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Advanced Techniques
In
Power System
Protective Relaying

October 09 - 13, 2004


Abu Dhabi, U.A.E

Copyright 2004 by Harvard Technology Middle East. All Rights Reserved

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The information contained in these course notes has been complied
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the best current knowledge and opinion relative to the subject.
Harvard Technology offers no warranty, guarantee, or representation
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**********************************************

Section 1

Power System Faults

Section 2

Components of Protection Schemes

Section 3

Current Transformers & Voltage


Transformers

Section 4

Power System Neutral Grounding

Section 5

Ground Potential Rise During Power


System Ground Faults

Section 6

Feeder Overcurrent Protection

Section 7

Coordination of Protection Systems

Section 8

Bus Protection

Section 9

Motor Protection, Starting & Control

Section 10

Transformer Protection

Section 11

Generator Protection

Section 12

Cogeneration & Non-Utility Generation (NUG)

Section 13

High-Voltage Transmission Line Protection

Section 14

Static Capacitor Protection

Section 15

Recent Developments and Future Trends in


Protective Relaying

Introduction

ELECTRICALPOWER SYSTEM
PROTECTIVE RELAYING
Protective relaying is the Science or Art
of detecting faults on power systems
and clearing those faults from the
power system as quickly as possible.

SEMINAR OBJECTIVES
T0 PROVIDE A PRACTICAL UNDERSTANDING OF:

1. The concepts, principles of operation, and


application of power system protective
relaying.
2. The analysis of relay operations for various
power system faults.
3. The requirements of commissioning and
maintenance testing of protection schemes.








6HFWLRQ

Power System Faults

Power System Faults

1-1

A power system fault is the


breakdown of insulation
(between conductors, or
between a phase conductor
and ground) which results in
excess current flow.

1-2

TYPES OF FAULTS
On a three-phase power system the principal
types of fault are:
a) Phase-to-Ground (or Single Phase)
b) Phase-to-Phase (or Two-Phase)
c) Phase-to-Phase-to-Ground (or Two
Phase-to-Ground)
d) Three Phase, with or without ground

Sometimes these faults are accompanied by a broken conductor,


or may even take the form of a broken conductor without a ground
connection. This results in an open-circuit condition.
Because no `fault current' flows for this condition the open-circuit
fault is difficult to detect. The open-circuit does, of course, cause
severe unbalance on the power system, and can cause
overheating in generators. The generators must be equipped with
protection schemes to detect such unbalances (or negative phase
sequence) conditions. This will be covered later under `Generator
Protection'.
Generators, transformers and motors are subject to short-circuits
between turns of the same winding.

1-3

On overhead transmission lines the


insulation that breaks down is air.
When such a fault occurs there is a
flashover or arc (often along the surface
of an insulator string).
If the fault is cleared quickly, no
permanent damage results, and the
transmission line can immediately be put
back into service.

When faults occur in Transformers, Generators, Motors and


Cables, permanent damage usually results. Such faults are usually
caused by mechanical failure of solid insulation, or in the case of
transformers, contamination of the insulating oil. For SF6 insulated
equipment, faults are often the result of contamination of the SF6
gas by solid particles.

1-4

INCIDENCE OF FAULTS ON POWER SYSTEM


EQUIPMENT
i.

500kV Lines - 1.3 Faults per year per 100 Miles

ii. 230kV Lines - 4 Faults per year per 100 Miles


iii. 115kV Lines - 14 Faults per year per 100 Miles
For 44kV, 33kV and 25kV feeders the figures are
proportionally higher. The relationship between the
number of overhead power system faults and the
voltage level can be explained as follows:

By far the most common type of power system fault is the flashover
of insulators on overhead transmission lines, due to lightning. The
number of faults per year is proportional to the length, and is
approximately inversely proportional to the voltage level.

1-5

100,000 A

100,000 A

If lightning strikes a skywire, or tower, and causes 100,000 amps to


flow to ground through a tower with a footing resistance of 1 OHM,
then a voltage of 100,000 Volts to ground is developed.
A flashover of an insulator from the tower crossarm to a phase
conductor may then occur. It will most likely occur on the phase
with the highest voltage difference to the voltage transient
developed by the lightning strike.

1-6

1-7

The most common causes of faults on overhead lines are:


1) Lightning
2) Contaminated Insulators
3) Punctured or broken insulators
4) Birds and animals
5) Aircraft and cars hitting lines and structures
6) Ice and snow loading
7) Wind
In electrical machines, cables and transformers, faults are caus ed
by:
1) Failure of insulation because of moisture.
2) Mechanical damage.
3) Flashover caused by overvoltage or abnormal loading.

On transformers with external bushings, the most common cause


of faults, particularly on the lower voltage levels of 33 kV and
below, is small animals such as raccoons. They contact the 33 kV
connections and cause flashovers across the bushings, external to
the transformer. Permanent faults within the transformer tanks
occur approximately at the rate of one fault every 10 years per
transformer.

1-8

EFFECTS OF POWER SYSTEM FAULTS


About 90% of overhead line faults are transient in nature:
i.e. flashover of insulators which does not result in
permanent damage.
With such faults, the line can be restored to service
immediately after the breakers have tripped. Hence,
AUTO-RECLOSE schemes are normally used on the
circuit breakers associated with overhead transmission
lines or feeders. If the fault current is interrupted by the
circuit breakers, the `flashover' arc is immediately
extinguished and the ionized air dissipates. Auto-reclose
will normally be successful after a delay of only a few
cycles.

On typical 44kV and 33kV overhead distribution systems there is


an intentional delay of 0.5 seconds before the breaker is autoreclosed after a feeder fault. On typical 500kV and 230 kV
transmission systems there is a 10 second intentional time delay
before auto-reclosing after a fault. This time delay is to help
maintain system stability by not subjecting the power system to two
faults in quick succession.

1-9

Faults in generators, motors,


transformers and cables etc. are
normally permanent and autoreclose is not used. Such faults
require the equipment to be taken
out of service for an assessment of
the damage and repair.

When a fault occurs, a very large current normally flows. This fault
current, if allowed to persist, will cause damage to equipment. On
an interconnected H.V. transmission system, an uncleared fault
can cause instability and system collapse:
i.e. A `blackout' over a very large area.
Faults must therefore be cleared in the shortest time possible.

1-10

MAGNITUDE OF FAULT CURRENT


For a power system fault, the
magnitude of the fault current is
determined by the impedance of the
power system between the source of
generation, and the location of the
fault.

On large interconnected H.V. power systems the buses of large


switching stations can be considered as infinite buses. When
calculating the fault current on a line or feeder supplied from an
infinite bus, we assume that the voltage remains constant at the
bus, and the only factor to limit the fault current, for phase faults, is
the impedance of the line between the fault and the bus. For
Phase-to-ground faults it is the impedance of the line from the bus
to the fault, plus the impedance of the ground return.
The fault current on a distribution system feeder, fed from a
transformer station, is determined by the H.V. supply line
impedance, plus the transformer impedance, plus the impedance of
the feeder up to the fault.

1-11

NOTE: When calculating fault current,


we always assume that the impedance of
the actual fault is ZERO.
For almost all faults, flashover occurs.
The resistance of the resulting arc is
nearly always negligible in comparison to
the impedance of the line conductors.

The star points of transformer windings are often grounded through


a resistor or a reactor. This has the effect of limiting the ground
fault current on the feeders.
The procedure for calculating the maximum fault current (shortcircuit calculation) is given at the end of this section, with a worked
example.

1-12

DETECTION OF FAULTS
All power system elements are equipped
with one or more protection schemes.
The purpose of these protection
schemes is to detect faults on the
system. When the protective relays have
detected a fault, they send trip signals to
the circuit breaker or breakers, which in
turn clear the fault from the system.

1-13

REQUIREMENTS OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING


SYSTEMS
SELECTIVE
PROTECTIVE RELAYING SCHEMES MUST BE
ABLE TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN FAULTS ON
THE PROTECTED SYSTEM ELEMENT, AND
THOSE ON ADJACENT ELEMENTS.
HENCE, ONLY FAULTED ELEMENTS ARE
TRIPPED FROM THE POWER SYSTEM, AND ALL
HEALTHY ELEMENTS STAY IN SERVICE.

This is particularly important on an interconnected transmission


system. If a faulted element is tripped, then the load carried by that
element (transformer or line) is automatically transferred to a
parallel element or elements.
If one or more of these adjacent elements trip "in sympathy" with
the faulted element, then major power interruptions will result.

1-14

DEPENDABLE
PROTECTIVE RELAYING SCHEMES MUST BE
VERY DEPENDABLE AND RELIABLE. ALL
POWER SYSTEM FAULTS MUST BE DETECTED
AND CLEARED QUICKLY.
ON HIGH VOLTAGE INTERCONNECTED
TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, AN UNCLEARED OR
SLOW CLEARING FAULT CAN EASILY LEAD TO
A POWER SYSTEM COLLAPSE.

Such power system collapses occurred in Ontario and the North


Eastern U.S.A. in 1965, and again in August 2003.

1-15

HIGH SPEED
HIGH SPEED FAULT CLEARANCE IS ESSENTIAL
ON INTERCONNECTED TRANSMISSION
SYSTEMS.
BY HIGH SPEED WE MEAN LESS THAN 0.1
SECONDS.
ON 500 kV AND 230 kV SYSTEMS FAULTS ARE
NORMALLY CLEARED IN 3 OR 4 CYCLES, OR 50
TO 80 MILLI-SECONDS.

CLEARANCE OF FAULTS
Faults on

high-voltage power systems are detected by protective

relaying systems, and cleared from the systems the opening or tripping
of circuit breakers.
Fault detecting relays typically operate in about 1 cycle, or 20 milliseconds, and circuit breakers operate in 3 cycles, or 60 milli-seconds.
On distribution systems, which are usually radial in nature, slower fault
clearance times are permissible. TIME-GRADED overcurrent protection
is often used for fault clearance.
i.e. For high fault currents, there is fast clearance. For lower fault
currents, the fault clearance time is much slower.
The operating time of circuit breakers on distribution systems is typically
5 to 7 cycles, or 100 to 140 milliseconds.

1-16

PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING MAXIMUM FAULT


CURRENT (SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION)
The general procedure for calculating the fault current for a fault at
a particular point on a power system is as follows:
1. Draw a single-line diagram of the power system.
2. Collect detailed impedance data for all of the components of
the power system. i.e Resistance R and Reactance X.
3. Although fault current can be calculated using the ohmic
method, it is usually simpler to use the Per-Unit Method where
all of the impedances are referred to an arbitrarily chosen
common BASE MVA.
4. Convert all of the various impedances to per-unit values with
a common base MVA.
5. Find the total Resistance R, and Reactance X, from the
source to the fault.

6. Calculate the total Impedance Z:

Z =

R2 + X2

7. Calculate the THREE-PHASE (SYMMETRICAL) FAULT


CURRENT:

I3phase =

Vphase
Z

Calculate the PHASE -TO PHASE FAULT CURRENT

I2phase =

V phase-phase
3
= 2
2Z

I3phase

Calculate the PHASE -TO-GROUND FAULT CURRENT

Iground = V phase
Z + ZN

1-17

8. To determine the asymmetrical fault current,


determine the X/R ratio and obtain the asymmetrical
factor from graphs or tables
9. For low-voltage distribution systems where there is
a significant motor load, the motor contribution to
the fault can be approximated as:
Symmetrical Contribution = 4 times Motor Full Load
Current
Asymmetrical Contribution = 5 times Motor Full
Load Current

When using the PER-UNIT METHOD to calculate fault levels the following
formulae are used to convert all impedances to per-unit values.
BASE MVA

SOURCE P.U. IMPEDANCE Z PU =

SOURCE S.C. MVA


TRANSFORMER P.U. IMPEDANCE ZPU =

FEEDER P.U. IMPEDANCE ZPU =


3-PHASE S.C. MVA AT FAULT

RMS SYMM S.C. CURRENT AT FAULT

ZT %
100
ZOHMS

BASE MVA

TRANSFORMER MVA
BASE MVA

kV2

BASE MVA
TOTAL ZPU
=

BASE MVA
3

kV * ZPU

S.C. MVA
3

kV

1-18

Short Circuit Calculations


V

Z
V -

F -

F 3

Z
Z
3 PHASE FAULT CURRENT

V
Z

I3 =

PHASE TO PHASE FAULT CURRENT

I2 =

V
2 Z
3

I3 PHASE

Phase To Ground Fault


V

Z
Z

F - G

ZN
PHASE TO GROUND FAULT CURRENT=

V
Z + ZN

1-19

Example of Fault Current Calculation


Source S.C. MVA = 350

44KV

Line Impedance

Base = 100

Z = 12.0
44KV / 13.8KV
20MVA

Transformer
Impedance
Z = 7.7%

MVA

Assume X/R ratios are


HIGH, thus
resistances are ignored

Feeder Impedance
Z = 5.0
13.8KV
Fault

100 MVA
350 MVA =

Source PU Z =
44KV Line P U Z =

Transformer P U Z =

12

x 100 MVA
(44KV)2

7.7 %

100

100 MVA

0.620

0.385 pu

2.625 pu

20 MVA

13.8KV Feeder P U Z = 5

100MVA

0.286 pu

13.8 K V

pu

Total impedance from source to fault = 3.916 pu


100MVA

Three Phase SC MVA =


RMS SYM SC Current =

3.916 pu

25.54MVA
=
x 13.8 K V

25.54 MVA
1068A

1-20

6HFWLRQ

Components of Protection Schemes

Components of
Protection Schemes

2-1

COMPONENTS OF PROTECTION SCHEMES


Each power system protection scheme is made up from
the following components:
1. Fault Detecting or Measuring Relays.
2. Tripping and other Auxiliary Relays.
3. Circuit Breakers.
4. Current Transformers.
5. Voltage transformers.
(Voltage transformers are not required in all protection
schemes).
The function of these components is illustrated below
for a simple overcurrent protection scheme:

C.T.
1200:5A

CIRCUIT
BREAKER

110V D.C. SUPPLY

OVERCURRENT
RELAY

TRIPPING
RELAY

TRIP BREAKER

2-2

FAULT DETECTING RELAYS


Fault detecting, or Sensing relays monitor
power system a.c. quantities such as current,
voltage, and frequency.
They are set to operate, and initiate tripping,
when a fault condition is detected.
The most common fault detecting relays in use
are overcurrent relays. There are two basic
types of overcurrent relays.These are the
Instantaneous Overcurrent Relay and the
Timed Overcurrent Relay.

a. Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays.


These relays operate, or pick-up at a specific value of current,
with no intentional time delay.The pick-up setting is usually
adjustable by means of a dial, or by plug settings. Until a few
years ago, all instantaneous overcurrent relays were of electromechanical construction. They were attracted armature types,
where the C.T. secondary current is passed through the relay coil,
thus attracting the armature against spring tension. The
movement of the armature causes the relay tripping contact to
close. In recent years, electronic versions of the instantaneous
overcurrent relay have been introduced. On these relays the pickup setting is usually adjusted by a dial or by setting DIP switches.
Both the electro-mechanical and the electronic versions are
functionally identical.

2-3

Timed Overcurrent Relays


The electro-mechanical version of this relay
has an induction disc. The disc must rotate
through a definite sector before the tripping
contacts are closed. This type of relay is
known as the Inverse Definite Minimum
Time relay. The characteristic operating curve
of an Inverse definite time relay is shown on
the next page.

2-4

The relay characteristic is such that for very high fault currents the
relay will operate in it's Minimum time of 0.2 seconds. For lower
values of fault current the operate time is longer. For example, at a
relay current of 16 Amps, the operating time is 0.4 seconds. The relay
has a definite minimum pick-up current of 4 Amps. This minimum
pick-up current must, of course, be greater than the maximum load
on the feeder. The induction disc relay normally has various current
tap settings, and an adjustable time dial. This gives the relay a very
wide range of setting characteristics, and allows the relay setting to
be coordinated with other protection devices, such as fuses, on
adjacent power system elements. As with the instantaneous
overcurrent relays, there are now many electronic timed and Inverse
Definite Minimum Time overcurrent relays on the market. Their
characteristics are very similar to the electro-mechanical versions.
Many overcurrent relays have an instantaneous element, and a timed
element, both built into the same relay case.
The application of overcurrent relays to feeder protection will be
covered later in this seminar.

2-5

Other fault detecting relays that are


commonly used in protection schemes are:
1. OVERVOLTAGE AND UNDERVOLTAGE
RELAYS
2. IMPEDANCE RELAYS
3. DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS

1. OVERVOLTAGE AND UNDERVOLTAGE RELAYS.


These a.c. relays are normally supplied from voltage
transformers, and are set to operate for certain overvoltage or
undervoltage conditions. For example, to protect capacitor
banks from overvoltage, or to detect undervoltage conditions on
a feeder protection with auto-reclose.
2. IMPEDANCE RELAYS.
Impedance relays are supplied from both the C.T. current and
the V.T. voltage. They measure the line impedance by utilizing
the line current and voltage, to detect a fault condition.
Impedance relays are used on transmission lines and feeders
where there is an infeed from both ends
3. DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS.
Differential relays are used in Bus Protection and Transformer
Protection schemes. They compare the current entering and
leaving the protected zone. If the unbalance is great enough,
then a fault condition is detected, and tripping is initiated. For
transformers, the differential relay must have some biasing to
provide relay restraint for through currents. This will be
explained later when we cover Transformer Protection.
2-6

Other Fault detecting relays include those


used in Generator Protections, such as
Negative Phase Sequence, Overexcitation,
Loss of Field, Underfrequency, Out-ofstep, etc.
The application of the various relays to
power system protection schemes, will be
discussed later in the seminar.

2-7

THE TRANSITION FROM ELECTRO-MECHANICAL


RELAYS TO ELECTRONIC AND MICROPROCESSOR
BASED RELAYS
Until just a few years ago almost all protective relays
were electro-mechanical, and many of these relays
changed very little over a period of 50 years or more. A
good example is the induction disc overcurrent relay
which is still used extensively and has given many, many
years of reliable service. In the early 1970's electronic
relays were introduced. These relays used discreet solid
state electronic components, and required external d.c.
power supplies. The performance of these early
electronic relays was poor, as there was a high failure
rate of electronic components.

It appeared that some of the electronic components were being


damaged by the spikes and transients that existed in the hostile
electrical environment of high-voltage sub-stations. These early
solid state relays offered few advantages over the electromechanical relays. They had essentially the same features, but had
the disadvantages that they required a separate power supply, and
they could not match the reliability of electro-mechanical relays.
The performance of solid state electronic relays steadily improved
over the years, and by the end of the 1980's they had gained wide
acceptance, particularly overcurrent relays which are used
extensively. However, electronic relays have still not gained
universal acceptance, even though they are cheaper and more
versatile

than

their

electro-mechanical

counterparts.

Relay

manufacturers are still supplying thousands of induction-disc


overcurrent relays to customers who still prefer these robust relays
which have many, many years of proven reliability.
2-8

Since about 1992 there has been a


revolution in protective relaying as
microprocessor-based relays were
introduced. As well as the basic protection
function, these relays typically provide
many additional features. They can be
interfaced with computers and provide
metering data, fault data (wave-form,
maximum fault current, tripping time),
sequence-of events, etc.

Microprocessor-based relays are gaining very rapid acceptance by


many electrical utilities, and they are revolutionizing the way that
high-voltage substation protection, control and monitoring is
applied.

We will discuss microprocessor -based relays and their

various features later in the seminar.

2-9

TRIPPING AND OTHER AUXILIARY RELAYS


Power system faults are detected by the fault detecting
relays, which close their output contacts to initiate
tripping. These output contacts are used to energise trip
relays and other auxiliary relays which are normally
supplied from the station battery d.c. supply.
These auxiliary relays may perform a number of
functions, such as:

Trip the associated circuit breaker or breakers.


Send a trip signal to the remote terminal of the line.
Initiate Auto-reclosing of the circuit breaker.
Initiate Breaker Failure protection.
Send a TRIP alarm to the control room operator.

2-10

CIRCUIT BREAKERS
The circuit breaker is the device that actually interrupts the
flow of fault current, and isolates the faulted element (feeder,
transformer, etc.) from the remaining healthy components of
the power system. The circuit breaker rating must be high
enough for it to interrupt the maximum fault current that is
possible to flow.
A typical 230kV circuit breaker rating is 70kA or 25GVA
(25,000MVA). As stated earlier, circuit breakers must be
capable of interrupting the fault current in very short periods of
time. Typical circuit breaker operating times are:
500 kV - 2 cycles or 40 milli-seconds. (50 Hz system)
230 kV - 3 cycles or 60 milli-seconds. (50 Hz system)
33 kV - 6 cycles or 120 milli-seconds. (50 Hz system)

These are the times from when the trip signal is sent to the breaker,
to when the fault current is interrupted.
Almost all high-voltage circuit breakers that are being built today are
either SF6 BREAKERS or VACUUM BREAKERS. SF6 circuit
breakers may be AIR-INSULATED for outdoor installations, or SF6
GAS-INSULATED for indoor installations. Until recent years the
types of high-voltage circuit breakers that were being installed were
mainly AIR-BLAST BREAKERS or BULK-OIL BREAKERS.

2-11

Circuit Breaker Types


Bulk Oil
Air
Minimum Oil
Air Blast
Sulphur Hexafluoride or SF6
Vacuum

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
Current Transformers, or C.T.'s, are used to
step down the power system primary currents,
from many hundreds or thousands of AMPS,
to more manageable values to supply relays.
It is necessary for the C.T. to provide
insulation between the power system primary
voltage, and the relay circuit. A typical C.T.
with a ratio of 1200 : 5A for a 44kV power
system is shown next.

