14.31
16.75
19.21
21.68
24.17
26.67
29.18
34.25
39.38
44.56
49.79
55.08
60.43
65.83
71.29
76.80
82.37
85.18
88.00
90.84
93.70
96.58
99.47
102.38
105.31
108.25
111.22
117.22
123.31
129.51
135.82
152.22
169.88
189.82
218.60

204.45
206.73
209.01
211.29
212.43
213.57
214.70
215.84
216.97
218.10
220.36
222.60
224.84
227.06
229.27
231.46
233.63
235.78
237.91
240.01
240.05
242.08
243.10
244.12
245.12
246.11
247.09
248.06
249.02
249.96
251.79
253.55
255.23
256.81
260.15
262.14
261.34
268.49

10

hl
0.00
4.73
9.52
14.37
16.82
19.29
21.77
24.26
26.77
29.30
34.39
39.54
44.75
50.02
55.35
60.73
66.18
71.69
77.26
82.90
85.75
88.61
91.49
94.39
97.31
100.25
103.21
106.19
109.19
112.22
118.35
124.58
130.93
137.42
154.34
172.71
193.69
224.74

entalpia
kJ.kg-1
hvs-hl
222.88
220.67
218.37
216.01
214.80
213.57
212.32
211.05
209.76
208.45
205.77
203.00
200.15
197.21
194.19
191.07
187.85
184.52
181.09
177.55
175.73
173.89
172.00
170.09
168.14
166.15
164.12
162.05
159.94
157.79
153.33
148.66
143.75
138.47
124.08
106.41
82.63
34.40

hvs
222.88
225.40
227.90
230.38
231.62
232.85
234.08
235.31
236.53
237.74
240.15
242.54
244.90
247.23
249.53
251.80
254.03
256.22
258.35
260.45
261.48
262.50
263.50
264.48
265.45
266.40
267.33
268.24
269.14
270.01
271.68
273.24
274.68
275.99
278.43
279.12
276.32
259.13

entropia
kJ.kg-1K-1
sl
svs
0.0000
0.0201
0.0401
0.0600
0.0699
0.0798
0.0897
0.0996
0.1094
0.1192
0.1388
0.1583
0.1777
0.1970
0.2162
0.2354
0.2545
0.2735
0.2924
0.3113
0.3208
0.3302
0.3396
0.3490
0.3584
0.3678
0.3772
0.2866
0.3960
0.4054
0.4243
0.4432
0.4622
0.4814
0.5302
0.5814
0.6380
0.7196

0.9560
0.9506
0.9456
0.9411
0.9390
0.9370
0.9351
0.9332
0.9315
0.9298
0.9267
0.9239
0.9213
0.9190
0.9169
0.9150
0.9132
0.9116
0.9102
0.9089
0.9082
0.9076
0.9070
0.9064
0.9058
0.9053
0.9047
0.9041
0.9035
0.9030
0.9017
0.9004
0.8990
0.8973
0.8918
0.8827
0.8655
0.8117

propriet termodinamiche dellR134a in condizioni di saturazione - pressione


pressione
MPa
psat

temperatura
C
t

volume specifico
m3.kg-1
vl
vvs

energia interna
kJ.kg-1
ul
uvs

hl

entalpia
kJ.kg-1
hvs-hl

0.06

-37.07

0.0007097

0.3100

3.41

206.12

3.46

221.27

224.72

0.0147

0.9520

0.08

-31.21

0.0007184

0.2366

10.41

209.46

10.47

217.92

228.39

0.0440

0.9447

0.10

-26.43

0.0007258

0.1917

16.22

212.18

16.29

215.06

231.35

0.0678

0.9395

0.12

-22.36

0.0007323

0.1614

21.23

214.50

21.32

212.54

233.86

0.0879

0.9354

0.14

-18.80

0.0007381

0.1395

25.66

216.52

25.77

210.27

236.04

0.1055

0.9322

0.16

-15.62

0.0007435

0.1229

29.66

218.32

29.78

208.18

237. 97

0.1211

0.9295

0.18

-12.73

0.0007485

0.1098

33.31

219.94

33.45

206.26

239.71

0.1352

0.9273

0.20

-10.09

0.0007532

0.0993

36.69

221.43

36.84

204.46

241.30

0.1481

0.9253

0.24

-5.37

0.0007618

0.0834

42.77

224.07

42.95

201.14

244.09

0.1710

0.9222

0.28

-1.23

0.0007697

0.0719

48.18

226.38

48.39

198.13

246.52

0.1911

0.9197

0.32

2.48

0.0007770

0.0632

53.06

228.43

53.31

195.35

248.66

0.2089

0.9177

0.36

5.84

0.0007839

0.0564

57.54

230.28

57.82

192.76

250.58

0.2251

0.9160

hvs

entropia
kJ.kg-1K-1
sl
svs

0.4

8.93

0.0007904

0.0509

61.69

231.97

62.00

190.32

252.32

0.2399

0.9145

0.5

15.74

0.0008056

0.0409

70.93

235.64

71.33

184.74

256.07

0.2723

0.9117

0.6

21.58

0.0008196

0.0341

78.99

238.74

79.48

179.71

259.19

0.2999

0.9097

0.7

26.72

0.0008328

0.0292

86.19

241.42

86.78

175.07

261.85

0.3242

0.9080

0.8

31.33

0.0008454

0.0255

92.75

243.78

93.42

170.73

264.15

0.3459

0.9066

0.9

35.53

0.0008576

0.0226

98.79

245.88

99.56

166.62

266.18

0.3656

0.9054

1.0

39.39

0.0008695

0.0202

104.42

247.77

105.29

162.68

267.97

0.3838

0.9043

1.2

46.32

0.0008928

0.0166

114.69

251.03

115.76

155.23

270.99

0.4164

0.9023

1.4

52.43

0.0009159

0.0140

123.98

253.74

125.26

148.14

273.40

0.4453

0.9003

1.6

57.92

0.0009392

0.0121

132.52

256.00

134.02

141.31

275.33

0.4714

0.8982

1.8

62.91

0.0009631

0.0105

140.49

247.88

142.22

134.60

276.83

0.4954

0.8959

2.0

67.49

0.0009878

0.0093

148.02

259.41

149.99

127.95

277.94

0.5178

0.8934

2.5

77.59

0.0010562

0.0069

165.48

261.84

168.12

111.06

279.17

0.5687

0.8854

3.0

86.22

0.0011416

0.0053

181.88

262.16

185.30

92.71

278.01

0.6156

0.8735

11

propriet termodinamiche dellR134a surriscaldato (1/3)


t
C
sat
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
sat
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

v
m3 kg-1

u
kJ kg-1

h
kJ kg-1

s
kJ kg-1 K-1

p= 0.06 MPa (Tsat=-37.07C)


0.31003
206.12
224.72
0.9520
0.33536
217.86
237.98
1.0062
0.34992
224.97
245.96
1.0371
0.36433
232.24
254.10
1.0675
0.37861
239.69
262.41
1.0973
0.39279
247.32
270.89
1.1267
0.40688
255.12
279.53
1.1557
0.42091
263.10
288.35
1.1844
0.43487
271.25
297.34
1.2126
0.44879
279.58
306.51
1.2405
0.16266
288.08
315.84
1.2680
0.47650
296.75
325.34
1.2954
0.49031
305.58
335.00
1.3224

0.01983
0.11135
0.11678
0.12207
0.12723
0.13230
0.13730
0.14222
0.14710
0.15193
0.15672
0.16148
0.16622

p= 0.18 MPa (Tsat=-12.73C)


219.94
269.71
222.02
242.06
229.67
250.69
237.44
259.41
245.33
268.23
253.36
277.17
261.53
286.24
269.85
295.45
278.31
304.79
296.93
314.28
295.71
323.92
304.63
33.70
323.72
343.63

0.9273
0.9362
0.9684
0.9998
1.0304
1.0604
1.0898
1.1187
1.1472
1.1765
1.2030
1.2303
1.2537

v
m3 kg-1

u
kJ kg-1

h
kJ kg-1

s
kJ kg-1 K-1

p= 0.10 MPa (Tsat=-26.43C)


0.19170
212.18
231.35
0.19770
216.77
236.54
0.20686
224.01
244.70
0.21587
231.40
252.99
0.22473
238.96
261.43
0.23349
246.67
270.02
0.24216
254.54
278.76
0.25076
262.58
287.66
0.25930
270.79
296.72
0.26779
279.16
305.94
0.27623
287.70
315.32
0.28464
296.40
324.87
0.29302
305.27
334.57

0.09933
0.09938
0.10438
0.10922
0.11394
0.11856
0.12311
0.12758
0.13201
0.13639
0.14073
0.14504
0.14932

0.9395
0.9602
0.9918
1.0227
1.0531
1.0829
1.1122
1.1411
1.1696
1.1977
1.2254
1.2528
1.2799

p= 0.20 MPa (Tsat=-10.09C)


221.43
241.30
0.9253
221.50
241.38
0.9256
229.23
250.10
0.9582
237.05
258.89
0.9898
244.99
267.78
1.0206
253.06
276.77
1.0508
261.26
285.88
1.0804
269.61
295.12
1.1094
278.10
304.50
1.1380
286.74
314.02
1.1661
295.53
323.68
1.1939
304.47
323.48
1.2212
313.57
343.43
1.2483

12

v
m3 kg-1

u
kJ kg-1

h
kJ kg-1

s
kJ kg-1 K-1

p= 0.14 MPa (Tsat=-18.80C)


0.13945
216.52
236.04
0.9322
0.14549
0.15219
0.15875
0.16520
0.17155
0.17783
0.18404
0.19020
0.19633
0.20241
0.20846
0.21449

223.03
243.40
230.55
251.86
238.21
260.43
246.01
269.13
253.96
277.97
262.06
286.96
270.32
296.09
278.74
305.37
287.32
314.80
296.06
324.39
304.95
334.14
314.01
344.14
p= 0.24 MPa (Tsat=-5.37C)
0.08343
224.07
244.09

0.9606
0.9922
1.0230
1.0532
1.0828
1.1120
1.1407
1.1690
1.1969
1.2244
1.2516
1.2785

0.08574
0.08993
0.09339
0.09794
0.10181
0.10562
0.10937
0.11307
0.11674
0.12037
0.12387

