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SWG

Gauge

Nominal
Gauge
Copper
Number diameter in
MM

-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

12.7000
11.7860
10.9730
10.1600
9.4490
8.8390
8.2300
7.6200
7.0100
6.4010
5.8930
5.3850
4.8770
4.4700
4.0640
3.6580
3.2510
2.9460
2.6420
2.3370
2.0320
1.8290
1.6260
1.4220
1.2190
1.0160
0.9140
0.8130
0.7110
0.6100
0.5590
0.5080
0.4572
0.4166
0.3759
0.3454
0.3150

Area in
mm2
Area in kcmil
126.6127
250.0000
109.0442
215.3106
94.5193
186.6308
81.0321
160.0000
70.0876
138.3899
61.3304
121.0985
53.1703
104.9862
45.5806
90.0000
38.5750
76.1673
32.1636
63.5080
27.2610
53.8277
22.7636
44.9473
18.6713
36.8670
15.6850
30.9705
12.9651
25.6000
10.5041
20.7405
8.2967
16.3820
6.8129
13.4523
5.4794
10.8193
4.2873
8.4654
3.2413
6.4000
2.6260
5.1851
2.0754
4.0980
1.5873
3.1342
1.1665
2.3032
0.8103
1.6000
0.6558
1.2949
0.5189
1.0245
0.3968
0.7836
0.2921
0.5768
0.2453
0.4843
0.2026
0.4000
0.1641
0.3240
0.1362
0.2690
0.1109
0.2190
0.0937
0.1849
0.0779
0.1538

Resistance R ohm
Current Carrying
per meter
Capacity
(=1.69*(10^-8)*4/
(0.03151/R)
(3.14*d*d)

0.00013
0.00015
0.00018
0.00021
0.00024
0.00028
0.00032
0.00037
0.00044
0.00053
0.00062
0.00074
0.00091
0.00108
0.00130
0.00161
0.00204
0.00248
0.00308
0.00394
0.00521
0.00644
0.00814
0.01065
0.01449
0.02086
0.02577
0.03257
0.04259
0.05786
0.06890
0.08342
0.10299
0.12404
0.15236
0.18046
0.21697

236.0689
203.3126
176.2309
151.0841
130.6782
114.3504
99.1359
84.9848
71.9229
59.9690
50.8281
42.4427
34.8126
29.2446
24.1735
19.5848
15.4691
12.7027
10.2164
7.9937
6.0434
4.8962
3.8697
2.9596
2.1749
1.5108
1.2227
0.9674
0.7399
0.5446
0.4574
0.3777
0.3059
0.2540
0.2068
0.1746
0.1452

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

0.2946
0.2743
0.2540
0.2337
0.2134
0.1930
0.1727
0.1524
0.1321
0.1219
0.1118
0.1016
0.0914
0.0813
0.0711
0.0610
0.0508
0.0406
0.0305
0.0254

0.0681
0.0591
0.0506
0.0429
0.0357
0.0292
0.0234
0.0182
0.0137
0.0117
0.0098
0.0081
0.0066
0.0052
0.0040
0.0029
0.0020
0.0013
0.0007
0.0005

0.1345
0.1166
0.1000
0.0847
0.0706
0.0577
0.0462
0.0360
0.0270
0.0230
0.0194
0.0160
0.0129
0.0102
0.0078
0.0058
0.0040
0.0026
0.0014
0.0010

0.24806
0.28613
0.33369
0.39418
0.47275
0.57797
0.72183
0.92693
1.23371
1.44880
1.72240
2.08559
2.57706
3.25714
4.25871
5.78572
8.34237
13.06066
23.14288
33.36949

0.1270
0.1101
0.0944
0.0799
0.0667
0.0545
0.0437
0.0340
0.0255
0.0217
0.0183
0.0151
0.0122
0.0097
0.0074
0.0054
0.0038
0.0024
0.0014
0.0009

Turns Per
inch

2.00
2.16
2.31
2.50
2.69
2.87
3.09
3.33
3.62
3.97
4.31
4.72
5.21
5.68
6.25
6.94
7.81
8.62
9.61
10.87
12.50
13.89
15.62
17.86
20.84
25.00
27.79
31.24
35.72
41.64
45.44
50.00
55.56
60.97
67.57
73.54
80.63

86.22
92.60
100.00
108.69
119.03
131.61
147.08
166.67
192.28
208.37
227.19
250.00
277.90
312.42
357.24
416.39
500.00
625.62
832.79
1000.00

AWG

Gauge

Gauge
Number

Nominal
Copper
diameter in
MM

Area in mm2

-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

16.5444
14.7333
13.1203
11.6840
10.4049
9.2658
8.2515
7.3481
6.5437
5.8273
5.1894
4.6213
4.1154
3.6649
3.2636
2.9064
2.5882
2.3048
2.0525
1.8278
1.6277
1.4495
1.2908
1.1495
1.0237
0.9116
0.8118
0.7229
0.6438
0.5733
0.5106
0.4547
0.4049
0.3606
0.3211
0.2859
0.2546

214.8691
170.3989
135.1325
107.1649
84.9857
67.3967
53.4480
42.3862
33.6138
26.6569
21.1399
16.7647
13.2950
10.5434
8.3613
6.6308
5.2585
4.1702
3.3071
2.6226
2.0799
1.6494
1.3080
1.0373
0.8226
0.6524
0.5174
0.4103
0.3254
0.2580
0.2046
0.1623
0.1287
0.1021
0.0809
0.0642
0.0509

Resistance R
Nominal Copper ohm per meter
diameter in Inch (=1.69*(10^8)*4/(3.14*d*d)

0.6514
0.5800
0.5165
0.4600
0.4096
0.3648
0.3249
0.2893
0.2576
0.2294
0.2043
0.1819
0.1620
0.1443
0.1285
0.1144
0.1019
0.0907
0.0808
0.0720
0.0641
0.0571
0.0508
0.0453
0.0403
0.0359
0.0320
0.0285
0.0253
0.0226
0.0201
0.0179
0.0159
0.0142
0.0126
0.0113
0.0100

0.00008
0.00010
0.00013
0.00016
0.00020
0.00025
0.00032
0.00040
0.00050
0.00063
0.00080
0.00101
0.00127
0.00160
0.00202
0.00255
0.00321
0.00405
0.00511
0.00644
0.00813
0.01025
0.01292
0.01629
0.02054
0.02591
0.03267
0.04119
0.05194
0.06550
0.08259
0.10414
0.13132
0.16559
0.20881
0.26331
0.33202

Current
Carrying
Capacity
(0.03151/R)

400.6228
317.7083
251.9542
199.8087
158.4555
125.6609
99.6537
79.0289
62.6728
49.7018
39.4153
31.2578
24.7885
19.6582
15.5897
12.3632
9.8044
7.7753
6.1661
4.8899
3.8779
3.0753
2.4388
1.9341
1.5338
1.2164
0.9646
0.7650
0.6066
0.4811
0.3815
0.3026
0.2399
0.1903
0.1509
0.1197
0.0949

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

0.2268
0.2019
0.1798
0.1601
0.1426
0.1270
0.1131
0.1007
0.0897
0.0799
0.0711
0.0633
0.0564
0.0502
0.0447
0.0398
0.0355
0.0316
0.0281
0.0251

0.0404
0.0320
0.0254
0.0201
0.0160
0.0127
0.0100
0.0080
0.0063
0.0050
0.0040
0.0031
0.0025
0.0020
0.0016
0.0012
0.0010
0.0008
0.0006
0.0005