2-12

C.T.
1200:5A
300A

44kV
1.25A
1.25A

RELAY

Note that the C.T. polarity markings are shown as spots on the
primary and secondary sides of the C.T.
Also, it is important that the C.T. secondary circuit be grounded, and
grounded at one point only.

2-13

SECONDARY
WINDING

PRIMARY
CONDUCTOR

IRON CORE

The most common type of C.T. construction is the DOUGHNUT


type. It is constructed of an iron toroid, which forms the core of the
transformer, and is wound with secondary turns.
The doughnut fits over the primary conductor, which constitutes
one primary turn. If the toroid is wound with 240 secondary turns,
then the ratio of the C.T. is 240 : 1, or 1200 : 5A
The continuous rating of the secondary winding is normally 5
AMPS in North America, and 1 AMP or 0.5 AMP in many other
parts of the world. The various types of C.T. construction will be
described later.

2-14

TEN EQUAL
CAPACITORS

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
Voltage Transformers are used to step the power system primary voltage from,
say 50 kV or 25 kV to 120 volts phase-to-phase, or 69 volts phase-to-ground. It is
this secondary voltage that is applied to the fault detecting relays, and meters.
The voltage transformers at primary voltages of up to about 100 kV are normally
of the WOUND type. That is, a two winding transformer in an oil filled steel tank,
with a turns ratio of say 417:1 or 275:1.
On higher voltage systems, such as 230kV and 500kV, CAPACITOR VOLTAGE
TRANSFORMERS, (or CVT's) are normally used.
A CVT is comprised of a capacitor divider made up from 10 equal capacitors,
connected in series from the phase conductor to ground, with a voltage
transformer connected across the bottom capacitor.
This V.T. actually measures one-tenth of the line voltage, as illustrated in the
diagram above.

2-15







6HFWLRQ

Current Transformers & Voltage Transformers

Current Transformers &


Voltage Transformers

3-1

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
& VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
TYPES OF C.T. AND V.T. CONSTRUCTION
The most common type of C.T. construction is the
`DOUGHNUT' type. It is constructed of an iron toroid, which
forms the core of the transformer, and is wound with secondary
turns.
Secondary Winding

Primary Conductor

Iron Core

The `doughnut' fits over the primary conductor, which constitutes


one primary turn. If the toroid is wound with 240 secondary turns,
then the ratio of the C.T. is 240 : 1 or 1200 : 5A
The continuous rating of the secondary winding is normally 5 AMPS
in North America, and 1 AMP or 0.5 AMP in many other parts of the
world.
This type of `doughnut' C.T. is most commonly used in circuit
breakers and transformers. The C.T. fits into the bushing `turret',
and the porcelain bushing fits through the centre of the `doughnut'.
Up to four C.T.'s of this type can be installed around each bushing of
an oil circuit breaker. This arrangement is shown in the following
diagram.

3-2

Oil Circuit
Breaker Bushings

Current Transformers
Fixed Contact

Moving Contact

A similar type of C.T. can be fitted over low voltage buswork.


However, the C.T. must be insulated for the primary voltage level.

3-3

The Straight-Through type of construction is shown


below:

The other principal type of C.T. construction is the Free Standing, or


Post type. These can be either Straight-Through or Hairpin
construction.
The toroid, wound with secondary turns, is located in the live tank at
the top of the C.T. High voltage insulation must, of course, be
provided, between the H.V. primary conductor, and the secondary
winding, which operates at essentially ground potential. Current
transformers of this type are often used at voltage levels of 44 kV,
33kV, and 13.8 kV.

3-4

The second kind of Free-Standing or Post type current transformer


is the Hairpin construction as shown above:
The HAIRPIN C.T. gets it's name from the shape of the primary
conductor within the porcelain. With this type, the tank housing the
toroid is at ground potential. The primary conductor is insulated for
the full line voltage as it passes into the tank and through the toroid.
Current transformers of this type are commonly used on H.V.
transmission systems at voltage levels of 500kV and 230kV. Free
standing current transformers are very expensive, and are only used
where it is not possible to install `Doughnut' C.T.'s in Oil Breakers or
transformer bushing turrets. As an example, C.T.'s cannot easily be
accommodated in Air Blast circuit breakers, or some outdoor SF6
breakers. Free Standing current transformers must therefore be
used with these types of switchgear.
Current transformers often have multiple ratios. This is achieved by
having taps on various points of the secondary winding, to provide
the different turns ratios.
Later in this section we will discuss the characteristics and testing of
C.T's.
3-5

3-6

TEN EQUAL
CAPACIATORS

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
Voltage Transformers are used to step the power system primary
voltage from, say 50 kV or 33 kV to 120 volts phase-to-phase, or
69 volts phase-to-ground. It is this secondary voltage that is applied
to the fault detecting relays, and meters.
The voltage transformers at these primary voltages of 50 kV and 33
kV are normally of the WOUND type. That is, a two winding
transformer in an oil filled steel tank, with a turns ratio of 416.6:1 or
275:1. On higher voltage systems, such as 230kV and 500kV,
CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS, (or CVT's) are
normally used.
A CVT is comprised of a capacitor divider made up from typically
10 equal capacitors, connected in series from the phase conductor
to ground, with a voltage transformer connected across the bottom
capacitor. This V.T. actually measures one-tenth of the line voltage,
as illustrated in the diagram above:

3-7

CURRENT TRANSFORMER THEORY


& CHARACTERISTICS
Current Transformers for protective
relaying purposes must reproduce the
primary current accurately for all
expected fault currents.

If we have a 33 kV C.T. with a ratio of 1200 : 5A, the secondary


winding is continuously rated for 5 Amps. If the maximum fault
current that can flow through the C.T. is 12,000 Amps, then the C.T.
must accurately produce a secondary current of 50 Amps to flow
through the relay during this fault condition. This current will, of
course, flow for only about 0.2 seconds, until the fault current is
interrupted by the tripping of the circuit breaker.
The C.T. must be designed such that the iron core does not saturate
for currents below the maximum fault current. A magnetizing, or
excitation curve for a typical C.T. is shown next.

3-8

KNEE POINT

For this C.T. to operate satisfactorily at maximum fault currents, it


must operate on the linear part of the magnetizing curve.
i.e. Below the point at which saturation occurs, which is known as
the KNEE POINT. The KNEE POINT is defined as the point at
which a 10% increase in voltage produces a 50% increase in
magnetizing current.
The point on the magnetizing curve at which the C.T. operates is
dependent upon the resistance of the C.T. secondary circuit, as
shown next.

3-9

In this example the resistance of the C.T. secondary circuit, or C.T.


burden is:
C.T. Secondary Winding Resistance

= 1 OHM

Resistance of Cable from C.T. to Relay

= 2 OHMS

Resistance of Relay Coil

= 2 OHMS

Total Resistance of C.T. Secondary Circuit

= 5 OHMS

If the fault current is 12,000 Amps, and the C.T. ratio is 1200 : 5A,
then the C.T. secondary current is 50 Amps. At this secondary
current and the above C.T. burden of 5 OHMS, the C.T. must
produce a terminal voltage of 250 volts. For the C.T. to operate with
good accuracy, without saturating for the maximum fault current,
the knee point must be well above 250 volts.

3-10

The importance of the C.T. maintaining


good accuracy, and not saturating at
the maximum fault current, is most
critical on differential protection. This
will be covered later in the seminar
when we discuss Bus Protection and
Transformer Protection.

3-11

When C.T.'s are used for metering purposes,


they must have a high degree of accuracy
only at LOAD currents. i.e. 0 to 5 Amps
secondary. There is no need for a high degree
of accuracy for fault currents, and it is quite
acceptable for a metering C.T. to saturate
when fault current flows through it.
A C.T. for protective relaying purposes may
typically have a knee point at 500 volts,
whereas a metering C.T. may saturate at well
below 100 volts.

CAUTION:
When C.T.'s are in service they MUST have a continuous
circuit connected across the secondary terminals. If the
C.T. secondary is `open circuit' Whilst primary current is
flowing, dangerously high voltages will appear across
the C.T. secondary terminals. Extreme care must be
exercised when performing `on load' tests on C.T.
circuits, to ensure that a C.T. is not inadvertently `open
circuited'.

3-12

C.T. ACCURACY
A typical protective relaying C.T. has it's accuracy
specified as:
2.5

2.5%

L 800

RELAYING

KNEE POINT VOLTAGE

This protective relaying C.T. has an accuracy of 2.5% and


the excitation curve knee-point voltage is 800 Volts.

C.T & V.T. ACCURACY


CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
A typical current transformer for protective relaying purposes may
have an accuracy of 2.5%. The margins used in protection relay
setting criteria are usually quite large, and 2.5% accuracy is
adequate - provided the C.T. maintains this accuracy for all
fault currents up to the maximum possible fault current.

3-13

A current transformer for metering purposes may


typically have an accuracy of 0.3%. The C.T. must
maintain this accuracy for normal load currents,
provided the rated burden on the C.T. is not exceeded.
It is quite acceptable, and in fact desirable, for the C.T.
to saturate when fault current flows. The accuracy for a
typical metering C.T. is specified as:
0.3 M 0.9

O.3%

METERING

O.9 OHMS BURDEN

This metering C.T. has an accuracy of 0.3% when the


connected burden does not exceed 0.9 OHMS.

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
The accuracy for a typical voltage transformer is
specified as:
0.6
0.6%

Z
VA BURDEN

This voltage transformer has an accuracy of 0.6% with a


connected burden that does not exceed 200 VA. The
various burden ratings are represented by letters as
follows:
W = 12.5 VA
X = 25 VA
Y = 75 VA
Z = 200 VA
ZZ = 400 VA

3-14

FUTURE TRENDS IN C.T. DESIGN USING OPTICS


Free-standing C.T.'s for high-voltage power systems,
such as 230 kV and 500 kV, are huge structures and
are very expensive. Many manufacturers are developing
optical current transducers, or optical current
transformers. These units clamp around the primary
conductors and supply the output signals to the relays,
etc. through fibre-optic cables. Some proto-type optical
current transducers are in-service at various locations,
and it is expected that this development will lead to
considerable decrease in costs for high-voltage C.T.'s.

3-15

VARIABLE
120v A.C.
SUPPLY
(VARIAC)

TESTING OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS


During field commissioning, the following tests are required for
Current Transformers:
C.T. Excitation Curves
The purpose of this test is to verify that the C.T. meets the
specifications, and will not saturate during maximum fault
conditions. The C.T. characteristics will have been specified by the
designer of the protection scheme.
The C.T. excitation test is performed as follows:
The voltage applied to secondary terminals of the C.T. is varied in
steps of, say 50 volts, and the C.T. magnetizing current is
measured in milli-amps, up until the C.T. saturates. The results
obtained should be similar to those specified in manufacturer's test
data, and also to the results for similar C.T.'s.
NOTE:

The C.T. primary must be `open circuit' when


performing excitation tests.
3-16

C.T. RATIO TEST


The purpose of this test is to verify that the C.T. ratio is
correct for the various taps on the secondary winding.
The simplest test for C.T. ratio is to pass a current, of
say 12 Amps, through the primary of the C.T., and
measure the secondary current with a milli-ammeter,
say 50 mA. The C.T. ratio is then calculated as
12A : 50mA or 1200 : 5A.
The C.T.ratio can also be tested by using a
RATIOMETER.

C.T. POLARITY TEST


The purpose of the C.T. polarity test is to ensure
that direction of current flow in the secondary
circuit is correct relative to the primary. This is
extremely important where the secondary
windings of a number of C.T.'s are connected
together, such as in a differential protection
scheme. We will discuss this later when we
cover Bus Protection.

3-17

The C.T. polarity can be verified by a very simple test, known as


the FLICK TEST.
An analogue meter, on the d.c. milli-amp range, is connected
across the C.T. secondary terminals, with the positive lead to `spot'
or X1. A 1.5 volt `D' cell is then used to pass a current through the
C.T. primary. As the connection is made to the `D' cell, to pass
current from the cell positive, to the C.T. primary `spot' or H1, then
the d.c. milli-ammeter will deflect or `flick' in a positive direction. As
the connection from the `D' cell is removed, the milli-ammeter will
deflect in a negative direction.
If a ratiometer is used to check the C.T. ratio, then the correct
polarity will be indicated by that meter.

3-18

SECONDARY WINDING RESISTANCE


The purpose of this test is to verify that the total
burden on the C.T. is not high enough to cause
the C.T. to saturate during fault conditions. The
resistance of the secondary winding is
measured, usually with a digital ohmmeter. The
resistance of the other components of the
secondary circuit, such as the C.T. cable, and
the relays, should also be measured.

SECONDARY WINDING INSULATION RESISTANCE


The purpose of this test is to verify that the C.T.
secondary winding insulation is in good condition. The
entire secondary circuit of the C.T. must be tested with
a `MEGGER', and a result in excess of 10 MEG
OHMS, at 500 volts is normal.
It is very important that the C.T. secondary circuit is
GROUNDED AT ONE POINT ONLY, normally at the
relay panel. If the grounding is done through a link,
then this provides a convenient point to disconnect the
ground to `megger' the entire C.T. secondary circuit
during routine maintenance tests.

3-19

TESTING OF VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS


CAUTION:
Extreme care must be exercised when
performing field tests on high voltage V.T.'s.
Very high voltages can appear on the
primary terminals.

One field test that is sometimes performed is to energise the V.T.


from the secondary terminals, and measure the magnetizing current
at the rated voltage of 67 volts. DURING THIS TEST THE
PRIMARY TERMINALS WILL BE AT FULL PRIMARY RATED
VOLTAGE. e.g. 44 kV, 33 kV or 25 kV etc.
The purpose of this test is to record the magnetizing current, and
compare it with the manufacturer's test data, and to record it for
future reference. This test is of questionable value, and may not be
worth performing, in view of the risks associated with the very high
voltages.

3-20

V.T. RATIO AND POLARITY TEST


The V.T. ratio and polarity can be tested with a
RATIOMETER.
Alternatively, the V.T. primary winding can be
energised at 120 volts a.c. and the secondary voltage
measured.
With the V.T. in-service, the secondary voltage and
phase angle should be checked against a known V.T.
The polarity of the V.T.can be checked by performing
the `FLICK-TEST' described earlier for C.T.'s.

SECONDARY WINDING RESISTANCE


The secondary winding resistance should
be measured with a digital OHM-METER.

3-21

C. INSULATION RESISTANCE OF
WINDINGS
The insulation resistance of the secondary
and primary windings should be measured. A
reading in excess of 50 Meg-Ohms is normal.
THE V.T. SECONDARY CIRCUIT IS TO BE
GROUNDED AT ONE POINT ONLY. THIS IS
NORMALLY AT THE RELAY PANEL.

3-22


6HFWLRQ

Power System Neutral Grounding

Power System Neutral


Grounding

-4 1

Ungrounded Systems
Solidly Grounded Systems
Resistance Grounded Systems
Reactance Grounded Systems
Typical Resistance Grounded
Systems in Industrial Plants
Ground Fault Detection on
Resistance Grounded Systems
Ground Fault Detection on
Ungrounded Systems

-4 2

During power system ground


faults the magnitude of the
current that flows in the ground
is governed by the method
adopted for grounding the power
system star or neutral point.

For most power system elements (such as feeders, lines, buses &
transformers) it is usual for ground faults to result in an excessive
current flow. The protection relays or fuses respond to this overcurrent
condition to clear the fault from the system.
However, for some power system elements, notably generators, the
neutral point is normally grounded through a high impedance (usually a
distribution transformer with a resistor connected across the secondary
terminals) which limits the fault current to about 10 Amps.

-4 3

There are various reasons, both


technical and economic, for
grounding the neutral point of a
power system. In the early days
three phase power systems were
operated with the neutral
ungrounded.

However, these systems were found to be prone to failures due to


common mode transient overvoltages. For a ground fault on one phase,
the voltage of the unfaulted phases increases. Also, during system
ground faults the voltage of the neutral point of the transformer winding
increases.

In order to limit the magnitude of the overvoltages, solid grounding of


the neatral was adopted. The economic reason applies for High Voltage
systems where, by solidly grounding the neutral point of a transformer it
is permissible to grade the thickness of the winding insulation
downwards towards the neutral point. This is almost universal at
voltages of 100 kV and above.

-4 4

Among the technical reasons are:


The floating potential on the lower voltage
(secondary and tertiary) windings is held to a
harmless value.
Arcing faults to ground do not set up dangerously
high voltages on the healthy phases.
By controlling the magnitude of the groundfault current, inductive interference between
power and communication circuits can
controlled.
A high value of ground-fault current is
normally available to operate the more usual
types of protection schemes, such as
overcurrent and impedance.

-4 5

UNGROUNDED SYSTEMS

Ungrounded systems are those with no ground


connection, other than through high impedance
devices such as voltage transformers. There is
also the capacitance-to-ground of each of the
phase conductors to be considered. The
advantages of ungrounded systems are that a
single ground fault does not result in a system
outage, and the cost of ground fault detection
equipment is low. The disadvantages are that they
are subject to transient overvoltages, and the
insulation strength of equipment connected to
ungrounded systems must be greater than for
grounded systems.

The methods most commonly used to ground power system neutrals


are as follows:

-4 6

SOLIDLY GROUNDED SYSTEMS


Solidly grounded means a direct connection
with a conductor of adequate size, from the
neutral to the ground grid. There is no
intentional impedance introduced, other than
the resistance of the grounding conductor
itself.
The term EFFECTIVELY GROUNDED is often
used to define this type of grounding.

An EFFECTIVELY GROUNDED system is defined as "Grounded


through a sufficiently low impedance such that for all system conditions
the ratio of zero-sequence reactance to positive sequence reactance
is positive and less than three, and the ratio of zero-sequence
resistance to positive sequence resistance
is positive and less than one."
Another definition is "An Effectively-Grounded System is one in which
during a phase-to-ground fault, the voltage to ground of any of the
healthy phases does not exceed 80% of the voltage between phases of
the system."

-4 7

Resistance Grounded Systems


A resistance grounded system is one where a the neutral
point is connected to ground through a fixed resistor. This
is also known as `non-effective' grounding. The effect of
grounding the system neutral through a resistance is to
reduce the fault current for ground-faults. The advantages
are:
Reduced damage from melting, burning and mechanical
stress due to lower ground-fault current.
Reduced flash hazard.
Reduction in the momentary voltage drops during
ground-faults.
Reduction of overvoltages.

A value sometimes chosen for the grounding resistor is one that limits
the ground-fault current, for a fault at full phase-to-neutral voltage, to a
value equal to the rated current of the transformer winding whose
neutral it grounds.
A typical value of neutral grounding resistor for utility power systems at
10 to 50 kV is about 1 OHM.
For a 4.16 kV system a 6 OHM neutral grounding resistor may be used
to limit the ground fault current to about 400 amps.

A high neutral grounding resistance of 69 OHMS limits the ground fault


current to about 5 amps on a 600 Volt system.

-4 8

In a typical 600 volt distribution system in an industrial plant the


transformer may be grounded through a 15 Ohm resistor as shown
above. In this example the maximum ground fault current is 23.1 amps
as shown on the next page.

-4 9

Ground Fault Detection on Resistance-Grounded Systems


Ground faults can be detected on resistance-grounded systems by
monitoring the current that flows through the neutral grounding resistor.
In the above example a current transformer is fitted around the
conductor from the resistor to ground, and the secondary current of the
C.T. supplies an overcurrent relay. On systems that are grounded
through a high resistance, where the ground-fault current is low, the
ground-fault detection overcurrent relay may initiate an alarm, rather
than trip.

-4 10

Reactance Grounded Systems


A reactance grounded system is one where
the neutral point is connected to ground
through a fixed reactor. Again, this is `noneffective' grounding. The advantages of
reactance grounding are similar to those for
resistance grounding. A typical distribution
utility uses 2 OHM reactors to ground the
neutral on it's 25 kV system, and 5 OHM
reactors on the neutrals of it's 44 kV system.

-4 11

ARC Suppression Coil Grounded Systems


Arc-suppression coil grounding (or resonant or ground-fault
neutralizer grounding) uses a reactor with a value chosen to
match the value of the capacitance to ground of two phases
with the third phase connected solidly to ground. In this way
the reactive component of the capacitive current flowing to
ground at the fault is neutralized by the coil current which
flows in the same path but is displaced in phase by 180
degrees from the capacitance current. This tuning of the
grounding reactor with the system capacitance results in
ground-fault current that is resistive and of low value, and
ideally the fault arc is self-extinguished.
This method of system grounding is fairly popular in Europe
and is gaining acceptance in the U.S.A.

-4 12

Ground-Fault Detection on
Ungrounded Systems
On ungrounded systems, a
single ground-fault will not
result in the flow of any faultcurrent

For a ground-fault on one of the phases, the voltage-to-ground on the


two unfaulted phases will rise.
Voltage relays measuring the voltage-to-ground for each of the phases
can be used to provide ground-fault detection for ungrounded systems.
It is usually a requirement that ground-fault detection be provided on
ungrounded systems.

-4 13

GENERATOR NEUTRAL
GROUNDING

-4 14

Reasons for Limiting Generator


Ground Fault Current
Methods Used to Ground the Neutral
of Generator Stator Windings
Detecting Generator Stator Ground
faults

-4 15

Generators are the most expensive


pieces of equipment on our power
systems. Reliable protective relaying
schemes are therefore required to
detect and clear generator faults
quickly to minimise damage and
reduce repair time to a minimum. One
of the most likely fault conditions on
generators is the stator ground fault

If the resulting stator ground fault current is high there will likely be
considerable damage to the generator, resulting in a lengthy outage to
repair the machine.

For small generators, of below about 3 MVA, it is normal practice to


ground the star-point of the stator winding directly through a resistor.