0.9399
0.9721
1.0034
1.0339
1.0637
1.0930
1.1218
1.1501
1.1780
1.2055
1.2326

228.31
236.26
244.30
252.45
260.72
269.12
277.67
286.35
295.18
304.15
313.27

248.89
257.84
266.85
275.95
285.16
294.47
303.91
313.49
323.19
333.04
343.03

0.9222

propriet termodinamiche dellR134a surriscaldato (2/3)


t
C

v
m3 kg-1

u
kJ kg-1

h
kJ kg-1

s
kJ kg-1 K-1

v
m3 kg-1
0.06322

sat
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140

0.07193
0.07240
0.07613
0.07972
0.08320
0.08660
0.08992
0.09319
0.09641
0.09960
0.10275
0.10587
0.10897
0.11205

p= 0.28 MPa (Tsat=-1.23C)


226.38
246.52
227.37
247.64
235.44
256.76
243.59
265.91
251.83
275.12
260.17
284.42
268.64
293.81
277.23
303.32
285.96
312.95
294.82
322.71
303.83
332.60
312.98
342.62
322.27
352.78
332.71
363.08

0.9197
0.9238
0.9566
0.9883
1.0192
1.0494
1.0789
1.1079
1.1364
1.1644
1.1920
1.2193
1.2461
1.2727

sat
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160

0.04086
0.04188
0.04416
0.04633
0.04842
0.05043
0.05240
0.05432
0.05620
0.05805
0.05988
0.06168
0.06347
0.06524

p= 0.50MPa (Tsat=15.74C)
233.64
256.07
239.40
260.34
248.20
270.28
256.99
280.16
265.83
290.04
274.73
299.95
283.72
309.92
292.80
319.96
302.00
330.10
311.31
340.33
320.74
350.68
330.30
341.14
339.98
371.72
349.79
382.42

0.9117
0.9264
0.9597
0.9918
1.0229
1.0531
1.0825
1.1114
1.1397
1.1675
1.1949
1.2218
1.2484
1.2745

0.06576
0.06901
0.07214
0.07518
0.07815
0.08106
0.08382
0.08674
0.08953
0.09229
0.09503
0.09774

0.03408
0.03581
0.03774
0.03958
0.04134
0.04304
0.04469
0.04631
0.04790
0.04946
0.05099
0.05251
0.05402
0.05550
0.05698

u
kJ kg-1

h
kJ kg-1

s
kJ kg-1 K-1

p= 0.32 MPa (Tsat=2.48C)


228.43
248.66
0.9177
234.61
242.87
251.19
259.61
268.14
276.79
285.56
294.46
303.50
312.68
322.00
331.45

255.65
264.85
274.28
283.67
293.15
302.72
312.41
322.22
332.15
342.21
352.40
362.73

0.9427
0.9749
1.0062
1.0347
1.0665
1.0957
1.1243
1.1525
1.1802
1.1076
1.2345
1.2611

p= 0.60 MPa (Tsat=21.58C)


238.74
259.19
0.9097
246.41
255.45
264.48
273.54
282.66
291.86
301.14
310.53
320.03
329.64
339.38
349.23
359.21
369.32
13

267.89
278.09
288.23
298.38
308.48
318.67
328.93
339.27
349.70
360.24
370.99
381.64
392.52
403.51

0.9388
0.9719
1.0037
1.1346
1.0645
1.0938
1.1225
1.1505
1.1781
1.2053
1.2320
1.2584
1.2844
1.3100

v
m3 kg-1

u
kJ kg-1

h
kJ kg-1

s
kJ kg-1 K-1

0.05089

p= 0.40 MPa (Tsat=8.93C)


231.97
252.32
0.9145

0.05119
0.05397
0.05662
0.05917
0.06164
0.06405
0.06641
0.06873
0.07102
0.07327
0.07550
0.07771
0.07991
0.08208

232.87
253.35
241.37
262.96
249.89
272.54
258.47
282.14
267.13
291.79
275.89
301.51
284.75
311.32
293.73
321.23
302.84
331.25
321.07
341.38
321.44
351.64
330.94
362.03
340.58
372.54
350.35
383.18
p= 0.70 MPa (Tsat=26.72C)
0.02918
241.42
261.85

0.9182
0.9515
0.9937
1.0148
1.0452
1.0748
1.1038
1.1322
1.1602
1.1878
1.2149
1.2417
1.2681
1.2941

0.02979
0.03157
0.03324
0.03182
0.03634
0.03781
0.03924
0.04064
0.04201
0.04335
0.04468
0.04599
0.04729
0.04857

0.9197
0.9539
0.9867
1.0182
1.0487
1.0784
1.1074
1.1358
1.1637
1.1910
1.2179
1.2444
1.2706
1.2963

244.51
253.83
263.08
272.32
281.57
290.88
300.27
309.74
319.31
328.98
338.76
348.66
358.68
368.82

265.37
275.93
286.35
296.69
307.01
317.35
327.74
338.19
348.71
359.33
370.04
380.86
391.79
402.82

0.9080

propriet termodinamiche dellR134a surriscaldato (3/3)


t
C
sat
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
sat
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200

v
m3 kg-1

u
kJ kg-1

h
kJ kg-1

s
kJ kg-1 K-1

p= 0.8 MPa (Tsat=31.33C)


243.78
264.15
252.13
273.66
261.62
284.39
271.04
294.98
280.45
305.50
289.89
316.00
299.37
326.52
308.93
337.08
318.57
347.71
328.31
358.40
338.14
369.19
348.09
380.07
358.15
391.05
368.32
402.14
378.61
413.33
389.02
424.63
p= 1.20 MPa (Tsat=46.32C)
0.01663
251.03
270.99
0.01712
259.33
275.52
0.01835
265.42
287.44
0.01947
275.59
298.96
0.02051
285.62
310.24
0.02150
295.59
321.39
0.02244
305.54
332.47
0.02335
315.50
343.52
0.02423
325.51
354.58
0.02508
335.58
365.68
0.02592
345.73
376.83
0.02674
355.95
388.04
0.02754
366.27
399.33
0.02834
376.69
410.70
0.02912
387.21
422.16
0.02547
0.02691
0.02846
0.02992
0.03131
0.03264
0.03393
0.03519
0.03642
0.03762
0.03881
0.03997
0.04113
0.04227
0.04340
0.04452

0.9066
0.9374
0.9711
1.0034
1.0345
1.0647
1.0940
1.1227
1.1508
1.1784
1.2055
1.2321
1.2584
1.2843
1.3098
1.3351
0.9023
0.9164
0.9527
0.9868
1.0192
1.0503
1.0804
1.1096
1.1381
1.1660
1.1933
1.2201
1.2465
1.2724
1.2980

v
m3 kg-1

u
kJ kg-1

h
kJ kg-1

s
kJ kg-1 K-1

p= 0.90 MPa (Tsat=35.53C)


245.88
266.18
250.32
271.25
260.09
282.34
269.72
293.21
279.30
303.94
288.87
314.62
298.46
325.28
308.11
335.96
317.82
346.68
327.62
357.47
337.52
368.33
347.51
379.27
357.61
390.31
367.82
401.44
378.14
412.68
388.57
424.02
p= 1.40 MPa (Tsat=52.43C)
0.01405
253.74
273.40

0.02255
0.02325
0.02472
0.02609
0.02738
0.02861
0.02980
0.03095
0.03207
0.03316
0.03423
0.03529
0.03633
0.03736
0.03838
0.03939

0.01495
0.01603
0.01701
0.01792
0.01878
0.01960
0.02039
0.02115
0.02189
0.02262
0.02333
0.02403
0.02472
0.02541
0.02608

262.17
272.87
283.29
293.55
303.73
313.88
324.05
334.25
344.50
354.82
365.22
375.71
386.29
396.96
407.73
14

283.10
295.31
300.10
318.63
330.02
341.32
352.59
366.86
375.15
386.49
397.89
409.36
420.90
432.53
444.24

v
m3 kg-1

u
kJ kg-1

h
kJ kg-1

s
kJ kg-1 K-1

0.9003

p= 1.00 MPa (Tsat=39.39C)


247.77
267.97
248.39
268.68
258.48
280.19
268.35
291.36
278.11
302.34
287.82
313.20
297.53
324.01
307.27
334.82
317.06
345.65
326.93
356.52
336.88
367.46
346.92
378.46
357.06
389.56
367.31
400.74
377.66
412.02
388.12
423.40
p= 1.60 MPa (Tsat=57.92C)
0.01208
256.00
275.33

0.9297
0.9658
0.9997
1.0319
1.0628
1.0927
1.1218
1.1501
1.1777
1.2048
1.2315
1.2576
1.2834
1.3088
1.3338

0.01233
0.01340
0.01435
0.01521
0.01601
0.01677
0.01750
0.01820
0.01887
0.01953
0.02017
0.02080
0.02142
0.02203
0.02263

0.9054
0.9217
0.9455
0.9897
1.0214
1.0521
1.0819
1.1109
1.1392
1.1670
1.1943
1.2211
1.2475
1.2735
1.2992
1.3245

0.02020
0.02029
0.02171
0.02301
0.02123
0.02538
0.02649
0.02755
0.02858
0.02959
0.03058
0.03154
0.03250
0.03344
0.03436
0.03528

258.48
269.89
280.78
191.39
301.84
312.20
322.53
332.84
343.24
353.66
364.15
374.71
385.35
406.90
406.90

278.20
291.33
303.74
315.72
327.46
339.04
350.53
361.99
373.44
384.91
396.43
407.99
419.62
443.11
443.11

0.9043
0.9066
0.9428
0.9768
1.0093
1.0405
1.0707
1.1000
1.1286
1.1567
1.1841
1.2111
1.2376
1.2638
1.2895
1.3149
0.8982
0.9059
0.9457
0.9813
1.0148
1.0467
1.0773
1.1069
1.1357
1.1638
1.1912
1.2181
1.2445
1.2704
1.3212
1.3212

propriet dellaria come gas ideale


T
[K]

h
[kJ.kg-1]

u
[kJ.kg-1]

s
[kJ.kg-1.K-1]

T
[K]

h
[kJ.kg-1]

u
[kJ.kg-1]

s
[kJ.kg-1.K-1]

T
[K]

h
[kJ.kg-1]

u
[kJ.kg-1]

s
[kJ.kg-1.K-1]

200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
285
290
295
300
305
310
315
320
325
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540

199.97
209.97
219.97
230.02
240.02
250.05
260.09
270.11
280.13
285.14
290.16
295.17
300.19
305.22
310.24
315.27
320.29
325.31
330.34
340.42
350.49
360.58
370.67
380.77
390.88
400.98
411.12
421.26
431.43
441.61
451.80
462.02
472.24
482.49
492.74
503.02
513.32
523.63
533.98
544.35