0.0089
0.0080
0.0071
0.0063
0.0056
0.0050
0.0045
0.0040
0.0035
0.0031
0.0028
0.0025
0.0022
0.0020
0.0018
0.0016
0.0014
0.0012
0.0011
0.0010

0.41867
0.52794
0.66572
0.83945
1.05853
1.33478
1.68313
2.12238
2.67628
3.37472
4.25544
5.36602
6.76642
8.53230
10.75903
13.56689
17.10753
21.57220
27.20204
34.30114

0.0753
0.0597
0.0473
0.0375
0.0298
0.0236
0.0187
0.0148
0.0118
0.0093
0.0074
0.0059
0.0047
0.0037
0.0029
0.0023
0.0018
0.0015
0.0012
0.0009

Turn Per
inch

1.54
1.72
1.94
2.17
2.44
2.74
3.08
3.46
3.88
4.36
4.89
5.50
6.17
6.93
7.78
8.74
9.81
11.02
12.37
13.90
15.60
17.52
19.68
22.10
24.81
27.86
31.29
35.13
39.45
44.30
49.75
55.87
62.73
70.44
79.10
88.83
99.75

Maximum
freqency for
Maximum amps
Maximum amp
100% skin
for power
for Chassis
depth for solid
transmission
conductor
copper

380
328
283
245
211
181
158
135
118
101
89
73
64
55
47
41
35
32
28
22
19
16
14
11
9
7
4.7
3.5
2.7
2.2
1.7
1.4
1.2
0.86

302
239
190
150
119
94
75
60
47
37
30
24
19
15
12
9.3
7.4
5.9
4.7
3.7
2.9
2.3
1.8
1.5
1.2
0.92
0.729
0.577
0.457
0.361
0.288
0.226
0.182
0.142

125 Hz
160 Hz
200 Hz
250 Hz
325 Hz
410 Hz
500 Hz
650 Hz
810 Hz
1100 Hz
1300 Hz
1650 Hz
2050 Hz
2600 Hz
3200 Hz
4150 Hz
5300 Hz
6700 Hz
8250 Hz
11 k Hz
13 k Hz
17 kHz
21 kHz
27 kHz
33 kHz
42 kHz
53 kHz
68 kHz
85 kHz
107 kH
130 kHz
170 kHz
210 kHz
270 kHz

112.01
125.78
141.24
158.61
178.11
200.00
224.59
252.20
283.20
318.01
357.11
401.01
450.30
505.66
567.82
637.62
716.01
804.03
902.87
1013.86

0.7
0.53
0.43
0.33
0.27
0.21
0.17
0.13
0.11
0.09

0.113
0.091
0.072
0.056
0.044
0.035
0.0289
0.0228
0.0175
0.0137

340 kHz
430 kHz
540 kHz
690 kHz
870 kHz
1100 kHz
1350 kHz
1750 kHz
2250 kHz
2900 kHz

THERMAL CLASS

INSULATION TYPE
Plain Enamel - Available 40 - 44 AWG
Formvar (RD)
Formvar (SQ & RECT)

105C
Polyurethane Bondable
Formvar Bondable
Polyurethane Nylon Bondable

130C

Polyurethane Nylon*

Polyurethane 155*
Polyurethane Nylon 155*
155C
Polyurethane 155 Bondable
Polyurethane Nylon 155 Bondable

Polyurethane 180*
Polyurethane Nylon 180*
Polyester-imide
Polyester Nylon*
180C

Solderable Polyester*
Solderable Polyester Nylon*
Polyester-imide Bondable*
Polyester-amide-imide Bondable*

Polyester-amide-imide Bondable*
Solderable Polyester Bondable*

Glass Fibers
Glass Fibers (SQ & RECT)
Dacron Glass
Dacron Glass (SQ & RECT)
Polyester 200*
200C
Polyester A / I Topcoat*
Polyester A / I Topcoat*(SQ & RECT)
Polyester A / I Polyamideimide
Polyester A / I Polyamideimide (SQ & RECT)
Polytetrafluoloethylene (Teflon*)

Polyimide - ML*
240C
Polyimide - ML* (SQ & RECT)

thickness of the covering, which can be of 3 types: Grade 1, Grade 2 and Gra

The temperature class indicates the temperature of the wire where it has a 2
temperature classes are 105 C, 130 C, 155 C, 180 C and 220 C.

MWS PRODUCT CODE


PE
F
F
PB
FB
PNB

PN

P155
PN155

P180
PN180
PT
PTN
SPT
SPTN
PTB
APTB

APTB
SPTB

GLASS

DGLAS

PT200
APT

APTIG

TEFLON

ML

pes: Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3. Higher grades have thicker insulation and thus higher breakdown voltages.

ure of the wire where it has a 20,000 hour service life. At lower temperatures the service life of the wire is longe
C, 180 C and 220 C.

INSULATION CHARACTERISTICS
Plain Enamel, known as oleoresinous enamel, was one of the first film
insulations developed more than 75 years ago and is still in use today in
a
varietyEnamel
of electronic
components.
wires are as a smooth
Formvar
is made
from vinyl Plain
acetalEnamel
resins produced
manufactured
to
single-build
dimensional
standards.
Available
40 - 44
uniform film. Formvar has excellent mechanical properties
suchinas
AWG.
abrasion resistance and flexibility. The film will withstand excessive

Bondable magnet wire is insulated copper wire with a superimposed film


of thermoplastic bonding material. The heat or solvent sensitivity of this
material makes possible the winding of coils of unusual shapes since the
wire may be bonded turn to turn. Click here to obtain specific
dimensional data on Bondable wire.

No Longer Available

Polyurethane-155 is a 155C thermal class solder strippable insulation


produced primarily 30 AWG and finer with quick soldering characteristics
at
390C.
Polyurethane
Nylon-155 is similar to the 155C Polyurethane with the
additional Nylon overcoat to improve the abrasion resistance and heat
shock characteristics for coil and motor windings. Produced 10 AWG to

Polyurethane-180 combines the thermal properties of a class 180C


insulation, while offering low temperature solderability at 390C (24
AWG
and finer).
Polyurethane
Nylon-180 offers excellent abrasion resistance for ferrite
core coils and transformers, while exhibiting high temperature thermal
stress
and low temperature
430C
(14H- 23
AWG ) and
Polyester-imide
magnet wiresolderability
is insulated at
with
a Class
modified
polyester resin. It has excellent thermal endurance, solvent resistance
and
exhibits
a low
of friction
tomodified
improve polyester
windability.
It
Polyester
Nylon
is acoefficient
film insulation
with a
basecoat
and a nylon topcoat. Typical of a dual coat construction, advantage is
taken
of thePolyester
high thermal
properties
of the
polyester
and the wire
mechanical
Solderable
magnet
wire is an
ester-imide
insulated
which
solders at 470C. Since thermoplastic flow values equal or exceed
280C,
the Polyester-Nylon
insulation has shown
excellent
in insulation
transfer molding
Solderable
magnet
wire is promise
a two-part
system
in which ester-imide basecoat is overcoated with nylon. This wire solders
at 455C. The construction may be considered a substitute for
Self-bonding polyester actually describes a number of possible
constructions of polyester base insulation with a thermoplastic bond
coat. The bond coat may be epoxy, polyester or polyamide. Keep in
mind for design purposes that the addition of the bond coat does add
one overall build level to the wire dimension. Click here to obtain
specific dimensional data on Bondable wire.