-4 16

The value of the neutral grounding


resistor determines the maximum
ground-fault current that will flow for a
ground-fault on the stator winding.
Typically the neutral grounding
resistor would be sized to limit the
maximum ground-fault current to
somewhere between 5 amps and 100
amps

With this arrangement stator ground faults are detected by the use of an
overcurrent relay supplied from a current transformer measuring the
neutral-grounding resistor current.

-4 17

For larger generators (over about 5


MVA), the normal practice is to ground
the star point of the generator stator
winding through a neutral grounding
transformer, with a resistor connected
across the secondary terminals.
Usually a distribution transformer is
used.

-4 18

The value of the resistor is chosen to limit the ground-fault current, for
phase-to-ground faults on the stator winding, and ground faults external
to the generator, to about 5 amps. Consequently, if a stator ground fault
does occur the fault current will not cause any further damage to either
the winding or the core, and the generator may be allowed to continue
running until alternative generation is brought into service.

The generator could run indefinitely with a single stator ground-fault, but
if a second ground fault occurs there would be very high fault current
and serious damage to the machine would result.

-4 19

Detecting Stator Ground Faults


The stator winding of a typical generator is grounded at the star point
through a neutral grounding transformer, with a resistor connected
across the secondary terminals, as shown in the above diagram.

The value of this resistor is chosen to limit the ground fault current, for
phase-to-ground faults on the stator winding, to about 5 amps. A
Voltage Relay is connected across the resistor to detect stator ground
faults.

This type of stator ground-fault protection will detect ground faults on


about 90 % of the stator winding. The lower 10 % of the winding is
therefore left unprotected. This topic will be covered in more detail later
when we deal with generator protection.

-4 20

6HFWLRQ

GroundPotential-Rise During Power System
Faults

GROUND-POTENTIAL-RISE
DURING POWER SYSTEM
GROUND FAULTS

Functions of Grounding Systems

Source and Distribution of Ground Fault Current

Maximum Ground Fault Current

Hazards to Individuals Working in Substations

Step Voltage, Touch Voltage, and Transferred Voltage

Tolerable Limits of Body Currents During

Calculation of Allowable Step and Touch Voltages

Transferred Voltage and Protection of Communication Circuits

Calculation of Ground-Potential-Rise

Measurement of Soil Resistivity

Measurement of Station Ground Grid Resistance

Control of Excessive GPR

Control of Voltage Gradient

Substation Fence Grounding

5-1

The Functions of the Grounding System are:

Safety of Personnel
Equipment Protection
System Operating Requirements

Safety of Personnel
The grounding system must ensure that accessible non-current-carrying
metal structures and equipment are maintained at the same voltage and
that hazardous step and touch voltages do not occur.
Equipment Protection
The grounding system must be designed to limit the level of transient
voltages on station equipment by providing a low impedance path for
lightning surges, fault currents, and other system disturbances.
System Operating Requirements
The grounding must be designed to ensure that there is proper
operation of the protective devices such as protective relaying and
surge arresters. The grounding system has an influence on the levels of
power system overvoltages and fault current, and the choice of
protective relaying.

5-2

WHAT IS GROUNDING?

Grounded is defined as being connected to earth through a permanent


conductive path of sufficient ampacity to carry the maximum possible
fault current, and of sufficiently low impedance to prevent any current in
the grounding conductor from causing a harmful voltage to exist.

5-3

WHAT IS BONDING?

Bonding is the permanent low impedance path obtained by joining all


non-conducting metal, by conductors of sufficient ampacity, to safely
conduct the maximum possible current that it may carry during a fault

5-4

It is important that the grounding


system performs as designed for the
expected life of the installation. The
design must therefore take into
account future additions and the
maximum fault current for the
ultimate configuration.

Maximum Ground-Fault Current


Hazards to individuals working in electrical sub-stations result when
ground-fault current flows in the vicinity of those sub-stations. Ground
current results from ground faults, lightning and induced voltages.

The magnitude of fault current is determined by the impedance of the


various power system elements, such as lines, transformers and
grounding system between the source(s) of generation and the fault.

When a fault occurs in an electrical circuit the current returns to the


source through as many parallel-conducting paths as exist at the time.
For the design of a protective grounding system, it is important to know
the maximum ground-fault current, and the portion of fault current
that will flow through various ground resistances.

5-5

Hazards to Individuals Working in


Substations
The flow of fault current to or from
earth will result in voltage gradients
within and around a station ground
grid area.

This voltage gradient will mean that different points within the station
will be at different voltages during the period of time that fault current is
flowing. Hazards to persons working in the sub-station exist because
different parts of the human body can bridge across points where a
voltage difference exists during the flow of fault current.

The principle hazards in electrical substations are normally classified as


Step Voltage, Touch Voltage, and Transferred Voltage.
It is these voltage conditions that determine the value of current that will
pass through the human body during fault conditions.

5-6

Tolerable Limits of Body Currents


During Faults
The design of a grounding system that
meets safety requirements is one in which
the current flowing through the heart
region of the body is less than the
threshold current for ventricular fibrillation.

An accepted value of this threshold current is given by Dalziel's


empirical equation for transient conditions:

Ik =

0 .116
Amps
t

for the range of 't' between 0.030 and 3.0 seconds, and a frequency of
50 and 60 Hz.
This equation applies for a person weighing 50 kg.

For a person weighing 70 kg the equation becomes:

Ik =

0.157
Amps
t

5-7

If a person is exposed to
hazardous voltages for much
greater lengths of time, such as
when they touch live equipment,
the resulting currents passing
through the body would have the
following effects:

2 mA to 10 mA

Mild sensation to painful shock.

10 mA to 20 mA

Burns, blisters, muscular contraction, cannot


let go.

20 mA to 70 mA

Breathing difficulties and severe pain.

70 mA to 100 mA

Ventricular fibrillation, breathing may stop,


possibly fatal without first-aid.

5-8

Calculation of Allowable Step & Touch Voltages


Step Voltage
Step Voltage is the voltage difference shunted by the human body by a
Step, or Foot-to-Foot contact. The maximum value of current that will
flow in the human body is determined by the maximum voltage
difference between two accessible points on the ground, separated by a
distance of one pace, which is assumed to be 1 Metre.

5-9

Touch Voltage
Touch voltage is the voltage difference shunted by the human body for
a touch or hand-to-foot contact. If the object touched were grounded
immediately below it, the maximum ground potential-difference shunted
would be the normal maximum horizontal reach, assumed to be 1
Metre.

5-10

Transferred Voltage
Transferred voltage contact is a special case of touch voltage. It occurs
when a person standing on the ground touches a conductor grounded
only at a remote point; or a person standing at a remote point touches a
conductor connected only to the ground grid.
Here the touch voltage may be essentially equal to the full voltage rise
of the ground grid under fault conditions, and not the fraction of this total
that is encountered in the usual `step' or `touch' contacts. This
transferred voltage condition is extremely hazardous and care must be
taken to ensure that this situation is avoided.
An example of transferred voltage is where communication cables run
between a sub-station and a telephone company office. This hazard is
controlled by routing all telephone company circuits through a
neutralizing transformer, or optic isolation equipment, as they enter the
high voltage sub-station for sites where the ground potential rise is high.

5-11

Approximating the shoe by a metallic disc of radius


0.083 Metres

= 3K

where:
K = 1.0 for soil immediately beneath the feet
which is homogeneous for more than 500 mm.
K = 0.74 for 150 mm of crushed stone.
K = 0.57 for 80 mm of crushed stone
Crushed stone may be assumed to have s = 3,000
.m when wet.

5-12

Tolerable Limits of Step & Touch Voltages


The maximum permis sible step voltage is calculated
from the threshold current constraint, and the body
circuit resistance through both feet in series.

V S = I K ( R K + 2 R F ) Volts
Where Rk is the electrical resistance of the human
body, and normally taken as 1,000 .

The equation for step voltage limit becomes:

VS=

116 + 0.7K S
Volts
t

Similarly the touch voltage limit is given by the body circuit


resistance with both feet in parallel:

RF

V T = I K RK +
2

VT=

116 + 0.17K S
t

5-13

Calculation of Ground-Potential-Rise
Ground Potential Rise, or GPR, is the
maximum voltage, during a power system
fault, that a station ground grid may attain
relative to a distant grounding point
assumed to be at the potential of remote
earth.

The ground potential rise for a station is calculated as the product of the
station ground resistance, and the ultimate ground- fault current I. This
value should be less than 3 kV.
If considerable cost is involved in achieving this requirement, a station
ground potential rise of up to 5 kV is acceptable but may increase the
difficulty of controlling the hazard from any transferred voltages or high
local voltage gradients. A higher ground potential rise also increases the
cost of the neutralizing transformers or other protective devices required
for communication cables.
The following data are required for calculating the station ground potential rise:
Station ground-fault current for the ultimate configuration of the station.
Station ground grid area, A
Soil resistivity test data
An estimate of the total length, L, of buried conductor, including ground rods.
The number of distributed ground rods, N, their radius, a, and length below frost
depth, l.

5-14

The following data are required for calculating the


station ground potential rise:

Station ground-fault current for the ultimate


configuration of the station.
Station ground grid area, A
Soil resistivity test data
An estimate of the total length, L, of buried
conductor, including ground rods.
The number of distributed ground rods, N,
their radius, a, and length below frost depth, l.

5-15

Measurement of Soil Resistivity

Soil Resistivity

=2 x R x S

where:
R

= measured soil resistance in Ohms

S = probe spacing in metres

5-16

The following steps are followed in the


design of the station ground grid:
First determine the radius r of a circle
having the same area A as the ground
grid.

r=

As

Calculate the station ground resistance (for unfrozen soil).

R=
where

+ e
4r
L

Ohms

R = Station ground resistance.


e = Average soil resistivity.
L = Total length of buried conductor,
including ground rods.

Calculate the ground potential rise from the product of maximum


ground-fault current and station ground resistance.

It should be remembered that the ground-fault current will split between


the various parallel paths to ground, such as transmission line shielding
or sky-wires, cable sheaths, etc. This should be taken into account
when determining the fault current that flows to ground through the
station ground grid.
5-17

Measurement of Station Ground Grid Resistance

A test that is commonly used to measure the resistance of the ground electrode is
known as the 'Fall of Potential Method. A sector of at least 120 degrees that is free of
conductive anomalies such as metal pipes and cables is selected. This angle ensures
that the test probes are closer to the ground grid under test than to pipes or cables.
Two test probes are used, and the connections from the measuring instrument are as
shown.
The current probe is driven into the ground at a distance as far as practical from the
ground grid. This distance should be greater than the diagonal dimension of the
ground grid to get results with an acceptable level of accuracy. The instrument injects
a fixed current through the earth, from the current probe to the ground grid. The
potential probe is driven into the ground at a number of locations between the current
probe and the ground grid.

For each location of the potential probe, the resistance measurement is read from the
instrument, recorded, and plotted on a graph against distance from the ground grid.
From the sample graph shown, the point of inflection of the curve is taken as the
ground grid resistance. When tests are performed with greater distances between the
current probe and the ground grid, the curve usually becomes almost horizontal, and it
is this flat part of the curve that indicates the resistance of the ground grid.

5-18

5-19

Control of Excessive Ground-Potential-Rise


In cases where the calculated station potential
rise exceeds 5,000 Volts, one or more of the
following measures may be taken:

Additional buried conductors encompassing a greater area may be installed.


The number of squares making up the main ground grid may be increased.
The ground impedance of the lines terminated at the station may be decreased by
using high-conductivity material for the overhead transmission line ground wires. This
decreases the portion of the fault current flowing through the station ground grid.
A remote grounding electrode may be used to supplement the station grounding
system.
Longer ground rods may be driven.
Burying more ground electrodes and by bonding water pipes, gas pipes, piles,
structural steelwork and the foundations of buildings to the ground grid. Water piping
and gas piping, being in direct contact with the soil will substantially reduce the station
ground resistance.
However the outgoing pipes may transfer some of the ground-grid voltage outside the
station. To avoid these undesirable transferred voltage hazards, all pipes should be
fitted with insulating joints at the point of entry to the station.

5-20

Control of Voltage-Gradient
Gradient control ground mats are installed at
the operating handle of manually operated
isolating and ground-switches. These mats
should be connected to the structure supporting
the switches, and to the ground grid by means
of copper conductors of suitable size. See Rule
36-310 of the Electrical Safety Code

High voltage sub-station sites are covered with a layer of crushed stone
to a depth of about 6 inches. This has the effect of reducing the step
and touch voltage hazards because of the relatively high resistivity of
the stone.
Substation Fence
Electrical regulations usually require that the substation fence be
located at least one metre inside the perimeter of the station ground
grid. The fence must be connected to the ground grid at various places
This reduces the touch voltage for a person standing outside, and
touching the fence.
Fence grounding is very important because the outside of the fence is
usually accessible to the general public, and fences located near the
edge of a grounding grid straddle high potential gradients.
This reduces the touch voltage for a person standing outside, and
touching the fence.

5-21

Some utilities choose to have substation fences


isolated from the station grounding system
since touch voltages on the exterior side may
be reduced.

However, if the station fence:


-is located within 2 metres of any grounded equipment
-crosses a grounded railway siding
-has devices such as exterior telephones, card readers, or electric gate
locks which are wired to the station then the fence should be connected
to the station ground grid.

In situations where the substation fence joins a private metallic fence,


transferred voltage problems may arise. Installing wooden or masonry
panels to provide isolation between the two fences can resolve this
problem. These panels should be at least 2 metres wide to avoid the
touch hazard between outstretched hands.

5-22

Precautions to be Taken When Working in


High-Voltage Substations
Measures that may be taken by persons
working in High-Voltage Substations to reduce
the hazards of possible injury from step and
touch voltages are:

Wear electrically resistive footwear (with an `' label on


them) to reduce the effects of step and touch voltages.

Wear electrically insulating rubber gloves when manually


operating isolating or disconnect switches and grounding
switches.

Stand on a voltage gradient control mat when manually


operating high-voltage switches.

5-23

GPR and Transferred Voltages

GPR and Transferred Voltages


Hazards of Communications cables Entering High-Voltage
Substations
Control of Transferred Voltage Hazards
Neutralizing Transformers
Optical Isolation Equipment

5-24

GPR and Transferred Voltages


As discussed earlier transferred voltage contact
is a special case of touch voltage. It occurs
when a person standing on the ground touches
a conductor grounded only at a remote point; or
a person standing at a remote point touches a
conductor connected only to the ground grid.

Here the touch voltage may be essentially equal to the


full voltage rise of the ground grid under fault conditions,
and not the fraction of this total that is encountered in
the usual `step' or `touch' contacts.
This transferred voltage condition is extremely
hazardous and care must be taken to ensure that this
situation is avoided.

5-25

A common example of a transferred voltage hazard is where


communication cables run between a high-voltage sub-station and
a telephone company office.

If we take a simple single-pair telephone circuit as an example, one end


of the cable pair is terminated at the high-voltage substation, and the
other end at the telephone company central office remote from the
substation. Under normal conditions the ground potential of both of the
sites is the same.

However, when a ground fault occurs at the substation the voltage of


the ground grid at the substation rises, possibly by as much as 5,000
volts relative to the remote ground at the other end of the telephone
circuit. This can cause serious damage to the communications
equipment, and poses a serious hazard to any personnel who may be
using or working on the circuit.

5-26

Two devices that are commonly used to control this hazard are
neutralizing transformers and teleline optical isolators.
Neutralizing Transformers
The diagram above shows a neutralizing transformer for a single
pair telephone circuit.

5-27

Optical Isolation Equipment

The Positron Teleline Isolator shown above provides 10 kV of optical


isolation for each communication circuit that is routed through the
equipment.

5-28

5-29

5-30

6HFWLRQ

Feeder Overcurrent Protection

Feeder Overcurrent
Protection

6 -1

FEEDER OVERCURRENT PROTECTION


By far the most common type of
protection for radial distribution feeders is
O v e r c u r r e n t protection.Typical
distribution system voltages are 44 kV, 33
kV & 25 kV.
The point of supply is normally a few
kilometres from the load.

The ideal way of protecting any piece of power system equipment


is to compare the current entering that piece of equipment, with the
current leaving it. Under normal healthy conditions the two are
equal. If the two currents are not equal, then a fault must exist. This
`Differential Protection' principal will be covered later when we
discuss bus protection, and transformer protection, etc. It is not
economic or practical to provide a communication channel between
the ends of a feeder to enable the currents entering and leaving the
feeder to be compared.

6 -2

W i t h R a d i a l feeders there is only one


possible point of supply, and the flow of
fault current is in o n e d i r e c t i o n o n l y .
Overcurrent protection can therefore be
used to provide adequate protection.

The current entering the feeder at the


circuit breaker is measured by means of a
Current Transformer located at the base
of the breaker bushing. The C.T.
secondary current is supplied to the
overcurrent relays. These overcurrent
relays must then operate and initiate
tripping if a fault condition is detected on
the feeder.

6 -3

800:5A

CIRCUIT
BREAKER

TRIP

FUSES
OVERCURRENT
RELAY

The overcurrent protection at the supply end of the feeder must


operate for all faults on the feeder, but should not operate for
faults beyond the remote station `B'. If we first consider an
instantaneous overcurrent relay, then the setting is determined by
the magnitude of the fault current at the end of the feeder.
Let us assume that the fault current at that point is 4800 amps.
Ideally the relay will be set for 4800 primary amps, (or

4800
800

x 5

amps = 30 secondary amps) and it should not operate for any


fault beyond the bus at the remote station.
However, in practice it is not possible to be so precise for the
following reasons:

6 -4

a.

It is not possible for the relay to differentiate


between faults which are very close to, but which
are on each side the Bus `B', since the difference in
the currents would be extremely small.

b . Inaccuracies in the C.T's and relays, and the


effects of distortion of the current waveform under
transient conditions produce errors in the response
of the protection scheme.
c.

The magnitude of the fault current cannot be


accurately established since all of the parameters
may not be known, and the source impedance of
the power system changes as generators are put
in and out of service.

One solution to this problem is to set the instantaneous overcurrent


relay to `overreach' the remote terminal, (i.e. a setting less than
4800 primary amps), and introduce a definite time delay in the
tripping. This time delay will allow the fuses or overcurrent relays at
the remote station to operate to clear faults beyond bus `B' before
the time delayed tripping can take place at the supply station `A'.
This type of time delay has the major disadvantage that all faults
will be slow clearing, even very `close-in' faults, which have the
highest magnitude of fault current.
This time-delayed clearing of high fault currents is usually
unacceptable, and the most common feeder protection scheme,
which overcomes the problem utilizes an inverse time overcurrent
relay in conjunction with the instantaneous overcurrent relay. The
application of this feeder protection scheme, utilizing both
instantaneous and inverse time overcurrent relays is described
next:

6 -5

In order to ensure that the


instantaneous overcurrent relay will not
unnecessarily operate for faults at the
remote station, (which should be cleared
by the overcurrent protection or fuses at
that station) then it must be set to
protect only part of the feeder. A safe
maximum for most types of relay is 80%
of the feeder length.

The limit is determined by the characteristics of the relay used, and


the length of the feeder. If the feeder is long a high percentage of
the line can be protected; but with short lines it may be less; and
with very short lines it may not be possible to apply instantaneous
overcurrent protection.
This type of protection is known as High-Set Instantaneous
overcurrent protection.

6 -6

With such a relay set to detect faults on


80% of the feeder, the remaining 20% is
left unprotected. This is, of course, not
acceptable. To provide protection for the
l a s t 2 0 % o f t h e f e e d e r a t i m e- g r a d e d , o r
I n v e r s e D e f i n i t e M i n i m u m T i m e relay
can be used.

This type of relay provides timed overcurrent protection, and


maintains coordination with the fuses or overcurrent relays at the
remote station. The operating time of the relay is inversely
proportional to the current.
i.e. For very high fault currents the relay will operate in it's minimum
time; and for fault currents only slightly above the relay pick-up
current there will be a very long operating time.

6 -7

OPERATING TIME (SECONDS)

RELAY OPERATING CURRENT (AMPS)

The `Inverse definite minimum time' relay has a characteristic as


shown above.

6 -8

OPERATING TIME (SECONDS)

INVERSE TIME RELAY

FUSE

RELAY OPERATING CURRENT (AMPS)

If we superimpose the fuse characteristic of one of the transformer


fuses at the remote station, onto the above overcurrent relay
characteristic, we can see how the relay settings at the supply
station are coordinated with the transformer fuse. With this
scheme of protection, utilizing High-Set overcurrent relays,
Inverse Definite Minimum Time overcurrent relays, and fuses,
we will consider the response of the protection scheme to faults at
various locations.

6 -9

800:5A

F2
TRIP

o / c

1.

F1
o / c

For a Fault at point X on the feeder, ONLY the High-Set


Instantaneous overcurrent relay will operate and clear the
fault with no intentional time delay.

2.

For a fault at point Y on the feeder, it is beyond the `reach'


of the High-set instantaneous relay, therefore that relay will
not operate. The inverse timed overcurrent relay will operate
after a time delay determined by the magnitude of the fault
current and the relay characteristic.

3.

For a fault at point Z , it is again beyond the `reach' of the


High-set Instantaneous relay. The Inverse Timed overcurrent
relay will begin to start to start timing, but the fuse on the
feeder F1 will operate first and clear the fault. The inverse
timed overcurrent relay at station `A' will then reset.

6 -10

80%
800:5A

o / c

o / c

Now let us look at a typical utility feeder which supplies customer


transformers at many different points along it's length. The same
High-Set Instantaneous Overcurrent

and Inverse Timed

Overcurrent relays are used, and the H.S. relay must be set such
that it does not operate for faults beyond the first tap. The High-Set
relay will therefore be set to operate for faults up to 80% of the
distance to the first tap.