142.56
149.69
156.82
164.00
171.13
178.28
185.45
192.60
199.75
203.33
206.91
210.49
214.07
217.67
221.25
224.85
228.42
232.02
235.61
242.82
250.02
257.24
264.46
271.39
278.93
286.16
293.43
300.69
307.99
315.30
322.62
329.97
337.32
344.70
352.08
359.49
366.92
374.36
381.84
378.34

1.29559
1.34444
1.39105
1.43557
1.47824
1.51917
1.55848
1.59634
1.63279
1.65055
1.66802
1.68515
1.70203
1.71865
1.73498
1.75106
1.76690
1.78249
1.79783
1.82790
1.85708
1.88543
1.91313
1.94001
1.96633
1.99194
2.01399
2.04142
2.06533
2.08870
2.11161
2.13407
2.15604
2.17760
2.19876
2.21952
2.23993
2.25997
2.27967
2.29906

550
560
570
580
590
600
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
790
800
820
840
860
880
900
920
940
960
980
1000
1010
1040
1060
1080

554.74
565.17
575.59
586.04
596.52
607.02
617.53
628.07
638.63
649.22
659.84
670.47
681.14
691.82
702.52
713.27
724.04
734.82
745.62
756.44
767.29
778.18
789.11
800.03
810.99
821.95
843.98
866.08
888.27
910.56
932.93
955.38
977.92
1000.55
1023.25
1046.04
1058.89
1091.85
1114.86
1137.89

397.86
404.42
411.97
419.55
427.15
434.78
442.42
450.09
457.78
465.50
473.25
481.01
488.81
496.62
504.45
512.33
520.23
528.14
536.07
544.02
551.99
560.01
568.07
576.12
584.21
592.30
608.59
624.95
641.40
657.95
674.58
671.28
708.08
725.02
741.98
758.94
774.10
793.36
810.62
827.88

2.31809
2.33685
2.25531
2.37348
2.39140
2.40902
2.42644
2.44356
2.46048
2.47716
2.49364
2.50985
2.52589
2.54175
2.55731
2.57277
2.58810
2.60319
2.61803
2.63280
2.64737
2.66176
2.67595
2.69013
2.60400
2.71787
2.74504
2.77170
2.79783
2.82344
2.84856
2.87324
2.89748
2.92128
2.94468
2.96770
2.99034
3.01260
3.03449
3.05608

1100
1120
1140
1160
1180
1200
1220
1240
1260
1280
1300
1320
1340
1360
1380
1400
1420
1440
1460
1480
1500
1520
1540
1560
1580
1600
1620
1640
1660
1680
1700
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
2050
2100
2150

1161.07
1184.28
1207.57
1230.92
1254.34
1277.79
1301.31
1324.93
1348.55
1372.24
1395.97
1419.76
1443.60
1467.49
1491.44
1515.42
1539.44
1566..51
1587.63
1611.79
1635.97
1660.23
1684.51
1708.82
1733.17
1757.57
1782.00
1806.46
1830.96
1855.50
1880.1
1941.6
2003.3
2065.3
2127.34
2189.7
2255.1
2314.6
2377.4
2440.3

845.33
862.79
880.35
897.91
915.57
933.33
951.09
968.95
986.90
1004.76
1022.82
1040.88
1058.94
1077.10
1095.26
1113.52
1131.77
1150.13
1168.49
1186.95
1205.41
1123.87
1242.43
1260.99
1279.65
1298.30
1316.96
1335.72
1354.48
1373.24
1382.7
1439.8
1487.2
1534.9
1582.6
1630.6
1678.7
1726.8
1775.3
1826.8

3.07732
3.09825
3.11883
3.13916
3.15916
3.17888
3.19834
3.21751
3.23638
3.25510
3.27345
3.29160
3.30959
3.32724
3.34474
3.36200
3.37901
3.39586
3.41247
3.42892
3.44516
3.46120
3.47712
3.49276
3.50829
3.52364
3.53879
3.55381
3.56867
3.58335
3.5979
3.6336
3.6684
3.7023
3.7354
3.7677
3.7994
3.8303
3.8605
3.8901

(Tratta da K. Wark. Thermodynamics. 4th ed.. McGraw-Hill. New York. 1983. basata su J.H.Keenan e J.Kaye. Gas Tables. Wiley. New York. 1945)
15

calori specifici medi impiegabili nellintervallo 0 100C


(da R.W. Haywood; Thermodynamic tables in S.I. Units; Cambridge University Press;1981)
sostanza
anidride carbonica. CO2
aria
azoto. N2
idrogeno. H2
ossido di carbonio. CO
ossigeno. O2

cp

-1.

kJ kg K
0.865
1.01
1.04
14.2
1.04
0.917

-1

cv

kJ kg-1 K-1
0.676
0.717
0.743
10.1
0.743
0.656

coefficienti sperimentali per il calcolo del calore specifico a pressione costante per gas
ideale secondo la correlazione:
cp= a + bT + cT2 + dT3; T[K]. cp [kJ.kg-1.K-1]
(elaborata da R. C. Reid. J.M. Prausnitz e T.K. Sherwood. The properties of Gases and Liquids.Mc Graw Hill. 1977)

sostanza
acqua. H20
ammoniaca. NH3
anidride carbonica. CO2
argon. Ar
azoto. N2
etano. C2H6
Etilene. C2H4
R-12. CCl2F2
Idrogeno. H2
metano. CH4
n-Butano. C4H10
ossido di azoto. NO
ossido di carbonio. CO
ossigeno. O2
propano. C3H8

a
.
.
kJ kg-1 K-1
1.790
1.604
.

4.498 10-1
.
5.208 10-1
1.112
.

1.799 10-1
.
1.357 10-1
.
2.613 10-1
.
1.347 10
1.200
.

1.632 10-1
.
9.780 10-1
1.102
.

8.814 10-1
.
-9.580 10-2

b
.
.
kJ kg-1 K-2
.
1.068 10-4
.
1.399 10-3
.
1.669 10-3
.
-8.039 10-7
.
-4.843 10-4
.
5.923 10-3
.
5.582 10-3
.
1.474 10-3
.
4.601 10-3
.
3.249 10-3
.
5.700 10-3
.
-3.126 10-5
.
-4.589 10-4
.
-1.154 10-7
.
6.946 10-3

c
.
.
kJ kg-1 K-3
.
5.859 10-7
.
1.003 10-6
.
-1.273 10-6
.
-1.293 10-6
.
9.566 10-7
.
-2.307 10-6
.
-2.976 10-6
.
-1.248 10-6
.
-6.850 10-6
.
7.464 10-7
.
-1.907 10-6
.
3.248 10-7
.
9.958 10-7
.
5.475 10-7
.
-3.598 10-6
16

d
.
.
kJ kg-1 K-4
.
-1.996 10-10
.
-6.957 10-10
.
3.898 10-10
0.000
.

-4.170 10-10
.
2.898 10-10
.
6.256 10-10
.
3.591 10-10
.
3.793 10-9
.
-7.054 10-10
.
-4.855 10-11
.
-1.395 10-10
.
-4.539 10-10
.
-3.340 10-10
.
7.290 10-10

k
1.28
1.40
1.40
1.41
1.40
1.40

fattore acentrico di alcune sostanze


(elaborata da R. C. Reid. J.M. Prausnitz e T.K.
Sherwood, The properties of Gases and Liquids,
Mc Graw Hill, 1977)

sostanza

acqua. H20
ammoniaca. NH3
anidride carbonica. CO2
argon. Ar
azoto. N2
etano. C2H6
Etilene. C2H4
R-12. CCl2F2
Idrogeno. H2
metano. CH4
n-Butano. C4H10
ossido di azoto. NO
ossido di carbonio. CO
ossigeno. O2
propano. C3H8

0.344
0.250
0.225
-0.004
0.040
0.098
0.085
0.176
-0.22
0.008
0.193
0.607
0.049
0.021
0.132

calori specifici di alcuni liquidi e solidi


liquidi

stato

c (kJ.kg-1.K-1)

ammoniaca

liquido saturo @ 20C

4.52

liquido saturo @ 10C

4.67

liquido saturo @ 50C

5.10

alcol etilico

@ 1 atm 25C

2.43

glicerina

@ 1 atm 10C

2.32

@ 1 atm 50C

2.58

@ 1 atm 10C

0.138

@ 1 atm 315C

0.134

liquido saturo @ -20C

0.90

liquido saturo @ 20C

0.96

@ 1 atm 0C

4.217

@ 1 atm 27C

4.179

@ 1 atm 100C

4.218

solidi

temperatura [K]

c (kJ.kg-1.K-1)

alluminio

300

0.903

rame

300

0.385

400

0.393

200

1.56

240

1.86

273

2.11

ferro

300

0.447

piombo

300

0.129

argento

300

0.235

mercurio
refrigerante R12
acqua

ghiaccio

17

propriet dei liquidi


sostanza

dati di ebollizione a 1 atm


punto normale calore latente di
di ebollizione vaporizzazione
.
C
kJ kg-1

ammoniaca

-33.3

argon
benzene
salamoia (20% massa NaCl)
n-Butano
carbonio. biossido di
etanolo
glicole etilenico
alcol etilico
glicerina
elio
idrogeno
isobutano
petrolio
mercurio
metano

-185.9
80.2
103.9
-0.5
-78.4
78.2
198.1
7836
179.9
-268.9
-252.8
-11.7
204-293
256.7
-161.5

1357

161.6
394
385.2
230.5 (a 0C)
838.8
800.1
855
974
22.8
445.7
367.1
251
294.7
510.4

dati di congelamento
calore latente
punto di
di fusione
congelamento
.
C
kJ kg-1
-77.7

322.4

-189.3
5.5
-17.4
-138.5
-56.6
-114.2
-10.8
-156
18.9

28
126

-259.2
-160
-24.9
-38.9
-182.2

59.5
105.7

80.3
109
181.1
108
200.6

11.4
58.4

metanolo
azoto

64.5
-195.8

1100
198.6

-97.7
-210

99.2
25.3

ottano
olio (leggero)
ossigeno
petrolio greggio
propano

124.8

306.3

-57.6

180.7

-218.8

13.7

-187.7

80.0

refrigerante-R134a

acqua

-183
-42.1

212.7
230-384
427.8

-26.1

216.8

100

2257

-96.6

0.0

33.7

18

propriet del liquido


temperatura
C

densit
.
kg m-3

-33.3
-20
0
25
-185.6
20
20
-0.5
0
25
20
20
20
-268.9
-252.8
11.7
20
25
-161.5
-100
25
-195.8
-160
20
25
-183
20
-42.1
0
50
-50
-26.1
0
25
0
25
50
75
100