Self-bonding polyester actually describes a number of possible


constructions of polyester base insulation with a thermoplastic bond
coat. The bond coat may be epoxy, polyester or polyamide. Keep in
mind for design purposes that the addition of the bond coat does add
one overall build level to the wire dimension. Click here to obtain
specific dimensional data on Bondable wire.

Both glass and dacron glass are a served filament on the magnet wire
conductor. They are available as unvarnished or varnished with organic
or silicone varnishes. The fibers may be served over bare conductor or
over film constructions. The glass is a continuous filament glass yarn
and the dacron glass is a combination of glass and polyester fibers. The
advantage of the glass is its high resistance to overload burnout and the
advantage of the dacron glass is its abrasion resistance and better

Polyester-200 is a modified theic-polyesterimide one-part system. It has


high temperature thermal properties and good chemical resistance.
Normally
produced in sizes
34 -56
Polyester-amide-imide
magnet
wireAWG
is a two-part insulation consisting of
a modified polyester basecoat with a superimposed amide-imide outer
coating. This wire exhibits exceptional windability, heat shock
For inverter duty applications, this insulation is designated for use in
motors that may be subject to voltage spikes. Available in sizes 14 - 30
AWG.
Teflon** has high heat resistance and excellent resistance to most
solvents, acids and corrosive chemicals and a high dielectric constant.

ML is a film insulation made of polyimide resins. It is a Class 240C


thermal rated insulation with exceptional resistance to chemical solvents
and burnout. The outstanding thermoplastic flow of over 400C and its

e 3. Higher grades have thicker insulation and thus higher breakdown voltages.

,000 hour service life. At lower temperatures the service life of the wire is longer (about a factor 2 for every 10

GENERAL APPLICATIONS
Relays and coils. Avoid using in presence of synthetic solvents.
Motors, random wound coils, oil filled and dry transformers,
armature and generator winding where "tough" film may be
required
Self-supporting coils, voice coils, encapsulated coils, relays, yoke
coils

Motors, R.F. coils, relay, encapsulated coils, ignition coils,


solenoids, low voltage transformers, layer and precision wound
coils.and clock coils,encapsulated
Appliance motors, relays, timer
coils, solenoids, toroid coils, random wound coils.

Automotive relays, ignition coils, transformers and solenoids.


Relays, pulse transformers, toroid coils, small appliance motors.
Appliance and tool motors, continuous operation coils,
subfractional instrument and servo motors solenoids.
Fractional and integral horsepower motors, coils and relays,
control and dry transformers, encapsulated coils, D.C. field coils.
Special transformer coils, automotive coils, electronic coils.
Shaded-pole motor coils, special control coils, automotive coils.
Television yoke coils, clutch and brake coils, helical and toroidal
coils.

Television yoke coils, clutch and brake coils, helical and toroidal
coils.

Dry transformers, Class B motors.

Motors, small coils, transformers.


Fractional and integral horse power motors(hermetic and open),
automotive and hand tool armatures, dry type transformers.

Rotating machines, Fractional and Integral HP Motors, Hermetic


Motors, DC Motors, Power Tools, Dry Transformers, Electronic
Coils.
Miniature rotating components and windings where severe
environments are encountered.

Fractional and integral horsepower motors, high temperature


continuous duty coils and relays, hermetic and sealed units,
heavy duty hand tool motors, encapsulated coils.

tages.
longer (about a factor 2 for every 10 C lower temperature). Common

MWS PRODUCT CODE

NEMA STANDARD ( MW1000 )

PE

NONE

MW 15

MW 18

PB

MW 3

FB

MW 19

PNB

MW 29

PN

MW 28

P155

MW 79

PN155

MW 80

PB155

MW 131

PNB155

MW 136

P180

MW 82

PN180

MW 83

PT

MW 30

PTN

MW 76

SPT

MW 77

SPTN

MW 78

PTB

NONE

APTB

NONE

APTB

NONE

SPTB

NONE

GLASS

MW 44

GLASS

MW 43

DGLAS

MW 45

DGLASS

MW 46

PT200

MW 74

APT

MW 35

APT

MW 36

APTIG

MW 35

APTIG

MW 73

TEFLON

NONE

ML

MW 16

ML

MW 20

FEDERAL SPECIFICATION ( JW1177/ xx )

IEC STANDARD -60317

NONE

NONE

/4

317-1

/ 16

317-17

/ 44

317-2

/6

317-5

/ 30

317-9

/9

317-19

/ 41

317-20

/ 42

317-21

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

317-51

NONE

NONE

/ 12

317-8

/ 38

NONE

/ 39

317-23

/ 40

NONE

NONE

317-37

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

/ 21

NONE

/ 23

NONE

/ 20

NONE

/ 25

NONE

/ 43

317-42

/ 14

317-13

/ 13

317-29

NONE

317-13

NONE

NONE

NONE

NONE

/ 15

317-7

/ 18

317-30

Sr. No.

Material

Silver

Copper

Annealed copper

Gold

Aluminum

Calcium

Beryllium

Sodium

Magnesium

10

Rhodium

11

Molybdenum

12

Iridium

13

Tungsten

14

Brass - 58% Cu

15

Zinc

16

Nickel

17

Potassium

18

Brass - 63% Cu

19

Cadmium

20

Cobalt

21

Osmium

22

Lithium

23

Iron

24

Platinum

25

Tin

26

Selenium

27

Tantalum

28

Chromium

29

Niobium (Columbium)

30

Carbon steel (1010)

31

Mild steel

32

Thorium

33

Lead

34

Vanadium

35

Uranium

36

Titanium

37

Grain oriented electrical steel

38

Antimony

39

Manganin

40

Constantan

41

GaAs

42

Nickeline

43

Stainless steel

44

Mercury

45

Cast iron

46

Nichrome (alloy of nickel and chromium)

47

Bismuth

48

Plutonium

49

Manganese

50

Graphite

51

Carbon (graphite)

52
53

Carbon (amorphous)
Sea water

54

Germanium

55

Drinking water

56

Silicon

57

Wood(damp)

58

Deionized water

59

Glass

60

Carbon (diamond)

61

Phosphorus

62

Hard rubber

63

Mica

64

Rubber - hard

65

Wood(oven dry)

66

Air

67

Paraffin wax

68

Sulfur

69

Fused quartz

70

Quartz (fused)

71

PET

72

Teflon

73

Chromel (alloy of chromium and aluminum)

74
76

Eureka
marble

82

water distilled

75

bakelite

79

porcelain

77

plexiglass

78

polystyrene

81

vulcanite

80

pressed amber

Density
(g/cm3)

ResistivityCoefficient (ohmm)