6 -11

The criteria used for setting the I n v e r s e-T i m e d


Overcurrent relay are:
1. The relay must not operate for the maximum load
current that will be carried by the feeder.
2. The relay setting must be sensitive enough for the
relay to operate and clear faults at the very end of
the feeder.
3. The relay operating characteristic must be set to
coordinate with other protection devices, such as
fuses, `downstream' from the supply station.

This type of protection scheme will provide adequate protection for


feeders. However, there are some disadvantages with this
arrangement, particularly on long overhead feeders. The main
disadvantage is that most faults will be slow in clearing because
the inverse time overcurrent relay must operate. This slow fault
clearing is usually disturbing to customers on the affected feeder.

As mentioned earlier, there is a very high incidence of faults


caused by lightning on overhead feeders, particularly at the lower
distribution voltages. Consequently, the great majority of faults on
such feeders are transient in nature, and can be cleared by
opening the breaker, with no permanent damage resulting.

6 -12

Protection schemes for this type of feeder can


b e e n h a n c e d b y a d d i n g a L o w - Set
I n s t a n t a n e o u s O v e r c u r r e n t relay, and
providing A u t o - R e c l o s i n g of the circuit breaker
after fault clearance. The low set instantaneous
overcurrent relay is set to operate for the
minimum fault current at the very end of the
feeder. This means that it will `Overreach', and
operate for faults in the transformers tapped on
the feeder. All faults will therefore be first
detected by the L o w - S e t r e l a y.

This relay then trips the breaker, and also initiates Auto-Reclose.
For about 90% of the faults this auto-reclose will be successful, and
the interruption to the customers is for only about 0.5 seconds. If,
however, the fault is permanent, such as a broken pole or a tree on
the line, then the auto-reclose will be unsuccessful. After the circuit
breaker has auto-reclosed the tripping from the Low-Set
overcurrent relay is disabled for 10 seconds. This means that
proper protection coordination will then take place: i.e.

6 -13

1. If the fault is in a transformer, then the fuse will


blow to isolate only the faulted transformer, and
leave the remainder of the feeder in service.
2. If the fault is on the feeder, beyond the first
tap, then the inverse timed overcurrent relay
will operate after a time delay, and the feeder
will trip a second time and `Lock Out'.
3. If the fault is close to the supply station, then
the High- Set overcurrent relay will operate and
trip the feeder a second time, with no
intentional time delay, and `Lock Out'.

6 -14

R
W
B
4800 A

800/5A
CURRENT FLOW
SHOWN FOR A BLUE
PHASE TO GROUND
FAULT ON THE
FEEDER
BUS
PROTECTION
C.T.S
NORMAL LOAD CURRENT = 400 A
I.E. SECONDARY CURENT = 2.5 A

4800 A

FEEDER

A typical feeder overcurrent a.c. schematic diagram, showing all


three phases, is shown above. The diagram includes High-Set
Instantaneous, Inverse Time, and Low-Set Instantaneous
relays. Very often the High-Set Instantaneous and Inverse Time
overcurrent relays are built into a single relay case. Until a few
years ago, all of these relays were electro-mechanical, and often in
separate relay cases. i.e. The H.S. Instantaneous - attracted
armature, and the Inverse Time - induction disc. More recently
electronic relays were used, and the settings are applied by
changing the position of `DIP' switches. These electronic
overcurrent relays were much more compact, and were functionally
identical to the electro-mechanical overcurrent relays.
Today,

almost

all

overcurrent

relays

being

installed

are

microprocessor-based, and have many functions in the one relay.


As well as the protection functions described, these relays have
many more features available, such as event recording, waveform
capture, fault location and frequency trend load-shedding. These
features of modern microprocessor-based relays will be discussed
later.
6 -15

125 VDC

+ ve

H.S. INST
o/c

L.S. INST
o/c

INV.
TIME

OPEN FOR 10 SECONDS


AFTER BREAKER CLOSE
OR RECLOSE

o/c

INITIATE
A U T O- R E C L O S E

ALARM

TRIP
BREAKER

TRIP RELAY

- ve

The d.c. tripping circuit for such an overcurrent protection scheme


is shown above: A typical 27.6 kV feeder arrangement is shown on
the next page. The fault levels at various points on the feeder are
indicated, and the overcurrent protection settings are shown.
The protection coordination curves for the various relays and fuses
are included on a later page.

6 -16

PROTECTION COORDINATION

TIME IN SECONDS

CURVES FOR M4 FEEDER


100

30
20

INVERSE TIMED
OVERCURRENT

300 E
FUSE

10
5
3
2

NORMAL
LOAD 400
AMPS

H I G H- SET
INSTANTANEOUS
OVERCURRENT 6,000
AMPS

.5
L O W -S E T I N S T A N T A N E O U S
OVERCURRENT 1900 AMPS
(BLOCKED ON RECLOSURE)

.3
.2
.1
100

200

500 1000

2000

6000

10,000

20,000

CURRENT IN AMPS AT 27.6 K V

27.6 kV TRANSFORMER STATION


AND FEEDER ARRANGEMENT

T1
B Bus

3 Phase Fault Values

M4

T2

M4 Load
20 MVA 400 amps at 28.9 kV

700 MVA
14000 amps

Y Bus

10 mile feeder
Fuse 300 E
MS #1

M4 Relay Settings
MVA

AMPS

Phase High Set

300

6000

Phase Low Set

95

1900

Phase Timed

50

1000 (minimum
pickup)

600 MVA
12000 amps
100 MVA
2000 amps

250 MVA
5000 amps
MS #2

90 MVA
1800 amps

6 -17

C R I T E R I A F O R S E T T I N G T H E I N V E R S ETIMED OVERCURRENT RELAY


1 . The relay must not operate for the maximum
load current that will be carried by the feeder.
i.e. COLD LOAD PICK- U P a n d B A C K T O-B A C K
FEEDER LOADS
2 . The relay setting must be sensitive enough for
the relay to operate and clear faults at the very
end of the feeder.
3 . The relay operating characteristic must be set
to coordinate with other protection devices,
such as fuses, downstream from the supply
station.

CRITERIA FOR SETTING THE HIGH-SET


INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT RELAY
1. The relay must be set to operate for faults up to,
but not beyond, the first tap from the feeder.
2. In practice, the relay is set to operate for faults up
to 80% of the distance to the first tap.
This provides high-speed clearance for the high
level faults close to the supply station.

6 -18

CRITERIA FOR SETTING THE LOW-SET


INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT RELAY
1 . The relay must operate for all faults on the
feeder, right up to the feeder end.
This provides high- speed initial clearance for all
faults on the feeder.
For 10 seconds after the feeder breaker autorecloses, the tripping from the low-set relay is
blocked.

6 -19

DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION


If there is generation connected to a distribution feeder,
the system is no longer R A D I A L .

Fault current can then flow in either direction into the


feeder from the power system or out of the feeder from
the generator

A directional relay or element must be used to supervise


the overcurrent relay elements to allow the overcurrent
protection to trip O N L Y if the fault current flows into the
feeder from the power system.

Directional Overcurrent Protection


Overcurrent protection is used extensively on radial distribution
systems, where the fault current can only flow in one direction. If
there is generation connected to a distribution feeder, then fault
current can flow in either direction, and the system is no longer
radial. If the generation is large (typically above about 5 MW) in
comparison to the normal load on the feeder, then the feeder
overcurrent protection at the supply station requires directional
supervision. A directional relay or element is used to supervise the
overcurrent relay elements to allow the overcurrent protection to
trip only if the fault current flows into the feeder from the power
system. The directional relay prevents tripping if fault current from
the generator flows out from the feeder to a fault elsewhere on the
power system.

6 -20

TESTING OF FEEDER OVERCURRENT


PROTECTION
The individual C.T's of the feeder overcurrent
protection scheme are tested as described
earlier. With overcurrent protection the C.T.
polarity is not of critical importance. However,
the relative polarity of all three phases must be
the same. The individual relay elements are
tested by injecting a variable test current into
the C.T. secondary circuit, via links or switches
on the front of the relay panel.

The `pick-up' current of the instantaneous relays is verified, and for


the inverse time relays 3 or 4 values of current are injected, and the
relay operating time is verified in comparison to the relay
characteristic curve.
With the feeder `on-load', the current in the C.T. secondary circuit
should be measured, and compared to the indicating ammeter
readings, and with the secondary current from the C.T's on the
opposite side of the circuit breaker.

6 -21

Microprocessor-Based Feeder
Protection Relays
Most feeder protection relays being installed today
are microprocessor- b a s e d , a n d i n c l u d e m a n y
functions within the one relay.
As well as the basic instantaneous and inversetimed overcurrent functions, these relays also
include many other protection functions and
additional features.

Directional Supervision
Undervoltage and Overvoltage
Bus underfrequency & Rate-of-change
Synchronism Check
Negative Sequence Voltage
Auto-reclose
Event Recording
Oscillography, or Waveform Capture
Fault Location

6 -22


6HFWLRQ

Coordination of Protection Systems

Coordination of Protection
Systems

7-1

COORDINATION OF PROTECTION SYSTEMS


As described earlier, one fundamental requirement of
all protection systems is selectivity or discrimination.
This means that only the faulted power system
elements should be disconnected to clear the fault,
leaving all unfaulted equipment in service.
On radial power distribution systems, where the flow
of fault current is in one direction only, time-current
coordination is generally used.

On interconnected transmission systems, where there are many


sources of fault current, the flow of fault current can be in any
direction. Unit type protection schemes, such as differential
protection, are generally used. These

unit-protection schemes

operate with no intentional time delay, and provide high-speed


clearance of faults before power system instability results.

7-2

TIME-CURRENT COORDINATION
On radial distribution systems overcurrent devices
such as fuses and inverse-time overcurrent relays are
generally used to provide protection. The magnitude
of the available fault current at any point on the feeder
is determined by the impedance of the power system
from the point of the fault to the source of supply.
Consequently, the available fault current decreases as
the distance from the supply station increases.
Overcurrent devices are therefore generally used, in
series, with progressively lower ratings, to protect
various sections of distribution feeders.

7-3

Current limiting 80E power fuse


34.5kV, 60Hz, 25 C ambient

Time in Seconds

Maximum
clearing time

Minimum
melting time

Current in Amps

FUSE-TO-FUSE COORDINATION
The time-current characteristic of a typical fuse is shown above,
and is represented by a band between the minimum melting time
and the maximum clearing time of the fuse element.

7-4

SOURCE

FUSE A

Fuse A minimum
melting TC curve

75% of Fuse A
curve (in time)
Time

FUSE B

FAULT

Fuse B total clearing


TC curve

LOAD

Coordination limit

Current

For correct coordination between two fuses in series, it is important


to ensure that the characteristic bands for the two fuses do not
intersect and overlap at any point, when plotted on the same graph.
To provide an adequate coordination margin for two fuses A and B
connected in series, and a fault at point X, the total clearing time for
fuse B would be 75% of the minimum melting time of fuse A.
Similarly, the time-current characteristics of fuses are coordinated
with those of overcurrent relays associated with circuit breakers
and relosers. Again, adequate margins are applied to ensure that
the characteristic curves do not intersect and overlap when plotted
on the same log-log graph, or on one of the many computer
coordination software packages that are available.
A typical coordination software package is available from the
Canadian company CYME International Inc. at www.cyme.com

7-5

An example of computer
software for power system
protective device coordination is:

cyme.com
CYMTCC, Protective device
coordination

7-6

PROTECTIVE RELAYING ZONES


The following diagram shows a section of a typical
power system, comprising:
2 Transmission Lines
2 Transformers
2 33 kV Buses
4 33 kV Feeders
Each of these power system elements must have a
protective relaying scheme; and no part of the system
should be unprotected.
When applying protective relaying to such a system, we
refer to PROTECTION ZONES.

7-7

Adjacent zones are separated by circuit breakers, and are shown in


the diagram above. Protective relaying zones are determined very
largely by the location of the current transformers. It is good
practice, where practical, to establish overlapping protection zones
by locating C.T.'s on the opposite side of the circuit breaker from
the power system element being protected. The overlapping of
adjacent protection zones across the circuit breakers is illustrated
by the location of the current transformers in the above diagram.

7-8

For example, where a feeder is supplied from a bus:


1. THE FEEDER PROTECTION C.T.'s MUST BE
LOCATED ON THE BUS SIDE OF THE CIRCUIT
BREAKER.
2. THE BUS PROTECTION C.T.'s MUST BE
LOCATED ON THE FEEDER SIDE OF THE
CIRCUIT BREAKER.

Referring to the diagram on the previous page, there is no circuit


breaker between each transformer and it's associated transmission
line. However, both the transformer and the line each has it's own
protection scheme, and there must be an overlap between the
transformer and line protections.
i.e. The line protection must `reach' into the transformer winding.
Because there is no circuit breaker between the transformer and
the line, BOTH of these elements will be tripped for either a
transformer fault or a line fault.

7-9

REQUIREMENT FOR BACK-UP PROTECTION


It is extremely important that power system faults be
cleared as quickly as possible - even if there is a
failure of a circuit breaker or protection system.
During our earlier discussion on feeder overcurrent
protection we saw that the inverse timed overcurrent
relay characteristics are set to co-ordinate, and
provide back-up to downstream devices such as
overcurrent relays and/or fuses.

This type of time-graded back-up works fine for radial systems.


However, it is not possible to apply time-graded back-up protection
to interconnected transmission systems. In order to achieve the
required reliability on transmission systems it is usual to duplicate
all of the protective relaying systems to ensure that a single
component failure does not result in the failure of a fault being
cleared from the power system. It is not, of course, practical to
duplicate circuit breakers. Breaker-failure protection is therefore
provided to ensure that the failure of a circuit breaker does not
result in an uncleared fault, and possible power system collapse.

7-10

7-11

BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION


On radial distribution systems the flow of fault current
can be in one direction only. Faults that are uncleared
because of a failed breaker will be cleared by the BackUp feature of the protection scheme of the next system
element closer to the source of supply. This was
discussed earlier under `Feeder Protection'. The `BackUp' feature is provided by coordinating the
TIME/CURRENT characteristics of the overcurrent
protection schemes for adjacent system elements.

On interconnected systems, such as the high voltage


transmission system, fault current can flow in either
direction, and the application of such `Back-Up' protection
is not possible. If a transmission system fault is uncleared
because of the failure of a Circuit Breaker, the effects can
be enormous. There would be indiscriminate tripping of
transmission lines and generators, and a power system
collapse could easily result.
Breaker Failure protection is therefore provided on ALL
circuit breakers on the transmission system.

7-12

SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM OF BREAKER FAILURE


PROTECTION FOR HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
D.C. SUPPLY

(+)

INITIATING
CONTACTS

OVERCURRENT
SUPERVISION
(1000 AMPS)

50

BREAKER
AUXILIARY
SWITCH

TIMER 62 a
(67 ms)
52
TIMER 62 b
(105 ms)

52

BREAKER
AUXILIARY
SWITCH

TIMER
(500 ms) 62 c

94 ET

TRIP FAILED
BREAKER

94

TRIP ALL
BREAKERS
ON BOTH
ADJACENT
ZONES

A simplified diagram of a typical breaker failure protection scheme


for a high voltage circuit breaker is shown above.
This scheme is used by Ontario Hydro, Canada, on all 230 kV and
500 kV circuit breakers.

7-13

TRIPPING
When the breaker failure protection operates it
must trip ALL of the circuit breakers on BOTH
adjacent zones, including the breakers at the
remote end of associated lines.
The breaker failure protection tripping relays
`seal-in' for 45 seconds. This holds the
tripping signal on to all of the tripped breakers
and prevents them from auto-reclosing.

SPEED
The speed of operation of breaker failure protection must be
fast enough to prevent indiscriminate tripping of power
system elements, and to prevent the power system from
going unstable. Typically a fault would be cleared in 150 to
200 milli-seconds by the operation of the breaker failure
protection.
INITIATION
Breaker failure protection is initiated by all of the protection
schemes that send trip signals to that breaker.
OVERCURRENT SUPERVISION
Breaker failure protection is supervised by high-speed
instantaneous overcurrent relays. These relays must have a
very fast reset time and a high pick-up/drop -out ratio.

7-14

RELAY SETTINGS
INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT SUPERVISION
RELAYS
The high speed instantaneous overcurrent supervision relays are
typically set for 1,000 primary amps.

TIMER 62a
The criterion for setting the 62a timing relay is the opening time
of the breaker auxiliary switch (pallet switch) PLUS a 2 cycle
margin. Typically this setting would be 4 cycles (or 67 milliseconds for a 60 Hz power system). This leg of the circuit
provides the fastest operation of the breaker failure protection. It
will operate if the auxiliary switch has not opened within 67 milliseconds after the trip signal is sent to the breaker, breaker failure
protection is initiated, and fault current is still flowing.

TIMER 62b
The criterion for setting the 62b timing relay is the
breaker tripping time, PLUS the reset time of the
overcurrent supervision relays, PLUS a 2 cycle
margin. Typically this setting would be just over 5
cycles.
This leg of the circuit is the one which will operate if
the breaker auxiliary switch opens, but the main
contacts fail to interrupt the fault current.

7-15

TIMER 62c
The purpose of this leg of the circuit is to provide
breaker failure protection when there are low
magnitudes of fault current, below the 1,000 amp pickup of the overcurrent supervision relays. (e.g. For faults
at the remote end of very long lines). The contacts of
this relay are not supervised by the overcurrent relay,
and the setting is typically 500 milli-seconds or 0.5
seconds. This slow clearance of such faults can be
tolerated because fault currents of less than 1,000
amps would not jeopardize the stability of the power
system.

EARLY TRIP FEATURE


The purpose of the 94ET relay is to provide an EARLY TRIP
feature to prevent unnecessary operation of the breaker failure
protection tripping relays for inadvertent or accidental initiation of
the breaker failure protection. Such inadvertent initiation of breaker
failure protection is most likely to occur during trip testing by
maintenance personnel. When breaker failure is initiated, the 94ET
relay operates immediately, and sends a trip signal to the breaker.
If the breaker trips successfully, the breaker failure protection trip
relays will not operate.

7-16

(+)

D.C. SUPPLY

INITIATING CONTACTS
52

TIMER
0.3 SECS
94 ET

TRIP FAILED
BREAKER

BREAKER AUXILIARY
SWITCH

62

94

TRIP ALL BREAKERS


ON BOTH ADJACENT
ZONES

BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION FOR L.V. BREAKERS


When breaker failure protection is provided for low voltage
breakers, such as on the L.V. side of transformers at transformer
stations, (e.g. 25 Kv, 33 kV, 50 kV) a much simpler scheme is
used. This is shown in the simplified diagram above. There is no
overcurrent supervision, and the breaker failure protection will
simply operate if the breaker auxiliary switch (or pallet switch) has
not opened 200 milli-seconds, or 0.2 seconds, after the trip signal
is sent to the breaker and breaker fail is initiated. An early trip
feature is provided as before, via the 94ET relay.

7-17

AUTO-RECLOSING OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS


As discussed earlier, it is usual to apply auto-reclose to
feeder breakers on overhead distribution systems
where the vast majority of the faults are transient in
nature - mostly caused by lightning. Because these
distribution systems are usually radial the auto-reclose
scheme does not need any supervision. Typically the
breaker would be set to auto-reclose after a time delay
of 0.5 seconds.

The fault is cleared and the arc extinguished as soon as the


breaker is opened. The time delay is sufficient to allow the ionized
air to dissipate at the point of flashover where the arc was
established, and allow for a successful auto-reclose.
On high-voltage transmission systems, when a line trips there is a
good possibility that the power system will be 'split', and the two
ends of the line will fall out-of-synchronism. If high-speed autoreclose is applied, then there is a very short delay and the breakers
are reclosed before the two ends of the line can fall out-ofsynchronism, and no voltage supervision is required.

7-18

If delayed auto-reclose is applied, then voltage


supervision and synchro-check relays are required.
The auto-reclose scheme would be set to have the
breaker at one end of the line reclose after a timedelay of, say 10 seconds, provided the line is still
dead. The breaker at the other end of the line would
be set to wait for the line to be re-energised, check
the voltages across the breaker, verify that the two
voltages are in-synchronism, and then reclose the
circuit breaker.

7-19

6HFWLRQ

Bus Protection

Bus Protection

8-1

BUS PROTECTION
The main bus in transformer stations is one of the most
critical pieces of equipment in our power distribution
and transmission systems. Faults on buses are very
serious events because they usually result in
widespread outages. The fault level on the bus is
usually very high because it is close to the main source
of supply, and may have multiple in-feeds. Faults on
buses are almost always permanent, and auto-reclosing
is therefore not applicable.

Reliable bus protection is essential for all power systems, from the
switchboards of industrial plants, to high-voltage buses in utility
substations. The consequences of an uncleared bus fault are
enormous. Also, the unnecessary tripping of a bus due to the
maloperation of the bus protection scheme can cause widespread
outages.
The choice of the type of bus protection to apply for any particular
location is very largely dependent upon the voltage level, and
whether the bus is supplied from a radial system, or is part of an
interconnected system.

8-2

For buses that are part of interconnected


systems, where there is more than one possible
in-feed for fault current, differential protection
is most appropriate. This is typical for utility
substations at voltage levels of about 13.8 kV
and above.

For buses supplied from radial systems, where there is only one
source of supply, overcurrent protection is appropriate. This is
typical in industrial plants where the bus voltage may be 4.16 kV or
600 volts, and is supplied from a single transformer. Instantaneous
overcurrent and inverse-timed overcurrent devices are used, with
settings selected to coordinate with the downstream devices, as
discussed earlier.