682
665
639
602
1394
879
1150
601
296
783
1109
789
1261
146.2
70.7
593.8
820
13560
423
301
787
809
596
703
910
1141
640
581
529
449
1443
1374
1294
1206
1000
997
988
975
958

calore specifico
.
.
kJ kg-1 C-1
4.43
4.52
4.60
4.80
1.14
1.72
3.11
2.31
0.59
2.46
2.84
2.84
2.32
22.8
10.0
2.28
2.00
0.139
3.49
5.79
2.55
2.06
2.97
2.10
1.80
1.71
2.0
2.25
2.53
3.13
1.23
1.27
1.34
1.42
4.23
4.18
4.18
4.19
4.22

propriet dei solidi metallici


composizione

punto di
fusione
[K]

kgdm-3

propriet a 300 K
c
k
J.kg-1.K-1 W.m-1.K-1

composizione

a 10
m2.s-1

acciaio al cromo
Cr - Mo Si
(0.18%C. 0.65% Cr. 0.23%
Mo. 0.6% Si)
1Cr - Mo
(0.16% C. 1% Cr. 0.54% Mo.
0.39% Si)
1 Cr V
(0.2% C. 1.02%Cr.0.15% V)
acciaio inossidabile
AISI 304
AISI 316
AISI 347

alluminio
97.1
puro

933

2.702

903

237

lega 2024-T6
(4.5% Cu. 1.5%Mg.0.6%Mn)

775

2.77

875

177

2.790

883

168

1550
545
2573
594
2118
1769

1.85
9.78
2.5
8.65
7.16
8.862

1825
122
1107
231
449
421

1358

8.933

385

401

1293

8.8

420

52

73

lega 195. fusione(4.5% Cu)


berillio
biscrento
boro
cadmio
cromo
cobalto
rame
puro
bronzo commerciale
(90% Cu. 10%Al)
bronzo fosforoso
(89% Cu. 11%Sn)
ottone giallo
(70%Cu. 30%Zn)
costantana
(55%Cu. 45% Ni)

germanio
oro
iridio
ferro
puro
armco (puro al 99.75%)
carbonio semplice
(Mn1%. Si0.1%)
AISI 1010
carbonio-silicio
(Mn1%. 0.1%Si0.6%)
carbonio-manganese-silicio
(1%<Mn1.65%. .1<Si0.6%)

200
7.86
27
96.8
93.7
99.2

1104

8.78

355

54

1188

8.53

380

110

1493

8.92

384

23

68.2

59.2
6.59
9.76
48.4
29.1
26.6

punto di
fusione
[K]

kgdm-3
7.822

propriet a 300 K
k
c
J.kg-1.K-1 W.m-1.K-1
444

a 106
m2.s-1

37.7
10.9

7.858

442

42.3
12.2

7.836

443

48.9

7.9
8.238
7.978

477
468
480

14.9
13.4
14.2

3.95
3.48
3.71

7.25

400

52

1.79

601
923
2834

11.34
1.74
10.240

129
1024
251

35.3
156
138

1670

ghisa

14.1

117
14

piombo
magnesio
molibdeno

17

nickel

33.9

puro

1728

8.9

444

90.7

nicromo
(80% Ni. 20% Cr)
inconel X 750
(73% Ni. 15% Cr. 637% Fe)

1672

8.4

420

12

1665

8.5

439

11.7

niobio
palladio
platino
puro
lega 60%Pt 40%Rh

2741
1827

8.57
12.02

265
244

53.7
71.8

23.6
24.5

2045
1800

21.45
16.63

133
162

71.6
47

25.1
17.4

18.8
14.9

renio
rodio

3453
2236

21.1
12.45

136
243

47.9
150

11.6

silicio

1685

2.33

712

148

tantalo
torio

3269
2023

6.71

1211
1336
2720

5.36
19.3
22.5

322
129
130

59.9
317
147

34.7
127
50.3

1810

7.87
7.87

447
447

80.2
72.7

7.854

434

60.5

23.1
20.7
17.7

7.832

434

63.9

7.817

446

50.9

8.131

434

41

19

16.6
11.7

140
118

57.5
54

24.1
87.6
53.7

23
3.4
3.1

16.7
39.6
89.2
24.7
39.1

propriet di solidi non metallici @ 20C


cp
kJ.kg-1.K-1

kg.m-3

k
W.m-1.K-1

a
m2.s-1

2.20
0.12
2.90
0.52
1.40
0.76

1.2 10-6
3.1 10-6
1.3 10-6
1.4 10-6
1.1 10-6
3.5 10-6

52
0.70
1.91
0.31
1.20
0.70
0.72
0.36
0.12
0.22
0.90
1.40
0.60

1.21 10-6
3.62 10-6
1.02 10-6
3.97 10-6
8.82 10-6
6.02 10-6
4.00 10-6
3.60 10-6
1.93 10-6
2.07 10-6
6.02 10-6
8.43 10-6
4.41 10-6

solidi non metallici


ghiaccio (a 0C)
neve
roccia calcarea
terreno ghiaioso
terreno argilloso
vetro

920
200
2700
2000
1500
2700

1.93
1.93
0.80
1.84
0.88
0.80

materiali da costruzione
acciaio, profilati
asfalto
calcestruzzo
calcestruzzo alleggerito
ghiaia grossa
intonaco di calce e gesso
laterizio, mattoni pieni
laterizio, mattoni forati
legno di abete
legno di quercia
malta di calce e cemento
malta di cemento
sabbia secca

7800
2100
2400
1000
1700
1400
1800
1000
450
850
1800
2000
1700

0.55
0.92
0.78
0.78
0.80
0.83
1.00
1.00
1.38
1.25
0.83
0.83
0.80

materiali isolanti
fibra di vetro in feltri
fibra di vetro in coppelle
polistirene estruso
polistirene espanso
poliuretano in lastre
vermiculite espansa in granuli

14
30
35
30
32
80

0.83
1.02
1.21
1.21
1.05
0.83

20

0.044
0.040
0.035
0.040
0.032
0.077

4.22 10-6
1.31 10-6
8.26 10-6
1.10 10-6
9.52 10-6
1.16 10-6

propriet termofisiche dell'aria a pressione atmosferica


t
C

kg.m-3

cp
kJ kg-1.K-1

k
W m-1.K-1

a
m s

kg m-1.s-1

m s

Pr

g /
2
-3. -1
m K

-150
-100
-50
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
150
200
300
500
750
1000
1500
2000
2500

2.991
2.063
1.583
1.380
1.333
1.287
1.240
1.193
1.151
1.118
1.084
1.051
1.018
0.987
0.962
0.938
0.826
0.738
0.609
0.451
0.341
0.274
0.197
0.153
0.125

1.023
1.010
1.007
1.006
1.006
1.006
1.007
1.007
1.007
1.008
1.008
1.008
1.009
1.009
1.010
1.011
1.017
1.025
1.045
1.093
1.145
1.185
1.281
1.462
2.245

0.0114
0.0158
0.0200
0.0226
0.0234
0.0242
0.0250
0.0258
0.0265
0.0273
0.0280
0.0288
0.0295
0.0302
0.0310
0.0318
0.0354
0.0389
0.0453
0.0560
0.0678
0.0805
0.1181
0.1710
0.3662

3.73 10-6
7.58 10-6
1.26 10-5
1.62 10-5
1.74 10-5
1.87 10-5
2.00 10-5
2.14 10-5
2.29 10-5
2.42 10-5
2.56 10-5
2.71 10-5
2.87 10-5
3.04 10-5
3.19 10-5
3.35 10-5
4.22 10-5
5.14 10-5
7.12 10-5
1.14 10-5
1.74 10-5
2.48 10-5
4.69 10-4
7.63 10-4
1.30 10-3

8.61 10-6
1.17 10-6
1.45 10-6
1.61 10-5
1.66 10-5
1.71 10-5
1.76 10-5
1.81 10-5
1.86 10-5
1.91 10-5
1.96 10-5
2.00 10-5
2.05 10-5
2.10 10-5
2.14 10-5
2.18 10-5
2.40 10-5
2.60 10-5
2.97 10-5
3.62 10-5
4.30 10-5
4.90 10-5
6.3 10-5
7.59 10-5
8.93 10-5

2.88 10-6
5.67 10-6
9.16 10-6
1.17 10-5
1.25 10-5
1.33 10-5
1.42 10-5
1.52 10-5
1.62 10-5
1.71 10-5
1.80 10-5
1.90 10-5
2.01 10-5
2.12 10-5
2.22 10-5
2.33 10-5
2.90 10-5
3.52 10-5
4.87 10-5
8.02 10-5
1.26 10-4
1.79 10-4
3.20 10-4
4.95 10-4
7.14 10-4

0.772
0.748
0.729
0.719
0.716
0.713
0.711
0.709
0.706
0.705
0.704
0.702
0.701
0.699
0.697
0.695
0.688
0.685
0.684
0.706
0.726
0.721
0.683
0.649
0.547

9.62 109
1.76 109
5.24 108
2.84 108
2.40 108
2.03 109
1.72 109
1.45 109
1.24 109
1.08 109
9.33 107
8.12 107
7.05 107
6.16 107
5.46 107
4.85 107
2.76 107
1.67 107
7.21 106
1.97 106
6.02 105
2.41 105
1.70 104
1.76 104
6.93 103

2. -1

21

-2. -1

kPa

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
120
140
160
180
200

0.611
1.240
2.358
4.275
7.425
12.41
20.01
31.28
47.53
70.31
101.3
200.2
363.8
621.4
1007
1561

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
365
370

0.611
1.240
2.358
4.275
7.425
12.41
20.01
31.28
47.53
70.31
101.3
200.2
363.8
621.4
1007
1561
2327
3356
4704
6431
8605
11310
14420
18680
19830
21060

-3

kg m

cp

-1.

-1

kJ kg K

propriet termofisiche dellacqua


k
a

-1.

