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HUE UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES


DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH

TRANSLATION

NGUYEN VAN TUAN


HUE - 2006

INTRODUCTION
TRANSLATION 4 is a basic course book written for the second-year students of the Department of
English, College of Foreign Languages, Hue University. It is intended to equip the students with an overview
of translating Vietnamese and English economic texts. It also helps the students get familiar with the terms
related to economy as well as the typical structures frequently used in economic texts.
Since the course book has been written for the students to learn either by themselves or in class with a
teacher, there will be a course book and assignments. The course book contains the Vietnamese and English
economic texts with notes and suggested translations. The assignments contain the Vietnamese and English
economic texts that will be translated into either English or Vietnamese by the students.
By the end of the course, the students will be able to:

Obtain general knowledge of the Vietnamese and English economic documents.

Get familiar with and effectively use scientific and technological terms and typical structures of
economic texts in their translations.

Accurately translate economic texts into English and Vietnamese.

On the completion of this course book, I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Ton Nu Nhu
Huong for her encouragement. I would also like to be grateful to Dr. Tran Van Phuoc and other colleagues
of the College of Foreign Languages for their kind help.
Errors are unavoidable in this course book. Therefore, I appreciate and welcome any criticism on the
course book.
Hue, November 14th, 2006
Nguyen Van Tuan

CHAPTER I

GENERAL
ECONOMIC
ISSUES

LESSON 1

REFORESTATION AN UPHILL BATTLE


IN MOUNTAINOUS TAY NGUYEN
Tay Nguyen- the authorities and people in Tay Nguyen (the Western Highlands) have a battle on their
hand to protect and restore forests that have been relentlessly chopped down. Spread over nearly 55,000
square kilometers, the forests in these regions are the countrys largest. Actually covering 2.93 million ha, it is
230,000 ha less than five years ago. Of the four Tay Nguyen provinces, Dac Lac is the one with the largest
wooded area and also the one losing the most canopy each year an average of 40,000 ha.
The reason for losing the provinces lung is not hard to find- the inexorable emigration of people to
these areas from the rest of the country since 1990. The population growth in these provinces has been a
stagering 5 to 6% every year. And Dac Lac alone houses 2,200 migrants. With the influx came the usual
accompanying problems: pressure on forestland for housing, cultivating and fuel. Another reason has been
the creased cultivation of commercial crops like coffee, pepper, and rubber. The total area under these has
risen to 567,000 ha-double the 1996 figure. But the government has become aware of the havoc that
denudation of the forest cover could wreak.
Tay Nguyen is seen as a common roof for the Central and South-eastern areas, but the regions
forests is enduring serious damage, illegal wood exploitation remains a headache, and the environment is
under great threat, said Prime Minister Han Van Khai when speaking about the regions development. He
exhorted the Tay Nguyen provinces to keep a close eye on forest protection and development, and set
targets for the next five years to increase the area under forest cover in a bid to ensure sustainable socioeconomic development. The provincial authorities too have begun to get their act together. In ADC Lac, for
instance, billions of dong has been invested in aforestation activities under Programmes 327 and 661 and the
total reforested has reached about 10,000 ha. But the figure is still minuscule when juxtaposed with the more
than 200,000 ha that have been felled since 1995. Under the socio-economic development scheme for the
2001-2005 period, Tay Nguyens provinces have earmarked over 2.93million ha of existing forest areas for
protection while reforesting 500,000 ha, so that the total forest cover would reach 64.3% by 2005, an increase
of 10% over the current figure.
To reach the goal through, the provinces need to raise awareness among the population, innovate
sustainable products and manufacturing methods and improve forest management and protection. The forest
plantation and communal forest management departments should be further strengthened while economic
sectors and households should be urged to take an active part in protecting and managing forest areas. At the
moment some areas in Dac Lac Province have been moving in that direction and local residents have proven
willing to protect and develop forest areas to which they are given possession rights.

battle:
to be chopped down:
emigration:
commercial crop:
to become aware of:

trn chin
b n, b cht
di c
nng sn hng ho
thc c

sustainable:
to be strengthened:

bn vng
c tng cng

Suggested translation:

TRNG RNG CC TNH MIN NI TY NGUYN


ANG L MT VN KH KHN
Ty Nguyn - Chnh quyn v ngi dn Ty Nguyn ang gp kh khn trong vic bo v v
ti to nhng khu rng b cht ph mt cch nghim trng. Vi din tch hn 50.000 km2, nhng khu
rng y l ln nht nc, chim 2,93 ha nay ch cn 230.000 ha, thp hn 5 nm trc y. L mt
trong bn tnh ca Ty Nguyn, c Lc l mt trong nhng khu vc c din tch rng ln nht v cng
l ni mt che ph nhiu nht, trung bnh 40.000 ha mt nm.
L do mt i l phi nhng tnh ny khng kh tm ra, l s di tr ca nhng ngi dn
trong vng n nhng ni khc. K t nm 1999, t l gi tng dn s ca nhng tnh ny t 5 n 6%
mi nm, c Lc c khong 2.200 c h dn di tr. Mt s vn khc ny sinh cng vn ny:
p lc i vi t rng cho vic xy dng nh ca, trng trt v ly g. Mt l do khc l gia tng vic
trng cy kinh t nh: c ph, tiu v cao su, tng din tch tng ln 567.000 ha - gp i con s
nm 1990. Nhng Chnh ph cng nhn thc c vn tn ph ny cn c th trm trng hn.
Ty Nguyn c xem nh mt mi nh chung cho cc tnh min Trung v ng Nam. Nhng
rng y ang b tn ph trm trng, nn khai thc g tri php vn l mt vn nhc nhi, mi
trng di s e da nghim trng. Th tng Chnh ph Phan Vn Khi ni chuyn v s pht
trin ca nhng tnh ny. Th tng ku gi cc tnh Ty Nguyn hy xem trng vic bo v v pht
trin rng v t k hoch cho nm nm ti, c th tng din tch rng cn bo v nhm duy tr
c s pht trin kinh t x hi. Chnh quyn cc tnh cng hp tc cng nhau. Thc t l, hng t
ng c c Lc u t vo vic trng rng bng cc chng trnh 327 v 661 v tng din tch
rng ti to ln n khong 10.000 ha. Nhng con s vn cn rt nh khi so snh vi hn 20.000 ha
b ph hy k t nm 1995. Da vo s pht trin kinh t-x hi trong giai on 2001-2005, cc
tnh Ty Nguyn s ng khung hn 2,93 triu ha din tch ang cn bo v trong khi ti to 500.000
ha rng tng din tch rng bao ph c th ln n 64,3% vo nm 2005, tng 10% so vi con s
ban u.
t c k hoch ny, Chnh quyn cc tnh cn phi tng cng nhn thc cho ngi dn,
ng thi ng dng nhng phng tin mi nhm ci thin cng tc qun l v bo v rng. Cng tc
trng rng cn phi c quan tm hn. Ngnh kim lm cn tng cng cng tc bo v rng. Cc
ngnh kinh t v cc h gia nh cn ng mt vai tr tch cc hn trong vic qun l v bo v rng.
Hin ti, mt s vng tnh c Lc v ang i theo hng va nu. Chnh quyn a phng
nng cao nhn thc v vic bo v v pht trin nhng khu rng m h c giao khon.

