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Our Ref: SRC/CC/BM/01

Your Ref:...
27th October 2016
General Manager,
Blue Mountain Construction (Pvt) Ltd,
Kirulapana Ave.
Colombo 05.
Dear Sir,
RE: Proposed Gransburg Construction at No: 152, Kynsey Rd, Colombo 07, Concrete Test
Cube Results.

We refer to your letter dated 07th October 2016 regarding concrete test cube results of Gransburg
Project. Herewith mentioned a clear overview of test results of this project and reasons for them.
Also mentioned the remedial actions we have taken and brief introduction of QA/QC Plan.
Pre-Observations to be made in deriving Conclusions through Cube Test Results.
While we have attached the correct way of observing the results of the test molds conducted for this
project in show in Annexure A, we would like to express the following methodology. These factors
are considered as it is not possible to conclude the state of the actual concrete job by observing only
the direct results of the cube test. Annexure A will indicate a more accurate view while still drawing
reference to the actual Considerable Failures. Thereon it will show that only 2 cube tests which have
been highlighted in red colour from the entire lot can be considered as a failure while they are also to
be subjected for further testing if needed.
Variations in Cube Results
As part of the process of making concrete mixes is that there are natural variations in the
constituents and conditions. This means that even when all other factors being equal, if one
tests a large number of cubes from different batches of the same concrete the strength varies in
a particular way. Thereby the factor of averages are in play for the decisive process.
Hence, if one specifies, say, a Grade 30 concrete (that is, fcu = 30N/mm2 or 30MegaPascals
(MPa)), then some cubes will have slightly lower strengths, some higher.
To ensure, therefore, that only 1 cube in 20 will fall below the specified grade, one aims for a
higher strength in the knowledge that the variation of the mix will cause at most 5% of the
cubes to fall below this characteristic value. This new average value that is aimed for is
known as the target mean strength and it is equal to the characteristic strength plus a
reasonable margin to allow for this variation.
This margin is determined as 1.64 times the standard deviation (a measure of the statistical
spread of results) for 5% failures. If the variation is known from previous records, a
reasonably low margin can be used; otherwise a conservative estimate must be used.

Causes of Cube Failures

If a cube test does fail, it is usually a matter of concern because it may be indicative of a steady trend
in low results, which could be serious, or it may be because one isolated cube test has failed for some
other reason.
Statistical variation: Natural random variation suggests that it is possible, though not likely, to
have a cube failure with normal concrete
Improperly made cubes: lack of compaction, not protected overnight, improperly cured,
incorrectly labeled, poor sampling, not greased, not properly assembled
Improperly tested cubes: machine not calibrated properly, cube not wet when tested, not
aligned centrally in machine, not loaded on cast face, rate of loading wrong, tested at wrong
Often, if a cube result is surprisingly low, the cube is retained for inspection. By checking the failure
mode of the cube, a concrete specialist can determine whether there is something irregular about the
test and evidence may point to the possible cause of the failure.

Corrective and remedial actions taken in order to improve the quality of concrete
QA/QC Team
The QA /QC team is headed by a QA/QC Manager. He is assisted by QA/QC Incharge whose job is to coordinate and implements the QA /QC guidelines and test procedures for the entire batching plant. Two
QA/QC technicians assist the incharge. The technicians are involved in physically conducting the tests of
the incoming raw materials and the final product ie. RMC. They are physically present to check that all
the equipment are calibrated properly. Also they carry out the daily or weekly quality monitoring as per
the BS Standard and some Project Standards.
Adding Water to Concrete at the Placement Site:
The Contractor can add water and a superplasticizer to concrete delivered to the placement site
provided the allowable amount of water and superplasticizer stated on the concrete delivery ticket or
the maximum water/cement ratio are not exceeded, and no other project specification requirement is
violated. After adjusting the slump, the Contractor shall perform a test to confirm that the slump of the
concrete is within the target range. If the slump exceeds the target range but is within the tolerance
range, that load may be accepted.
Quality Control Tests
A periodical testing pattern is followed as per the schedule table (refer Annexure B), to check the
compliance of raw materials and final product (RMC) with the Specifications.
Mix Designs
Mix proportions are designated in the laboratory using samples of materials which are to be used in the
concrete by qualified personals with a series of computer aided designing forms which will help to
choose a suitable proportion of aggregate, cement, water and chemicals. Please refer Annexure C and
Annexure D for mix designs of grade 25 and Grade 30 concrete respectively.

Trial mixes
After carrying out the trial mixes, it is tested to ensure that the product is of high quality that is
consistent, cohesive, workable, pump able and complies with international standards, customer
requirement and to be approved.
All the batching equipment are properly maintained and device is calibrated. Adequate checks are made
to prevent Aggregate accumulation.
The Q?C In Charge always be in liaison with plant operator to oversee all batching operations. The
transit mixers are always visually checked before loading. The loaded truck are checked by qualified and
experience technician for workability, consistency of the concrete and temperature.

Yours Sincerely,
Sunbee Readymix (Pvt) Ltd.

Kasun C. Hewagama,
Manager Operations & QA

Annex A: Summary of Test Results
Annex B: Scheduled Quality Control Tests
Annex C: Mix Design Grade 25
Annex D: Mix Design Grade 30
CC: Managing Director Sunbee
Assistant General Manager Blue Mountain construction