Temperature Coefficient perdegreeC

1.59x10-8

6.1x10-3

10.49

1.6810

-8

6.8x10

8.96

1.7210

-8

3.39x10

-3
-3

2.4410-8

3.4x10-3

19.3

2.65x10

-8

3.8x10

-3

2.7

-8

4.1x10

-3

1.55

3.3610
4.0x10

-8

1.85

4.2x10-8

0.97

4.45x10

1.74

4.6x10

-8

-8

5.2x10-8
5.3x10-8
5.65x10-8

4.5x10-3

5.9x10-8

1.5x10-3

5.92x10-8

3.7x10-3

6.85x10-8

6.41x10-3

7.01x10-8
7.1x10

-8

7.4x10

-8

0.89

1.5x10

-3

9x10-8
9x10-8
9.2810-8

6.0x10-3

0.53

9.71x10

6.41x10

7.874

-8

-3

10.5x10-8

3.93x10-3

11.0x10-8

4.2x10-3

12.0x10-8
12.4x10-8
13x10-8
13x10-8
14.310-8
15x10-8

6.6x10-3

18x10-8
20.6x10-8
25x10-8
30x10-8
43x10-8

3.9x10-3

4610-8
41.8x10-8
48.210-8

0.002x10-3

49x10-8

.03x10-3

5010-8 to 100000010-8
50x10-8

0.23x10-3

6910-8
98.4x10-8

8.9x10-3

100x10-8
100x10-8 to 150x10-8

0.40x10-3

115x10-8
141.4x10-8
185x10-8

0.01x10-3

800x10-8

-0.2x10-3

3000x10-8 to 60000x10-8

-4.8x10-3

5000010-8 to 8000010-8
0.2

-0.5x10-3

4.6

-48x10-3

20 to 2x103
0.64103

-75x10-3

1x103 TO 100x103
180103
0.101012 to 10001012
11012
1x1012
101012
10x1012
10x1012 to 1000x1012
1001012 TO 11016
1.31016 to 3.31016
101016
10x1016
751016
75x1016
101020
10001020 to 1000001020
0.58x10-3
0.1x10-3
.0001x1012

.01x1012
1x1012
1x1012
10x1012
100x1012
100x1012
10000x1012

Resistivity-density
product
(nmg/cm3)
166
150
427
72
52
66
46
76.3

64

49
757

sizes are each 20.6% apart based on the cross sectional area. AWG is also known as Brown
SWG = Standard or Sterling Wire Gauge, a British wire measurement system.
BWG = Birmingham Wire Gauge, an old British wire measurement system that was widely
Cir Mils or CMA = Circular Mil Area which is equal to 1/1000 (0.001) of an inch in diameter
A density of copper of 8920 kg/m3 is used to derive the mass

TheIACSvalue of 58.0 MS/m is used as the conductivity of copper.


American wire gauge (AWG)

AWG is also known as Brown & Sharpewire gauge


The steel industry does not use AWG and prefers a number of other wire gauges. [citation needed] These include Washburn & Moen
(see Piano wire).

AWG numbers follow a mathematical formulation devised by Brown and Sharpe in 1855. The AWG designation corresponds to the number of
drawn more times to obtain a smaller cross sectional area.) According to the "Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers" (Fink and Beaty) 'g
which is the standard for which American engineers adhere. AWG began at 4/0 wire with a diameter of 0.46" and the next lower wire size was
into what we today call the AWG; ranging down to 40 gauge wire at 0.003" in diameter. The primary concern in a mechanical standard is for el
engineers from lawsuits and physical harm a resistance measurement system was implemented to certify that all wire produced in the United
resistance is known as the 2-terminal method. Click here for Calculations for Litz Wireand AC/DC Resistance.

Though there is a world-wide trend to the International System (SI) or Metric measurement, the curren
generally the use of the customary English Units. The current practice of the NAtional Bureau of Stand
Engineers (IEEE), and the The American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) is to reflect American Wire

The American Wire Gauge, like some other gauge systems, does generally represent steps in the wire
retrogressive to the wire size -- that is, the larger the number the smaller the wire. These gauge sizes
the definition of two sizes in the series of gauge sizes, all size related properties of any gauge in the s
0.4600 inch and AWG 36 as 0.0050 and 38 gauge sizes between these two, the ratio of any diameter
= = 1.1229322
The square of this ratio is: 1.2610
This Square of the ratio between sizes can be used as a means of obtaining the resistance, mass and
values for only one size. This conversion number can easily remembered as 1 1/4.

Therefore:

Knowing 20 AWG has a cross-section of 1020 circular mils tell us 19 AWG will have 1 1/4 x 1020 or app
resistance of 20 AWG as 10 ohms/1000 feet, 19 AWG would have less resistance by 10 1 1/4 or app

Since the function os geometric, the cube of this 1 1/4 is approximately 2. This allows you to easily ca
Every 3 gauge sizes the resistance, mass per unit, and cross section will double or halve.
Then with a 20 AWG Cross section of 1020 circular mils, 17 AWG will be approximately 2040 mils and

Using this relationship, with the commitment to memory of the cross-sectional area, resistance and m
value for any other wire size.

For diameter calculation, remembering one diameter, the diameter will double or halve every size gau
120% or 1.2 times the smaller gauge. If you remember six contiguous gauges in mils e.g. 39 - 44 AWG
you just remember 39 AWG as 3.5 mils and the spread between these gauges is 0.3 mil except betwe
you will have quick access to all gauge diameters.

The specific resistivity of conductors changes with temperature.In a limited temperature range it is ap
where is the temperature coefficient, T is the temperature and T0 is any temperature,
such as T0 = 293.15 K = 20C at which the electrical resistivity (T0) is known.
The voltage drop formula with the specific resistance (resistivity) rho is:
V = I R = I (2 l / A)
I = Current in amperes
l = Wire (cable) length in meters (times 2, because there is always a return wire)
= rho, electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance or volume
resistivity) of copper = 0.01724 ohmmm/m
(Ohms for l = 1 m length and A = 1 mm2 cross section area of the wire)
=1/
A = Cross section area in mm2
= sigma, electrical conductivity (electrical conductance) of copper = 58 Sm/mm2

There is no exact formula for the minimum wire size from the maximum amperage.
It depends on many circumstances, such as for example, if the calculation is for DC, AC or even for thr
is placed under the ground. Also, it depends on the ambient temperature, the allowable current densit
litz wire is present. And there is always the nice but unsatisfactory advice to use for security reasons a
questions are about the voltage drop on wires.

SWG also known as: Imperial Wire GaugeorBritish Standard Gauge.

SWG was fixed by Order of Council August 23, 1883. It was constructed by improving the Birmingh
1884 by the British Board of Trade.
The Stubs Iron Wire Gauge system (also known as the Birmingham Wire Gauge)

The Stubs system was the first wire gauge recognized as a standard by any country when Great Britai
wire gage recognized in the United States through an Act of Congress.
(Birmingham Wire Gauge) is used to specify thickness or diameter of metal wire, strip, and tube produ

The gauge starts at the lowest gauge number of 5 or 00000, corresponding to the largest size of 0.5
corresponding to the smallest size of 0.004" (0.102mm). Size steps between gauges range from 0.001
two lowest gauge numbers and do not correspond to a particular mathematical pattern, although for t
number.[1] Concerning wire and fine tubing, the gauge number is used to specify the outside diamete
gauge number specifies the wall thickness independent of the overall size of the tube.

In medicine, the Stubs system specifies the outside diameter of hypodermic needles, catheters, and s
century England for use in wire manufacture, and it began appearing in a medical setting in the early
Another common needle gauge system is the French catheter scale.
Needle wire gauge was derived from the Stubs Iron Wire Gauge.