LESSON 2

VIETNAM SEEKS ASSISTANCE FOR HIGHLANDS DEVELOPMENTS


Hanoi - Vietnam wishes to exchange experiences and co-operate with other countries in making its
mountainous regions prosperous and stable, says Hoang Duc Nghi, Minister and Chairman of the
Committee for Ethnic Minorities and Mountainous Affairs.
Speaking at the World Mountain Forum held in French cities of Paris and Chambery last week, Nghi
said that the Vietnamese Government welcomes the UN declaration of 2002 as the International Year of
Mountains. Vietnam is facing difficulties and challenges in checking deforestation and degradation of land
resources, and is committed to pursuing areas strategy of protecting natural resources through sustainable
exploitation, he said. Nghi met with French and other delegates and discussed measures to heighten cooperation in the development of mountainous regions. The forum adopted a resolution calling on 140
countries having forests and mountains in the world to raise awareness of the important role of mountainous
regions, define orienta-tions for sustainable development of the areas in coming years, and increase exchange
of experiences and co-operation. The seven-day forum, jointly organized by France, the UN, EU, and the
World Bank, wrapped up on Monday.

stable:

n nh

to face:

ng u

challenge:

thch thc

orientation:

nh hng

sustainable:

pht trin bn vng

Suggested translation:

VIT NAM TM KIM S GIP CHO VN PHT TRIN MIN NI


Theo ng Hong c Nghi-Trng ban Dn tc v min ni, Vit Nam mong mun c trao i
kinh nghim v hp tc vi cc nc bn nhm to s pht trin thnh vng v vng chc min ni.
Pht biu ti Din n Th gii v min ni t chc ti thnh ph Pari v Chm-b-ri ca Php
tun qua, ng Nghi ni rng Chnh ph Vit Nam rt hoan ngnh cng b ca Lin Hp Quc coi nm
2002 l nm Th gii v min ni. ng Nghi cng nhn mnh thm, Vit Nam ang i mt vi nhiu
kh khn v th thch nh nn ph rng ba bi, tnh trng thoi ha ti nguyn t, cng nh vic
kin tr trong chin lc v khai thc mt cch hp l cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin.
Cng trong chuyn i ny, ng Nghi gp v tho lun vi phi on Php v cc phi on
khc nhau nhm tm ra gii php tng cng hp tc vi nhau v s pht trin chung ca min ni. Hi
tho thng nht ku gi 140 nc trn th gii c rng ni cn nhn thc r vai tr quan trng ca
min ni, ng thi nh hng pht trin cng nh vic tng cng trao i kinh nghim v hp tc
gia cc nc trong nhng nm ti. Php, Lin Hp Quc, Khi Cng ng Chu u v Ngn hng Th
gii ng t chc hi tho din ra trong 7 ngy v kt thc vo th hai.

LESSON 3

ADB ASSISTANCE TO HELP FIGHT POVERTY, CREATE MORE JOBS


Hanoi - Continued assistance from the Asian Development Bank will play an important role in poverty
alleviation, especially in creating more employment, says Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung.
Receiving visiting ADB executive director Jeung-Hyun Yoon in Hanoi yesterday, Dung lauded the
valuable assistance that the Manila-based bank has rendered to the nations economic reforms, rural
development, human resource development and environmental protection. The ADB has pledged loans
worth US $2 billion since 1993 for 29 projects and preferential loan programmes, of which US $76 million is
non-refundable, he noted. Dung expressed his hope that the ADB will continue offering effective assistance
for the countrys reform programmes including the ongoing restructuring of state-owned enterprises and
renovation of the financial and banking sectors.
The ADB official said he was delighted to be visiting Vietnam at a time when its economy was
registering strong improvements. He briefed the Deputy Prime Minister on the results of his one- week visit,
saying it aimed to strengthen co-operation in lending and borrowing operations through exchange of
information and assessment of the banks operations in the country. Yoon also expressed his desire to see
further development in Vietnam-ADB relations and pledged to co-ordinate more actively among sponsors in
finding investment on preferential terms.

the Asian Development Bank:

Ngn hng Pht trin Chu

play an important role:

ng mt vai tr quan trng

poverty alleviation:

xo i gim ngho

executive director:

Gim c iu hnh

human resource development:

pht trin ngun nhn lc

preferential loan programmes:

chng trnh cho vay u i

effective assistance:

s gip c hiu qu

reform program:

chng trnh ci cch

state-owned enterprise:

doanh nghip nh nc

Suggested translation:

S TR GIP CA ADB S GIP CHNG I NGHO V TO THM VIC LM


H Ni S tr gip t Ngn hng Pht trin chu s ng mt vai tr quan trng trong vic
chng i ngho, c bit l to thm nhiu vic lm, theo Ph Th tng Nguyn Tn Dng.
Trong bui tip Gim c iu hnh Ngn hng Pht trin chu (ADB) Jeung-hyun Yoon ngy
hm qua ti H Ni, Ph Th tng nc ta Nguyn Tn Dng pht biu rng s tip tc tr gip
ca ADB s ng mt vai tr quan trng trong vic xa i gim ngho, c bit l to thm nhiu

cng n vic lm. Ph Th tng cng cm n s gip qu bu ca ADB c tr s ti Manila, Philippin trong ci cch kinh t, pht trin nng thn, pht trin ngun lc con ngi v bo v mi trng.
Ngn hng Pht trin chu ha cho Vit Nam vay tr gi 2 t la M t nm 1993 cho 29 d n v
cc chng trnh vay u i trong c 76 triu la khng hon li. Ph Th tng Nguyn Tn Dng
by t hi vng rng ADB s tip tc tr gip mt cch c hiu qu cho cc chng trnh ci cch t
nc bao gm vic ci t cc x nghip quc doanh ang din ra v i mi cc chi nhnh ti chnh v
ngn hng.
ng Jeung-hyun Yoon pht biu ni ln nim vui c n thm Vit Nam vo thi im m
nn kinh t Vit Nam v ang t c nhng tin b mnh m. ng cng bo co vi Ph Th
tng kt qu ca mt tun ving thm Vit Nam ca ng v nhn mnh rng l nhm tng cng
hp tc trong lnh vc vay v cho vay thng qua ttrao i thng tin v nh gi hot ng ca cc ngn
hng Vit Nam. ng Yoon by t mong c rng mi quan h gia Vit Nam v Ngn hng Pht trin
Chu s pht trin hn na v ha s hp tc tch cc vi cc nh ti tr trong vic tm kim cc ngun u t
vo cc lnh vc u tin.

LESSON 4

POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE


Vietnam is a socialist republic furnished with a constitution since 1980 and based on a tripartite political
structure: the Communist Party of Vietnam, the people and the State. A characteristic feature is the very
important place occupied by the Party, which waged the liberation struggles leading to the indepen-dence of
North Vietnam in 1954 and then to the reunification of the country in 1975.
The Party, whose best known bodies are the Political Bureau, the Secretariat, the Central Committee
and the Congress, conducts the affairs of the country. It draws up the lists of candidates for general elections
from which delegates to the National Assembly are chosen; the Assembly in turn elects the members of the
Council of Ministers which appoints ministers to head the ministries. The party provides the leaders of the
very active mass organizations which form the front for the Fatherland and cover all sections of the
population: labour, trade unions, Association of Collective Farmers, Union of Women, Union of Youth,
Union of Intellectuals, Union of Catholics, and Union of Buddhists. The administrative matters are carried
out in four-tiered structure from the central level, down through the 44 provinces, and the 519 districts to the
9,807 communes at the grassroots level.

Planning
Vietnam's overall planning system is centralized, but there is flexibility in development planning,
investment programming, budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of sectoral projects. At
central level, development policies are determined by the State Council and Council of Ministers with the
State Planning Commission providing technical guidance.
The State Planning Commission (SPC), as the technical arm of the Council of Ministers, plays the
leading role in national planning, investment programming, budget allocation and monitoring of socioeconomic development trends and sectoral performance. It coordinates plans for donor assistance and
identifies priority programmes for intervention, in collaboration with the line ministries, Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, State Committee for Foreign Investment and Cooperation, State Committee for Science,
Committee on Aid Reception and the People's Committees. The SPC formulates mid-term and annual
investment plans and prepares the relevant budgets for approval by the Council of Ministers. CERFC, the
aid co-ordination committee, works closely with SPC to identify government policies, plans and priorities.
The General Statistics Office (GSO), also under the Council of Minister is responsible for coordinating population censuses as well as the collection of statistics on socio-economic development and
the situation of children and women. The GSO provides information and data support to the SPC for
planning and programming purposes.
Decentralized development and planning
Under recent reforms, planning has been decentralized giving the sectoral implementing ministries
and peoples' committees at provincial, district and commune level, the freedom to define their priorities
and plans, subject to centrally-issued guidelines. In line with this policy, sectoral planning units were established in the Social Sector ministries. Furthermore, almost all the provinces and districts have established
planning units which provide planning and technical support to the Peoples Committees. The local
government units are authorized to utilize locally generated revenues and income to finance and implement their planned programmes without relying on central government resources. This initiative can
lead to greater participation of the local government units in the delivery of basic services for children and
women. The area based development model can be applied to accelerate basic services and enhance
capacity in local planning, monitoring and evaluation. At the same time, community interventions which
would improve the living condition of women and their families such as low cost appropriate technology,
income generation, growth monitoring, can be piloted in specific provinces or districts. However, the
professional staff manning the planning units need to be trained to widen their skills in management,
planning and monitoring activities.