-1

2. -1

Wm K

m s

liquido saturo
1000
1000
998
996
992
988
983
978
972
965
958
943
926
907
887
865

4.217
4.192
4.182
4.178
4.179
4.181
4.189
4.190
4.198
4.207
4.217
4.244
4.286
4.340
4.413
4.496

0.569
0.587
0.603
0.617
0.632
0.643
0.654
0.665
0.670
0.676
0.680
0.687
0.688
0.684
0.676
0.665

1.854
1.860
1.867
1.875
1.886
1.900
1.917
1.937
1.963
1.993
2.029
2.121
2.243
2.398
2.598
2.837
3.154
3.542
4.058
4.782
5.900
7.791
12.45
25.56
36.67
-

0.0182
0.0188
0.0194
0.0199
0.0206
0.0212
0.0219
0.0225
0.0232
0.0240
0.0248
0.0266
0.0287
0.0308
0.0336
0.0369
0.0408
0.0456
0.0517
0.0600
0.0767
0.0869
0.1070
0.1370
0.1500
0.1700

1.35 10-7
1.40 10-7
1.44 10-7
1.48 10-7
1.52 10-7
1.56 10-7
1.59 10-7
1.62 10-7
1.64 10-7
1.67 10-7
1.68 10-7
1.72 10-7
1.73 10-7
1.74 10-7
1.73 10-7
1.71 10-7

vapore saturo secco


0.0048
0.0090
0.0171
0.0301
0.0507
0.0824
0.129
0.197
0.292
0.422
0.596
1.109
1.951
3.237
5.126
7.805
11.46
16.73
23.64
33.13
46.09
64.60
92.26
144.2
165.8
202.3

2.03 10-3
1.12 10-3
6.09 10-4
3.53 10-4
2.15 10-4
1.35 10-4
8.82 10-5
5.89 10-5
4.05 10-5
2.85 10-5
2.05 10-5
1.13 10-5
6.56 10-6
3.97 10-6
2.52 10-6
1.67 10-6
1.13 10-6
7.69 10-7
5.39 10-7
3.79 10-7
2.82 10-7
1.73 10-7
9.27 10-8
3.71 10-8
2.46 10-8
-

22

-1. -1

kg m s

Pr
-

g
/
2

m-3.K-1

1.75 10-3
1.30 10-3
1.00 10-3
8.01 10-4
6.55 10-4
5.46 10-4
4.66 10-4
4.01 10-4
3.51 10-4
3.13 10-4
2.79 10-4
2.31 10-4
1.95 10-4
1.70 10-4
1.49 10-4
1.34 10-4

1.75 10-6
1.30 10-4
1.01 10-4
8.04 10-7
6.60 10-7
5.53 10-7
4.74 10-7
4.10 10-7
3.61 10-7
3.24 10-7
2.91 10-7
2.45 10-7
2.11 10-7
1.87 10-7
1.68 10-7
1.55 10-7

12.97
9.27
6.96
5.42
4.33
3.55
2.99
2.52
2.20
1.95
1.73
1.43
1.22
1.08
0.97
0.90

-2.18 108
5.18 108
2.01 109
4.61 109
8.69 109
1.47 1010
2.28 1010
3.42 1010
4.83 1010
6.57 1010
8.67 1010
1.41 1011
2.14 1011
3.02 1011
4.28 1011
5.73 1011

8.02 10-6
8.42 10-6
8.82 10-6
9.22 10-6
9.62 10-6
1.00 10-5
1.04 10-5
1.08 10-5
1.12 10-5
1.16 10-5
1.20 10-5
1.28 10-5
1.35 10-5
1.43 10-5
1.50 10-5
1.57 10-5
1.63 10-5
1.71 10-5
1.78 10-5
1.88 10-5
1.99 10-5
2.19 10-5
2.47 10-5
2.93 10-5
3.13 10-5
3.52 10-5

1.65 10-3
9.33 10-4
5.16 10-5
3.06 10-5
1.90 10-5
1.22 10-5
8.05 10-5
5.49 10-5
3.85 10-5
2.76 10-5
2.02 10-5
1.15 10-5
6.94 10-6
4.40 10-6
2.92 10-6
2.01 10-6
1.43 10-6
1.02 10-6
7.55 10-7
5.66 10-7
4.32 10-7
3.39 10-7
2.67 10-7
2.03 10-7
1.89 10-7
1.74 10-7

0.82
0.83
0.85
0.87
0.88
0.90
0.91
0.93
0.95
0.97
0.98
1.02
1.06
1.11
1.16
1.20
1.26
1.33
1.40
1.50
1.53
1.96
2.88
5.46
7.65
-

1.31 104
3.98 104
1.26 105
3.45 105
8.72 105
2.05 106
4.54 106
9.49 106
1.88 107
3.55 107
6.46 107
1.87 108
4.93 107
1.17 109
2.54 109
5.16 109
9.79 109
1.84 1010
3.23 1010
5.53 1010
9.16 1010
1.44 1011
2.24 1011
3.76 1011
4.32 1011
5.05 1011

kPa

-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

51.21
84.38
132.7
200.6
292.8
414.6
571.7
770.2
1017
1318
1682
2117
2633

-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

51.21
84.38
132.7
200.6
292.8
414.6
571.7
770.2
1017
1318
1682
2117
2633

kg.m-3

propriet termofisiche dellR134a

cp

kJ.kg-1.K-1

W.m-1.K-1

m2.s-1

1.255
1.273
1.293
1.316
1.341
1.370
1.405
1.446
1.498
1.566
1.660
1.804
2.065

0.1106
0.1058
0.1011
0.0965
0.0920
0.0876
0.0833
0.0790
0.0747
0.0704
0.0661
0.0617
0.0572

liquido saturo
1418
1388
1358
1327
1295
1261
1225
1187
1147
1102
1053
996
928

6.21 10-8
5.99 10-8
5.76 10-8
5.53 10-8
5.30 10-8
5.07 10-8
4.84 10-8
4.60 10-8
4.35 10-8
4.08 10-8
3.78 10-8
3.43 10-8
2.98 10-8

vapore saturo secco


2.769
4.426
6.784
10.04
14.43
20.23
27.78
37.54
50.09
66.27
87.38
115.6
155.1

0.749
0.781
0.816
0.854
0.897
0.946
1.001
1.065
1.145
1.246
1.387
1.605
2.012

0.0082
0.0090
0.0098
0.0107
0.0115
0.0124
0.0133
0.0143
0.0154
0.0167
0.0183
0.0205
0.0237

3.94 10-6
2.60 10-6
1.77 10-6
1.24 10-6
8.89 10-7
6.48 10-7
4.79 10-7
3.58 10-7
2.69 10-7
2.02 10-7
1.51 10-7
1.10 10-7
7.60 10-8

23

Pr

kg.m-1.s-1

m2

m-3.K-1

4.72 10-4
4.06 10-4
3.53 10-4
3.09 10-4
2.71 10-4
2.39 10-4
2.11 10-4
1.86 10-4
1.63 10-4
1.43 10-4
1.24 10-4
1.06 10-4
8.90 10-4

3.33 10-7
2.93 10-7
2.60 10-7
2.33 10-7
2.09 10-7
1.89 10-7
1.72 10-7
1.57 10-7
1.42 10-7
1.30 10-7
1.18 10-7
1.07 10-7
9.59 10-7

5.36
4.89
4.51
4.21
3.95
3.73
3.55
3.40
3.28
3.18
3.12
3.11
3.22

1.87 1011
2.47 1011
3.21 1011
4.37 1011
5.53 1011
7.38 1011
9.74 1011
1.35 1012
1.77 1012
2.43 1012
3.35 1012
5.14 1012
8.25 1012

9.12 10-6
9.53 10-6
9.93 10-6
1.03 10-5
1.07 10-5
1.12 10-5
1.16 10-5
1.20 10-5
1.26 10-5
1.31 10-5
1.38 10-5
1.47 10-5
1.58 10-5

3.29 10-6
2.15 10-6
1.46 10-6
1.03 10-6
7.44 10-7
5.5 1 10-7
4.17 10-7
3.21 10-7
2.51 10-7
1.98 10-7
1.58 10-7
1.27 10-7
1.02 10-7

0.84
0.83
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
0.87
0.89
0.93
0.98
1.04
1.15
1.34

3.88 109
8.72 109
1.81 1010
3.52 1010
6.50 1010
1.14 1011
1.93 1011
3.15 1011
4.99 1011
7.75 1011
1.18 1012
1.78 1012
2.66 1012

g
/
2

emissivit di alcune superfici (a) metalli


materiale
alluminio
lucido
foglio commerciale
molto ossidato
anodizzato
bismuto. brillante
ottone
molto lucido
lucido
piastra appannata
ossidato
cromo. lucido
rame
molto lucido
lucido
foglio commerciale
ossidato
ossidato nero
oro
molto lucido
foglio brillante
ferro
molto lucido
ghisa
ferro battuto
arrugginito
ossidato
piombo
lucido
non ossidato ruvido
ossidato

temperatura
[K]

emissivit

300-900
400
400-800
300

0.04-0.06
0.09
0.20-0.33
0.8

350

0.34

500-650
350
300-600
450-800
300-1400

0.03-0.04
0.09
0.22
0.6
0.08-0.40

300
300-500
300
600-1000
300

0.02
0.04-0.05
0.15
0.5-0.8
0.78

300-1000
300

0.03-0.06
0.07

300-500
300
300-500
300
500-900

0.05-0.07
0.44
0.28
0.61
0.64-0.78

300-500
300
300

0.06-0.08
0.43
0.63

materiale
magnesio. lucido
mercurio
molibdeno
lucido
ossidato
nichel
lucido
ossidato
platino. lucido
argento. lucido
acciaio inossidabile
lucido
leggermente ossidato
molto ossidato
acciaio
lamierino lucido
lamierino commerciale
molto ossidato
stagno. lucido
tungsteno
lucido
filamento
zinco
lucido
ossidato

24

temperatura
[K]
300-500

emissivit

0.07-0.13

300-400

0.09-0.12

300-2000
600-800

0.05-0.21
0.80-0.82

500-1200
450-100

0.07-0.17
0.37-0.57

500-1500
300-1000

0.06-0.18
0.02-0.07

300-1000
600-1000
600-1000

0.17-0.30
0.30-0.40
0.70-0.80

300-500
500-1200
300

0.08-0.14
0.20-0.32
0.81

300

0.05

300-2500
3500

0.03-0.29
0.39

300-800
300

0.02-0.05
0.25

emissivit di alcune superfici (b) non metalli


materiale

temperatura
[K]

emissivit

allumina
ossido di alluminio
amianto
pavimento di asfalto
laterizio
comune
argilla refrattaria

