T=0
Then
Reflectivity + Absorptivity = 1
Since there is Reflectivity
A+R=1
R=>0
Then
Absorptivity must be:
A=<0
Therefore
Emissivity must be less than 1
=<1
Real surface emit less radiation than ideal black body surface.
The ratio of actual emissive power [E] to the emissive power of a black
body at the same temperature [Eb] is called the emissivity.
It is defined by
o = E/Eb
All the letters and symbols in the above equation are defined in the article on Coupled
Radiation, Convection and Conduction. That fact that there are no conductive terms in
(1) means that heat conductivity is of no importance in the problem, both for the
temperature field formation in the moving medium and for its heat transfer with the
surface. Thus, heat conductivity can be ignored for small temperature gradients and
when the sharp temperature front is replaced by a contact discontinuity. Obviously, in
the latter case, the information on temperature distribution at the front is lost and the
medium thermal state on both sides of the contact discontinuity should be determined
without heat conductivity.
When analyzing combined radiation and convection, the Boltzmann criterion can be
represented in the form of the convective to radiative heat flux component ratio
(2)
The classical problem of combined radiation and convection is the problem of steadystate gas flow across a flat plate at a constant temperature [Sparrow and Cess (1970)].
The flow scheme is shown in Figure 1 and the mathematical problem is to solve the
energy conservation equation
(3)
assuming Hugoniot conditions on the shock and the condition of flow nonpenetration or
a given injection rate through the surface. In problems of radiating shock layers, the
radiation transfer is considered, as a rule, to be as in a planeparallel layer, this is
justified by a small thickness of the layer. Solving Eqs. (5) makes it possible to obtain
flow variable distributions inside the shock layer and the radiation fluxes to the surface
and the shock front. In this situation, radiation transfer strongly influences the shock
layer parameters, hence, the problem can be attributed to the class of strong interaction
of radiation and convection.
Problems on laser wave deflagration applied in laser rocket engines and in the optical
plasmatron are also problems involving the strong interaction regime. The plasma cloud,
localized in space and with a size of ~ 1 cm and a temperature of ~15,000 K, moves to
meet a laser beam (e.g., from a CO2 laser) due to heating of the surrounding cold gas by
the heat radiation of the plasma itself. The plasma exists due to laser energy absorption.
The heating rate of the cold gas by heat radiation essentially exceeds that by heat
conductivity, even for extremaly high temperature gradients in the laser deflagration
wave. The process runs usually at atmospheric or higher pressures, and this makes it
possible to use the equilibrium approximation for the thermodynamic medium state and
an equation system similar to (5).
The main difference is that the integral radiation flux vector is represented as a sum
where qR, T and qR, L are the vectors of integral heat flux density and laser radiation flux
density, respectively. To obtain the function qR, T the twodimensional equation for
selective radiation transfer must be solved, while for qR, Lthe geometrical optics
approximation may be employed.
Combined radiation and convection problems concerned with calculations of heat
transfer in devices such as steam boiler furnaces are widely encountered in engineering
practice [Siegel and Howell (1972); Ozisik (1973)]. The temperature of the furnace
medium (multicomponent disperse system of gas and solid phases) is maintained by
combustion, and the general configuration of the temperature field in the furnaces is
determined mainly by convective processes formed when the gasdust component flows
in a working space. The surfaces are heated principally by radiation heat transfer from
the furnace medium; therefore, the heat conductivity contribution is neglected when
computing real furnace steam boilers. Analyzing the combined radiation and convection
processes in furnaces, the transfer equation for this complicated geometry should take
into account the radiation scattering and absorptive properties of the furnace medium
with various additives (the properties of which are hardly known) as well as the opticalphysical characteristics of the heatreceptive surfaces
In evaporators with nucleate boiling, vapor generation is initiated by wall nucleation (though
in much of the evaporator, nucleation may be supressed). Such evaporators are really a
subclass of boiling systems in general, and the heat transfer processes are those described in
the article on Forced Convection Boiling. The types of evaporators in this category include:
Here, there is a short region of nucleate boiling near the evaporator entrance but the
main part of the evaporator has climbing film flow in the tubes with no nucleate
boiling.
Here, relatively short tubes may be used with an internal circulation device to aid
circulation and minimize fouling. A typical system is shown in Figure 3.
Baskettype Evaporator.

This is a variant of the shorttube type in which the whole tube bank may be easily
removed for cleaning.
In this form, there is no free surface in the evaporator (in contrast to the shorttube
typesee Figure 3); the tubes are much longer and separation occurs in a separate
vessel.
Plate Evaporators.

Here, evaporation occurs in channels separated by plates of one form or another. The
plate heat exchanger can be adapted to act as an evaporator and this also applies to
the Platefin Heat Exchanger. Evaporators with spiral plates are also employed.
This is one of a number of types in which evaporation takes place outside surfaces in
crossflow, with the heating on the inside of the tubes.
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