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Heat conduction


Introduction:Conduction is defined as the transfer of energy from more energetic particles to

adjacent less energetic particles as a result of interactions between the particles. In
solids, conduction is the combined result of molecular vibrations and free electron
mobility. Metals typically have high free electron mobility, which explains why they
are good heat conductors. Conduction can be easily understood if we imagine two
blocks, one very hot and the other cold. If we put these blocks in contact with one
another but insulate them from the surroundings, thermal energy will be transferred

from the hot to the cold block, as evidenced by the increase in temperature of the cold
block. This mode of heat transfer between the two solid blocks is termed conduction.

OBJECTIVE:The objective of this experiment is to investigate and verify Fouriers

Law for linear heat conduction along a simple bar.

THEORY:In this experiment we will investigate conduction in an insulated long

slender brass bar . We will assume that the bar is of length L, a uniform
hot temperature Th is imposed on one end, and a cold temperature Tc is
imposed on the other. We will also assume, because the bar is insulated in
the peripheral direction, that all the heat flows in the axial direction due to
an imposed temperature differential along the bar.
The equation that governs the heat flow is known as Fourier's Law, and in
the axial direction it is written as
where q x is the rate of heat conduction in the x-direction, k is the thermal
conductivity of the material, Ax is the cross-sectional area normal to the
x-direction, and is the temperature gradient inthe x-direction. The
negative sign indicates that heat is transferred in the direction Of
The thermal conductivity k varies between different materials and can be
a function of temperature, but it can be treated as a constant over small
temperature ranges. Because of the enhancement of heat transfer by free
electrons, thermal conductivity is analogous to electrical conductivity and
as a result, metals that are good conductors of electricity are also good
conductors of heat. In this experiment we will investigate Fourier's Law
by finding the thermal conductivity k for brass and comparing this value

to the actual value from one or more references. To do so we will

calculate the cross sectional area Ax of the bar and the slope dT/ dx from
a plot of measured temperatures vs. length. We can then use these values
in a rearranged version of Fourier's Law to find the thermal conductivity,

APPARATUS:The apparatus we will be using in this experiment is the P.A. Hilton

H940 Heat Conduction Unit, which consists of three items. The first item
is a transformer equipped with a circuit breaker. The transformer
has two cords which connect it to an AC outlet and to the second item, the
calibration unit.

The calibration unit has two basic functions. It delivers power to the
heater element within the test unit and it calibrates and displays the
temperatures at nine locations along the test unit. The amount of power
delivered to the test unit is controlled by the power control knob on the
right side of the calibration unit; to its left is the temperature selector
knob which is used to select one of the nine thermocouple temperatures
for display on the digital readout, as shown in Figures
The third item is the test unit, which consists of two test
geometries: an insulated brass bar which allows a sample
to be placed between the two ends, and an insulated disk.
Both geometries are equipped with a power supply, but
we will only use the insulated bar for this experiment. The
test unit is also equipped with a cooling water hose. The
purpose of the cooling water running through the unit at
the cold end of the bar is to remove heat that is produced
at the hot end and transferred by conduction to the cold

end, keeping the cold end at a constant temperature.

Once the rate at which heat is generated is equal to the
Insulated Insulated disk bar rate at which heat is removed,
steady state conditions (temperatures will be fairly
constant and readings can be taken) will exist. The test
unit has two heater cords: one from the test bar and the
other from the test disk. Be sure to use only the heater
cord for the bar, which connects to the heater plug located
in the lower right hand corner of the calibration unit.

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the equipment, making sure that the

calibration unit is switched off before connecting the
transformer to the AC outlet.
2. Apply a very small amount of thermal conducting paste
to make a thin layer on each side of the test unit surface
and spread it uniformly.
3. Insert the test brass sample (30 mm length and 25 mm
diameter) into the unit and allow cooling water to flow
through the test unit.
4. Connect the nine thermocouples in the appropriate order.
5. Switch the calibration unit on and adjust the power control knob to
deliver 15 W of power to the test unit; allow the system to reach steady
state (approximately 15 minutes).
6. Record the temperatures at each of the nine thermocouples and the
power input.

7- We will repeated step 5, when adjust the power control

knob to deliver 20w and 25w of power to the test unit, with the
system to reach steady state approximately 15 minutes in each step
X 1






392.03 w/m.k




Conclusion:We conclude from the above results that the temperature

across the penis decreases as we move away from the
heat source and the relationship between temperature

and distance almost linear because of the regularity of the

cross-section of the rod because of that the substance of
the penis homogeneous guy all its parts, ensuring uniform
distribution of heat.