political structure:

th ch chnh tr

to be furnished with:

c trang b

liberation:

s gii phng

reunification:

s thng nht

Political Bureau:

B Chnh tr

Central Committee:

y ban Trung ng, Ban B th Trung ng

general election:

tng tuyn c

National Assembly:

chng trnh ci cch

Council of Ministers:

Hi ng B trng

the Front for the Fatherland:

Mt trn T quc

Association of Collective Farmers:

Hi Nng dn Tp th

to be centralized:

tp trung

State Planning Commission:

y ban K hoch Nh nc

budget allocation:

vic phn b ngn sch

priority program:

chng trnh u tin

in collaboration with:

c lin quan n

State Commitee for Science:

y ban Khoa hc Nh nc

Committee on Aid Reception:

Ban Tip nhn vin tr

The General Statistics Office:

Cc Thng k

locally generated revenue:

ngn sch a phng

to be challenged:

b th thch, b thch thc

data deficiency:

thiu ht s liu

LESSON 5

THE ECONOMY, AGRICULTURE & FOOD PRODUCTION


The Vietnamese economy is challenged by a number of development issues including population
growth, employment and wage levels, balance of payment deficits and inflation. However, analysis of
economic development in Vietnam is constrained by the lack of official statistics. Many are out of date by
the time they are published. An attempt to remedy this data deficiency has been under way for some time,
and has recently resulted in the publication of preliminary census estimates in April 1990. The State
Planning Commission and General Statistics Office in collaboration with the relevant ministries have been
trying to update the socio-economic data related to the development of the vulnerable groups and the
country's economic situation in general.
Trends in economic development and policy reforms
The economic and social development of Vietnam has to be viewed in the context of the long period
of war which has caused great damage to people's lives and property as well as to public facilities and

resources. The war consequences and subsequent period of recon- struction full of diff iculties has clearly
been an overriding constraint to the development of children and other vulnerable groups.
In the transition period after reunification, the nation endeavoured to develop with its own limited
resources. An agricultural collective programme was set up throughout the country. Private trade and
commerce were terminated and taken over by government run entities. Collective small handicrafts
programmes were introduced. In the manufacturing sector, strong emphasis was put on the development
of heavy industries. However, the country's economy did not prosper. Food shortages, coupled with
deficient basic services were felt nation-wide. Children and mothers bore the consequences and the
malnutrition prevalence was high. Despite attempts at economic reform in the early 1980s, Vietnam
continued to buy agricultural products abroad as the agricultural sector production declined. The few
consumer goods produced in the country were not sufficient to meet requirements as the manufacturing
sector was inefficient and constrained by inadequate infrastructure. Government revenues dried up,
eroding the State's ability to subsidize staples and the provision of basic services to the public. The
Government was forced to issue more banknotes, augmenting money supply. The result was high inflation
which in turn caused the economy to deteriorate further.
In December 1986, the Sixth Party Congress convened and set in motion a new policy advocating
"Doi moi", or renovation of the domestic economy. A five-year development plan (1986-1990) was
adopted with three major priorities, namely: to increase agricultural production and attain self-sufficiency
in food; to increase the availability and production of consumer goods and to increase exports. These core
economic reforms were addressed comprehensively at different levels of production, processing,
distribution and consumption. A new investment law was passed to attract foreign investment. The
economic liberalization programme represented an attempt to solve constraints on a broad range of fronts,
and was accompanied by changes in various areas of country's social life. The policy changes had some
stimulating effects on production. In the farm sector, the weather happened to be favourable in 1989,
enabling grain production to recover, while the manufacturing sector was on the mend. Industrial policy
encouraged the development of small industries while the agriculture sector remains a priority. The multiple
pricing system was gradually done away with, in favour of a single market price. Trade in other products
has been liberalized. The economic situation improved to some extent in 1989. Inflation cooled substantially, although the commodity retail price increase rate was still around 3-4% a month. Rice export
earnings partly solved the foreign exchange crisis and food shortages were reduced. Domestic trade and
commerce activities speeded up. In certain sector foreign investment operations in the country started.
Priority has been given to foreign investment projects which will benefit the three major areas of development as well as improve the infrastructure and institutional development.

wage level:

mc lng

out of date:

li thi

relevant ministry:

b c lin quan

socio-economic data:

s liu v kinh t x hi

to cause damage to:

gy thit hi

context of war:

hon cnh chin tranh

transition period:

thi k qu

10

to be taken over:

c tip qun

manufacturing sector:

b phn sn xut

food shortage:

s thiu ht lng thc

malnutrition:

suy dinh dng

economic reform:

ci cch kinh t

consumer goods:

hng tiu dng

to subsidize:

bao cp

to issue:

pht hnh

Congress:

i Hi

self-sufficiency:

t cung t cp

core:

ch yu, quan trng

to attract:

thu ht

multiple pricing system:

h thng nhiu gi

LESSON 6

ECONOMIC STRUCTURE
Gross Material Product (GMP)
An important feature in the development of the Vietnamese economy has been the changing ratio of
state and private ownership. Between 1976 and 1987, the state and co-operative sector's share in the GMP
rose from 58.9 to 75.0%. This expansion was mainly due to the drive for collectivization in the South. As a
result, the private sector share fell from 41 to 25% during the period. With the new economic policy on
greater participation of the private sector, particularly in manufacturing, trade and transport, the private
sector share rose to 28% and the state and co-operative contribution declined from 75 to 72% in 1988.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The GDP average growth rate was 3.4% from 1984 to 1988. In 1989 with the economic reforms, plus
surplus food production and a slight increase of output in industry, trade and commerce, a more positive
economic growth of 5.7% was attained. It is expected to reach 8% in 1990. Per capita income is still low,
having increased from US $114.00 in 1985 to approximately US $150200 in 1989. The 1988 GDP sectoral
shares were agriculture 39.2%, industry 27.4%, commerce 11.8%, transportation and communication and
construction 2.0% each and other services 11.0%.

11

Under the economic reform process, agricultural sector development is the main core of the
programme. It provides a livelihood for two thirds of the total labour force, and accounts for 30% of
export earnings. Official data indicates that 53% of agriculture output is produced by individual farmers,
45% by co-operatives, and 2% by state farms. Industrial output is produced by state enterprises (more
than 50%), co-operatives (more than 25%) and by individuals (16%). There are 700 state enterprises,
engaged mainly in heavy industry. The provincial and district authorities control 2,300 light industries.
Co-operatives are dominant in small scale industries and individuals in handicrafts. Overall industrial
output grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 1984 and 1988, but heavy industry only recorded
a 6% annual rise, reflecting mixed development initiatives. Light industry increased over 10% annually
with high production rates of tea, salt, sugar, porcelain, and some export goods. However, some locally
produced goods (i.e. beer, matches, and cigarettes) could hardly compete with imports which increased
following the reduction in bordertensions and the introduction of more liberal trading policies.
Vietnam is endowed with rich sources of energy, the major ones being the Quang Ninh coal mine
area, off-shore oil and gas fields in the south. In addition, the Mekong and Red rivers have high potential
for hydro-electric development. At present hydro-electric power accounts for 25.7% of the total power
generated in the country (1988), and it has now increased with the development of the Hoa Binh hydroelectric power plant which provides rural electricity. The forest resources need to be developed and
studied as they could be a good source of energy in the future. Firewood currently constitutes the main
source of fuel for households in rural areas. Coal production is around 6-7 million tons per year and has
been growing gradually during the decade. The average yearly production of electricity was almost 7
million KWh., 66% thermo-electric. The per capita energy consumption is fairly low at 109.1 KWh of
electricity and 108.3 kilogrammes of coal (1988 figures).
The transport, communication and construction share in GDP has been insignificant. This is a
reflection of the low investment and monopoly by the state enterprises and cooperatives. Under
utilization of roads, railways, airports and harbours is also due to poor maintenance and management.
Commerce accounts for about 12% of GDP, with 60% coming from sales of agricultural products, the
remainder being industrial and handicraft goods. In 1987 one quarter of retail sales were estimated to be
through the free market.

