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ChE312A: Assignment 3

1.

Consider a house that has a 10-m x 20-m base and a 4-m-high wall. All four walls of the house have an R-value of 2.31 m 2 · °C/W. The two 10-m x 4-m walls have no windows. The third wall has five windows made of 0.5-cm-thick glass (k = 0.78 W/mK), 1.2 m x 1.8 m in size. The fourth wall has the same size and number of windows, but they are double- paned with a 1.5-cm-thick stagnant air space (k = 0.026 W/m · K) enclosed between two 0.5-cm-thick glass layers. The thermostat in the house is set at 22°C and the average temperature outside at that location is 8°C during the winter. Disregarding any direct radiation gain or loss through the windows and taking the heat transfer coefficients at the inner and outer surfaces of the house to be 7 and 15 W/m 2 · °C, respectively, determine the average rate of heat transfer through each wall. If the cost of electric heating is Rs.7/kWh, estimate the annual heating cost for a 4 month long winter.

2.

Air flows at 120 o C in a thin-wall stainless-steel (k=18W/m.K) tube with h=65W/m 2 K. The inside diameter of the tube is 2.5 cm and the wall thickness is 0.4mm. The tube is exposed to an environment with h=6.5 W/m 2 K and the ambient temperature is 15 o C. Calculate the overall heat-transfer coefficient and the heat loss per meter length. What thickness of soft rubber (k=0.13W/m.K) as insulating material should be added to reduce the heat loss by 50%? What would be your result if rigid foam (k=0.026W/m.K) is used in place of rubber? Compare and comment on your results.

3.

A rod of length L has one end maintained at temperature T 0 and is exposed to an environment of temperature T . An electrical heating element is placed in the rod so that heat is generated uniformly along the length at a rate q˙ . Derive an expression ( a ) for the temperature distribution in the rod and ( b ) for the total heat transferred to the environment. Obtain an expression for the value of q˙ that will make the heat transfer zero at the end that is maintained at T 0 .

4.

One end of a copper rod 30 cm long is firmly connected to a wall that is maintained at 200 C. The other end is firmly connected to a wall that is maintained at 93 C. Air is blown across the rod so that a heat-transfer coefficient of 17 W/ m 2 · C is maintained. The diameter of the rod is 12.5 mm. The temperature of the air is 38 C. What is the net heat lost to the air in watts?

5 .

A 5-mm-diameter spherical ball at 50°C is covered by a 1-mm-thick plastic insulation (k = 0.13 W/m · °C). The ball is exposed to a medium at 15°C, with a combined convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient of 20 W/m 2 · °C. Determine if the plastic insulation on the ball will help or hurt heat transfer from the ball. What should be the minimum thickness of the insulation if the heat transfer rate has to be reduced to 50% of the original heat transfer rate?

6.

Steam in a heating system flows through tubes whose outer diameter is 5 cm and whose walls are maintained at a temperature of 180°C. Circular aluminum alloy fins (k = 186 W/m · °C) of outer diameter 6 cm and constant thickness 1 mm are attached to the tube. The space between the fins is 3 mm, and thus there are 250 fins per meter length of the tube. Heat is transferred to the surrounding air at 25°C, with a heat transfer coefficient of 40 W/m 2 · °C. Determine the increase in heat transfer from the tube per meter of its length as a result of adding fins.

7.

A 0.3-cm-thick, 12-cm-high, and 18-cm-long circuit board houses 80 closely spaced

logic chips on one side, each dissipating 0.04 W. The board is impregnated with copper fillings and has an effective thermal conductivity of 20 W/m·°C. All the heat generated in the chips is conducted across the circuit board and is dissipated from the back side of the board to a medium at 40°C, with a heat transfer coefficient of 50 W/m 2 ·°C. (a) Determine the temperatures on the two sides of the circuit board. (b) Now a 0.2-cm-thick, 12-cm-high, and 18-cm-long aluminum plate (k = 237 W/m·°C)

with 864 2-cm-long aluminum pin fins of diameter 0.25 cm is attached to the back side

of the circuit board with a 0.02-cm-thick epoxy adhesive (k = 1.8 W/m·°C). Determine

the new temperatures on the two sides of the circuit board.

8.

Consider a house with a flat roof whose outer dimensions are 12 m x12 m. The outer walls of the house are 6 m high. The walls and the roof of the house are made of 20- cm thick concrete (k = 0.75 W/m · °C). The temperatures of the inner and outer surfaces of the house are 15°C and 3°C, respectively. Accounting for the effects of the edges of adjoining surfaces, determine the rate of heat loss from the house through its walls and the roof. What is the error involved in ignoring the effects of the edges and corners and treating the roof as a 12 m x 12 m surface and the walls as 6 m x 12 m surfaces for simplicity?

9.

Hot water at an average temperature of 80°C and an average velocity of 1.5 m/s is flowing through a 25-m section of a pipe that has an outer diameter of 5 cm. The pipe extends 2 m in the ambient air above the ground, dips into the ground (k = 1.5 W/m · °C) vertically for 3 m, and continues horizontally at this depth for 20m more before it enters the next building. The first section of the pipe is exposed to the ambient air at 8°C, with a heat transfer coefficient of 22 W/m 2 · °C. If the surface of the ground is covered with snow at 0°C, determine (a) the total rate of heat loss from the hot water and (b) the temperature drop of the hot water as it flows through this 25-m-long section of the pipe.