Inches

Metric(mm)

Inches

1/16
1/ 8
3/16

1.587
3.175
4.762

6
6 1/ 8
6 1/ 4

1/ 4
5/16
3/ 8
7/16
1/ 2
9/16

6.35
7.937
9.525
11.112
12.7
14.287

6 3/
6 1/
6 5/
6 3/
6 7/
7

5/ 8

15.875

7 1/ 8

11/16
3/ 4
13/16
7/ 8
15/16
1
1 1/ 8
1 1/ 4
1 3/ 8
1 1/ 2
1 5/ 8
1 3/ 4

17.462
19.05
20.637
22.225
23.812
25.4
28.574
31.75
34.925
38.1
41.275
44.45

7 1/
7 3/
7 1/
7 5/
7 3/
7 7/
8
8 1/
8 1/
8 3/
8 1/
8 5/

1 7/ 8
2
2 1/ 8

47.625
50.799
53.974

8 3/ 4
8 7/ 8
9

2
2
2
2
2
2

57.149
60.324
63.499
66.674
69.849
73.024

9
9
9
9
9
9

1/
3/
1/
5/
3/
7/

4
8
2
8
4
8

1/
1/
3/
1/
5/
3/

8
2
8
4
8

4
8
2
8
4
8
8
4
8
2
8

8
4
8
2
8
4

3
3 1/
3 1/
3 3/
3 1/
3 5/
3 3/
3 7/
4
4 1/
4 1/
4 3/

76.199
79.374
82.549
85.724
88.899
92.074
95.249
98.424
101.599
104.774
107.949
111.124

9 7/ 8
10
10 1/ 8
10 1/ 4
10 3/ 8
10 1/ 2
10 5/ 8
10 3/ 4
10 7/ 8
11
11 1/ 8
11 1/ 4

8
4
8
2

114.3
117.474
120.649
123.824
126.999
130.174
133.524
136.797
139.699

11 3/
11 1/
11 5/
11 3/
11 7/
12

5 5/ 8
5 3/ 4
5 7/ 8

142.874
146.049
149.223

4 1/
4 5/
4 3/
4 7/
5
5 1/
5 1/
5 3/
5 1/

8
4
8
2
8
4
8
8
4
8
2
8
4
8

8
2
8
4
8

Metric(mm)

Area Formulae

152.398
155.573
158.748

To convert
Sq inches to sq centimetres
Sq centimetres to sq inches

161.923
165.098
168.273
171.448
174.623
177.798

Sq
Sq
Sq
Sq
Sq
Sq

180.973

Acres to hectares

184.148
187.323
190.498
193.673
196.848
200.023
203.198
206.373
209.548
212.723
215.898
219.073

Hectares to acres

222.248
225.423
228.598

Units of Time
1 year

231.773
234.948
238.123
241.298
244.473
247.647

feet to sq metres
metres to sq feet
yards to sq metres
metres to sq yards
metres to sq kilometres
kilometres to sq miles

1 mil
Acres to Sq Feet
Units of Power
1 HP

1 BTU

1 fortnight
1 century
1 millenium
Numbers
1 decade
1 Score

250.822
253.997
257.172
260.347
263.522
266.697
269.872
273.074
276.222
279.397
282.572
285.747
288.922
292.097
295.272
298.447
301.622
304.797

1 Billion

Temperature Conversion
F
C
K

Area Formulae
Multiply by
6.4516
0.155
0.0929
10.7639
0.8361
1.1959
2.5899
0.3861
0.4046
2.471
0.001 inch
43560
Units of Power
33000 ft-lbs/min
550 ft-lbs/sec
746 watt
2545 BTU /hr
1055 Joules
778 ft-lbs

0.293 watt-hrs
365.2 days
14 nights (2Weeks)
100 years
1000 years
Numbers
10
20

1 x 10 power 9 (US)
thousand million
1 x 10 power 12 (U.K)

(9/5)*C + 32
(5/9)*F - 32
C + 273.16

Volume Formulae
To convert
Cu inches to Cu centimetres
Cu centimetres to Cu inches
Cu
Cu
Cu
Cu

feet to Cu metres
metres to Cu feet
yards to Cu metres
metres to Cu yards

To convert

Multiply by
16.387
0.06102

0.02831
35.3147
0.76455
1.30795
Capacity Formulae
Multiply by

Gallons to litres

3.78

Litres to gallons
Gallon to Pints

0.2199
8

Gallon to Quarts
Gallon to Cu Ft
Gallon to Cu inches

4
0.1335
231

Length Formulae
To convert
Multiply by
Inches to centimetres
2.54
Centimetres to inches
0.3937
Feet to metres
0.3048
Metres to feet
3.2808

Yards to metres
Metres to yards
Miles to kilometres

0.9144
1.0936
1.6093

Kilometres to miles

0.6213

Statue Mile
statue mile
nuatical mile
1 furlong

0.87 nautical mile


1.609 km
1.852 km
1/8 mile (220yds)

Prefix
exa
peta
tera
giga
mega
kilo
hecto
deka
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico
femto
atto

Decimal Multipliers
Symbol
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m
u
n
p
f
a

The formula to work out the weight in Kg's of a mild steel sheet or
plate:
Example: 2500 x 1250 x 5mm
Formula: 2.5 x 1.25 x 5 x 7.856
(g/cm3) = 122.75 Kg's

Multiplier
18
15
12
9
6
3
2
1
-1
-2
-3
-6
-9
-12
-15
-18

Speed Formulae
1 foot/sec (fps)

0.59 knot (kt)*


0.68 stat. mph
1.1 km/hr
0.54 knot
0.62 stat. mph
0.91 ft/sec
0.87 knot
1.61 km/hr
1.47 ft/sec

1 km/hr

1 mile/hr (stat.)
(mph)

1 knot*

1.15 stat. mph


1.69 feet/sec
1.85 km/hr
0.515 m/sec

* A knot is 1 nautical mile

To convert
Ounces to grams
Grams to ounces
Pounds to grams
Grams to pounds
Pounds to kilograms

Weight Formulae
Multiply by
28.3495
0.03527
453.59
0.002204
0.45359

Kilograms to pounds
Tons (Long) to kilograms
Kilograms to tons (Long)

2.2046
1016.0469
0.000984

1
1
1
1

16 Oz(ounce)
437.5 grains
200 mg
6.36 Kg

pounds
ounce
carat
stone(U.K)

0.5 mm2
0.75 mm2
1 mm2
1.5 mm2
2.5 mm2
4 mm2
6 mm2
10 mm2
16 mm2
25 mm2
35 mm2
50 mm2
70 mm2
95 mm2
120 mm2
150 mm2
185 mm2
240 mm2
300 mm2
400 mm2
500 mm2
630 mm2
800 mm2
1000 mm2

AWG/SWG/BWG/MM
6/0 AWG
5/0 AWG
7/0 SWG
6/0 SWG
4/0 AWG
4/0 BWG
5/0 SWG
3/0 BWG
3/0 AWG
4/0 SWG
2/0 BWG
3/0 SWG
2/0 AWG
2/0 SWG
0 BWG
0 AWG
0 SWG
1 SWG
1 BWG
1 AWG
2 BWG
2 SWG
1.5 AWG
3 BWG
2 AWG
3 SWG
2.5 AWG
4 BWG
4 SWG
3 AWG
5 BWG
3.5 AWG
5 SWG
4 AWG
6 BWG
4.5 AWG
5 AWG
7 BWG
5.5 AWG
8 BWG
6 AWG
6.5 AWG
9 BWG
7 AWG

Bare Dia. (Inch) Bare Dia. (MM)