private ownership:

quyn s hu t nhn

Gross Domestic Product:

Tng sn phm quc ni

per capita:

tnh theo u ngi

commerce:

thng mi

to compete with:

cnh tranh vi

to be endowed with:

c u i

potential:

tim nng

thermo-electric:

nhit in

monopoly:

c quyn

retail sale:

bn l

12

LESSON 7

INVESTMENT
As the economy declined from 1984 to 1987, investment activities were greatly affected. Total public
investment declined from 12.7% of GDP in 1984 to 5.1% in 1989. This reduction was partly caused by the
government budgetary deficits and the desire to further trim down the budget to reduce hyperinflation. In
addition, foreign investment entering the country was almost nil. However, with the economic reforms,
the situation started to improve from 1989 onwards.
Foreign Aid
The past development of Vietnam has to some extent relied on assistance provided by bilateral,
multilateral and NGO donors. During 1987, development assistance totalled US $148.3 million. The funds
sources were: bilateral agencies (63%) with the German Democratic Republic, Finland and Sweden as the
biggest donors; multilateral agencies (31%) with UNDP, WFP and UNICEF playing leading roles; and NGOs
(6%). Out of the total aid, 13% went to health, 9% to education, 26% to population planning, 14% to
humanitarian assistance, 4% to science and technology and 2% for social welfare. The remainder was utilized
for agriculture, natural resources, industry, transport and communication.
In 1988, 72% of the total labour force was working in the agricultural sector, 90% of them in cooperatives. The state sector (Government and state enterprises) employed 4.3 mill ion people (15% of the
total labour force). The central government had about 330,000 staff on its payroll, while local government
services absorbed over 1.2 million. The private sector employed 3.6 million people or 12.5% of the national
labour force. In the 1980s Vietnam sent 220,000 workers overseas, 210,000 to socialist countries, and
10,000 to Africa and the Middle East. These numbers are expected to substantially decline due to recent
changes in Eastern Europe, thus increasing further the unemployment problems. Wage trends and policies:
In the past, the incomes of civil servants and state enterprises employees included subsidized prices for
rationed goods, subsidised housing, health, transportation and use of otherpublic utilities. Individual
contributions for pensions and social security were minimal, as most of these expenses were financed from
the national budget.
In January 1989, the Government implemented a comprehensive restructuring of the wages of
government workers with a consolidation of consumer subsidies into the nominal wage structure. Though the
minimum wage increased from 5,497 dong to 22,500 dong per month (equivalent US $5.35), real salaries
have declined substantially as a result of high inflation between 1985-1988.
Pricing
In 1981, the Government introduced a number of measures to bring the administrative prices in the
North closer to the free market prices. During 1985, another price reform was initiated to reduce price
distortions and do away with subsidies at all levels of the economy. The system of differentiated consumer
prices was abolished, but the rationing system for essential consumer goods (rice, sugar, kerosene, soap, fish
sauce, and pork) was retained. The effect was a ten fold increase in the price of rice between 1987 and 1990.
The current price of rice is 800-1,000 dongs per kilogramme depending on quality. However, social benefit
items such as electricity, water, house rent, medicines and paper are still subsidized by the Government.

13

Currently the pricing of agricultural and industrial goods fairly reflects actual market prices.
Inflation rate
Between 1985 and 1988, the average annual inflation rate was almost 300%. In 1986 it reached 487%.
The effect of government fiscal monetary reform was to bring down the monthly inflation rate to an average
of 14.5% in 1988 and only 2.3% in 1989..
Fiscal development
Government revenues generated from all sources are inadequate to support the recurrent and capital
expenditures for development. Although the Government has introduced several economic, fiscal and
monetary measures, it cannot move ahead with its plans because of the limited finance available. In 1984, the
budget deficit amounted to 18% of total expenditure in 1984 and 42% in 1989. To resolve the situation and
carry out the planned expenditures, financial assistance was obtained through foreign loans and grants, state
banks and bonds. A decade before 1988, the impact of the banking system on macro-economic
management and development was minimal. To encourage the system to play a more constructive role,
the Government introduced new measures including; re-organization of the banking system; introduction
of restrictive credit policies; a new interest rate policy; and the liberalized trading of gold in the market.
Under the pressures of a high domestic imbalance, overvalued currency, and budget deficits, the balance
of payments eroded continuously between 1984 and 1988. During 1988, the outstanding external debt
reached US $9,703 million. Of this total, 67% was in non-convertible currencies, 33% in convertible
currencies. More than 20% of the external debt in non-convertible currencies, and 61% in the convertible
currencies, is in arrears.

budgetary deficit:

s thm ht ngn sch

multilateral:

a phng

bilateral:

song phng

social welfare:

phc li x hi

comprehensive:

ton din

administrative price:

gi c do Nh nc qun l

to be abolished:

b bi b

to be initiated:

c khi xng

annual inflation rate:

t l lm pht hng nm

revenue:

ngun thu

foreign loans and grants:

cc khon vay v vin tr nc ngoi

fiscal:

thuc v ti chnh

macro-economic management:

s qun l kinh t v m

restrictive credit policy:

chnh sch tn dng hn nh

under the pressure:

di p lc

domestic imbalance:

s mt cn i trong nc

interest rate policy:

chnh sch v li sut

non-convertible:

khng th chuyn i

14

LESSON 8

AGRICULTURE
Economic role of agriculture
The agricultural sector accounted for 38% of the country's total output value, 49% of national income
and 42% of total exports in 1987. In 1989 agricultural exports included food as well as industrial crops.That
year, Vietnam held third place on the world rice export market with 10-15% of the total. The agricultural
exports enable the delta to procure inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, etc.) in order to maintain and increase yield
and be competitive on the international market.
Agricultural Food Production Systems
Food is produced in Vietnam by three different, but complementary farming systems: the state, the
collective and the family. The state farms are mainly involved in cash crop production and the development
of new technologies. The collective farms are responsible for national foodstuff production, particularly
paddy. Families farm plots of land (from 300 to 1,000 square metres, depending on the region) around the
house, growing a variety of grains, fruits and vegetables and raising livestock and fish. In 1983, the
Government began encouraging distribution of land to individual farm families for production under a
contract system and the December 1986 Party Congress confirmed the importance of family farming for food
self-sufficiency. Family farming is now recognized as the main basis for development. Families are free to sell
more of their produce at negotiated or market prices and they have become the main source of livestock,
fish, fruit and vegetables. The co-operatives have started to allocate larger plots of land to families. However,
the co-operatives remain the focal points for distribution of inputs and services, and the collection of taxes
and fees. It is generally admitted that these new initiatives have been an incentive to food production and the
appearance of more food in the markets.
Land use
About a fifth of Vietnam's total land area of some 33 million hectares is arable: of this only 20% is now
cultivated. About four fifths of the land cultivated is devoted to rice paddy, particularly in the delta areas.
However, yields are low: two thirds of the Mekong delta produce only one crop a year. Half of the cultivated
land lies in the long and narrow coastal strip and the highland. This region, which covers 89% of the country's
total land area and contains 58% of the population, has great potential for further agricultural expansion but
investment costs would be high as the infrastructure is currently weak.
Production and Yields
Rice represents 86-88% of the total food crop production. From 1976 to 1989, the per hectare paddy yield
increased from 2.2 tons to 3.2 tons, which is similar to the average yield of other Asian developing countries.
The other food crops (maize, cassava, Irish and sweet potatoes, soybeans, groundnuts and other staple foods)
have yielded an average of two tons per hectare since 1984. The main constraints to improvements in crop
yield are the lack of fertilizers (currently the lowest in Asia), insufficient pesticides due to a shortage of foreign
exchange; problems with the seed multiplication system; inequities in the geographical distribution of
agricultural supplies (the North is highly privileged and the central areas deprived); lack of spare parts and
poor maintenance of farm equipment; inappropriate machinery for family farm use.