8-3

8-4

6000A

25A

25A

25A

25A

1200:5A

RELAY

1200:5A

6000A
6000A

25A

25A

F1

F2

BASIC CONCEPT OF DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


The ideal way to protect any power system element is to compare
the current entering that element, with the current leaving it. If there
is no fault condition, then the two quantities are equal. For a fault
condition the two quantities are unequal, and the difference in
currents passes through a relay, and the fault condition is detected.
This principle is known as DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION.
The diagram above illustrates the principle of Differential Protection
in it's simplest form:
In the above example there is THROUGH or OUT OF ZONE fault
current of 6,000 Amps. The currents in the C.T. secondary circuits
circulate, and there is no SPILL into the relay. Hence, the Bus
Protection does not operate, and remains stable.

8-5

4000A

2000A

6000A

16.7A

8.3A
25A

16.7A

8.3A

RELAY

1200:5A

1200:5A

25A

4000A

16.7A

F1

2000A

8.3A

F2

We now consider a fault on the bus, of the same 6,000 Amps. The
current in both C.T.'s is now in the same direction, and the current
in the C.T. secondary circuit no longer circulates. The two C.T.
secondary currents are summed, and the total of 25 Amps passes
through the differential relay. For this IN ZONE fault, the relay will
operate and initiate tripping.

8-6

From the two examples we can see the importance of


the C.T. connections:

THE C.T. POLARITIES MUST BE CORRECT


RELATIVE TO EACH OTHER.
THE C.T. RATIOS MUST BE THE SAME.

The C.T. excitation characteristics must also be the


same.
As mentioned earlier, it is very important that none of
the C.T.'s saturate during the maximum fault condition.
If one C.T. in a differential protection scheme saturates
for a THROUGH fault, then some unbalance will result.

This unbalance will cause some SPILL current to flow through the
relay. If this SPILL current is high enough, it can cause the Bus
Protection to maloperate, and trip the bus unnecessarily for a
THROUGH or OUT OF ZONE fault.

8-7

18,000A

75A
2.5A

8.33A

20.83

12.5

8.33

1200:5A

RELAY
75A

6000A

2000A

F1

5000A

F2

3000A

F3

2000A

F4

F5

APPLICATION TO VARIOUS BUS CONFIGURATIONS


We can now extend this theory to a bus with many lines connected
to it. Take the following example of a bus with 5 feeders connected
to it. For a total bus fault current of 18,000 Amps, the fault current
in each feeder is:
F1 = 6,000 Amps

F2 = 2,000 Amps

F3 = 5,000 Amps

F4 = 3,000 Amps
F5 = 2,000 Amps

RELAY CURRENT = 75 Amps.


Now, as an exercise, draw the C.T. currents if the same 18,000
Amp fault is in feeder F5.
The C.T. secondary currents once again balance, and the Bus
Protection remains stable for the THROUGH fault.

8-8

8-9

NOTE.
Differential Bus Protection will NEVER
operate as BACK-UP protection for
uncleared faults on other parts of the
power system. For example, an uncleared
fault on F5.
Also note the location of the C.T.'s in the bus
protection schemes. As mentioned earlier, the
bus protection C.T.'s MUST be located on the
feeder side of the breakers. If the bus protection
C.T.'s are located on the bus side of the breaker,
then a protection blind spot exists.

8-10

T1

T2

F2

BT
B.U.
RELAY

F4
DIFF.
RELAY

F6

Now let us consider the Bus arrangement for a typical sub-station


with two supply transformers: The Bus protections for Buses C and
D are exactly the same as the previous examples. i.e The C.T.'s
are all connected in parallel, and all have the same ratio and
polarity. However, with this arrangement a BACK-UP protection
feature can be readily incorporated. If the feeders F2, F4, and F6
are RADIAL, then there can be no infeed from them for bus faults.
For a fault on BUS D, the fault current is supplied through the T2
and BT breakers ONLY.
Consequently, we can provide BACK-UP protection for the feeders
by using the T2 and BT breaker C.T.'s. The Back-up protection
relay is connected as shown, and will normally be an Inverse Time
Overcurrent Relay, and set to coordinate with the feeder protection
relays. Thus, if there is an uncleared fault on feeder F6 for example
(i.e. the breaker fails to clear the fault, or the protection fails to
operate), then the F6 fault current continues to flow through the T2
and BT C.T.'s. The sum of these two currents passes through the
D BUS back-up relay, which will operate after a time delay, and
clear the fault by tripping the D BUS breakers.

8-11

8-12

8-13

Types of Relays Used


Various types of fault detecting relays are used
in Bus Differential protection schemes. These
include instantaneous overcurrent, inverse timed
overcurrent, and high impedance relays. The
high impedance relays are becoming more
popular because they give much greater stability
under through fault conditions.

Bus Protection Relay Settings.


The settings applied to bus differential relays are determined
mainly by the minimum fault level on the bus. The relays are
usually set to operate at roughly half of that minimum fault current.
If the differential relay is set too low, then there is the risk that it will
maloperate for through faults, and cause unnecessary tripping of
the bus.

8-14

High Impedance Differential Protection


By using High Impedance relays in differential protection
the system can be designed to be more tolerant of a
saturated C.T.
The High Impedance relays typically have voltage
settings of 100 to 200 volts.
A non-linear resistor is connected across the relay
terminals to limit the voltage across the differential relay
to a safe value during fault conditions.

High impedance relays are used extensively in modern differential


protection for high voltage buses. The advantage of using High
Impedance relays in bus differential protections is that they can be
designed to remain stable (not operate) for external faults, when
any one of the C.Ts has saturated. For an external fault, the worst
case is with one C.T. completely saturated, and the other C.T.s not
saturated. The resulting differential current will cause the max imum
voltage to occur across the differential relay. A relay setting (in
volts) is chosen, with sufficient margin, to ensure that the
differential protection does not operate for this external fault
condition. The resistance of the C.T. secondary windings and C.T.
cabling must be known, and is used in the relay setting
calculations.
For internal faults the high impedance of the differential relay
forces much of the resulting differential current through the C.T.
exciting impedances. The resulting voltage developed across the
relay is essentially the open-circuit voltage of the C.T.s, and will be
well above the voltage setting of the relay. A non-linear resistor, or
varistor is connected across the relay terminals to limit the the
voltage to a safe value during fault conditions.

8-15

Bus Protection Tripping


When a bus fault is detected, all of the
circuit breakers on that bus are tripped.
Bus faults are almost always permanent,
rather than transient faults. There must
therefore be no auto-reclosing of breakers
after a bus fault. Bus protections will often
cancel the auto-reclose on any breaker
which may have been initiated by another
protection.

Testing of Bus Protection


The C.T. circuits of bus protections are of critical importance, and
great care must be taken to ensure that the ratio, polarity, and
characteristics are all correct.
The best way to test the C.T. circuits, after all of the wiring is
complete, is by PRIMARY INJECTION. Here a test current is
passed into the bus through one breaker, and out through a second
breaker. The C.T. secondary current is measured, and should
circulate, with no Spill into the relay. This test is repeated to
compare the current in each breaker in turn, with the first.
The fault detecting relays are tested by injecting a test current into
the C.T. secondary circuit, and into the relay. It is preferable to
inject the test current via test links on the front of the relay panel,
rather than test the relays on a bench. By injecting the test current
through test links on the panel, the C.T. secondary wiring as well
as the relay is tested.
With the Bus In-Service and On-Load, the C.T. secondary
currents should be measured. The vector sum of all of the currents
should be zero.
i.e. NO SPILL CURRENT THROUGH THE RELAY.
8-16

Many countries use busbar arrangements as shown above, where


feeders can be switched from one bus to another by means of
isolating switches. This complicates the bus protection somewhat,
because the C.T. secondary circuits must be switched, by means
of the isolator auxiliary switches, to correspond with the appropriate
bus.
It is usual to have one zone of protection for each section of the
bus. These are known as discriminating zones. There is also
another zone of differential protection for the entire substation,
which is known as the check zone. For tripping of a bus to take
place with this arrangement it is necessary for both a discriminating
zone relay and the check zone relay to operate.

8-17

8-18

6HFWLRQ

Motor Protection, Starting & Control

Motor Protection,
Starting & Control

9-1

MOTOR STANDARDS
ENCLOSURES

ODP -

Open Drip-Proof enclosure


For dry, clean non-corrosive locations. Water
droplets at 0 to 15 degrees from vertical will
not enter the motor enclosure ventilation
openings.

WPI - Weather Protected I


This enclosure is similar to the ODP, but
with additional shielding to protect the
windings and bearings from water spray.

WPII - Weather Protected II


Further shielding is provided on this type of enclosure to
change the direction of the cooling air by three 90 degree
turns to minimize the amount of moisture that can enter the
motor.
TEFC - Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled
With this type of motor no outside air enters the enclosure.
Cooling is provided by an externally mounted fan which
blows air over the surface of the enclosure.
TEFC EXPLOSION PROOF
This type of motor enclosure is required in hazardous
locations, with the following classifications:
CLASS I - ExplosiveVapours/Gases
CLASS II - Explosive Dusts
CLASS III - Explosive Fibres
DIVISION I - Hazardous materials normally present
DIVISION II - Hazardous materials may be present

9-2

INSULATION TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATIONS


CLASS B - 130 Degrees C Max.
CLASS F - 155 Degrees C Max.
CLASS H - 180 Degrees C Max

These temperature classifications indicate the


maximum temperature that can be tolerated in the
hottest part of the winding.

SERVICE FACTOR
Service factor is a classification of the capability of a
motor to tolerate periodic overloading. Typical
service factors are 1.0 and 1.15
A service factor of 1.0 means that damage

may occur whenever the motor full load current


rating is exceeded.
A service factor of 1.15 means that an

overload of 15% can be tolerated periodically


without seriously effecting the life of the motor.

9-3

EFFICIENCY
The efficiency of a motor is a measure of
the ability of to convert electrical input in
kW, to mechanical output at the shaft, in
H.P. There are considerable energy and
cost savings to be realized by using high
efficiency motors. Typical values for high
efficiency motors range from 82% for 1
HP to 95% for 500 HP.

9-4

MOTOR PROTECTION AND CONTROL


The vast majority of motors in industrial
applications are induction motors, with supply
voltages of 600 Volts or less. The following
protection requirements are applicable to these
motors.
OVERLOAD PROTECTION

Motors may be overloaded due to mechanical


or electrical causes, and overload protection
applies to both. The line current is proportional
to the motor load, and so this current is used to
activate the overload protection device.

Overload protection of three-phase motors is achieved in most


controllers by heating elements in series with all three motor leads.
These bimetallic heating elements activate electrical contacts,
which open the coil circuit when used on magnetic controllers.
When used on manual starters or controllers, the heating elements
release a mechanical trip to drop out the line contacts. These
bimetallic overload devices have inverse-time characteristics as
discussed earlier. Consequently, for a very small percentage
overload it may take a considerable time before tripping takes
place. However, for a very heavy overload fast tripping is achieved.
Ideally, the time-current characteristic of the thermal overload
device should coordinate with the damage curve of the motor.

9-5

The setting of the overload device depends


upon the service factor of the motor. For a
service factor of less than 1.15 the maximum
overload setting should be 115% of the full
load current rating of the motor. For a service
factor of 1.15 or greater the maximum
overload setting should be 125% of the full
load current rating. (Typical electrical
regulations).

A coordination diagram showing the thermal overload, motor


damage curves, and motor currents is included on the next page.

9-6

OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
Overcurrent protection is required for the motor
branch circuits.
Overcurrent protection is provided by fuses or a
circuit breaker, to detect and clear faults on the
cable supplying the motor, or in the motor itself.
Contactors are used to control motor operation.
However, contactors have a very limited fault
interrupting capability, and are not used to clear
faults (other than overloads).

9-7

GROUND FAULT PROTECTION


Ground fault protection is normally only provided on
motors larger than about 200 HP. The three phase
conductors are passed through a window-type zerosequence current transformer which supplies a ground
overcurrent relay. Operation of this ground fault relay
then causes tripping of the motor.
The ground fault relay can also be supplied from the
residual connection of the three phase C.T.'s.
However, on motor starting current, unequal C.T.
saturation can cause a residual current to flow in the
relay, and appear as a ground fault.

When considering ground fault protection we must first determine how


the neutral of the power supply system is grounded.

The magnitude of the ground-fault current is determined by the method


by which the supply transformer neutral is grounded. In many industrial
plants the neutral of the supply transformer is grounded through a
resistor to limit the ground-fault current. Typically the neutral of the 600
volt winding of the transformer is grounded through a 15 Ohm resistor,
which limits the maximum ground-fault current to 23.1 amps.

For small motors on this system, of less than about 20 HP, motor
ground faults will be cleared by the operation of the phase overcurrent
device, or the thermal overload device.

9-8

UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
Motors must be disconnected from the
source of supply for low-voltage conditions.
(Electrical Safety Code Rule 28-400). This
is usually provided by the contactor coil
releasing the contactor when an
undervoltage condition exists.

LOSS OF PHASE or SINGLE PHASING


This condition occurs whenever a fuse has
blown in the supply to the motor. The
condition is detected and cleared by
properly sized overload devices. Table 25
of the Electrical Safety Code requires that
an overload device be provided in each
phase. Older installations may have only
two overload devices on three-phase
motors.

9-9

MOTOR WINDING TEMPERATURE


Overheating protection may be required as
per Electrical Safety Code rules 28-314,
316 & 318. This is provided by temperature
sensors embedded in the motor stator
windings, which detect the high temperature
condition and trip the motor.

Very large motors, with supply voltages above 600 Volts, are
expensive, and it is usually wise to provide more comprehensive
protection schemes. Such schemes include differential protection,
phase unbalance or negative phase sequence, incomplete start
sequence, stall or locked rotor, and out-of-step.

9-10

MOTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


Differential protection is often provided for medium and large
size motors with supply voltages of greater than about 4 kV,
and electrically operated (shunt trip) circuit breakers. The
differential protection provides high speed direction and
clearance of faults on the motor stator windings.
Where the power supply system is solidly grounded the
differential protection will detect both phase-to-phase and
phase-to-ground faults.
Where the power system is resistance grounded, and the
maximum ground-fault current is limited to a low value, the
differential protection may not be sensitive enough to detect
phase-to-ground faults. In such cases it is necessary to
provide separate ground-fault protection as described
previously.

9-11

MOTOR STATOR WINDINGS

CIRCUIT BREAKER

DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION FOR MEDIUM SIZED MOTORS

With differential protection the current at each end of each winding is


compared to determine when a fault condition exists.
For medium size motors it is often possible to economize on C.T.'s and
use a single C.T. per phase. For each phase the connection from each
end of the winding is passed through the single C.T. as shown above.
Under healthy conditions the C.T. output will be zero. When a fault
exists a differential current flows in the C.T. secondary, and causes the
relay to operate.

9-12

MOTOR STATOR
WINDINGS

CIRCUIT BREAKER

DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION FOR VERY LARGE MOTORS

For very large motors a separate C.T. is used at each end of the
winding, for each of the three phases.
The C.T.'s are connected differentially as shown above, and under
healthy conditions the differential current in the relay is zero.
Under fault conditions there will be a different current in the two C.T.'s.
The C.T. secondary differential current will cause the relay to operate,
and send a trip signal to the circuit breaker to clear the fault and shut
down the motor.

9-13

MOTOR CONTROL AND STARTING


Contactors are used to switch the power
supply on and off for motor control. However,
as mentioned earlier, contactors have limited
fault current interrupting capability. The coil
of the contactor usually acts as the
undervoltage sensor to drop-out the
contactor for a low voltage condition.

9-14

FULL VOLTAGE STARTING


Full voltage starting is when the supply line voltage is applied directly to
the motor winding. This results in a very high starting current until the
motor reaches full speed. This high starting current of typically six
times full-load current causes a voltage drop in the supply system. It
is the simplest and cheapest method of starting because only one
contactor is used, and only three conductors are required for threephase motors. Full voltage starting is used for almost all motors of less
than about 100 HP, and wherever the voltage dip can be tolerated, and
the motor loads come up to speed quickly. A schematic diagram of a
typical motor control circuit for full voltage starting is shown above:

9-15

For larger motors where the high starting


current cannot be tolerated, some other type
of starting is employed which results in a lower
starting current. All of these starting systems
apply a reduced initial voltage to the motor for
typically 2 seconds, until the speed has
increased, at which time the full line voltage is
applied.

9-16

STAR-DELTA or WYE-DELTA STARTING


Initially the line-to neutral voltage is applied to
the motor windings (by connecting the windings
in star), and after a short time delay the full line
voltage is applied (by connecting the windings
in delta). Three contactors are required for this
system, and six conductors are required to
supply the motor. The motor starting torque is
reduced by 33%.

9-17

AUTOTRANSFORMER STARTING
Autotransformers are used to apply the
initial reduced voltage to the motor. This
system has the advantage that the
transformer tap settings can be varied to
change the voltage, and starting torque.
Also, only three conductors are required
to the motor.

9-18

PART WINDING STARTING


Part winding starting initially applies full line
voltage to one section of the motor winding,
and after a typical time delay of 2 seconds,
the remainder of the motor winding is
energised. Two contactors are required,
and six conductors are needed to the
motor.

9-19

9-20

SOLID STATE STARTING


With solid state starters a low voltage
is initially applied to the motor and is
gradually ramped up to full voltage.
The variable voltage is achieved by
waveform chopping using SCR's.

9-21

MICROPROCESSOR-BASED CONTROL &


PROTECTION DEVICES
Microprocessor-based devices are now widely
available to perform many motor control,
protection, metering, and monitoring functions.
These devices are commonly used on larger
motors (above about 2OO HP), where they
have become the most economical way of
providing all of the various functions. Input
signals are required from current transformers,
(and sometimes voltage transformers),
thermistors or RTD's, contactor status, etc.

The protection functions available in a typical motor management


device include overcurrent with a selection of overload curves
available, locked rotor, current unbalance or negative phase
sequence, ground fault, undervoltage, winding and bearing high
temperature.
These devices provide control of the motor contactors for various
starting configurations, such as star-delta, autotransformer, part
winding, and for two-speed and reversing, etc.
The metering function provides a display of motor current, voltage, kW,
power factor, and alarm conditions on the front panel of the device.
Also, communication ports are included to allow communication with
computers. This allows for the setup of the devices, and for remote
monitoring by plant computer control systems.
A descriptive leaflet of a typical motor management device is include at
the back of this section.

9-22

9-23

9-24

6HFWLRQ
Transformer Protection

Transformer Protection

10-1

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
The various types of protection schemes
for power system transformers include:
Differential protection
Overcurrent and ground fault
protection
Gas pressure relays
Oil and Winding temperature
devices

APPLICATION OF DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION TO


TRANSFORMERS
With Bus Differential protection we saw that we compared
the current entering the bus, with that leaving the bus, in
order to detect a fault.
With TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
we use the same principle. However, we must make a
few changes to adapt that principle for use on
transformers:

10-2

The C.T. ratios on the transformer primary and secondary


sides must be chosen to match the transformer ratio.

The C.T. secondary windings are usually delta


connected for a star connected transformer winding, and
star connected for a delta connected winding.This is to
accommodate the primary to secondary phase shift.

Some accommodation must be made for the transformer


tap changer, which, of course changes the primary to
secondary ratio of the transformer.

Some accommodation must also be made for the


magnetising inrush current which flows when the
transformer is energised. This inrush current can be as
high as ten times the full load current of the transformer,
and flows into the transformer, but not out.

NOTE: With modern microprocessor-based transformer protection


relays it is usual to connect the C.T,s in Star (or Wye) on both the
primary and secondary sides of the transformer. The transformer
winding configuration is programmed into the relay, and any phase
angle shift is taken care of by the relay microprocessor.

10-3

RESTRAINT
COILS

OPERATING
COIL

The C.T. ratios on the transformer primary and secondary sides are
chosen for a current balance with the tap changer in the mid, or
neutral position. As the tap changer moves away from the neutral
position, the unbalance between the primary and secondary C.T.
currents increases.
The transformer differential relay is designed especially to
accommodate this mismatch in the primary and secondary C.T.
currents. The transformer differential relay has both restraint (or
Bias) coils, and operate coils, as shown above.
The differential current flows through the operate coil to make
the relay pick-up, and the through current flows through the
restraint or bias coils, and tends to make the relay restrain.

10-4

If there is an out of zone fault when the tap changer is away from
the neutral tap, then the through C.T. secondary current flowing
through the restraint coils will overcome the tendency for the relay
to operate by the spill current flowing through the operate coil.

The differential relay will not operate for this out-of-zone fault
condition.

10-5

For the In-Zone fault shown the current through the operate coil
is very high, and the net restraining current is low.
The differential relay will operate for this In-Zone fault

10-6

When a transformer is energised, there is a


magnetising inrush current, which can be as high
as ten times the full load current of the transformer.
This high inrush current lasts for only a few cycles.
However, it can cause the differential relay to
operate because it has the appearance of an
internal fault (current flows into but not out of the
transformer).
This inrush current is predominantly second
harmonic. A filter is used to separate the second
harmonic component, and the output from this filter
is fed into the restraint coil of the relay to restrain
operation.

This feature is known as SECOND HARMONIC RESTRAINT, and


is incorporated into all modern transformer differential relays.
On microprocessor-based transformer differential relays the
restraint for magnetizing inrush is achieved in a different way. The
shape of the waveform is analysed by the microprocessor to
determine if magnetizing inrush current is present.

10-7

OPERATE
CURRENT
(AMPS)

EFFECTIVE RESTRAINT CURRENT (AMPS)

The operating characteristics of a transformer differential relay are


shown above:
Note that the `pick up' current of the relay increases with the
amount of through current.

10-8

IMPORTANT:
BECAUSE DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION REMAINS STABLE
FOR `THROUGH' OR `OUT OF
ZONE' FAULTS, IT PROVIDES NO
OVERLOAD PROTECTION FOR THE
TRANSFORMER.