AWG No. SWG No.
0.58
14.732 6/0
-0.5165
13.1191 5/0
7/0
0.5
12.7 5/0
7/0
0.464
11.7856 4/0
6/0
0.46
11.684 4/0
4/0
0.454
11.5316 4/0
4/0
0.432
10.9728 4/0
5/0
0.425
10.795 3/0
3/0
0.4096
10.40384 3/0
3/0
0.4
10.16 4/0
4/0
0.38
9.652 2/0
2/0
0.372
9.4488 3/0
3/0
0.3648
9.26592 2/0
2/0
0.348
8.8392 2/0
2/0
0.34
8.636
0
0
0.3249
8.25246
0
0
0.324
8.2296
0
0
0.3
7.62
1
1
0.3
7.62
1
1
0.2893
7.34822
1
1
0.283
7.1882
2
2
0.276
7.0104
2
2
0.273003
6.93428
1.5
2
0.259
6.5786
2
3
0.258
6.5532
2
2
0.252
6.4008
2
3
0.243116
6.17515
2.5
3
0.238
6.0452
3
4
0.232
5.8928
3
4
0.229
5.8166
3
4
0.22
5.588
3
5
0.216501
5.49913
3.5
4
0.212
5.3848
4
5
0.204
5.1816
4
5
0.203
5.1562
4
6
0.1928
4.89712
4.5
6
0.182
4.6228
5
7
0.179
4.5466
5
8
0.171693
4.361
5.5
7
0.164
4.1656
6
8
0.162023
4.11538
6
7
0.152897
3.88358
6.5
9
0.147
3.7338
7
9
0.144285
3.66484
7
9

9 SWG
7.5 AWG
10 BWG
3.35 MM
8 AWG
10 SWG
3.15 MM
8.5 AWG
11 BWG
3 MM
11 SWG
9 AWG
2.8 MM
12 BWG
9.5 AWG
2.65 MM
12 SWG
10 AWG
2.5 MM
10.5 AWG
13 BWG
2.36 MM
13 SWG
11 AWG
2.24 MM
11.5 AWG
2.12 MM
14 BWG
12 AWG
14 SWG
2 MM
12.5 AWG
1.9 MM
13 AWG
15 SWG
15 BWG
1.8 MM
13.5 AWG
1.7 MM
16 BWG
14 AWG
16 SWG
1.6 MM
14.5 AWG
1.5 MM

0.144
0.136459
0.134
0.13189
0.1285
0.128
0.124016
0.121253
0.12
0.11811
0.116
0.1144
0.110236
0.109
0.107979
0.104331
0.104
0.1019
0.098425
0.096158
0.095
0.092913
0.092
0.0907
0.088189
0.0858
0.083464
0.083
0.0808
0.08
0.07874
0.0764
0.074803
0.072
0.072
0.072
0.070866
0.0681
0.066929
0.065
0.0641
0.064
0.062992
0.0605
0.059055

3.6576
3.46606
3.4036
3.34999
3.2639
3.2512
3.14999
3.07983
3.048
2.99999
2.9464
2.90576
2.79999
2.7686
2.74267
2.64999
2.6416
2.58826
2.5
2.44241
2.413
2.36
2.3368
2.30378
2.24
2.17932
2.12
2.1082
2.05232
2.032
2
1.94056
1.9
1.8288
1.8288
1.8288
1.8
1.72974
1.7
1.651
1.62814
1.6256
1.6
1.5367
1.5

7
7.5
8
8
8
8
8
8.5
9
9
9
9
9
10
9.5
10
10
10
10
10.5
11
11
11
11
11
11.5
12
12
12
12
12
12.5
13
13
13
13
13
13.5
14
14
14
14
14
14.5
15

9
9
10
9
10
10
10
10
11
10
11
11
11
12
11
11
12
12
12
12
13
12
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
17

17 BWG
15 AWG
17 SWG
1.4 MM
15.5 AWG
1.32 MM
1.3 MM
16 AWG
1.25 MM
18 BWG
18 SWG
16.5 AWG
1.2 MM
1.18 MM
17 AWG
1.15 MM
1.12 MM
1.1 MM
17.5 AWG
19 BWG
1.06 MM
18 AWG
19 SWG
1 MM
18.5 AWG
.95 MM
20 SWG
19 AWG
.9 MM
20 BWG
19.5 AWG
.85 MM
20 AWG
21 SWG
.8 MM
21 BWG
20.5 AWG
.75 MM
21 AWG
22 SWG
22 BWG
.71 MM
.7 MM
21.5 AWG
.65 MM

0.058
0.0571
0.056
0.055118
0.0539
0.051968
0.0512
0.0508
0.049213
0.049
0.048
0.048
0.0472
0.046457
0.0453
0.045275
0.044094
0.0433
0.0427
0.042
0.041732
0.0403
0.04
0.03937
0.038
0.037402
0.036
0.0359
0.035433
0.035
0.0339
0.033465
0.032
0.032
0.031496
0.031
0.0302
0.029528
0.0285
0.028
0.028
0.027953
0.0276
0.0269
0.0256

1.4732
1.45034
1.4224
1.4
1.36906
1.32
1.30048
1.29032
1.25
1.2446
1.2192
1.2192
1.19888
1.18
1.15062
1.14999
1.12
1.09982
1.08458
1.0668
1.06
1.02362
1.016
1
0.9652
0.95
0.9144
0.91186
0.9
0.889
0.86106
0.85
0.8128
0.8128
0.8
0.7874
0.76708
0.75
0.7239
0.7112
0.7112
0.71
0.70104
0.68326
0.65024

15
15
15
15
15.5
16
16
16
16
16
16
16.5
17
17
17
17
17
17
17.5
18
18
18
18
18
18.5
19
19
19
19
19
19.5
20
20
20
20
20
20.5
21
21
21
21
21
21
21.5
22

17
17
17
17
16
17
18
18
18
18
18
17
18
18
18
18
19
19
18
19
19
19
19
20
19
20
20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
23

22 AWG
23 BWG
.63 MM
23 SWG
22.5 AWG
.6 MM
24 BWG
23 AWG
.56 MM
24 SWG
.55 MM
23.5 AWG
24 AWG
25 SWG
25 BWG
.5 MM
24.5 AWG
26 SWG
26 BWG
25 AWG
.45 MM
25.5 AWG
.425 MM
27 SWG
27 BWG
26 AWG
.4 MM
26.5 AWG
28 SWG
27 AWG
.355 MM
29 SWG
28 BWG
27.5 AWG
29 BWG
28 AWG
.315 MM
30 SWG
30 BWG
28.5 AWG
.31 MM
31 SWG
29 AWG
.28 MM
32 SWG

0.0253
0.025
0.024803
0.024
0.0239
0.023622
0.023
0.0226
0.0221
0.022
0.0217
0.0213
0.0201
0.02
0.02
0.019685
0.019
0.018
0.018
0.0179
0.017717
0.0169
0.016732
0.0164
0.016
0.0159
0.015748
0.015
0.0148
0.0142
0.013976
0.0136
0.0135
0.0134
0.013
0.0126
0.012402
0.0124
0.012
0.0119
0.0118
0.0116
0.0113
0.011024
0.0108

0.64262
0.635
0.63
0.6096
0.60706
0.6
0.5842
0.57404
0.56134
0.5588
0.55118
0.54102
0.51054
0.508
0.508
0.5
0.4826
0.4572
0.4572
0.45466
0.45
0.42926
0.425
0.41656
0.4064
0.40386
0.4
0.381
0.37592
0.36068
0.355
0.34544
0.3429
0.34036
0.3302
0.32004
0.315
0.31496
0.3048
0.30226
0.29972
0.29464
0.28702
0.28
0.27432

22
22
22
22
22.5
23
23
23
23
23
24
23.5
24
24
24
24
24.5
25
21
25
25
25.5
26
26
26
26
26
26.5
27
27
27
27
28
27.5
28
28
28
28
29
28.5
29
29
29
29
29

23
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
25
24
25
25
25
25
25
26
22
26
26
26
27
27
27
27
27
27
28
28
28
29
28
29
29
30
30
30
30
30
31
31
31
32
32