15

Production
From 1976 to 1989, total food production increased to 7.9 million tons. The food production increase
from 1976 to 1981 was due to an extension of the cultivated paddy area, but from 1981 to 1989 it was due to
an improvement in the rice yield. At the same time, the area of cultivation of other food crops has not
increased significantly. It appears that the food policy in Vietnam has emphasized paddy, while rather
neglecting support for other food crops so their production growth has been irregular. This irregularity is an
element of food insecurity and an indicator of structural difficulties in managing production factors.
Vietnamese agriculture is thus becoming virtually a rice monoculture creating a monotonous and high
starch diet for the population and aggravating the potential risks of natural disasters and pest hazards. Half of
the cultivated land lies in the long and narrow coastal strip and the highland. This region, which covers
89% of the country's total land area and contains 58% of the population, has great potential for further
agricultural expansion but investment costs would be high as the infrastructure is currently weak.
Geographical variations in food production
Food production varies from one province to the next. The Mekong delta is a grain surplus area, while
the Red River delta and central regions are traditionally grain deficient. The production of roots and tubers
tends to be concentrated in the northern, central and coastal provinces (cassava and sweet potatoes) and in
some provinces of the Red River delta (Irish potatoes).
Food availability
The per capita food availability figure is a theoretical measurement of food supply, calculated by
dividing the total food produced by the number of inhabitants. In Vietnam the figure is given in terms of rice
paddy and all secondary food crops such as maize, cassava, potatoes, sesame, soybeans and groundnuts are
given an equivalent value. Pulses and oilseeds are not included, but nor is any allowance made for postharvest losses, seeds or milling so the figure may be slightly overestimated. A theoretical food availability of
300 kilogrammes of paddy per year can be roughly estimated at 1,600 calories per person per day. However,
according to food consumption surveys, basic foodstuffs represent 85% of the total calorie intake, so the food
availability of 300 kilogrammes gives a potential 1,840 calories per person per day. But this is still 260 calories
below the accepted requirement, so the country can hardly be termed self-sufficient until the food availability
figure reaches 340 kilogrammes of paddy per person per year. Moreover, the national average value does not
take regional variations into account. These are particularly significant in Vietnam where the distribution and
transportation infrastructure is weak.
From 1983 to 1986, the food availability was around 300 kilogrammes paddy. In 1987, food production
decreased due to typhoons, floods and rice pests and there were estimated to be only 280 kilogrammes
paddy-equivalent/per year per inhabitant, covering only 82% of the energy requirement. The central
provinces experienced severe shortages that year. In 1988, the harvest was much better, so production
reached 307 kilogrammes paddy per inhabitant. In 1989, growth was maintained, surpassing the population
growth rate for the first time. The food availability figure was given as 310 kilogrammes. It would have been
332 kilogrammes if the 1.4 millions of rice had not been exported. The spectacular progress in 1988 and 1989
was due to increases in the paddy yield. Indeed with great dependency on rice, the Vietnamese diet has
become more and more monotonous and unbalanced. Thus the quantitative and qualitative insufficiency of
the food production is a basic factor of malnutrition in Vietnam.

16

Inter household distribution of energy intake


A survey undertaken by the National Institute of Nutrition of 1,251 households, showed that 9% were
experiencing starvation (below 1,500 calories per person per day), 15% suffered from food shortages (1,5001,800 calories per person per day), and 23% were in a more or less satisfactory situation (1,800-2,100 kcal) and
54% had over 2,100 kcal/day, considered satisfactory. The energy availability distribution varies widely from
one region to another. The central region experiences serious food shortages with 34% of the households in
the northern central provinces and 20% in the south central province consuming less than 1,800 calories per
person per day. This is where the food situation requires urgent intervention. There are also seasonal
variations in food consumption. Just before the rice harvest calories intake decreases by up to 15%. Given the
very low normal intakes, even a slight decrease can lead to starvation as happened during the bad harvest
year of 1987. An additional factor causing temporary food shortages is the weather: the central provinces,
particularly, often suffer from floods and typhoons which destroy harvests and food stores.
National and regional food consumption patterns
Rice is the main staple food in all regions of Vietnam. Other staples are little consumed. The quantity
of pulses and oilseeds (sesame) in a meal is very low. The consumption of milk, eggs, sugar and fruit is also
low nationwide. An average of only 18 grammes of meat per day is consumed. Vietnamese, especially
those living in the southern central and Mekong delta provinces, derive more protein from fish and sea
products. Vegetable consumption is sufficient overall, but with important regional variations; twice as
many are consumed in the northern mountains as in the Mekong Delta. The Vietnamese diet contains
very little fat; the lipid intake is believed said to be one of the lowest in the world.

to account for:

chim

output:

nng sut, u ra

industrial crop:

cy cng nghip

to be involved in:

dnh lu n, c lin quan n

cash crop:

nng sn hng ho

contract system:

ch khon

plot of land:

tha t

It is admitted that :

Ngi ta tha nhn rng

to be cultivated:

c canh tc

one crop a year:

sn xut 1 nm 1 v

coastal strip:

vng t duyn hi

expansion:

s m rng, s pht trin

paddy yield:

nng sut la

cassava:

cy sn (khoai m)

sweet potato:

khoai lang

seed multiplication system:

h thng, c s nhn ging

spare part:

ph tng

maintenance:

bo dng, bo tr

17

extension:

s m rng

to emphasize:

ch trng

food crop:

cy lng thc

rice monoculture:

c canh cy la

LESSON 9

S N NH V PHT TRIN KINH T TRONG NHNG NM QUA


1. B Nng nghip v Pht trin Nng thn yu cu tt c cc y ban Nhn dn tnh v thnh ph
cng cc b lin quan duy tr vic phng dch nghim ngt. Cc a phng c yu cu qun l
cht gia sc nhim bnh v cm bun bn vn chuyn gia sc b bnh. Vic tiu hu gia sc b bnh
c thc hin theo cc qui nh ca c quan y t. ng tin rng vic tim phng ng mt vai tr
quan trng trong vic bng pht bnh l mm long mng Vit Nam trong tng lai.

B Nng nghip v Pht trin: The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
Nng thn

y ban Nhn dn tnh:

Provincial Peoples Committee

duy tr:

maintain

phng dch nghim ngt:

strict prevention of the epidemic

gia sc nhim bnh:

infected domestic animal/livestock

cm:

ban/prohibit/forbid

bun bn vn chuyn:

trade and movement

vic tiu hu:

culling

vic tim phng:

vaccination

bng pht bnh l mm long mng: foot-and-mouth outbreak

2. Nm 2005, doanh thu thng mi ca in t Samsung t 233 triu USD. Nhng n nm 2006,
c tnh con s ny l 335 triu USD. Vi phng chm chm nhng chc, mt d n lin doanh
mang tn Savina (Samsung Vietnam) hnh thnh v bt u hot ng vi tng s vn u t l
78 triu USD. Samsung huy ng vn l 300 triu USD nhiu lnh vc nh in t, si tng hp,

18

nh cho thu. Cn nhng d n khc thuc cc lnh vc nh cng nghip nng, cng nghip ch
bin v xy dng th vn ang l nghin cu kh thi. Hin nay, Samsung l nh ti tr ln Vit
Nam. Ngoi vic ti tr cho nhiu gii v ch th thao qui m ln-nh, Samsung cp 1,2 triu
USD cho cc chng trnh hc ngoi ng v hun luyn th dc.