10-9

OVERCURRENT AND GROUND FAULT


PROTECTION
Overcurrent and ground fault protection is
commonly used on transformers. This is either
as the primary protection for smaller units or
any unit without differential protection, or as
backup protection on larger units protected by
differential relays. For transformers of around
10 MVA and below, primary fuses are normally
used.

It is desirable to set the relays or fuses as sensitive as possible.


However, they must not operate for any tolerable condition such as
magnetising inrush, cold load pick-up, or any emergency operating
condition. The ground fault relays must be set above the maximum
zero-sequence unbalance that can exist due to single phase
loading. Overcurrent relays and/or fuses must protect the
transformer against damage from `through' faults. The settings
should be coordinated with the transformer damage curves, and
with the relay settings on the adjacent elements.

10-10

Where transformers are operated in parallel it is


not possible to adequately apply overcurrent
protection for each transformer, and also provide
the necessary selectivity. The overcurrent
protection for both transformers can operate for a
fault on the L.V. bus of one of the transformers. It
is usual practice to apply differential protection
where transformers are operated in parallel.
If overcurrent is used as backup protection on
transformers operating in parallel, emergency
overload conditions must be taken into account
when determining the minimum pickup setting.

When one transformer trips, the total load is then carried by the
transformer remaining in service. This can result in emergency
overloading of this transformer of, say, 150%. It may be possible
for the transformer to tolerate this emergency condition for about 2
to 3 hours, providing a winding temperature of 105 degrees C is not
exceeded. During this emergency overload period load shedding
or load transfers can take place to bring the transformer load down
to the nameplate rating, before the windings become overheated.
An overcurrent pickup setting of twice full-load is often used to
allow for this emergency situation.

10-11

RESTRICTED EARTH-FAULT (OR


GROUND-FAULT) PROTECTION

Ground-fault protection for each of the windings of a transformer


can be provided by connecting the C.T.s as shown above for delta
and star (or wye) connected transformer windings.
This system uses the differential principle to detect ground faults
within the transformer.

10-12

GAS RELAYS
The accumulation of gas or changes in pressure
inside the tank of oil filled transformers are good
indicators of internal faults. Gas relays are used to
detect these conditions:
A very slow build up of gas can be caused by
very low energy arcs and deterioration of insulation,
and core problems. This is known as GAS
ACCUMULATION.
A flashover of arc within the transformer tank will
cause a sudden increase in pressure, and cause a
surge of oil to flow in the pipe from the top of the
tank to the oil conservator. This is known as a GAS
PRESSURE or SURGE condition.

A single relay is used to detect these two conditions. The relay is


mounted at the top of the transformer, with a pipe from the relay to
the oil conservator tank. Any gas formed in the transformer will
collect in the top section of the relay, depressing the float. This
registers on a gauge on the front of the relay, and will indicate a
GAS ACCUMULATION alarm. This accumulated gas can be bled
from the relay for analysis. The very slow accumulation of gas may
be a tolerable operating condition with some transformers.
A flashover in the transformer will cause a pressure wave to travel
through the oil and will compress the flexible bellows in the bottom
section of the relay. The air inside the bellows will be compressed,
and will cause the flexible diaphragm to actuate the micro-switch to
initiate tripping of the transformer.

10-13

10-14

The above is a simplified cross section of a General Electric Model


12 gas relay, commonly installed on North American transformers.

10-15

The relay described previously is the type used


on transformers built in North America.
Transformers built in Europe use what is known
as a BUCHHOLZ relay. The Buchholz relay is
mounted in the pipe work from the top of the
transformer to the oil conservator tank. It has a
gas accumulation feature as described
previously. However, the tripping feature of the
relay is somewhat different. There is a `flap' in
the relay which deflects whenever there is a
sudden flow of oil through the relay, towards the
conservator tank.

On some transformers the start-up of oil circulating pumps can


cause sufficient pressure change to operate the gas relay. This
should be checked during commissioning tests, and corrected if
necessary.

10-16

OIL AND WINDING TEMPERATURE DEVICES


It is extremely important that transformer
temperatures be monitored, and limited to
acceptable values. The temperature of the winding
insulation determines the life-span of the
transformer.
Insulation temperature at the hottest location is
known as the hot-spot temperature, and it is the
insulation at this hot-spot which ages the fastest.
The hot-spot temperature is therefore the limiting
factor in determining the life-span of the
transformer.

10-17

For a typical transformer with paper


insulation:
If the hot-spot temperature is kept below
90 degrees C the expected life-span is
more than 50 years.
At a temperature of 110 degrees C the
life-span is reduced to 7.3 years.

Transformers are usually equipped with devices to monitor the


temperature of the oil and the windings. The first device monitors
oil temperature, and is connected via a capillary tube to a bulb
fitted into a pocket surrounded with oil. The winding temperature
device is similar, except that there is a heater in the pocket with the
bulb. This heater is supplied from a C.T. which is normally in the
white phase primary bushing of the transformer. This heating circuit
is designed to simulate the temperature of the transformer winding.
When the transformer is on-load, the winding temperature device
should, of course, always indicate a higher temperature than the oil
temperature device.

10-18

For transformers equipped with cooling fans and


pumps, the temperature devices are used to
automatically start and stop the forced cooling. They
are also equipped to initiate an alarm and a trip for
very high transformer temperatures.
Typical settings are:
75 Degrees C - Start cooling.
65 Degrees C - Stop Cooling.
90 Degrees C - High Temperature Alarm.
105 Degrees C - Trip Transformer L.V.
Breaker.

Temperature Rise
Transformer

specifications

usually

include

guaranteed

temperature rise at specific transformer loads.


As an example, a transformer with a nameplate rating of 17.5 MVA:
Guaranteed maximum winding temperature rise of 55 degrees C at
17.5 MVA
Guaranteed maximum winding temperature rise of 65 degrees C at
19.6 MVA
The actual temperature of the winding insulation depends upon the
ambient temperature. For an ambient temperature of 20 degrees C
the maximum temperature of the winding at a load of 19.6 MVA will
be 85 degrees C

10-19

TESTING OF TRANSFORMER PROTECTION


The individual current transformers, and the overcurrent relays are
tested as described previously.
The operation of the transformer differential relay is tested by
injecting current into the C.T. secondary circuit. The basic pick-up
of the relay is tested by passing a current through one restraint coil
in series with the operate coil.
In order to test the restraining characteristics of the relay for
through faults, two current sources are used as shown above. The
pick-up current (I1) is measured for various values of `through'
current (I2). The operation of the second harmonic restraint
feature is tested by passing the test current through a diode, and
noting that the pick-up current of the relay has increased.

10-20

The most effective test of the current circuits on a


transformer protection is a PRIMARY INJECTION test.
This test should be performed during commissioning,
after all of the wiring is complete, and before the
transformer goes into service. A three phase short circuit
is applied to the L.V. buswork, on the load side of the
transformer breaker. The transformer is then energised
from a 208 volt, 415 volt, or 600 volt three phase supply.
This will produce a primary current of up to about 10
amps. The secondary currents are then measured at
the relay panel in all branches of the circuit. A sample
test procedure for the primary injection test is attached,
along with some actual test results.

Gas relays are tested by injecting air into the relay, or into the pipe
work adjacent to the relay. The relays are usually equipped with a
valve, through which air can be injected from either a pump or a
compressed air bottle.

10-21

The diagram above shows the actual test results for the primary
injection test on a 230 kV :44 kV transformer. The purpose of the
test was to verify the correctness of the C.T. circuits and the
connections to the differential relay.

10-22

The diagram above shows the actual test results for the primary
injection test on a 500 kV : 230 kV transformer.

10-23

As an exercise, draw in on the above diagram, the magnitude and


direction of all of the C.T. secondary currents.

10-24

The above diagram shows a transformer differential protection,


combined with H.V. and L.V. Restricted Earth Fault Protection.

10-25

The above diagram shows the actual test results from a primary
injection test a transformer differential protection, combined with
H.V. and L.V. Restricted Earth Fault Protection.

10-26

Microprocessor-Based Transformer
Protection/Management Relays
Most protective relay manufacturers now have modern
microprocessor-based transformer protection/management
relays on the market. These microprocessor-based relays
typically have many different protection, control and
monitoring functions, such as:

Differential protection with harmonic restraint

Overcurrent protection for each winding of the


transformer

Restricted ground fault protection

10-27

Overexcitation protection, Volts per Hertz & Fifth


Harmonic

Over-frequency, Under-frequency, and rate of


frequency decay

Event recording

Waveform capture

Metering

Tap position

Harmonic analysis

Programmable logic

One of the main protection functions of these relays is the


differential protection. With electronic and electro-mechanical
differential relays it is necessary to provided external auxiliary
current transformers to match the H.V. and L.V. C.T. secondary
currents, and to compensate for any phase angle shift across the
transformer. One major advantage of the microprocessor-based
relay is that the C.T. secondary current matching, and the phase
angle compensation is performed within the microprocessor. The
current transformers for the H.V. and L.V. sides of the transformer
are therefore always WYE or STAR connected.

10-28

6HFWLRQ

General Protection

Generator Protection

11-1

GENERATOR PROTECTION
Generators are the most expensive pieces of
equipment on our power systems. Reliable generator
protection schemes are therefore required to minimise
damage and repair time following fault conditions.
Generators can be damaged as a result of a wide
variety of different fault conditions which may exist on
the power system. These fault conditions can be
categorised into two groups:
a. Internal faults within the generator zone.
b. External power system faults and/or
abnormal operating conditions.

The various fault and system conditions that can cause damage to
generators are:
A. GENERATOR INTERNAL FAULTS.
1. Phase-to-Phase faults on the stator winding.
2. Phase-to-ground faults on the stator winding.
3. INTER-TURN faults on the stator winding.
4. Ground faults in the rotor (or field winding).
B. EXTERNAL POWER SYSTEM FAULTS AND ABNORMAL
OPERATING CONDITIONS.
1. Phase unbalance (Negative phase sequence).
2. Out-of-step (pole slipping or loss of synch)
3. Under and over frequency.
4. Loss of excitation (Loss of field).
5. Overexcitation.
6. Reverse power (loss of prime mover).
7. Non-synchronized connection of generator.
11-2

B. EXTERNAL POWER SYSTEM FAULTS AND


ABNORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS.
1. Phase unbalance (Negative phase sequence)
2. Out-of-step (pole slipping or loss of synch)
3. Under and over frequency
4. Loss of excitation (Loss of field)
5. Overexcitation
6. Reverse power (loss of prime mover)
7. Non-synchronized connection of generator

All medium to large generators, i.e. 20 MVA to 1000 MVA, will be


equipped with protection schemes to detect most, if not all, of the
above conditions. For small hydraulic generators it may not be cost
effective to provide the same number of protection schemes as
larger units. Also, many smaller hydraulic generators are better
capable of withstanding some of the above adverse conditions,
without damage, than the larger units.

11-3

230 kV
CIRCUIT
BREAKER

22 kV

GROUNDING
TRANSFORMER

4 kV

VOLTAGE
RELAY

Medium and large size generators are usually `Direct Connected' to


a generator output transformer, supplying the output to the high
voltage transmission system. This means that there is no circuit
breaker between the generator and the main output transformer.
With this arrangement the generator is synchronized to the power
system across a 230 kV circuit breaker.
A typical 500 MVA generator has a terminal voltage of 22 kV, and
is directly connected to a generator output transformer to supply a
230 kV transmission system. Such an arrangement is shown
above.
The generator protection zone in the above example includes the
generator, the main output transformer, the unit station service
transformer, and the buswork up to the 230 kV circuit breakers.

11-4

The following protective relaying schemes will normally be applied


to most medium to large size generators:
a.

Differential Protection. (87)


- To detect phase to phase faults.

b.

Stator Ground Fault Protection. (64)

c.

Rotor Ground Fault Protection. (64)

d.

Phase Unbalance Protection. (46)


- To detect negative phase sequence currents which
cause overheating of the rotor.

e.

INTERTURN Protection of the Stator Winding.(60)

f.

Underfrequency Protection. (81)

g.

Out of Step Protection. (21-78)


- To detect generator pole slipping due to power system
disturbances.

11-5

h. Loss of Excitation Protection. (40)


i.

Overexcitation Protection. (59)


- To prevent core saturation due to overexcitation during run
up and shutdown.

j.

Reverse Power Protection. (32)


- To detect loss of prime mover which causes the machine to
motor.

k. Phase Supplementary Start Protection. (50)


- To detect a fault condition as the generator is being run up
to synchronous speed.
l. Phase Back-up Protection (21B)
- To detect uncleared generator, transformer, and bus
faults.

The following is a description of typical protective relaying functions


that are used on generators to detect and trip the unit for various
faults and abnormal system conditions.

11-6

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION (87)


Differential protection is provided to detect
phase to phase faults in the generator zone.
With most generators the star point of the
stator winding is grounded through a resistor,
a reactor, or a grounding transformer. This
has the effect of limiting the ground fault
current to as little as 10 amps. Consequently,
ground faults within the generator zone will not
be detected by the differential protection.

Generator differential protection uses the same principles as those


described earlier for Bus Differential protection and Transformer
Differential protection.

11-7

33 kV

600:1

CIRCUIT
BREAKER

DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY

30 MW
GENERATOR

600:1

GROUNDING
TRANSFORMER

VOLTAGE
RELAY

Current transformers are located at each end of the stator winding


as shown in the diagrams. The C.T. ratios are the same, and under
healthy conditions the C.T. current circulates, with no spill current
flowing in the differential relay operating coil. With this arrangement
of generator differential protection there is no magnetizing inr ush
current problem. Also, because the currents at each end of the
stator windings are exactly equal, and the C.T. ratios are the same,
then there is no need for the differential protection relay to have
restraint or biasing coils.

11-8

DIFFL
RELAY
DIFFL
RELAY

DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY

GROUNDING
TRANSFORMER

VOLTAGE
RELAY

Since there is not normally a circuit breaker between the generator


and it's output transformer, a set of differential protection is usually
provided, especially on large generators, to include the generator
and the transformer, as shown above. This arrangement has three
sets of differential protection, covering different parts of the
generator and transformer zone. It provides duplication such that
any fault will be detected by two of the three protections.

It should be noted that differential protection will not detect faults


between turns on the same winding (Inter-turn faults) since the
currents entering and leaving the protected section will be the
same during such faults.

11-9

GENERATOR STATOR
WINDINGS

RELAY

RELAY

RELAY

Differential protection for small generators is sometimes provided


by passing the two ends of each stator winding through the same
C.T. as shown above.
This scheme provides a high speed sensitive protection, and will
detect both phase-to-phase, and phase-to-ground faults (providing
the ground fault level for faults within the differential zone is greater
than the sensitivity).

11-10

STATOR
WINDINGS

GROUND FAULT

60 Hz PASS
180 Hz BLOCK

GROUNDING
TRANSFORMER

FILTER

STATOR GROUND FAULT PROTECTION

VOLTAGE
RELAY

(64)

The stator winding of a typical generator is grounded at it's star


point through a neutral grounding transformer, with a resistor
connected across the secondary terminals. The value of this
resistor is chosen to limit the ground fault current, for phase-toground faults on the stator winding, to about 10 amps. A Voltage
Relay is connected across the resistor to detect stator ground
faults.
Under normal healthy conditions the grounding transformer
develops no secondary voltage, and no voltage is applied to the
relay. When a stator ground fault occurs, a voltage is developed
across the grounding transformer secondary terminals, and the
voltage relay operates. This condition will usually cause the
generator to trip, but if the ground fault current is limited to a very
low value, such as 10 amps, then it may just annunciate an alarm
condition.
The above stator ground fault protection is not sensitive for ground
faults very close to the neutral point. It is generally considered that
stator ground fault protection of this type is sensitive for faults on
Copyright 2004 - C.M.Sothwood, P.Eng.
11-11
90% of the winding

V.T.

STATOR
WINDINGS

RELAY

GROUNDING
TRANSFORMER

THIRD HARMONIC
GROUND DETECTOR
USING RELATIVE
MAGNITUDE
COMPARATOR

To detect faults on the last 10% of the winding some other type of
protection must be used. One type of protection that is used to
detect such faults compares the third harmonic voltages between
the V.T. at the

generator terminals, and that at the neutral

grounding V.T. If a stator ground fault occurs, then there will be a


change in the third harmonic voltages applied to the relay. The
change of third harmonic voltage is greatest for ground faults at the
neutral end of the winding, and least for ground faults at the stator
terminals.
The relay is set to operate if there is a significant change in the
third harmonic voltages applied to it. This type of stator ground fault
protection is most sensitive for ground faults close to the star point,
and will operate for faults on about the lower 90% of the stator
winding. This type of protection will usually annunciate an alarm
condition, and not trip the unit. By supplementing the conventional
stator ground fault protection with this scheme, ground faults are
detected on 100% of the stator winding.
11-12

ROTOR GROUND FAULT PROTECTION

(64)

The rotor or field winding on large thermal


generators is ungrounded, thus a single ground
fault produces no fault current. A single ground
fault, however, raises the potential of the whole
field and exciter system, and the extra voltages
induced by opening the field breaker, or the main
generator breaker, particularly under fault
conditions, may cause a second fault on the field
winding. A second fault to ground may cause local
heating of the iron which could distort the rotor,
causing dangerous unbalance.

If part of the winding is shorted out due to a second ground fault,


the current in the remainder of the winding will increase and may
cause unbalance in the air gap fluxes, and set up serious
vibrations. Thus, it is important to know when a ground fault has
occurred on the rotor winding, so that the necessary repairs can be
made at the earliest convenient time.

11-13

GENERATOR
FIELD

MAIN
EXCITER
ROTOR
GROUND FAULT
RELAY

One method of detecting rotor ground faults utilizes a high


resistance connected across the rotor circuit, the centre point of
which is connected to ground through the coil of a sensitive relay
as shown above. This relay will detect ground faults over most of
the rotor circuit. There is, however, a blind spot at the centre of the
field winding which is at the same potential as the mid point of the
resistor, under ground fault conditions. This blind spot can be
tested by arranging a tapping switch which, when operated, shifts
the relay connection from the centre of the resistor to a point a little
to one side. Alternatively, one half of the resistor can be replaced
by a non linear resistor which, since it will change it's value for
different values of rotor voltage, will continuously vary the effective
resistor tapping voltage as the field conditions change.

11-14

FIELD
CIRCULT
BREAKER

ROTOR
FIELD
WINDING

EXCITER
ROTOR
GROUNDFAULT
RELAY
CURRENT LIMITING
RESISTOR
AC SUPPLY
30V DC

A second method of detecting rotor ground faults is shown above.


The field circuit is biased by a d.c. voltage, which is applied to the
rotor through a fault detecting relay, in series with a current limiting
resistor. A fault on any part of the field system will pass a current of
sufficient magnitude through the relay to cause operation.

11-15

The above sketch shows the arrangement of a brushless exciter.


With this arrangement there is no external connection to the rotor
field winding and diodes. It is therefore difficult to apply rotor
ground fault protection to brushless exciters. One method of
applying rotor ground fault protection uses optical coupling to the
rotor.

11-16

PHASE UNBALANCE or NEGATIVE PHASE


SEQUENCE PROTECTION (46)
The function of generator negative phase sequence
protection is to protect the machine against the
overheating effects, which occur as a result of unbalance
of the stator phase currents. Such unbalance is usually
due to faults, or `open-circuits' on the external high
voltage transmission system. This causes a negative
phase sequence component in the stator currents, and
since this component produces an armature flux rotating
in the opposite direction to the rotor, it induces eddy
currents in the rotor mass. These eddy currents, which
are at twice the system frequency, will produce local
overheating at the periphery of the rotor.

The ability of the machine to withstand this heating effect will


depend to a large degree on it's particular design features, but the
temperature rise of the rotor will depend on the duration of the
negative phase sequence current, as well as it's magnitude. The
heating effects are proportional to I2 x t.
i.e. The square of the negative phase sequence current multiplied
by the time.

11-17

R
W
B

ZB

ZR

N.P.S.
RELAY

NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE NETWORK

IR

IR
VZR

VZR

+ VZB

VZR
VZB

IB

VZB

IW

IW

POSITIVE SEQUENCE

IB
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE

A typical Negative Phase Sequence protection scheme is shown


above. The generator C.T's supply a N.P.S. network, across which
a relay is connected. The relay has a setting characteristic which
matches the generator heat build up characteristic. There may be
two stages. The first stage is an alarm, set to annunciate a low
level of negative phase sequence current, and allow some remedial
action to be taken, such as reducing the load on the generator. The
second stage operates for higher levels of N.P.S. current, and trips
the generator before damage from overheating can result.
With

todays

modern

microprocessor-based

multi-function

generator protection relays the level of negative phase sequence is


calculated by the relay microprocessor. The relay is programmed to
alarm and trip at the appropriate settings.

11-18

RELAY

GENERATOR STATOR
WINDINGS

RELAY

RELAY

INTERTURN PROTECTION (60)


Split-Phase protection can be used to detect open or shorted
stator turns (inter-turn faults). This type of protection is only
possible when each phase of the stator winding is made in two
similar halves, connected in parallel. The two halves of the winding
are passed through a C.T. in opposite directions as shown above.
A sensitive overcurrent relay is connected to the C.T. secondary.
With no fault on the stator winding, the current in the two halves of
the winding will be equal, and no current will flow in the relay . If an
INTER-TURN fault occurs, then this will create an unbalance in the
two halves of the winding, and current will flow in the relay, causing
it to operate and trip the generator.