29.5 AWG
30 AWG
33 SWG
31 BWG
.25 MM
30.5 AWG
34 SWG
32 BWG
31 AWG
.224 MM
35 SWG
31.5 AWG
32 AWG
33 BWG
.2 MM
36 SWG
32.5 AWG
33 AWG
.18 MM
35 BWG
37 SWG
33.5 AWG
34 AWG
.16 MM
38 SWG
34.5 AWG
35 AWG
.14 MM
35.5 AWG
39 SWG
36 AWG
35 BWG
.125 MM
40 SWG
36.5 AWG
37 AWG
.112 MM
41 SWG
37.5 AWG
38 AWG
42 SWG
36 BWG
.1 MM
38.5 AWG
43 SWG

0.0106
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.009843
0.0095
0.0092
0.009
0.0089
0.008819
0.0084
0.0084
0.008
0.008
0.007874
0.0076
0.0075
0.0071
0.007087
0.007
0.0068
0.0067
0.0063
0.006299
0.006
0.0059
0.0056
0.005512
0.0053
0.0052
0.005
0.005
0.004921
0.0048
0.0047
0.0045
0.004409
0.0044
0.0042
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.003937
0.0037
0.0036

0.26924
0.254
0.254
0.254
0.25
0.2413
0.23368
0.2286
0.22606
0.224
0.21336
0.21336
0.2032
0.2032
0.2
0.19304
0.1905
0.18034
0.18
0.1778
0.17272
0.17018
0.16002
0.16
0.1524
0.14986
0.14224
0.14
0.13462
0.13208
0.127
0.127
0.125
0.12192
0.11938
0.1143
0.112
0.11176
0.10668
0.1016
0.1016
0.1016
0.1
0.09398
0.09144

29.5
30
30
30
30
30.5
31
31
31
31
32
31.5
32
32
32
32
32.5
33
33
33
33
33.5
34
34
34
34.5
35
35
35.5
36
36
36
36
36
36.5
37
37
37
37.5
38
38
38
38
38.5
39

32
33
33
33
33
33
34
31
34
35
35
34
35
35
36
36
35
36
36
36
37
36
37
37
38
37
38
38
38
39
39
39
39
40
39
40
40
41
41
42
42
40
42
42
43

.09 MM
39 AWG
39.5 AWG
44 SWG
.08 MM
40 AWG
40.5 AWG
41 AWG
45 SWG
.071 MM
41.5 AWG
42 AWG
.063 MM
46 SWG
42.5 AWG
43 AWG
43.5 AWG
44 AWG
47 SWG
.05 MM
44.5 AWG
45 AWG
45.5 AWG
48 SWG
46 AWG
46.5 AWG
47 AWG
47.5 AWG
48 AWG
49 SWG
48.5 AWG
49 AWG
49.5 AWG
50 SWG
50 AWG
50.5 AWG
51 AWG
51.5 AWG
52 AWG
52.5 AWG
53 AWG
53.5 AWG
54 AWG
54.5 AWG
55 AWG

0.003543
0.0035
0.0033
0.0032
0.00315
0.0031
0.003
0.0028
0.0028
0.002795
0.0026
0.0025
0.00248
0.0024
0.0024
0.0022
0.0021
0.002
0.002
0.001969
0.001866
0.001761
0.001662
0.0016
0.001568
0.00148
0.001397
0.001318
0.001244
0.0012
0.001174
0.001108
0.001045
0.001
0.000986
0.000931
0.000878
0.000829
0.000782
0.000738
0.000697
0.000657
0.00062
0.000585
0.000552

0.09
0.0889
0.08382
0.08128
0.08
0.07874
0.0762
0.07112
0.07112
0.071
0.06604
0.0635
0.063
0.06096
0.06096
0.05588
0.05334
0.0508
0.0508
0.05
0.0474
0.04473
0.04221
0.04064
0.03983
0.03759
0.03548
0.03348
0.0316
0.03048
0.02982
0.02814
0.02654
0.0254
0.02505
0.02364
0.02231
0.02105
0.01987
0.01875
0.01769
0.0167
0.01576
0.01487
0.01403

39
39
39.5
40
40
40
40.5
41
41
41
41.5
42
42
42
42.5
43
43.5
44
44
44
44.5
45
45.5
45.5
46
46.5
47
47.5
48
48
48.5
49
49.5
49
50
50.5
51 51.5 52 52.5 53 53.5 54 54.5 55 -

43
43
43
44
44
44
44
45
45
45
45
46
46
46
46
46
47
47
47
47
47
47
48
48
48
48
48
48
49
49
49
49
49
50
50
50
-

55.5 AWG
56 AWG
56.5 AWG
57 AWG
57.5 AWG
58 AWG
58.5 AWG
59 AWG
59.5 AWG
60 AWG

0.000521
0.000492
0.000464
0.000438
0.000413
0.00039
0.000368
0.000347
0.000328
0.000309

0.01324
0.01249
0.01179
0.01113
0.0105
0.00991
0.00935
0.00882
0.00833
0.00786

55.5 56 56.5 57 57.5 58 58.5 59 59.5 60 -

BWG No.
---4/0
4/0
4/0
3/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
2/0
3/0
2/0
2/0

Circular Mils
336,390.34
266,764.59
249,992.82
215,289.82
211,593.92
206,110.08
186,618.64
180,619.81
167,767.34
159,995.40
144,395.85
138,380.03
133,075.22
121,100.52
0
115,596.68
0
105,556.98
0
104,972.99
1
89,997.42
1
89,997.42
1
83,692.09
2
80,086.70
2
76,173.81
2
74,528.50
3
67,079.07
3
66,562.09
3
63,502.18
4
59,103.69
4
56,642.37
4
53,822.45
5
52,439.49
5
48,398.61
6
46,871.34
5
44,942.71
6
41,614.80
6
41,207.82
7
37,170.77
7
33,123.05
7
32,040.08
8
29,477.64
8
26,895.23
8
26,250.70
9
23,376.82
9
21,608.38
9
20,817.56

9
10
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
17

20,735.40
18,620.52
17,955.48
17,394.34
16,511.78
16,383.53
15,379.40
14,701.87
14,399.59
13,949.57
13,455.61
13,086.98
12,151.63
11,880.66
11,659.13
10,884.54
10,815.69
10,383.31
9,687.20
9,246.10
9,024.74
8,632.61
8,463.76
8,226.25
7,777.04
7,361.43
6,966.11
6,888.80
6,528.45
6,399.82
6,199.81
5,836.79
5,595.33
5,183.85
5,183.85
5,183.85
5,021.85
4,637.48
4,479.36
4,224.88
4,108.69
4,095.88
3,967.88
3,660.14
3,487.39

17
17
17
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
19
20
20
19
20
21
21
20
21
21
20
22
21
21
21
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
23

3,363.90
3,260.32
3,135.91
3,037.91
2,905.13
2,700.64
2,621.36
2,580.57
2,421.80
2,400.93
2,303.93
2,303.93
2,227.78
2,158.15
2,052.03
2,049.77
1,944.26
1,874.84
1,823.24
1,763.95
1,741.53
1,624.04
1,599.95
1,549.95
1,443.96
1,398.83
1,295.96
1,288.77
1,255.46
1,224.96
1,149.18
1,119.84
1,023.97
1,023.97
991.969526
960.9724
912.013806
871.848216
812.226672
783.977484
783.977484
781.330997
761.738122
723.589218
655.341178