doanh thu thng mi:

turnover/revenue/trade returns

t:

reach, achieve

c tnh:

estimate

con s:

figure

phng chm:

motto, slogan

d n lin doanh:

joint venture project

hnh thnh:

come into being, existence

s vn u t:

investment capital

si tng hp:

synthetic fibre

cng nghip ch bin:

processin industry

nghin cu kh thi:

feasibility study

nh ti tr:

sponsor

gii v ch th thao:

sports championship

3. Ngnh sn xut pht trin ng k trong thi k ti thit nn kinh t ca Philippines sau Chin
tranh Th gii th II. Vic kim sot hng ho nhp khu ca Chnh ph thc y s pht trin
ngnh cng nghip nh sn xut cc mt hng tiu dng cho th trng trong nc. Vo nhng
nm 20 70, Chnh ph xy dng bn c khu kinh t nhm tng cng sn xut hng ho xut
khu. Cc ngnh cng nghip trong cc khu ch xut ny c khuyn khch sn xut cc mt hng
xut khu truyn thng. Nhng c khu kinh t ny thu ht vn u t ca nc ngoi vo
Philippines mt phn nh vo chnh sch min thu cho cc doanh nghip c vn u t nc
ngoi. Xy dng thnh cng nhng c khu kinh t ny to tin cho s ra i cc khu cng
nghip c qui m ln hn. Chng hn nh, cn c hi qun Subic Bay ca M trc y nay tr
thnh mt khu thng mi-cng nghip khng l Manila. Mt khu cng nghip-thng mi ln
vi c s h tng hin i v c min thu thu ht cc ngnh cng nghip sn xut hng xut
khu v u t nc ngoi.
ti thit nn kinh t:

reconstruction economy

thi k sau Chin tranh:

during the post World War II

Th gii th II
vic kim sot hng nhp khu: controls on imports
thc y s pht trin:

speed up, promote development

hng tiu dng:

consumer goods

th trng trong nc:

domestic, local market

c khu kinh t:

special economic zone

19

khu ch xut:

export-processing zone

cn c hi qun:

naval base

c s h tng:

infrastructure, facilities

c min thu:

receive tax exemption

4. Vit Nam n lc duy tr s n nh chnh tr x hi, pht trin kinh t v quan h ngoi giao trong
nhng nm gn y. Nhng thay i tch cc ca lut php nh hng khng nh n tnh hnh
sn xut, ti chnh v thng mi. Nh nng nghip thch ng vi th trng t do nn Vit Nam
c xp l nc xut khu go ln th hai trn th gii sau Thi Lan. Ti Thnh ph H Ch Minh v
vng ph cn nhng hot ng dch v v sn xut pht trin v thay i nhanh chng. Kinh t
pht trin mnh mt phn nh vo ngun u t vn v cng ngh ca gn 2 triu Vit Kiu cc
nc trn th gii. a s h quay tr v Vit Nam u t v lin lc vi b con.
n lc:

make every effort/try hard/seek (to do something)

s n nh chnh tr x hi:

socio-politic stability/control

pht trin kinh t v quan h:

develop economic and diplomatic establishment

ngoi giao
thay i tch cc:

positive change

thch ng:

respond to/be adapted to

c xp:

rank

vng ph cn:

in the neighbourhood/vicinity

hot ng dch v v sn xut: manufacturing/production and service activities


vo ngun u t vn:

an influx of investment

5. Ch 1 nm sau khi lnh cm vn ca M c bi b, cc cng ty nc gii kht khng l nh Coca


Cola, Pepsi Cola c hng u i v vn, chnh sch tip th v cc u i khc theo lut u t
nc ngoi, nn cc cng ty ny dn dn thm nhp th phn ca cc nh sn xut trong nc.
Cc sn phm khc cng ri vo hon cnh tng t. Bia Si Gn phi cnh tranh quyt lit vi cc
cng ty bia lin doanh vi nc ngoi. Cc nh sn xut bt git trong nc, mc d c th p ng
nhu cu trong nc n nm 2005 nhng li b cc cng ty khng l nh Procter & Gamble v
Unilever dn vo th b.
lnh cm vn:

embargo

c bi b:

be lifted

cng ty nc gii kht khng l: soft drink giant


hng u i:

enjoy preferences

chnh sch tip th:

marketing policy

thm nhp th phn:

eat into/ penetrate market shares

theo lut u t nc ngoi:

under the Foreign Investment Law

cnh tranh quyt lit:

compete fiercely

20

cng ty bia:

brewery

nh sn xut bt git:

detergent producer manufacturer

p ng nhu cu:

meet/satisfy the need/demand

dn vo th b:

drive something/somebody into the corner

6. bo v vic sn xut trong nc, cc nh sn xut trong nc ngh vi Chnh ph mt s


bin php. Th nht, Nh nc nn c k hoch pht trin dnh ring cho vic u t nc ngoi v
lnh vc kinh doanh v phn b theo vng a l v khng nn khuyn khch u t nc ngoi vo
vic sn xut ra cc sn phm m cc doanh nghip trong nc c kh nng sn xut c nh
nc gii kht, bt git, giy v thuc l. Th hai, vic cp giy php nn c p dng cho cc
cng ty lin doanh hay cc doanh nghip c vn u t nc ngoi tham gia vo cc d n i hi
c nhiu vn, cng ngh cao hay sn xut cc mt hng xut khu. Th ba, l nn c mt o lut
chng i vic cnh tranh khng lnh mnh c th dn c quyn kinh doanh, ph gi lm hi
ngi tiu dng.
bo v:

defend/protect

k hoch pht trin:

development plan

v lnh vc:

in the field of/ in terms of

vic cp giy php:

issue/grant licence

doanh nghip c vn u t:

foreign-owned enterprise

nc ngoi
c quyn kinh doanh:

monopoly

ph gi:

dumping

7. Trong ting Vit, t nc va c ngha l quc gia, va c ngha l nc, mt lin kt v ngn
ng m mi rng buc cng thy r rng sau mt chuyn i thm vng t ph nhiu nht Vit
Nam: ng bng sng Cu Long. Do ph sa bi p ca dng sng Cu Long lm phong ph va
la y p ny, tng trng cho ngun lng thc ca c nc cng nh phong cch sinh hot k
cn sng nc ca c dn trong vng. i vi du khch, ng bng sng Cu Long l mt trong
nhng a ch tham quan p nht ng Nam , kt hp ci k o ca vng sng nc lung linh vi
cnh quan y phn khi ca mt nn vn ho vui ti th hin qua cch sinh hot ca dn a
phng cng hot ng thng mi. Trong khi nhng thnh ph ln nh Cn Th, M Tho, Long
Xuyn lp thnh th vng cho cc tnh ca ng bng sng Cu Long th mng li knh rch
mnh mng li l ci duyn c mt khng hai ca vng ny. Sinh hot vui nhn ca vng ny khng
ging my vi cch sinh hot ca Thnh ph H Ch Minh. Tuy nhin iu khng c ngha l phi
kh khn lm mi ti c ng bng sng Cu Long thot khi ci n o no nhit ca thnh
ph ln nht Min Nam ny. Ch mt chng ba gi ng h bng xe trn Quc l 1 l bn l bn
n M Tho, th ph ca tnh Tin Giang v l im xut pht tt cho cuc thm d vng ng
bng ny.

21

c ngha:

mean/signify/carry a meaning

lin kt v ngn ng:

inguistic association/relation/tie

cng thy r rng:

recognizable

chuyn i thm:

journey/visit

vng t ph nhiu:

rich/fertile land

ng bng sng Cu Long:

The Mekong Delta

ph sa:

silt

phong ph:

ample/rich/diversified

va la:

granary

tng trng:

represent/symbolize

ngun lng thc:

source of food

phong cch sinh:

lifestyle

k cn sng nc:

riverine/riverside

c dn:

inhabitant

a ch tham quan:

tourist destination

kt hp:

in combination with/coupled with

ci k o:

marvel/miracle

vng sng nc lung linh:

glittering water

th hin:

demonstrate/show/indicate/perform/express

hot ng thng mi:

commercial activity

lp thnh th vng:

provide a vantage for 23

mng li knh rch:

network of rivers and canals

ci duyn:

great boon

c mt khng hai:

second to none/unique

ging:

be similar to/the same as/like

22

Suggested translation:

ECONOMIC STABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE PAST FEW YEARS


1. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has required city and provincial peoples
committees and relevant ministries maintain strict prevention of the epidemic. Localities are required to
closely manage infected animals and ban trade and movement of infected animals. The culling of infected
animals will be implemented following the health sectors regulations. Vaccination should play an important
role in controlling a future foot-and-mouth outbreak in Vietnam.
2. In 2005, trade returns of Samsung electronics reached US $233 million. But in 2006 this figure is
estimated to be US $335 million. With the motto of being slow but firm, a joint venture project named
Savanna (Samsung Vietnam) has come into existence and begun its operation with a total investment
capital of US $78 million. Samsung has mobilized an investment capital of US $300 million in many fields
such as electronics, synthetic fiber, houses for lease. But the other projects in fields like heavy industry,
processing industry and construction are only feasibility studies. Currently in Vietnam, Samsung is a big
spon-sor. In addition to financing many big and small scale sport championships. Samsung has also granted
US $1.2 million for foreign language study programs and gymnastic training.
3. The manufacturing sector expanded significantly during the post World War II reconstruction of the
Philippines economy. Government controls on imports promoted the development of light industries that
produced consumer goods for the domestic market. In the 1970s the government created four special
economic zones designed to stimulate manufacturing for the export market. Industries in these export
processing zones receive incentives to produce traditional exports. The zones have helped to stimulate
foreign investment in the Philippines economy, in part because they are exempt from certain taxes and
restrictions on foreign ownership of businesses. The success of these zones has led to the creation of other
types of special economic zones, such as large industrial estates. Businesses receive tax exemptions and other
incentives in these zones. The former U.S. naval base at Subic Bay, for example, is now a huge industrial
commercial zone in Manila. Its modern facilities and duty-free economic zone have attracted new export
focused industries and foreign investment.
4. Vietnam has sought to maintain socio-politic stability, develop economic and diplomatic
establishment in recent years. The positive legal changes have had a tremendous influence on the
production, financial and commercial situations. Vietnam ranked as the worlds second largest rice exporter
to Thailand because its agriculture responded dramatically to free market. In manufacturing and service
activities the rapid growth and change occurred in and around HCM City. Much economic expansion was
partially driven by an influx of investment and technology from some 2 million overseas Vietnamese in many
different countries worldwide, most of whom had returned to Vietnam for their investment and contacts with
their relatives.
5. Only a year after the US embargo was lifted, soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola,
which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital, marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign 24
Investment Law, have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers. Other products are also in
the same situation. Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign joint ventures. Local
detergent producers, although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2005, have driven into the
corner by giants such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever.

23

6. To protect domestic production, local producers have proposed several measures to the
Government. First, the tate should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of
business field and geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products which local
enterprises can produce such as soft drink, detergent, paper and cigarettes. Second, licenses should be
granted only to JVs or foreign-owned enterprises which involve in projects requiring large capital, advanced
technology or producing goods for export. Third, a law should be enacted against unfair competition that
can lead to monopoly, dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers.
7. In Vietnamese the word nuoc carry a double meaning of country and water, a linguistic
association recognizable after a journey to the most fertile land in Vietnam - the Mekong Delta. The silt from
the Mekong River helps to bring an ample granary representing the whole country source of food as well as
the local inhabitants riverside lifestyle. For tourists, the Mekong Delta is one of the most fascinating tourist
destinations in Southeast Asia. It offers the marvel of the glittering waters coupled with the gaiety of a culture
demonstrated by the local lifestyle and commercial activities. The big cities such as Can Tho, My Tho and
Long Xuyen provide a vantage for the nine provinces of the Mekong Delta while the immense network of
rivers and canals is regarded as the great boon second to none in this region. The exciting life in this region
is not very similar to that in Ho Chi Minh City. However, it does not suggest any difficulty in reaching the
Mekong Delta to escape the excitement of the greatest city in Southern Vietnam. It takes only a three-hour
drive (by bus, though) on the National Highway Number 1 to get to My Tho, the capital of Tien Giang and
an ideal departure point for exploring this delta region.

24

CHAPTER II

STRATEGIES FOR
ECONOMIC
GROWTH

25

LESSON 10

NHNG NGNH KINH T TRNG IM


Nhng ngnh kinh t trng im nm nay cho thy rng Vit Nam ang i ng hng trn con
ng pht trin khi m hu ht cc mc tiu s tr thnh hin thc v cc thnh tu t c s cao
hn d on.
Theo mt bn bo co ca Chnh ph c Th tng Phan Vn Khi trnh by ti k hp Quc
hi ln th 8, chng ta s t c tt c cc mc tiu kinh t trng im ca nm nay vi mc tng
trng kinh t d on l 6,7%. Gi tr cng nghip d kin s tng 15,5%, trong khi mc tiu ra l
11%. Mc tng trng cao nht l 18,8% s thuc v cc thnh phn kinh t ngoi quc doanh, tip
l u t nc ngoi 17,3% v thnh phn nh nc vi 12,4%. Nng sn s tng 4,9% so vi mc tiu
l 4%, ngnh dch v cng s tng 6% so vi mc tiu l 5-5,5%. Tng u t trong nm c tnh vo
khong 27,9% ca tng sn phm quc ni (GDP), tng 20% so vi nm ngoi. Trong ng gp ca
ngn sch nh nc l 23.8%, tn dng nh nc 17%, thnh phn lin doanh nh nc 17,9% v thnh
phn t nhn l 23,2%. Tng thu nhp ngn sch s tng 8,9% so vi nm ngoi v s vt mc tiu.
Lng xut khu hng ho s t 14 t USD, ln n 21,3% so vi mc tiu t ra vo u nm l 1112%. Thu nhp t xut khu vn trung bnh t 180 USD, vt qua mc 170 USD l mc im. Thng d
thng mi s c hn nh mc lnh mnh l 7% t ngun thu xut khu.
Bn bo co cho rng c c thnh tu kinh t kh quan nh vy l nh vo s u t ngy cng
tng ca Chnh ph, s pht trin ca nhng cng ty nh v ngun tng thu nhp ln mnh t xut
khu du th. iu nay dn n vic k kt Hip nh thng mi Vit-M v s thnh lp th trng
chng khon nh l nhng nhn t quan trng kch thch s tng trng trong tng lai. Tuy nhin,
cng cn nhn mnh rng nn kinh t tng lai v nhng ci cch hnh chnh cn c duy tr v y
nhanh tc tng trng. u t nc ngoi ang cn thp v s chuyn i ca nhng x nghip nh
nc vn cn chm chp. Trong lc , nn kinh t li phi i mt vi nhng thch thc ln, bng
chng l cnh tranh yu km, gi tr gia tng trong sn phm cng nghip thp, gi c nng sn cng
cn thp v cht lng dch v th non km. Bn bo co cng a ra mt vi gii php vt qua
nhng thch thc ny v t c mc tng trng cao hn vo nm ti. Nhng bin php ny bao
gm c s thay i mnh m ca nhng x nghip thuc s hu nh nc, khuyn khch cc thnh phn
kinh t t nhn tham gia vo lnh vc gio dc, chm sc sc kho, v sinh th v dch v cng cng
khc. D kin k hp Quc hi, bt u t ngy 14/11, s thng qua lut Bo him doanh nghip, lut
kim sot ma tu v chng trnh ngh s cho nm 2001. K hp ko di trong vng mt thng ny
cng s tho lun phng hng v nhim v cho nm 2001 v nhng vn lin quan n ngn sch
an ninh, quc phng v nhng chng trnh quc gia.

26

Suggested translation:

KEY ECONOMIC SECTORS


Major economic indicators this year show Vietnam is on the right path of development as most targets
will be realized and achievements will be higher than expected.
According to a government report read by Prime Minister Phan Van Khai at the National Assembly's
8th session, all the key economic targets of this year will be achieved with the economic growth rate
estimated at 6.7%. Industrial value is projected to grow by 15.5% against the planned target of 11%. The nonstate sector will post the highest growth rate at 18.8%, followed by the foreign investment sector with 17.3%
and the state sector with 12.4%. Agricultural production will increase to 4.9% against the 4% target, and the
service sector will also rise by 6% against the 5-5.5% target. Overall investment in the year is estimated at 27,9%
of the gross domestic product (GDP), an increase of 20% on last year. State budget makes up 23.8% of the
amount, state credits 17%, state corporate sector 17.9% and the private sector 23.2%.
Budget revenues will rise 8.9% from last year and exceed the target. Export sales are expected to reach
US $14 billion, up 21.3% against the target of 11-12% set at the beginning of the year. The per capita export
earnings has reached US $180, surpassing the US $170 mark, a criterion for a country's with developed
external trade. Trade surplus will be confined to a healthy rate of 7% of export earnings. The report attributes
the good economic performance to bigger Government investment, small enterprise development and strong
revenues from crude oil exports. It hails the signing of the Vietnam-US. Trade agreement and the
establishment of the stock market as important factors to fuel future growth. However, it stresses further
economic and administrative reform is needed to sustain and accelerate the growth tempo. Foreign
investment remains low and state enterprise reform is moving slowly. Meanwhile, the economy still faces big
challenges, evidenced by poor competitiveness and low added value industrial production, low prices of
agro-products and poor quality in services. The report also proposes some measures to overcome challenges
and achieve higher growth next year. These measures include stronger reform of state-owned enterprises,
encouragement of the private sector's participation in education, health care, urban sanitation and some
other public services. The national Assembly session, starting from Nov.14, is expected to pass the Law on
Insurance Business, the Law on Drug Control and the legal agenda for 2001. The one-month long session
will also discuss directions and tasks for 2001 and issues regarding the budget, defense, security and state
programs.