11-19

PHASE TO
PHASE VOLTAGE
OPEN CORNER
DELTA VOLTAGE

RELAY COILS
IN QUADRATURE

INTER TURN PROTECTION

NORMAL CONDITON

FAULT CONDITION

On larger generators where it is not practical to use split phase


protection, very sensitive voltage relays are used to detect
INTERTURN faults. Quadrature coils of the relay are supplied with
a.c. voltages from the generator V.T's.
One pair of coils on the relay is supplied with an `open-corner-delta
voltage, and the other pair of coils is supplied with the V.T. phaseto-phase voltage. Under normal healthy conditions the `open
corner delta' voltage is zero. If a fault develops there will be an
`open corner delta' voltage, and the two voltages applied to the
relay will produce a torque to operate the relay.

11-20

UNDERFREQUENCY AND
OVERFREQUENCY PROTECTION.

(81)

This protection detects system disturbances,


rather than generator faults. A major power
system break-up can result in either an
excess, or insufficient generating power for
the remaining connected load.

In the first case, overfrequency, with possible overvoltage results because of the
reduced load demand. Operation in this mode will not produce overheating
unless rated power and approximately 105% rated voltage is exceeded. The
generator controls should be promptly adjusted to match the generator output to
the load demand.

With insufficient generation for the connected load, underfrequency results, with
a heavy load demand. The drop in voltage causes the voltage regulator to
increase excitation. The result is that overheating can occur in both the rotor and
the stator. At the same time, more power is being demanded, with the generator
less able to supply it at the decaying frequency. Automatic or manual
transmission system load shedding should ideally adjust the load to match the
connected generation before a total power system collapse occurs.

As well as these generator problems, Underfrequency and overfrequency


conditions can cause serious damage to steam turbines. Turbine blades are
designed and tuned for continuous operation at normal synchronous speed. At
other speeds serious vibrations, and possibly resonance, can occur and result in
blade damage, particularly on the longer blades at the low pressure end of the
turbine.

11-21

Underfrequency protection for a 60 Hertz


generator is typically arranged to trip the high
voltage circuit breaker if the frequency drops
below 57.5 Hz for 10 seconds, or
instantaneously if the frequency drops to 56 Hz.
For a 50 Hz generator typical settings are 47.5
Hz for 10 seconds, or instantly at 46 Hz.

Ideally, automatic load shedding from `Frequency Trend Relays,


Rate-of-Change of Frequency, or Underfrequency relays on the
distribution system or transmission system will coordinate with the
generator underfrequency protection to match the connected load
to the available generation, before generators trip.

Underfrequency protection trips only the H.V. circuit breaker, and


allows the unit to keep running, and available for service when the
transmission system is restored.

11-22

OUT-OF-STEP PROTECTION

(21-78)

Out-of-Step protection detects a condition


caused by power system disturbances,
rather than generator faults.
An uncleared, or slow clearing fault on the
transmission system can cause
generators to start slipping poles, or go
`out-of-step' with the rest of the system.

Such a condition is undesirable because harmful mechanical


stresses are exerted on the shaft, and the severe power swings
have a disturbing effect on the power system voltages. Out-of-Step
protection detects the condition when the generator slips it's first
pole, and causes the generator breakers to trip. The turbine is not
tripped, enabling the machine to be re-synchronized after the
system disturbance is cleared.
This protection can be considered complementary to `Loss of
Excitation' protection. The `out-of-step' condition occurs with the
generator at full field, and the loss of synchronism due to
underexcitation occurs when the generator has no field.

11-23

OPERATING
REGION
BLINDER
B

ZLOAD
230 kV
BUS

R
3
1
2

OPERATING
REGION
BLINDER A

FOR THE OUT-OF-STEP PROTECTION


TO TRIP, THE LOCUS OF THE
IMPEDANCE VECTOR Z-LOAD MUST
ENER REGIONS
1, 2, 3 (OR 3, 2, 1), IN
SEQUENCE.

OUT-OF-STEP
IMPEDIANCE OPERATING
AREA

Out-of Step protection uses three impedance measuring relays.


These relays are supplied by the generator C.T's and V.T's, and
measure the generator load impedance.
These relays detect a power swing condition if the three relays
operate in the correct sequence, and will initiate tripping of the H.V.
circuit breakers. The three relays have operating characteristics as
shown above. For tripping to occur, the locus of the generator load
impedance must be within the circle, and must cross both of the
parallel lines.

11-24

Z LOAD
NORMAL FIELD

LOSS OF FIELD
LOCUS OF GENERATOR
TERMINAL IMPEDANCE
SEEN BY RELAY

LOSS OF EXCITATION PROTECTION

(40)

When a generator loses excitation (or field), reactive power flows


from the power system into the generator. The generator then
loses synchronism and runs as an induction generator, above
synchronous speed. Above synchronous speed the rotor will start
to oscillate in an attempt to lock into synchronism, resulting in
overheating and other damage. As long as the system is stable,
MVARS will flow into the generator and the machine will continue
to put out MW.
Loss of field protection uses a relay that detects the change in
Reactive flow, from the normal LAGGING condition, to MVARS
LEADING. A typical Loss of Excitation Protection scheme uses an
`Offset Mho' relay to measure the generator load impedance, and
has an operating characteristic as shown above.
The `Offset Mho' impedance relay is a single phase relay, and is
supplied from the generator C.T's and V.T's.
The Loss of Field relay will operate if the locus of the load
impedance falls within the operating characteristic of the relay. A
timing relay is included to initiate tripping of the machine if the
LEADING MVARS condition persists for 1 second.

11-25

VOLTS / Hz
RELAY

V.T.

OVEREXCITATION PROTECTION.

(59)

The purpose of overexcitation protection is to prevent the core of


the main output transformer from being saturated during generator
start-up or shutdown. Overexcitation can be explained by the
following expression:

CORE FLUX B

(APPLIED VOLTAGE)

(FREQUENCY)

For the core flux B to remain below the saturation point, the
generator voltage may only be increased as the frequency (or
speed) is increased. If the excitation is increased too rapidly, then
this overexcitation condition must be detected, and the field
breaker tripped. Overexcitation protection schemes use Volts per
Hertz relays. These relays have a linear characteristic, and will
operate if V, the Voltage, divided by the frequency exceeds the
set value.

11-26

ZERO TORQUE
LINE

V.T.

REVERSE
POWER
RELAY

P IN

POWER
P OUT
P

OPERATE ZONE

REVERSE POWER PROTECTION

(32)

Reverse power protection is provided to detect a condition when


the generator is acting as a motor. This condition occurs when the
steam (or water) supply to the turbine fails, and the generator
draws power from the transmission system. In steam turbines the
steam acts as a coolant, maintaining the blades at a constant
temperature. Failure of the steam supply can cause overheating of
the blades. On some machines the temperature rise is very low,
and motoring can be tolerated for a considerable time. In such
cases the Reverse Power protection will annunciate an alarm
condition, to allow corrective action to be taken without tripping the
generator. Reverse Power protection uses a power directional relay
to monitor the generator load. The relay is supplied from the
generator C.T's and V.T's as shown, and will operate when any
negative power flow is detected.

11-27

V.T.

UNDER
FREQUENCY
RELAY

CLOSED BELOW
52Hz

LOW SET
O/C RELAY

TRIP

SUPPLEMENTARY START PROTECTION.

(50)

Phase supplementary start protection is provided to detect a


condition where a fault exists when the generator is being run up to
speed. Generators must not, of course, be started-up into a load or
into a fault condition. To prevent this, a scheme of protection is
used that switches into service low-set overcurrent relays ONLY if
the frequency is below 52 Hz on 60 Hz power systems, and 42 Hz
on 50 Hz systems. When the generator is ready to pick up load the
overcurrent trip must, of course, be disabled. This is accomplished
by a contact of an underfrequency relay which opens when the
generator approaches synchronous speed.

11-28

V.T.

Z
RELAY

THE RELAY OPERATES


WHEN THE MEASURED
LOAD IMPEDANCE FALLS
WITHIN THE CIRCLE

PHASE BACK-UP PROTECTION

(21B)

Back-up protection is provided to detect uncleared faults in the


generator, the transformer, or the H.V. buswork.
A typical phase back-up protection scheme, shown above, uses
three impedance relays, supplied by the generator C.T's and V.T's.
These impedance relays measure the absolute load impedance. If
the measured impedance falls below 84% of the combined
impedance of the generator and the generator transformer, then
tripping is initiated.
The impedance relay has a circular, or MHO, characteristic of, say,
7 ohms radius, and tripping occurs if the minimum load impedance
falls within the circle.

11-29

GENERATOR OVERCURRENT PROTECTION


VOLTAGE CONTROLLED & VOLTAGE RESTRAINED
Overcurrent relays are often used to provide primary
protection for small generators. For larger generators
overcurrrent relays are applied as Back-up protection.
The purpose of the overcurrent protection is to detect
and trip the generator for fault conditions. The
overcurrent relays are not intended to provide
overload protection, as the relay characteristics are in
no way related to the thermal characteristics of the
generator.

The overcurrent protection C.T.'s should be located at the neutral


end of the stator winding, particularly for a single generator
supplying an isolated system. If the C.T.'s are located at the
terminal end of the generator winding, phase-to-phase faults may
be undetected.
There is difficulty in applying inverse time overcurrent protection to
generators because a phase-to-phase fault near the terminals of
the generator will cause the terminal voltage to decrease. The rate
of decay is determined by the decrement characteristic of the
machine, and the response of the voltage regulator. As the terminal
voltage of the generator decreases, the output current will
decrease accordingly. In many cases the sustained fault current
can be lower than the generator full-load current. For a fault to be
cleared correctly the inverse time overcurrent relay must operate
prior to the current decaying to a value below the pick-up setting of
the relay.
Voltage Restrained and Voltage Controlled Overcurrent Relays
are used to deal with the problem of decaying voltage and current
at the generator terminals during phase faults.
11-30

In a Voltage Controlled inverse-time overcurrent relay the


voltage element is used to inhibit operation of the relay until
the sensed voltage falls below a set value.

Voltage Controlled Overcurrent

This voltage inhibit setting is typically adjustable from 40 volts to


120 volts as shown above.
The overcurrent relay with voltage control provides sensitive
protection where the expected fault current is less than the
generator full load current, and the generator voltage always falls
below the voltage inhibit setting of the relay. The voltage inhibit
setting must be low enough to prevent relay operation on
recoverable voltage dips, such as the starting of large motors, and
high enough to permit the relay to operate before the generator
current decays below the overcurrent relay pickup point.
Another type of Voltage Controlled overcurrent relay has two
inverse-time characteristics. The first characteristic provides
overload protection when the generator terminal voltage is normal.
The second characteristic provides overcurrent protection for
generator faults when the voltage falls below a predetermined
value.
11-31

The Voltage Restrained inverse-time overcurrent relay uses


the sensed voltage from the generator V.T.'s to adjust the
current pick-up level.

Voltage Restrained Overcurrent

As shown in the diagram above, when the generator V.T. voltage


falls below the nominal value, the inverse-time overcurrent relay
pick-up setting is lowered proportionally. This has the effect of
shifting the overcurrent characteristic and decreasing the tripping
time as the generator voltage decays.
Instantaneous overcurrent elements are often used to provide
additional protection for close-in high current faults.

11-32

GENERATOR SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT


In the event of a short-circuit close to the terminals of the
generator the time variation of the fault current is
considerably affected by the specific characteristics of the
generator. The fault current first rises to a high initial value,
and then decays to the continuous shot-circuit current, as
shown in the typical generator decrement curve on the next
page.
To a close approximation the generator short-circuit current
can be divided into three components:
Subtransient Component
Transient Component
Continuous Component

This progression of the short-circuit current is determined by the


electromagnetic process that occurs within the generator and the
resulting effect on the voltage. In practice, however, it is usual for
the representation and calculation of short-circuit characteristics to
be based on a constant voltage, and on an assumption that the
decay of fault current is due to an increase in the reactance of the
generator.
Corresponding to the above postulated current components, the
associated reactances are:

Subtransient Reactance

X''d

Transient Reactance

X'd

Synchronous Reactance

Xd

11-33

The Subtransient Reactance influences the fault


current for only about the first 0.2 seconds. For a
typical value of X''d of 0.11 p.u. the subtransient
symmetrical short-circuit current is:

I =

FULL LOAD CURRENT


F.L.C.
=
= 9.1 X F.L.C.
X d
0.11

The Transient Reactance influences the fault


current for about the first 1 second. For a
typical value of X'd of 0.19 p.u. the transient
symmetrical short-circuit current is:
I =

F.L.C
FULL LOAD CURRENT
= 5.26 X F.L.C.
=
0.19
X d

11-34

The Synchronous Reactance determines


the sustained short-circuit current, and for a
typical value of Xd of 1.35 p.u., the
continuous generator short-circuit current is:

I =

FULL LOAD CURRENT


Xd

F.L.C.
= 0.74 X F.L.C.
1.35

The generator current decrement characteristic shown on the next


page is based on the assumption that the field current from the
exciter remains constant during the fault condition. If the generator
is equipped with an automatic voltage regulator the field current will
increase as the generator voltage falls, because the AVR tries to
maintain a constant generator terminal voltage. This has the effect
of increasing the amount of fault current from the generator. The
actual value of the steady-state fault current will depend upon the
characteristics and settings of AVR and excitation system.

11-35

Generator Current Decrement


At V=1pu; time=0

Time Constants

X"d=11%

I"d =V(1/X" d-1/X' d)

= 3.83pu

T"d=0.02s

X'd=19%

I' d=V(1/X' d -1/X d)

= 4.52pu

T'd=1s

Xd=135%

I d =V/X d

= 0.74pu

GE MULTILIN
Time
(s)

I"d

I'd

I total

0.00

3.83

4.52

0.74

9.09

0.02

1.41

4.43

0.74

6.58

0.04

0.52

4.35

0.74

5.60

0.10

0.03

4.09

0.74

4.86

0.20

0.00

3.70

0.74

4.44

0.50

0.00

2.74

0.74

3.48

1.00

0.00

1.66

0.74

2.40

2.00

0.00

0.61

0.74

1.35

5.00

0.00

0.03

0.74

0.77

11-36

60

10

00

90

3.

3.

2.

80

70

60

2.

2.

2.

50

40

30

20

2.

2.

2.

2.

10

00

90

80

70

2.

2.

1.

1.

1.

50

40

30

20

10

00

90

80

70

60

2.00

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

1.

0.

0.

0.

50

1.00

0.

0.

40

30

20

0.

0.

0.

10

00

0.

0.

Current ( pu)

Generator Current Decrement

10.00

9.00

8.00

7.00

6.00

5.00

4.00

3.00
I'd

I"d
Itotal

Id

0.00

Time (s)

11-37

6HFWLRQ

Cogeneration & Non-Utility Generation (NUG)

Cogeneration & Non-Utility


Generation (NUG)

12-1

REQUIREMENTS FOR
INTERCONNECTION WITH THE UTILITY
PROTECTIVE RELAYING REQUIREMENTS
In general, the design objectives of all
protective relaying systems are to minimize the
severity and extent of power system
disturbances and to minimize possible damage
to equipment.

Protective relaying should be provided to detect and clear all faults


on the main power output system in as short a time as possible.
The protection should only isolate the faulted equipment, and allow
the remaining healthy equipment to remain in-service. If these
requirements are met, then the damage to equipment is minimized,
and there should be little effect on other customers on the Utility
Distribution System.
The generator protections described earlier provide protection for
faults within the generator, and also cause tripping of the generator
to prevent it from being damaged due to uncleared faults on the
power system, or other abnormal conditions.

12-2

One possible abnormal operating condition that


may be encountered at a Non-Utility
Generating station is ISLANDING. This is a
condition where there has been a break-up of
the utility power system, and the generator
remains connected to a block of load. It is very
unlikely that the block of connected load will
perfectly match the generator output, and allow
the frequency to remain at 60 Hertz. If there is
a deficiency of generation for the remaining
block of connected load, then the frequency,
and generator speed, will fall.
.

Similarly, if there is a surplus of generation for the connected load,


the frequency, and generator speed, will increase. These frequency
excursions are highly undesirable, and can be damaging to the
turbine. Overfrequency and Underfrequency protection systems
are provided to detect this condition, and disconnect the generator.
Typical settings are 59.5 and 60.5 Hertz with a time delay of 1
Second. Similarly, if there is a surplus of generation for the
connected load, the frequency, and generator speed, will increase.
These frequency excursions are highly undesirable, and can be
damaging to the turbine. Overfrequency and Underfrequency
protection systems are provided to detect this condition, and
disconnect the generator. Typical settings are 59.5 and 60.5 Hertz
with a time delay of 1 Second.
Overvoltage and Undervoltage protection is also provided to
disconnect the generator for excursions in the voltage on the utility
power system. Typical settings are plus/minus 6% of the nominal
voltage.
12-3

Reverse Power Protection


Some electrical distribution utilities require
cogeneration plants to install reverse
power protection relays at the interface.
The purpose of this reverse power
protection is to prevent any in-feed from
the generator into the utility distribution
system.

12-4

The protective relaying for the feeder to which


the generator is connected will normally be
located at the utility substation. On power
distribution systems at voltages of below 50 kV,
the feeders will normally be equipped with
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION. With
generation connected to the feeder there must
be directional supervision of the overcurrent
relays, to ensure that the protection will only
operate when fault current flows into the feeder
from the substation, and not when current flows
out of the feeder.
.

When a fault is detected on the feeder and the overcurrent relays


operate, the feeder circuit breaker at the utility substation must trip
to clear the fault current in-feed from the power system. However,
the generator will also be delivering fault current into the feeder to
supply the fault. Therefore, the generator must also be tripped
when feeder faults are detected. A tripping signal is sent from the
utility substation, to the non-utility generating station, to trip the
generator breaker for all feeder faults.

12-5

REMOTE TRIPPING REQUIREMENTS


Various options are available for the Remote or
Transfer Tripping Channels between the utility
substation and the NUG. These include:
125 Volt D.C.
Signalling over
leased metallic
telephone lines

Frequency Shift
Audio-Tone signalling
over leased
telephone lines

Fibre-optic cable

VHF Radio

Power-Line-Carrier

Microwave

Duplicate Remote Tripping channels are normally required to


provide the required redundancy. If there is a complete failure of
the remote tripping, i.e. a failure of both channels, then the utility
will normally require that the generator be taken out of service.
The most economical system for most applications will be AudioTone equipment operating over leased telephone lines. Low-cost
transmitter/receiver units are available and are well suited for this
application. It should be noted that precautions may have to be
taken to guard against the hazards of Ground-Potential-Rise, due
to transferred voltage on communication circuits, during phase-toground faults at the generating station. Special isolation equipment
is available for this purpose.

12-6

AUTO-RECLOSURE OF THE FEEDER CIRCUIT


BREAKER
The circuit breakers on utility overhead distribution
feeders are usually equipped with AUTO-RECLOSING.
After the protective relaying has operated and the
feeder fault is cleared, the circuit breaker auto-recloses
after a time delay of 0.5 seconds, to restore the supply
to the customers. On radial feeders, where the flow of
current is in one direction only, no supervision of the
auto-reclose scheme is necessary. However, if there is
generation connected to the feeder, then there is a
possibility that the feeder could be energised from the
generator, and out-of-synchronism with the rest of the
power system.

It is therefore necessary to provide voltage supervision to the autoreclose scheme to ensure that the breaker can only reclose when
the feeder is dead. A voltage transformer is connected at the
feeder terminal, and the V.T. secondary winding supplies the
voltage supervision relay. Another option is to send information
from the NUG, over a communication channel, to permit autoreclose only when the generator circuit breaker is open.

12-7

OPERATING AGREEMENT WITH THE


UTILITY
Before the generating station goes into service
an operating agreement between the utility
and the NUG is signed by both parties. This
agreement covers the procedures for
operating the high-voltage electrical
equipment that is connected to the feeder, the
synchronizing of the generator, notification of
load changes and planned outages, and
maintenance of equipment.
.

The utility usually insists on having operating control of the highvoltage disconnect or load-break switch. This means that NUG staff
cannot operate the switch without instruction from the utility.

12-8

MONITORING OF PLANT ELECTRICAL OUTPUT BY


THE UTILITY
The electrical utility will usually monitor the electrical
output of non-utility generating stations, and display the
information at their system control centre. Ontario
Hydro monitors the following quantities for their Data
Acquisition & Computer System (DACS):

Net Generator Output in MEGAWATTS


Net Generator Output in MEGAVARS
Status indication of High-Voltage Disconnect
Switch Position
Status Indication of the High-Voltage Circuit
Breaker Position

This information can be provided by installing a small single-board


Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) at the NUG, and having it
communicate with the utility equipment via modem and telephone
line.

12-9

REVENUE AND BILLING METERING EQUIPMENT

The revenue and billing metering equipment is


installed at the NUG site by the utility, at their
expense. The electronic meter measures and
records the following quantities:
Megawatt Demand - Import and Export
Megavar Demand - Leading and Lagging
Megawatt-Hours - Import and Export
Megavar-Hours - Leading and Lagging

The electronic meter produces pulse output data. These pulses are
fed into a Remote Interrogation Metering System (RIMS) unit for
storage. This RIMS unit is then interrogated, over a telephone line,
by the utility computer to retrieve the meter readings. The same
pulses that are fed into the RIMS unit are available for use by the
NUG if desired. This pulse data can be used by the NUG to monitor
the net plant output to the utility.

12-10



6HFWLRQ

High-Voltage Transmission Line Protection

High-Voltage Transmission
Line Protection

13-1

INTERCONNECTED SYSTEMS WITH TWOWAY FLOW OF FAULT CURRENT


Time-graded overcurrent protection cannot be
successfully applied to high voltage
transmission lines because there are usually
many interconnected sources of fault current.

13-2

The requirements of protection schemes for high-voltage


transmission lines are:

The protection system must be able to detect all faults


on the protected line.