800-1400
600-1500
300
300

0.65-0.45
0.69-0.41
0.96
0.85-0.93

300
1200

0.93-0.96
0.75

filamento al carbonio
stoffa
calcestruzzo
vetro
da finestra
pyrex
pyroceramico

2000
300
300

0.53
0.75-0.90
0.88-0.94

300
300-1200
300-1500

0.90-0.95
0.82-0.62
0.85-0.57

273
400-800
300

0.95-0.99
0.69-0.55
0.80

300
300
300
300
300
300

0.40-0.50
0.88
0.92-0.96
0.90
0.90
0.93

ghiaccio
ossido di magnesio
muratura
vernici
alluminio
nera. laccatura. lucida
olii. tutti i colori
acrilico bianco
smalto bianco
fondo rosso

materiale
carta bianca
intonaco bianco
porcellana vetrata
quarzo grezzo. fuso
gomma
soffice
dura
sabbia
carburo di silicio
pelle umana
neve
terreno. terrestre
nero fumo
teflon
acqua. profonda
legno
faggio
quercia

25

temperatura
[K]

emissivit

300
300
300
300

0.90
0.93
0.92
0.93

300
300

0.86
0.93

300
600-1500
300
273
300
300-500
300-500
273-373

0.90
0.87-0.85
0.95
0.80-0.90
0.93-0.96
0.95
0.85-0.92
0.95-0.96

300
300

0.94
0.90

dipartimento di energetica

TABELLE DI CONVERSIONE DELLE UNITA DI MISURA

accelerazione... 1
angoli... 1
area.. 1
calore (grandezze termiche).. 1
coppia o momento torcente .. 1
coppia o momento torcente per unit di lunghezza 1
densit. 2
elettricit e magnetismo. 2
energia. 3
forza. 3
forza per unit di lunghezza.. 3
luce... 3
lunghezza 3
massa... 4
massa per unit di area. 4
massa per unit di lunghezza 4
portata in massa. 4
portata in volume... 4
potenza.... 5
potenza per unit di area.. 5
temperatura.... 5
tempo... 6
velocit.... 6
viscosit... 6
volume. 6
multipli e sottomultipli.. 7

(materiale didattico a diffusione interna e distribuzione gratuita)

per convertire da:


2

ft/s
in/s2

a:
ACCELERAZIONE
m.s-2
m.s-2
ANGOLI

gradi (angolari)
minuti (angolari)
secondi (angolari)

per convertire da:


2

3.048 000 E-01


2.540 000.E-02

1.745 329.E-02
2.908 882.E-04
4.848 137.E-06

m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2

4.046 873.E+03
1.000 000.E+02
5.067 075.E-10
9.290 304.E-02
1.000 000.E+04
6.451 600.E-04
2.589 988.E+06
2.589 998.E+06
8.361 274.E-01

a:

CALORE (GRANDEZZE TERMICHE)


BTU (IT)*ft/h*ft *F
W.m-1.K-1
BTU (IT)*in/h*ft2*F
W.m-1.K-1
2
J.m-2
BTU (IT)/ft
2
W.m-2
BTU (IT)/h*ft
BTU (IT)/h*ft2*F
W.m-2.K-1
2
BTU (IT)/h*ft *F
W.m-2.K-1
BTU (IT)/lb
J.kg-1
BTU (IT)/lb*F
J.kg-1.K-1
3
J.m-3
BTU (IT)/ft
cal (IT)/g
J.kg-1
cal (IT)/g*C
J.kg-1.K-1
clo
K.m2.W-1
2
F* ft *h/ Btu (IT)
K.m2.W-1
2
F* ft *h/ Btu (IT)*in
K.m.W-1

rad
rad
rad
AREA

acro
ara
miglio circolare
ft2
ettaro
in2
mi2 (internazionale)
mi2 (U.S.)
yd2

moltiplicare per:

dyne*cm
kgf *m
ozf *in
lbf *in
lbf *ft

COPPIA O MOMENTO TORCENTE


N.m
N.m
N.m
N.m
N.m

moltiplicare per:
1.730 735.E+00
1.442 279.E-01
1.135 653.E+04
3.154 591.E+00
5.678 264.E+00
5.678 264.E+00
2.326 000.E+02
4.186 800.E+03
3.725 895.E+04
4.186 800.E+03
4.186 800.E+03
2.003 712.E-01
1.761 102.E-01
6.933 471.E+00

1.000 000.E-07
9.806 650.E+00
7.061 552.E-03
1.129 848.E-01
1.355 818.E+00

COPPIA O MOMENTO TORCENTE PER UNITA DI LUNGHEZZA


lbf *ft/in
N.m.m-1
5.337 866.E+01
. . -1
Nmm
lbf *in/in
4.448 222.E+00

IT: International Table

per convertire da:

a:

grain/gal (U.S. liquid)


g/cm3
oz (avoirdupois)/gal (U.K. liquid)
oz (avoirdupois)/gal (U.S. liquid)
oz (avoirdupois)/in3
lb/ft3
lb/in.3
lb/gal (U.K. liquid)
lb/gal (U.S. liquid)
lb/yd3
slug/ft3
ton (long)/yd3
ton (short)/yd3

abampere
abcoulomb
abfarad
abhenry
abmho
abohm
abvolt
ampere ora
EMU of capacitance
EMU of current

DENSITA
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3
kg m-3

ELETTRICITA E MAGNETISMO
ampere (A)
coulomb ( C)
farad (F)
henry (H)
siemens (S)
ohm ()
volt (V)
coulomb ( C)
farad (F)
ampere (A)

moltiplicare per:

per convertire da:


EMU of electric potential
EMU of induttance
EMU of resistance
ESU of capacitance
ESU of current
ESU of electric potential
ESU of induttance
ESU of resistance
faraday (based on carbon-12)
faraday (chemical)
faraday (physical)
gamma
gauss
gilbert
maxwell
mho
oersted
ohm centimetre
ohm circular-mil per foot
statampere
statcoulomb
statfarad
statfarad
stathenry
statmho
statohm
statvolt
unit pole

1.711 806 E-02


1.000 000*E+03
6.236 021 E+00
7.489 152 E+00
1.729 994 E+03
1.601 846 E+01
2.767 990 E+04
9.977 633 E+01
1.198 264 E+02
5.932 764 E-01
5.153 788 E+02
1.328 939 E+03
1.186 553 E+03

1.000 000.E+01
1.000 000.E+01
1.000 000.E+09
1.000 000.E-09
1.000 000.E+09
1.000 000.E-09
1.000 000.E-08
3.600 000.E+03
1.000 000.E+09
1.000 000.E+01

EMU: electrostatic cgs unit


ESU: electromagnetic cgs unit

a:
volt (V)
henry (H)
ohm ()
farad (F)
ampere (A)
volt (V)
henry (H)
ohm ()
coulomb ( C)
coulomb ( C)
coulomb ( C)
tesla (T)
tesla (T)
ampere (A)
weber (Wb)
siemens (S)
ampere per metro (A.m-1)
ohm metro (.m)
ohm metro (.m)
ampere (A)
coulomb ( C)
farad (F)
farad (F)
henry (H)
siemens (S)
ohm ()
volt (V)
weber (Wb)

moltiplicare per:
1.000 000.E-08
1.000 000.E-09
1.000 000.E-09
1.112 650.E-12
3.335 6.E-10
2.997 9.E+02
8.987 554.E+11
8.987 554.E+11
9.648 70.E+04
9.649 57.E+04
9.652 19.E+04
1.000 000.E-09
1.000 000.E-04
7.957 747.E-01
1.000 000.E-08
1.000 000.E+00
7.957 747.E+01
1.000 000.E-02
1.662 426.E-09
3.335 640.E-10
3.335 640.E-10
1.112 650.E-12
1.112 650.E-12
8.987 554.E+11
1.112 650.E-12
8.987 554.E+11
2.997 925.E+02
1.256 637.E-07

per convertire da:


British Thermal Unit, BTU (IT)
BTU (39 F)
BTU (59 F)
BTUlese (60 F)
caloria (IT)
calorie (15C)
caloria (20C)
caloria, kilogrammo (IT)
electronvolt
erg
ft*lbf
ft*poundal
kilocaloria (IT)
kWh
therm
W*h
W*s

a:
ENERGIA
Joule (J)
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

moltiplicare per:

per convertire da:

1.055 056 E+03


1.059 67.E+03
1.054 80.E+30
1.054 68.E+03
4.186 800.E+00
4.185 80.E+00
4.181 90.E+00
4.186 800.E+03
1.602 19.E-19
1.000 000.E-07
1.355 818.E+00
4.214 011.E-02
4.186 800.E+03
3.600 000.E+06
1.055 056.E+08
3.600 000.E+03
1.000 000.E+00

lbf/ft
lbf/in.

dyne
kilogrammo forza
kilopond
kip (1000 lbf)
ounce-force
pound-force (lbf)
poundal
ton-force (2000 lbf)

moltiplicare per:

FORZA PER UNITA DI LUNGHEZZA


N.m-1
1.459 390.E+01
. -1
Nm
1.751 268.E+02
LUCE

cd/in
footcandle
footlambert
lambert

cd.m-2
lux (lx)
cd.m-2
cd.m-2

LUNGHEZZA
angstrom
metri (m)
chain
m
fathom
m
foot (piede)
m
foot (U.S. survey)
m
inch (pollice)
m
light year (anno luce)
m
microinch
m
micron
m
mil
m
mile, miglio (international nautical)
m
mile, miglio (U.S. nautical)
m
mile, miglio (international)
m
mile, miglio (U.S statute)
m
rod
m
yard
m

IT: International Table

FORZA
Newton (N)
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

a:

1.000 000.E-05
9.806 650.E+00
9.806 650.E+00
4.448 222.E+03
2.780 139.E-01
4.448 222.E+00
1.382 550.E-01
8.896 444.E+03

1.550 003 E+03


1.076 391 E+01
3.426 259 E+00
3.183 099 E+03

1.000 000.E 10
2.011 684.E+01
1.828 804.E+00
3.084 000.E-01
3.084 006.E-01
2.540 000.E-02
9.460 55.E+15
2.540 000.E-08
1.000 000.E-06
2.540 000.E-05
1.852 000.E+03
1.852 000.E+03
1.609 344.E+03
1.609 347.E+03
5.029 210.E+00
9.144 000.E-01

per convertire da:

a:

grain
gram
hundred weight (long)
hundred weight (short)
ounce, oncia (avoirdupois)
ounce (troy or apothecary)
pound, libbra (avoirdupois)
pound (troy or apothecary)
slug
ton (long, 2240 lb)
ton (metric)
ton (short, 2000lb)
tonne

oz/ft2
oz/yd2
lb/ft2

lb/ft
lb/in

MASSA
kilogrammo (kg)
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg
kg

MASSA PER UNITA DI AREA


kg m-2
kg m-2
kg m-2

moltiplicare per:

per convertire da:


perm (0C)
perm (23C)
perm.in.
lb/h
lb/min
lb/s
lb/hp*h
ton (short)/h

6.479 891 E-05


1.000 000 E-03
5.080 235 E+01
4.535 924 E+01
2.834 952 E-02
3.110 348 E-02
4.535 924 E-01
3.732 417 E-01
1.459 390 E+01
1.016 047 E+03
1.000 000 E+03
9.071 847 E+02
1.000 000 E+03

a:
PORTATA IN MASSA
kg Pa-1 s-1 m-2
kg Pa-1 s-1 m-2
kg Pa-1 s-1 m-1
kg s-1
kg s-1
kg s-1
kg J-1
kg s-1