23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
26
27
27
27
27
27
27
28
28
28
28
29
29
28
29
29
29
30
30
30
30
31
31
30
32
32

640.071617
624.98205
615.176101
575.983457
571.193595
557.982858
528.984807
510.745331
488.395973
483.9861
470.876476
453.67697
403.998397
399.988512
399.988512
387.488096
360.989632
323.990695
323.990695
320.400798
313.865358
285.601797
279.960149
268.952275
255.992648
252.802739
247.992381
224.993538
219.033709
201.634209
195.332749
184.954688
182.244766
179.554843
168.995146
158.75544
153.794025
153.755584
143.995864
141.605933
139.236001
134.556135
127.686333
121.516267
116.63665

31
31
33
31
32
32
34
32
32
33
35
33
33
33
34
36
34
34
35
35
34
34
34
36
36
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
36
36
36
36
36
36
----

112.356773
99.997128
99.997128
99.997128
96.872024
90.247408
84.637569
80.997674
79.207725
77.770411
70.557974
70.557974
63.998162
63.998162
61.998095
57.758341
56.248385
50.408552
50.218457
48.998593
46.238672
44.888711
39.68886
39.678781
35.998966
34.809
31.359099
30.379067
28.089193
27.039223
24.999282
24.999282
24.218006
23.039338
22.089366
20.249418
19.442603
19.359444
17.639493
15.99954
15.99954
15.99954
15.499524
13.689607
12.959628

12.554614
12.249648
10.889687
10.239706
9.919695
9.609724
8.999742
7.839775
7.839775
7.81331
6.759806
6.249821
6.151761
5.759835
5.759835
4.839861
4.409873
3.999885
3.999885
3.874881
3.481856
3.101032
2.762165
2.559926
2.458553
2.190337
1.951553
1.737074
1.547492
1.439959
1.378236
1.227629
1.091994
0.999971
0.97276
0.866364
0.771389
0.687055
0.611819
0.544776
0.485238
0.432031
0.384761
0.342683
0.305137

0.271746
0.241959
0.215475
0.191926
0.170895
0.152174
0.135494
0.120683
0.10745
0.095726

BASIC MATH / GEOMETRY REVIEW

A radian is the angular measurement of an arc which has an arc length equal to the radius of th
radians in a circle.
One radian = 360 /2
= 57.296....

MATH / GEOMETRY REVIEW

has an arc length equal to the radius of the given circle, therefore there are 2
radians in a circle.
One radian = 360 /2
= 57.296....

SPEED OF LIGHT IN VARIOUS MEDIUMS


The speed of EM radiation through a substance such as cables is defined by the following formula:
V = c / (u r e r) 1/2
Where: u r = relative permeability and e r = relative permittivity
The real component of e r = dielectric constant of medium.
EM propagation speed in a typical cable might be 65-90% of the speed of light in a vacuum.

THE SPEED OF LIGHT


ACTUAL VALUE
2.9979246 x 10 8
299.79
3.27857 x 10 8
5.8275 x 10 8
1.61875 x 10 5
9.8357105 x 10 8
9.8357105 x 10 2
RULE OF THUMB FOR ESTIMATING DISTANCE TO LIGHTNING / EXPLOSION:

km - Divide 3 into the number of seconds which have elapsed between seeing the flash and hearing the noise.

miles - Multiply 0.2 times the number of seconds which have elapsed between seeing the flash and hearing the

UNITS
m/sec
m/usec
yd/sec
NM/hr
NM/sec
ft/sec
ft/usec

RULE OF THUMB
3 x 10 8
300
3.28 x 10 8
5.8 x 10 8
1.62 x 10 5
1 x 10 9
1 x 10 3

PHYSICAL CONSTANT
Avogadro constant
Bohr magneton
Boltzmann constant
Electron charge
Electron specific charge
Electron rest mass
Faraday constant
Gravity (Standard Acceleration)
Josephson frequency to voltage ratio

FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS


QUOTED VALUE
6.0221367 x 10 23
9.2740154 x 10 -24
1.380658 x 10 -23
1.602177 33 x 10 -19
-1.758819 62 x 10 11
9.1093897 x 10 -31
9.6485309 x 104
9.80665 or
32.174
4.8359767 x 1014

Magnetic flux quantum


Molar gas constant
Natural logarithm base

2.06783461 x 10
8.31451
2.71828

Newtonian gravitational constant


Permeability of vacuum
Permittivity of vacuum
Pi

6.67259 x 10 -11
4pi x 10 -7
8.8541878 x 10 -12
3.141592654

Planck constant
Planck constant/2
Quantum of circulation
Radius of earth (Equatorial)

-15

S*
36
31
12
49
53
54
29
14

61
70
85
d
d

6.62659 x 10 -34
40
-34
1.05457266 x 10
63
3.63694807 x 10 -4
33
6
6.378 x 10 or
3963
7
Rydberg constant
1.0973731534 x 10
13
Speed of light
2.9979246 x 10 8
1
Speed of sound (dry air @ std press & temp)
331.4
-3
Standard volume of ideal gas
22.41410 x 10
19
-8
Stefan-Boltzmann constant
5.67051 x 10
19
* S is the one-standard-deviation uncertainty in the last units of the value, d is a defined value. (A s

SI UNIT
mol -1
JT -1
JK -1
C
Ckg -1
kg
Cmol-1
m/sec 2 or
ft/sec 2
HzV -1

SYMBOL
NA
uB
k(=R N A)
-e
-e/m e
me
F
g
2e/h

Wb
Jmol -1 K -1
dimensionless

Phio
R
e

m 3 kg -1 s -2
H/m
F/m
dimensionless

or K
uo
eo
Pi

Js
h
Js
h(=h2)
Jskg -1
h/2m e
m or
miles
-1
m
Rx
ms -1
c
-1
ms
3
-1
m mol
Vm
-4
-2
WK m
sigma
defined value. (A standard deviation i

SPEED OF SOUND IN VARIOUS MEDIUMS


SUBSTANCE
SPEED (ft/sec)
Vacuum
Zero
Air
1,100
Fresh Water
4,700
Salt Water
4,900
Glass
14,800
Steel
20,000

DECIMAL / BINARY / HEX CONVERSION TABLE


Decimal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Binary
1
10
11
100
101
110
111
1000
1001
1010

Hex
01h
02h
03h
04h
05h
06h
07h
08h
09h
0Ah

Decimal
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Binary
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
10000
10001
10010
10011
10100

Hex
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h
13h
14h

Decimal
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Binary
10101
10110
10111
11000
11001
11010
11011
11100
11101
11110

To convert a decimal number above 16 to hex, divide the number by 16, then record the integer resul
the final hex number. Divide the integer you obtained by 16, and again record the new integer result a
repeating this process until dividing results in only a remainder. This remainder will become the left-m
For example, to convert 60 (decimal) to hex, we have 60/16=3 with 12 remainder. 12 is C (hex) - this
final) character to the left in the hex number, so the answer is 3C h.

Hex
15h
16h
17h
18h
19h
1Ah
1Bh
1Ch
1Dh
1Eh

record the integer resultant and the remainder. Convert the remainder to hex and write this down - this will bec
d the new integer result and new remainder. Convert the remainder to hex and write it just to the left of the first
er will become the left-most character in the hex number (after converting to hex of course).
nder. 12 is C (hex) - this becomes the right-most character. Then 3/16=0 with 3 remainder. 3 is also 3 (hex). Thi

e this down - this will become the far right digit of


ust to the left of the first decoded number. Keep
urse).
der. 3 is also 3 (hex). This becomes the next (and