The protection system must be able to discriminate


between faults on the protected line and faults on
adjacent lines, buses, transformers, etc.

The protection system must be able to clear faults


very quickly, ( i.e in less than 0.1 seconds ) before
the power system goes unstable.

The protection system must be dependable, and


must be capable of clearing faults when any single
piece of equipment has failed.

Protection schemes on high-voltage transmission lines are usually


duplicated to ensure that no single component failure will result in a
failure to detect and clear a fault. The two protection schemes may
be supplied by separate C.T. cores, and use duplicate station
batteries. The high-voltage circuit breakers have duplicate trip coils,
and breaker failure protection is applied.

13-3

DISTANCE OR IMPEDANCE PROTECTION


SCHEMES
The basic element of this type of protection scheme
is the impedance relay. This relay is supplied with
current and voltage from the line C.T.'s and V.T.'s.
During a fault condition there is a very high current,
and the line voltage falls.
The relay therefore measures line impedance Z.
i.e.

Z =

V
I

The relay operates if the ratio VI


the setting of the relay in OHMS.

(Volts)
(Amps)

falls below

13-4

500:1

C.T.

V.T.
2000:1
IMPEDANCE
RELAY

In the above example the impedance of the line is 3 OHMS. To


determine the impedance measured by the relay the primary
OHMS must be converted to secondary OHMS by multiplying by
the C.T./V.T. Ratio.
Secondary OHMS = 3 x 500 / 2000 = 0.75 OHMS
This is the impedance measured by the relay. For any fault on the
transmission line, the impedance from the circuit breaker (where
the C.T.'s are located) to the fault will always be less than 3
Primary OHMS, or 0.75 Secondary OHMS, and the relay will
operate.
For any fault beyond the end of the transmission line, the
impedance will be greater than 3 Primary OHMS, and therefore
the relay will not operate.

13-5

TRIP

C.T.

V.T.

PIVOT

The simplest type of impedance relay, and that used in the very
early protection schemes, had a beam, pivoted in the middle as
shown in the diagram below. The voltage restraining coil is supplied
from the line V.T., and the current operating coil is supplied from
the C.T.
It is useful to use this example to illustrate the principle of
impedance protection.
Under normal load conditions there is a low current and normal
rated voltage. The beam is therefore pulled down at the left hand
side by the voltage coil and the tripping contacts remain open.
If a fault occurs there is a very high current, and the line voltage
falls. The beam is pulled down to the right hand side because the
pull by the current coil overcomes the pull by the voltage coil. The
contacts then close and trip the breaker.

13-6

The relay just described will operate for


fault currents both into the
transmission line and out of the line.
In order to use this type of relay in a
practical protection scheme it would
require a directional relay to supervise
it and ensure that tripping occurs only
when fault current flows into the line.

13-7

LE
ANG
L IN E
TERMINAL
B

ZONE 2 REACH
ZONE 1
REACH

75

Almost all modern Distance or Impedance protection schemes


use relays with MHO directional impedance characteristics as
shown above. The MHO relay has a circular characteristic which is
set to cover the transmission line as shown above. The relay will
operate for any value of impedance which lies within the circle. The
maximum value of Z for operation is represented by the diameter of
the circle which is shown at 75 degrees to the R axis. This is close
to the typical characteristic angle for a transmission line. The
circular characteristic of the relay cuts the intersection of the X and
R axis. With such a characteristic the relay measures impedance in
one direction only. i.e. When fault current flows into the line. When
fault current flows out of the line, the impedance vector will lie in
the third quadrant, which is outside of the circular operate zone of
the relay.

13-8

Let us now apply such relays to a practical


protection scheme for a high-voltage
transmission line. We require relays (or relay
elements) to detect all possible fault conditions.
i.e.
Phase-to-Phase Faults

Phase-to-Ground Faults

A to B

A to Grnd

B to C

B to Grnd

C to A

C to Grnd

Other fault conditions, such as two phases-to-ground, or threephase faults can be considered as combinations of these basic
fault conditions.
It is not practical to set an impedance relay to measure exactly the
impedance of the line up to the breaker at the remote end. This is
because of errors in such things as C.T.'s, V.T.'s, Relays,
calculation of line impedance, etc. Because of this we set the relay
to measure, or reach, some impedance less than the full length of
the line. This reach is normally chosen as 75% of the line
impedance, and is called ZONE 1. We must be certain that the
ZONE 1 reach does not extend beyond the remote end of the line.

13-9

A second relay, or relay element, is used


to cover the remainder of the line. The
reach of this relay must extend beyond
the remote end of the line. This reach is
normally chosen as 125% of the line
impedance, and is called ZONE 2. We
must be certain that the ZONE 2 reach
extends beyond the remote terminal of
the line.

The complete scheme therefore comprises the following relays, or


relay elements, to detect all of the various line fault conditions:
A to B ZONE 1

A to G ZONE 1

A to B ZONE 2

A to G ZONE 2

B to C ZONE 1

B to G ZONE 1

B to C ZONE 2

B to G ZONE 2

C to A ZONE 1

C to G ZONE 1

C to A ZONE 2

C to G ZONE 2

The ZONE 1 relays cause the local circuit breaker to trip with no
intentional time delay. The ZONE 2 relays cause tripping after a
time delay of typically 0.4 seconds.

13-10

F1

F2
ZONE 1
REACH
ZONE 2
REACH

IMPEDANCE
RELAY

Faults on the transmission line are therefore cleared as follows:


For a fault at F1 the ZONE 1 relay sees it and operates and trips
the circuit breaker at station A with no intentional time delay.
For a fault at F2 the ZONE 2 relay operates and trips the breaker at
station A after a time delay of 0.4 seconds.
If station B has similar relays to station A, faults F1 and F2 will both
be detected by the ZONE 1 relays at B. The relays will therefore
trip the station B breaker without intentional time delay for both
faults.
With this scheme of protection we can see that we do not get highspeed clearance for all faults. i.e. Faults within 25% of either
terminal are cleared at the far terminal after a time delay.

13-11

By adding a communication channel in each


direction, between the two terminals, we can
coordinate the operation of the relays at each end
to give instantaneous clearance for all faults on the
line. This channel is known as an acceleration or
permissive channel. The acceleration signal is
sent to the other end whenever the ZONE 2 relays
operate. When an acceleration signal is received it
by-passes the ZONE 2 time delay, and makes
ZONE 2 tripping instantaneous.

13-12

ZONE 1
OF A

F3

ZONE 1
OF B

ZONE 2
OF B

F1

F4

F2

ZONE 2
OF A

Now let us consider faults at various locations on the high-voltage


line shown above:

For a fault at position F1 the ZONE 1 relays at each end will

operate and trip the line instantaneously. Also, the ZONE 2 relays
at each end will operate and send acceleration to the other end.
When acceleration is received at each end the ZONE 2 relays will
also trip without a time delay.

For a fault at position F2 the ZONE 1 relay at end B operates

and trips that end instantaneously. The ZONE 2 relay at end B also
operates and sends an acceleration signal to end A. At end A the
ZONE 2 relay operates and starts the timing relay. When the
acceleration signal is received at end A the timing relay is
bypassed, and the ZONE 2 relay will trip without a time delay.

13-13

For a fault at position F3 the sequence is similar


to that for F2, but with an accelerated ZONE 2 at
end B.
For a fault at position F4, NONE of the relays at
end B will operate because they only look in the
forward direction. At end A the ZONE 2 relay will
operate and start the ZONE 2 timing relay. No
acceleration signal will be received, therefore the
protection at end A will not trip unless the fault
stays on for 0.4 seconds. By this time, of course,
the fault should have been cleared by the
protection on that particular system element.

13-14

13-15

Another application of impedance, or distance,


protection is to utilize a BLOCKING channel instead of
the acceleration channel. This scheme has ZONE 1
and ZONE 2 impedance relays as before. The ZONE 1
relays trip instantaneously. The ZONE 2 relays also
trip instantaneously unless a BLOCKING signal is
received from the other end. If a BLOCKING signal is
received and the ZONE 2 relay remains operated,
tripping takes place after 0.4 seconds. The BLOCKING
signal is sent by a third relay element which operates
for faults in the reverse direction, but will never operate
to send BLOCKING for faults on the protected line.

13-16

13-17

PHASE COMPARISON PROTECTION SCHEMES


Another protective relaying system for high-voltage
transmission lines is Phase Comparison
Protection. This system uses the principle of
comparing the phase angle between the currents at
the two ends of the protected line. During external
faults the current entering the line is of the same
relative phase angle as the current leaving the line,
and the phase comparison relays at each terminal
measure little or no phase angle difference.

The protection therefore stabilizes and no tripping occurs. For an


internal fault the current will enter the line at both ends, and the
phase comparison relays detect this phase angle difference. The
relay then operates to clear the fault. With phase comparison
schemes starting relays are used to start the phase comparison
process whenever a fault condition is detected. These starting
relays must operate for both internal and external faults. A reliable
communication

channel

is

required

for

phase

comparison

protection. Until a few years ago power line carrier was used as
the communication channel for almost all phase comparison
schemes. More recently microwave systems and fibre optic cables
have been used.

13-18

Line Differential Protection


The fundamental principle of differential
protection is applied to the transmission line by
comparing the current entering the line at one
terminal, with the current leaving line at the
remote terminal.
The line differential relays at each end of the
transmission line compare data on the line current
via a fibre-optic communications link.

13-19

Line Differential Protection


The line differential relays at each end of the transmission line
compare data that is exchanged via a fibre-optic link between the
two terminals. Many utilities have a fibre-optic cable embedded in
the skywire of H.V. transmission lines.The relays compare the
magnitude and phase angle of the current entering the line at one
end, with the current leaving the line at the other end. If the two are
not equal, within a reasonable tolerance, then a fault condition is
detected, and the line is tripped. The relay also has various other
protection elements, such as instantaneous overcurrent, timed
overcurrent, phase and ground directional overcurrent, and
distance (or impedance).
The distance, or impedance element is often used for back-up
protection. Direct tripping is provided between the two terminals of
the transmission line.

13-20

COMMUNICATION CHANNEL REQUIREMENTS BETWEEN


TERMINALS
In order to achieve high-speed tripping for faults on transmission
lines, reliable communication channels are required between the
protective relaying equipment at each terminal of the line. High
quality communication channels are required for the following
functions associated with transmission line protections:

Acceleration or Blocking signals for Distance or


Impedance protection schemes.

Communication channel for Phase-Comparison


protection.

Direct Tripping channel between terminals of the line.

Communication channel for Pilot-Wire protection.

13-21

The various types of communication channels


commonly used for the protection of high-voltage
transmission lines include:
Metallic Pilot Wires. This type of channel may be
direct buried cable and customer-owned, or a circuit
leased from the telephone company. Limited to fairly
short distances.
Voice-Frequency Tone circuit leased from telephone
or communications company.
Microwave Channel. This is very expensive
unless the channel can be shared for many
transmission lines and/or other users.

13-22

Power Line Carrier. The signals are injected into the


power line through the C.V.T.'s, and is used extensively for
inter-tripping, acceleration, and phase-comparison,
particularly on very long lines.
VHF Radio. Must be line-of-site, and is limited to fairly short
distances.
Fibre Optic Cable. The fibre may be leased from a
communications company, or installed as part of the
transmission line earth-wire or sky-wire. This practice is
becoming very common in electrical utilities, where
fibre-optic earth-wire or sky-wire is being installed on
many new transmission lines. This has the advantage
that the electrical utility can lease out spare fibres in the
sky-wire or earth-wire to communication companies.

13-23

13-24




6HFWLRQ

Static Capacitor Protection

Static Capacitor Protection

14-1

STATIC CAPACITOR PROTECTION


Shunt capacitor banks are used at
transformer stations in 15 kV, 25 kV, 33
kV and 44 kV sub-transmission systems
for voltage control, and power factor
improvement.

The basic building block of these capacitor banks is the single


encapsulated capacitor unit, with many elements in a series parallel arrangement. The individual elements are made from
aluminum foil sheets, separated by a paper film insulation,
immersed in a liquid dielectric, and contained in a metal tank. The
capacitor unit can be either a two-bushing type or a single bushing
type. The capacity of each unit is usually 200 kVAR or 300 kVAR,
at voltage ratings of about 8 kV to 16kV.
The individual units (or cans) may be arranged in various
configurations, with different series - parallel arrangements to
obtain the required bank ratings. The units are mounted on
insulated racks, and are interconnected.

14-2

Some of the configurations that are commonly


used are:
1.

Grounded Star

2.

Grounded Double Star

3.

Ungrounded Star

4.

Ungrounded Double Star

14-3

CAPACITOR
BREAKER

FUSES

SERIES
GROUP 1

200KVAR
CAPACITORS

FUSES

SERIES
GROUP 2

CAPACITORS

FUSES

SERIES
GROUP 3

CAP
A R ACIT
SIM R A N G OR
W P ILAR T E .
HA O
SE

CAPACITORS

A typical arrangement of a Grounded Star capacitor bank is shown


above:

14-4

CAPACITOR UNIT FUSING


The first line of protection for a capacitor bank is the
individual, external, indicating capacitor fuse as
shown in the diagram on the previous page. The fuse
should sense a failed capacitor unit and isolate the
defective unit from the bank fast enough to prevent
case rupture in the presence of heavy energy
discharge from the other healthy parallel capacitors.
The I2t rating of the fuses must be adequate to avoid
operation on normal transient in-rush currents.
Abnormal in-rush currents resulting from capacitor
back-to-back switching (one energised when another
is connected to the same bus) should also be
considered.

A capacitor bank can continue to operate in spite of the loss of a


limited number of units in a series group. Fuses give a visible
indication when they blow. The isolation of a failed capacitor unit by
its fuse results in an increased impedance of that series section
from which the faulty unit has been removed. The larger the
number of units removed, the higher will be the increase in
impedance of that series section. As there can be many sections in
series, the effect of increased impedance in one section does not
decrease the phase current in the same relative inverse proportion.
As a result, the slightly reduced current flowing through a more
markedly increased impedance causes a higher voltage to appear
across the remaining units in that section. If the situation remains
undetected and not corrected within a reasonable time, the higher
voltage can cause a progressive `cascading' failure of the units,
leading to the eventual blowing of all the fuses in the series group.

14-5

PROTECTION CONSIDERATIONS
A shunt capacitor bank should be in
service whenever load conditions
require power factor improvement and
voltage regulation.

Ideally, the bank should not be tripped for one or two failed
capacitor units in one series group, provided the remaining units
are not subjected to an overvoltage exceeding 10% of their rated
voltage. At the same time, the protection should ensure removal of
the bank from the system before it is exposed to severe damage
either from excessive overvoltage or from fault currents. The
protection should not maloperate because of in-rush currents as a
result of switching, or because of out-rush currents as a result of an
external fault.

14-6

The capacitor bank protection should detect


the following conditions:
A.

Overcurrents due to capacitor bank


BUS faults.

B.

System steady-state overvoltages.

C.

Overcurrents due to individual


capacitor unit failure.

D.

Continuous capacitor unit


overvoltages.

E.

Flash-over within the capacitor rack.

Individual capacitor fuses protect against rupture or case-bursting


of failed units. The blown fuses prevent interruption in operation of
the bank, and give a visual indication of failed units to facilitate their
replacement. Protection against system surge voltages is normally
provided by spark gaps or surge arrestors at the capacitor.

14-7

CAPACITOR BANK OVERCURRENT


PROTECTION
Conventional overcurrent relays, both Phase
and Ground, provide protection against bus
faults. i.e. The faults occurring on the
buswork between the circuit breaker and the
capacitor bank. Overcurrent relays with both
instantaneous and inverse timed elements
are used. The inverse time delay will override
the transient in-rush currents, including those
of back-to-back switching.

The relays are supplied with current from the C.T's located in the
bushings on the bus side of the capacitor circuit breaker.
The inverse time elements are set low enough to respond to rack
faults of capacitor banks with more than one series group in each
phase. A rack fault can be an arc-over of a single series section or
a number of series groups, caused as a result of a foreign object
initiating the short. Unlike other equipment where the arc-over is
line-to-ground or line-to-line, the flash-over in a capacitor bank can
be across only a portion of the line to neutral voltage. As a
consequence, the fault current is smaller than the typical phase-tophase or phase-to-ground faults.

14-8

PHASE OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION


The phase overvoltage relays protect the
capacitor against sustained system
overvoltage.

The voltage ratings of capacitor banks are generally higher than


the maximum system operating voltages. Since other elements of
the system are more vulnerable to damage from system
overvoltages than the capacitor banks, the capacitor bank phase
overvoltage protection may be viewed as a system overvoltage
protection. The overvoltage relay is connected phase-to-phase to
the bus V.T. secondary. A time delay relay is included in the
tripping circuit to reduce the chances of false trips due to transient
overvoltage conditions.

14-9

OVERCURRENT IN INDIVIDUAL
CAPACITOR UNITS
As described earlier, a damaged capacitor
unit, which would cause currents to increase,
is isolated by the fuse which serves the
double duty as a protective device and a
disconnect switch.

Fuse co-ordination is important for reliable protection. The fuses


must be able to withstand the inrush, transient, and discharge
currents; but excessive currents must be interrupted for individual
capacitor units to avoid case rupture.

14-10

CONTINUOUS CAPACITOR UNIT OVERVOLTAGE


PROTECTION
NEUTRAL UNBALANCE
Loss of one or more capacitor units causes an
increase in the voltage across the remaining units
within the group. A continuous excessive overvoltage
is detrimental to the capacitor units. Protection is
therefore needed to sense the capacitor bank
unbalance, and to alarm the operator, or to trip off the
bank in cases of overvoltages exceeding about 110%
of the rated voltage.

An unbalance in the grounded-star capacitor bank will cause


current to flow in the neutral. Likewise for the double starungrounded bank whose neutrals are tied, an unbalance in one of
the two stars will cause current to flow in the neutral.
By providing overcurrent relays to sense the currents in the
neutrals of grounded star capacitor banks, continuous capacitor
unit overvoltage conditions can be detected. Two instantaneous
overcurrent relays are used. The first one has a low setting such
that it will initiate an alarm if a single capacitor fuse has blown. The
second relay has a higher setting and will trip the capacitor bank if
a specific number of units fail which results in more than 10%
overvoltage on the remaining units. This second relay should also
trip the bank for rack faults. Both of these relays are time delayed
to prevent operation for transient in-rush or external ground faults.

14-11

MICROPROCESSOR-BASED CAPACITOR
PROTECTION & CONTROL SYSTEMS
Microprocessor-based systems have recently
become available to perform the many protection
functions for static capacitor banks, as well as having
features to provide automatic control. As an example,
a brochure is attached for a recently introduced unit
which provides digital protection and control of
capacitor banks. This brochure illustrates the various
features available on such units.

14-12

6HFWLRQ

Recent Developments and Future Trends in
Protective Relaying

Recent Developments and


Future Trends in Protective
Relaying

15-1

DIGITAL MICROPROCESSOR-BASED
RELAYS
In the last few years digital microprocessorbased relays have been introduced to all
areas of protective relaying. With the many
features available in these relays they are
revolutionizing the way that protection,
control, and monitoring is being applied
in high-voltage substations.

15-2

The features of modern microprocessor-based relays


include:

Many Functions in a Single Relay.

Group Settings Readily Changeable for


changes in feeder configuration.

Programmable Output Relays

Communication Ports for connection to


SCADA Systems, Modems, and Personal
Computers

Sequence-of-Events Stored for many recent


faults

15-3

Oscillography or waveform capture storage


of pre and post-fault current & voltage
waveform data for analysis of faults

Measurements current, voltage & maximum


demand can be displayed & recorded.
Calculated values such as MW, MVA & MVAR
can be displayed.

Aid to circuit breaker maintenance. Fault interrupting


duty, per phase, can be recorded.

Fault Locater Displays distance to fault.

Other special features such as cold-load-pick-up

15-4

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSORS


The digital signal processor, or DSP, is
the heart of modern microprocessor-based
relays. The DSP digitizes the A.C. signals
from the C.T.s & V.Ts at a rate of many
times per cycle. The DSP continuously
uses the digital data for multiple functions,
such as protection, fault recording, fault
location, metering, power quality, etc.

Algorithms are performed on the data to detect fault conditions that are
determined by the settings which are programmed into the DSP, or
relays. Data is processed by the DSP at a very high speed. The output
data is then passed on to the control computer or microprocessor. This
output data can be a digital signal to indicate that a fault condition has
been detected, and tripping must result. The output data may also be
RMS values of current & voltage, etc. for the display of indicating
metering.

15-5

OPTICAL CURRENT TRANSFORMERS


The use of optical C.T.s or optical
current
transducers
in
modern
protective relaying applications will likely
increase considerably in the coming
years. There is the expectation that the
development of optical C.T.s will lead to
much
simpler
structures,
and
considerable cost savings over existing
high-voltage free-standing C.T.s.

The optical signals are compatible with the latest types of


microprocessor-based devices. Although optical current transducers are
still in the development stage, there are many units in-service at various
locations throughout the world, and electrical utilities are gaining
operational experience with this technology.
A diagram showing Faraday cell, and the principle of operation of the
optical current transducer is included later in this section

15-6

15-7

15-8

FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS


Fiber optic communications is gaining
widespread use in power system protective
relaying. In Substations fibre optic cable is being
used for communication between various
microprocessor based relays, and between
optical current transducers and relays of
D.S.P.s. Many protection tone channels and
inter-tripping circuits between substations use
fibre optics, often utilizing fibres built into the
earth-wire or sky-wire of transmission lines.

One difficulty faced by utilities today is the need to communicate with


the many different makes and types of microprocessor-based devices
installed in large transmission and distribution stations.

The industry is working towards the development standards that will


allow different makes of relays to communicate with each other.

15-9