PORTATA IN VOLUME
ft /min
m3 s-1
3
ft /s
m3 s-1
gallon (U.S. liquid)/hp*h
m3 J-1
3
in /min
m3 s-1
yd3/min
m3 s-1
gallon (U.S. liquid) per day
m3 s-1
gallon (U.S. liquid) per minute
m3 s-1
3

3.051 517 E-01


3.390 575 E-02
4.882 428 E+00

MASSA PER UNITA DI LUNGHEZZA


1.488 164 E+00
kg m-1
-1
1.785 797 E+01
kg m

moltiplicare per:

5.721 35 E-11
5.745 25 E-11
1.453 22 E-12
1.259 979 E-04
7.559 873 E-03
4.535 924 E-01
1.689 659 E-07
2.519 958 E-01

4.719 474 E-04


2.831 685 E-02
1.410 089 E-09
2.731 177 E-07
1.274 258 E-02
4.381 264 E-08
6.309 020 E-05

per convertire da:

a:
POTENZA
Watt (W)
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W

BTU (IT)/h
BTU (IT)/min
BTU (IT)/s
cal (IT)/s
erg/s
ft*lbf /h
ft*lbf /min
ft*lbf /s
cavalli (550 ft*lbf /s)
cavalli (boiler)
cavalli (elettrico)
kilocalorie (IT)/h
ton (refrigerazione)

erg/(cm2*s)
W/cm2
W/in2

POTENZA PER UNITA DI AREA


W.m-2
W.m-2
W.m-2

atmosfera (standard)
atmosfera (tecnica= 1 kgf/cm2)
bar

PRESSIONE
Pascal (Pa)
Pa
Pa

moltiplicare per:
.

2.930 711 E-01


1.758 427.E+01
1.055 056.E+03
4.186 800.E+00
1.000 000.E-07
3.766 161.E-04
2.259 697.E-02
1.355 818.E+00
7.456 999.E+02
9.809 50.E+03
7.460 000.E+02
1.163 000.E+00
3.516 853.E+03

1.000 000.E-03
1.000 000.E+04
1.550 003.E+03

per convertire da:

a:

cm di mercurio (0C)
cm di colonna dacqua (4C)
dyne/cm2
foot of water (39.2F)
gf/cm2
inch of mercury (32F)
inch of mercury (60F)
inch of water (39.2F)
inch of water (60F)
kgf/cm2
kgf/m2
kgf/mm2
kip/in2 (ksi)
millibar
mm di mercurio (0C)
poundal/ft2
lbf/ft2
lbf/in2 (psi)
psi
torr (mm Hg 0C)

Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa

gradi Celsius
gradi Fahrenheit
gradi Fahrenheit
rankine
kelvin

1.013 250 E+05


9.806 650 E+04
1.000 000 E+05

TEMPERATURA
kelvin (K)
C
K
K
C

moltiplicare per:
1.333 22 E+03
9.806 38 E+01
1.000 000 E-01
2.988 98 E+03
9.806 650 E+01
3.386 38 E+03
3.376 85 E+03
2.490 82 E+02
2.488 4 E+02
9.806 650 E+04
9.806 650 E+00
9.806 650 E+06
6.894 757 E+06
1.000 000 E+02
1.333 22 E+02
1.488 164 E+00
4.788 026 E+01
6.894 757 E+03
6.894 757 E+03
1.333 22 E+02

TK = tC+273.15
TC = (tF -32)/1.8
TK = (tF +459.67)/1.8
TK = TR/1.8
tC = TK 273.15

per convertire da:


giorno
giorno siderale
ora
ora siderale
minuto
minuto siderale
secondo siderale
anno (365 giorni)
anno (siderale)
anno (tropicale)

a:
TEMPO
secondi (s)
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s

moltiplicare per:

per convertire da:

lbf*s/in2
rhe
slug/ft*s
stokes

8.640 000 E+04


8.616 409 E+04
3.600 000 E+03
3.590 170 E+03
6.000 000 E+01
5.983 617 E+01
9.972 696 E-01
3.153 600 E+07
3.155 815 E+07
3.155 693 E+07

ft/h
ft/min
ft/s
in/s
km/h
knot, nodo (international)
mi/h (international)
mi/min (international)
mi/s (international)

VELOCITA
m s-1
m s-1
m s-1
m s-1
m s-1
m s-1
m s-1
m s-1
m s-1

8.466 667 E-05


5.080 000 E-03
3.048 000 E-01
2.540 000 E-02
2.777 778 E-01
5.144 444 E-01
4.470 400 E-01
2.682 240 E+01
1.609 344 E+03

centipoise
centistokes
ft2/s
poise
poundal*s/ft2
lb/ft*h
lb/ft*s
lbf*s/ft2

VISCOSITA
Pa s
m2 s-1
m2 s-1
Pa s
Pa s
Pa s
Pa s
Pa s

1.000 000 E-03


1.000 000 E-06
9.290 304 E-02
1.000 000 E-01
1.488 164 E+00
4.133 789 E-04
1.488 164 E+00
4.788 026 E+01

a:
Pa s
Pa-1 s-1
Pa s
m-2 s-1

moltiplicare per:
6.894 757 E+03
1.000 000 E+01
4.788 026 E+01
1.000 000 E-04

VOLUME
acre-foot
barrel (oil, 42 gal)
board foot
bushel (U.S.)
cup
fluid ounce (U.S.)
ft3
gallon (Canadian liquid)
gallon (U.K. liquid)
gallon (U.S. dry)
gallon (U.S. liquid)
gill (U.K.)
gill (U.S.)
in3
litro
ounce, oncia (U.K. fluid)
ounce (U.S. fluid)
peck (U.S.)
pinta (U.S. dry)
pinta (U.S. liquid)
quart (U.S. dry)
quart (U.S. liquid)
stere
tablespoon (cucchiaio da tavola)
teaspoon (cucchiaino da te)
ton (register)
yd3

m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3

1.233 489 E+03


1.589 873 E-01
2.359 737 E-03
3.523 907 E-02
2.365 882 E-04
2.957 353 E-05
2.831 685 E-02
4.546 090 E-03
4.546 092 E-03
4.404 884 E-03
3.785 412 E-03
1.420 654 E-04
1.182 941 E-04
1.638 706 E-05
1.000 000 E-03
2.841 307 E-05
2.957 353 E-05
8.809 768 E-03
5.506 105 E-04
4.731 765 E-04
1.101 221 E-03
9.463 529 E-04
1.000 000 E+00
1.478 676 E-05
4.928 922 E-06
2.831 685 E+00
7.645 549 E-01

Yotta
Zetta
Exa
Peta
Tera
Giga
Mega
Kilo
Hecto
Deca

Y
Z
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da

Deci
Centi
Milli
Micro
Nano
Pico
Femto
Atto
Zepto
Yocto

d
c
m
m
n
p
f
a
z
y

11024
11021
11018
11015
11012
1109
1106
1103
1102
1101
1100
110-1
110-2
110-3
110-6
110-9
110-12
110-15
110-18
110-21
110-24

dipartimento di energetica

PIANI TERMODINAMICI

piano T-s per lacqua (R718). 1

piano h-s per lacqua (R718). 2

piano T-s per laria (R729), fondo scala 1000C. 3

piano T-s per laria (R729), fondo scala 200C.4

piano T-s per laria (R729), fondo scala 50C. 5

piano T-s per lR134a 6

piano p-h per lR134a 7

piano T-s per lanidride carbonica (R744).. 8

piano p-h per lanidride carbonica (R744). 9

piano p-h per lammoniaca (R717)..10

diagramma psicrometrico 11

(materiale didattico a diffusione interna e distribuzione gratuita)

680

0.01

0.05

0.10

0.50

1.00

5.00

10.00

50.00

100.0
0

300.0
0

R718 Ref :W.C.Reynolds: Thermodynamic properties in SI


DTU, Department of Energy Engineering
h in [kJ/kg]. v in [m^3/kg]. p in [Bar]
M.J. Skovrup & H.J.H Knudsen. 02-09-27

h = 3800

640
600
560

h = 3400

h = 3200

280

500.0
00

320

50.00
0
100.0
00

5.000

360

10.00
0

400

0.500

Temperature [C]

440

1.000

0.050

480

0.100

0.00
5

520

0.010

h = 3600

h = 3000

240
200
h = 2800

160
120
80

h = 2600

40
0

x = 0.1

0.2

0.3

h = 200
-1200

-400

400

400

1200

0.4

600
2000

800
2800

0.5

1000
3600

0.6

1200

1400

0.7

1600

4400
5200
6000
Entropy [J/(kg K)]

0.8

1800
6800

0.9

2000
7600

2200

2400

8400

9200

10000

10800

11600

25.
00

10.
00

5.0
0

2.5
0

1.0
0

0.5
0

0.2
5

0.1
0

0.0
5

R718 Ref :W.C.Reynolds: Thermodynamic properties in SI

4200 DTU, Department of Energy Engineering

800

T in [C]. v in [m^3/kg]. p in [Bar]


M.J. Skovrup & H.J.H Knudsen. 02-09-27

750
50.
00

4000
700
650

3800

10
0.0
0

600
550

3600

25
0.
00

0.
25

0.
50

=
p

1.
00

2.
50

5.
00

=
p

400

10
.0
0

25
.0
0
=
p

=
p

=
p

p=

50
0.0
0
p
=
25
0.
00

10
0.
00

3000

450

350

300

p=

10
00
.00

3200

250

10
0.
=

05
0.
p

150

2800

200

100

03
0.

1
0.0
=
p

50

2600

1.0

2400
0.9

2200
0.8

0.6

0.5

2000
0.4

Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

3400

50
.0
0

500

0.7

1800
4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.4
Entropy [kJ/(kg K)]

R729 Ref :W.C.Reynolds: Thermodynamic Properties in SI

50.0 25.0

1000 DTU, Department of Energy Engineering

10.0 5.0

2.5

1.0

0.5

h in [kJ/kg]. v in [m^3/kg]. p in [Bar]

940 M.J. Skovrup & H.J.H Knudsen. 02-10-11

h = 1520

880

h = 1440

820

h = 1360

760

h = 1280

700
h = 1200

640
h = 1120
h = 1040

520
460

h = 960

400

h = 880

340
h = 800

280
h = 720

5.0
00
10
.00
0

1.0
00

40

0.5
00

100

h = 640

0.0
50
0.1
00

160

0.0
10

220
0.0
05

Temperature [C]

580

h = 560

h = 480

-20
-80

h = 400

-140
h = 320

-200

-200

x = 0.1

100

0.2

400

0.3
0.4
h = 160

700

0.5

0.6

0.7
240

0.8

0.9

1000 1300 1600 1900 2200 2500 2800 3100 3400 3700 4000 4300 4600 4900 5200 5500 5800
Entropy [J/(kg K)]

50

140
120
100
80

40
20

-20

0.0
500

-40

0.0
100

0
0.0
050

Temperature [C]

60

-60
-80
-100
-120
-140

25.0

-160
-180
-200

-200

10.0

0050
0
v= 0. v= 0.010

5.0
v= 0.0500 000
v= 0.1

2.5
1.0

0.5

5.0

2.5

1.0

0.50

1.0
000

160

10

h = 700
h = 690
h = 680
h = 670
h = 660
h = 650
h = 640
h = 630
h = 620
h = 610
h = 600
h = 590
h = 580
h = 570
h = 560
h = 550
h = 540
h = 530
h = 520
h = 510
h = 500
h = 490
h = 480
h = 470
h = 460
h = 450
h = 440
h = 430
h = 420
h = 410
h = 400
h = 390
h = 380
h = 370
h = 360
h = 350
h = 340
h = 330
h = 320
h = 310

0.1
000

180

h in [kJ/kg]. v in [m^3/kg]. p in [Bar]


M.J. Skovrup & H.J.H Knudsen. 02-12-20

25

0.5
000

R729 Ref :W.C.Reynolds: Thermodynamic Properties in SI

200 DTU, Department of Energy Engineering

x = 0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
h = 100110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 4600 4800
Entropy [J/(kg K)]

40

0.50

1.00

2.50

5.00

10.0
0

25.0
0

50.0
0

R729 Ref :W.C.Reynolds: Thermodynamic Properties in SI


DTU, Department of Energy Engineering
h in [kJ/kg]. v in [m^3/kg]. p in [Bar]
M.J. Skovrup & H.J.H Knudsen. 02-12-20

h = 550

h = 540
h = 530
h = 520

20

h = 510
h = 500

h = 490
h = 480

-20

h = 470
h = 460
h = 450
h = 440

-60

h = 420

1.00
00

h = 400

0.50
00

-100

h = 410
0.10
00

0.05
00

-80

h = 430

0.01
00

0.00
50

Temperature [C]

-40

-120

h = 390
h = 380

h = 370
h = 360

-140
25

-160

h = 340

10

50
.00
0
v= 0 v= 0.010

-180

h = 350

h = 330

5
v= 0.0500
v= 0.1000

h = 320

h = 310

1
1

-200

-200

x = 0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
h = 100110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

200

400

600

800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400
Entropy [J/(kg K)]

0.0
500

0.5
000

0.2
500

5
0.1
000

10
0.0
250

25
0.0
100

0.0
02
5

h in [kJ/kg]. v in [m^3/kg]. p in [Bar]

130 M.J. Skovrup & H.J.H Knudsen. 02-12-13

0.0
05
0

50

R134a Ref :D.P.Wilson & R.S.Basu, ASHRAE Transactions 1988, Vol. 94 part 2.

140 DTU, Department of Energy Engineering

h = 520

120
110

h = 500

100
90

h = 480

80

25

Temperature [C]

70
h = 460

60
50
h = 440

10

40
30
20

h = 420

10
0

h = 400

-10
-20
1

h = 38
0

-30
-40

x = 0.1
h = 160
180

800

900

0.2
200

1000

0.3
220

0.4
240

1100

1200

0.5
260

1300

0.6
280

1400

0.7
300

0.8
320

0.9
340

1500
1600
Entropy [J/(kg K)]

360

1700

1800

1900

2000

2100

2200

2300

0.
00
15

R134a Ref :D.P.Wilson & R.S.Basu, ASHRAE Transactions 1988, Vol. 94 part 2.
50
DTU, Department of Energy Engineering
s in [kJ/(kg K)]. v in [m^3/kg]. T in [C]
40
M.J. Skovrup & H.J.H Knudsen. 02-11-05

20
00
0.

030
0.0

40
0.00

0.0060

100
100

0.0080
90

80

30

80
70

0.0100

s=1
.70

90

0.0150

70
60

20

60

0.0200

50
50

0.0300

2.0
0
s=

0.0600
2.0
5

20

0.0400

1.9
5

1.9
0

1.8
5

s=

s=

20

s=

30

1.75

30

s=

10
9
8
7

1.80

40

s=

10

0.0800

s=

10

4
0.1000

2.1
0

s=

2.1
5

3
-10

-10

2.2
0

0.1500

s=

-20

0.2000

s=

2.2
5

-20

s=

Pressure [Bar]

40

140

x = 0.1
0.2
s = 1.0

160

180

200

0.3

220

0.4
1.2

240

260

0.5

280

0.6
1.4

300

0.7

0.8

0.9

-20

20

40

60

80

100

120

1.6

320

340 360 380


Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

400

420

440

460

480

500

520

540

560

0.3000

90

DTU, Department of Energy Engineering


h in [kJ/kg]. v in [m^3/kg]. p in [Bar]
M.J. Skovrup & H.J.H Knudsen. 02-12-20

h=5
60

h=5
40
0.005
0

0.00
25

70

0.010
0

50

h=

0.025
0

70
60

h=

0.100
0

30

0.050
0

Temperature [C]

10
9
8
7

15

20

30
25

40

50

60

100
90
80
70

120

R744 Ref :W.C.Reynolds: Thermodynamic Properties in SI

520

500

50

10
40

h=

48
0

30

-10

25
20

h=

46
0

15

-30
10
9
8
7

-50

500

x = 0.1
h = 120 140

600

700

800

0.2
160

180

0.3
200

0.4
220
240

0.5
260

280

0.6
300

0.7
320

340

0.8
360
380

0.9
400

44
0

420

900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600
Entropy [J/(kg K)]

0.
00
30

0
2.1
s=

2.05

2.00

150
0.0
5

10

s=

15

50

s=

s=1

15

s=

2.1

10
5

s=

5
2.2

40

200
0.0

s=

2.2

-5
-5

s=

30

2.3

-10
-10

s=
2.3

-15
-15

20

140

x = 0.1
0.2
s = 1.0

160

180

200

220

0.3
1.2

240

0.4

260

0.5
1.4

280

300

0.6

320

0.7
1.6

0.8

340 360 380


Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

0.9

s=

Pressure [Bar]

20

1.95

25
20

.90

s=1

25

100
0.0

.85

30

60

060
0.0

090
0.0

s=1
.80

s=1
.75

30

70

0
05
0.0

080
0.0

s = 1.7
0

80

s = 1.6
5

90

40
00
0.

070
0.0
s = 1.6
0

100

s = 1.5
5

s = 1.45

DTU, Department of Energy Engineering


s in [kJ/(kg K)]. v in [m^3/kg]. T in [C]
M.J. Skovrup & H.J.H Knudsen. 02-11-05

s = 1.50

0.0
02
0

0.00
15

R744 Ref :W.C.Reynolds: Thermodynamic Properties in SI

-10

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

1.8

400

420

440

460

480

500

520

540

560

580

300
0.0

5
00
5.
5.
25
=
s

5.
50

70

=
s

60

50

5.
75

50
s

40

30

0.1250
0.1500
0.1750
0.2000

40

00

30

6.

20

0.2500
0.3000

10.0
8.0

0.0400
0.0500
0.0600
0.0700
0.0800
0.0900
0.1000

80

60

20
10

6.
s

0.6000
0.7000
0.8000
0.9000
1.0000

6.

50

4.0

0.4000
0.5000

25

10

6.0

-10

6.

75

-10

-20

00

1.2500
1.5000
1.7500
2.0000

7.

-20

2.0
-30

-30

1.0
0.8

25

Pressure [Bar]

4.7

90

70

20.0

s=

100

80

40.0

s=

110

90

60.0

0.0125
0.0150
0.0175
0.0200
0.0250
0.0300

4 .5

120

100

70
80 .0090 .0100
0.00
0.00
0
0

130

110

s=

100.0
80.0

060
0.0

4.2

130
120

s=

s=3

s in [kJ/(kg K)]. v in [m^3/kg]. T in [C]


M.J. Skovrup & H.J.H Knudsen. 02-09-27

050
0.0

4.0
0

.7 5

200.0 DTU, Department of Energy Engineering

0
04
0.0

s=

0.0
02
5

R717 Ref :R.Dring. Klima+Klte ingenieur Ki-Extra 5, 1978

30
00
.
0

7.

50

s
-40

-40

7.

2.5000
3.0000

75

7.

4.0000

0.6
x = 0.1
s=1

100

200

0.2

300

0.3
2

400

0.4

0.5

0.6

500

600

0.7
4

700

800

0.8

0.9

900 1000 1100


Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

-40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220


6

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

50
%

60
%

70
%

80
%

10
0%
90
%

30

.82
.70

.10

.00

.07

.13

.2
5

.1
9
.1
6

80

-1
.3

70

8
-.3

.2
2

-6
.2

87
-.

10

-.12

en
tal
pia
[kJ .
kg -1

-.23

-.04

15

0
-. 3

9
.2

7
-. 1
-.08

umidit specifica [g.kg-1 a.s.]

2
.3

6
.3

90

-2
.3

.41

92
-.
1
-.5

.46

20

totale

.52

.60

-.03

25

1.00
1.28
3.0 -1.7
8
0
-10
.6

sensibile

30
%

1.00

40
%

10
0

60
%
20

50

a.s
.]

40

30
10%

20

10

5
0

-10

-5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

.90

.88

.84

.82

.80

.78

.76

.s .]
-1 a
3. kg
.86

m
v[

temperatura [C]