27

LESSON 11

TOURISM GROWING AS HOTEL OCCUPANCY DROPS


HCM CITY - The number of foreign tourists arriving in Vietnam has been increasing year after year.
On average, it grows by 30% a year, according to recent statistics released from Vietnam Tourism Administration. Though the number of tourists is on the rise, occupancy rates of hotels have dropped significantly
as compared to previous years. Over the past six years, joint-venture hotels and guest houses operated at an
average capacity rate of 85 to 90%. They are now operating at a capacity rate of only 60%. A rate which is
much worse than that of state-owned hotels and private guesthouses. One of the main reasons for the decline
in hotel capacity rates is the mushrooming of joint-venture hotels which has caused severe competition
among hotels for roomrates and hotel services. Several hotels have become burdens to their owners, with low
gross earnings and high taxes, many are about to be forced to close down.
Most foreign visitors have come here eager to experience something new and to travel to places of wild
and natural beauty during their stay. For this reason, Vietnam's tourist industry needs to reorganize its
management and set goals in order to satisfy the current demands of tourists. Though there has been growth
in the number of tourists over the past several years, the number of visitors that come for a second visit is
low. It is evident that the attraction of Vietnam's tourist industry is still inadequate and tourist sites, transport
and accommodation facilities have not yet reached international standards. The country now has some 22
provinces and cities which have completed detailed master plans for tourist resorts. However, these projects
are yet to be developed and are still under discussion. Even though each year the government has spent tens
of billion of dongs on upgrading national historical relics and tourist resorts, due to a lack of management
expertise and investment knowledge, these sites have failed to help boost the development of the tourist
industry. To improve quality of tourist resorts and to boost hotel operations, Vietnam's tourism industry now
requires more investment from the government.

Suggested translation:

DU KHCH TH TNG TRONG KHI T L LU TR TI KHCH SN GIM


TP H Ch Minh - S lng du khch nc ngoi n Vit Nam ngy cng tng. Theo s liu thng
k gn y ca Tng Cc Du Lch Vit Nam th lng du khch tng bnh qun hng nm l 30%. Mc
d lng du khch tng, nhng tnh trng khch li khch sn gim ng k so vi nhng nm va
ri. Hn 6 nm qua,, cc khch sn lin doanh v cc nh khch ch khai thc c t 85-90% s phng
hin c. Hin gi ch cn t mc 60%, thp hn nhiu so vi cc khch sn ca nh nc v nh
khch t nhn. Mt trong nhng nguyn nhn chnh ca s tt gim lng khch l do khch sn lin
doanh mc ln nh nm, iu ny dn n vic cnh tranh khc lit v gi phng v gi dch v. Nhiu
khch sn c tng doanh thu thp trong khi li chu mc thu cao, ang tr thnh gnh nng cho cc
ng ch v c nhiu khch sn sp sa buc phi ng ca.
a s du khch nc ngoi hm h n Vit Nam tm mt ci g mi m v mun i n
nhng vng c v p t nhin v hoang d trong thi gian lu li ca h. V l do ny, du lch Vit
Nam cn t chc li vic qun l v t ra nhng mc tiu nhm tha mn nhu cu hin nay ca du

28

khch. Mc d lng du khch vn tng trong nhng nm qua nhng s du khch tr li Vit nam ln
th hai rt t. R rng rng ngnh du lch Vit Nam vn cha sc hp dn du khch. Thm vo ,
cc im du lch v cc phng tin n i li cha t n tiu chun quc t. Vit nam hin c
khong 22 tnh v thnh ph ang hon tt nhng k hoch tng th chi tit xy dng cc khu ngh
mt cho du khch. Tuy nhin nhng n ny vn cha c trin khai, vn ang cn ang c tho
lun. Mc d hng nm Chnh ph chi hng chc t ng nng cp cc di tch lch s quc gia v
cc khu ngh mt, nhng do s yu km v chuyn mn qun l nn nhng ni ny vn cha c th
thc y s pht trin ca ngnh du lch nc nh. ci thin cht lng ca cc nh ngh v tng
cng hot ng ca khch sn, ngnh du lch Vit Nam cn Chnh ph u t nhiu hn na.

LESSON 12
Text 1

ADJUSTMENTS NEEDED TO SOCIAL INSURANCE SCHEME

Generally, after a time of stagnation, Ho Chi Minh City's private textile embroidery industry has
recovered and develop somewhat since 1991. Yet development is not stable because most private units work
according to foreign orders. Consequently, they can't control their production plan, and labour price for
making garments is limited by foreign partners (the labour cost of 1995 is equal to 65-70% of that in 19911992). Due to the very nature of the industry, the average wage of those working in this branch is only about
VND 400,000 per month. Under the current fierce competition, the amount of 15% of total wages for social
insurance and 2% for medical insurance that enterprises must contribute, if the proposed social insurance
scheme comes into effect, will push up production costs to very high levels, making it difficult for Vietnamese
ventures to compete effectively and occupy the market. To help private textile embroidery businesses
survive, Mr. Nam has suggested, the state should amend the contribution rate of non-state ventures to Social
Insurance schemes, as follows:
Social Insurance: 10% by enterprise, 3% by employee.
Medical Insurance: 1% by enterprises, 1% by employee
The state should also issue a regulation concerning employees who are trained and recruited by an enterprise, and are obligated to work for at least two years. It is necessary that employees working at non-state
ventures should be given a work card. Employer agreement may be required if an employee want to leave
his or her job. All members of Ho Chi Minh City's Textile-Embroidery Association agree on the implementation of contributing a part of total wages to Social and Medical Insurance, in compliance with the Labour
Code.

29

Text 2

LOCAL PRODUCERS COMPLAIN ABOUT UNEQUAL COMPETITION

Business leaders of big companies in Ho Chi Minh City have voiced difficulties they are facing with in
the fierce competition against foreign companies, especially world giants. At a meeting on "How to encourage foreign investment and protect domestic production" held in Ho Chi Minh City last week, producers of
Tico and Lux Detergent, P/S Cosmetics, Tribeco Soft Drink, Viet Thang Textiles, Saigon Beer and Ho Chi
Minh City Poultry Company, had the same opinion that local enterprises are not in an equal footing in competing with foreign counterparts as they do not enjoy tax incentives as foreign-invested enterprises. Only a
year after the US embargo was lifted, soft drink giants such as Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola, which have enjoyed superior advantages in capital, marketing policies and preferences under the Foreign Investment Law,
have gradually eaten into the market shares of local producers. Other products are also in the same situation.
Saigon Beer has to compete fiercely with breweries of foreign joint-ventures. Local detergent producers, although capable of meeting domestic demand to the year 2000, have driven into the corner by giants such as
Procter&Gamble and Unilever.
To protect domestic production, local producers have proposed several measures to the Government.
First, the State should devise specific development plans for foreign investment in terms of business field and
geographical area and should not encourage foreign investment in products, which local enterprises can produce such as soft drink, detergent, paper and cigarettes. Second, licenses should be granted only to JVs or
100% foreign-owned enterprises, which involve in projects requiring large capital, advanced technology or
producing goods for export. Third, a law should be enacted against unfair competition that can lead to
monopoly, dumping or price inflation that does not benefit consumers. Fourth, there should be a policy to
encourage domestic investment and to grant domestic enterprises the same tax incentives as foreign investors
enjoy. Fifth, a campaign to motivate local consumers to use domestic goods should be launched, creating
conditions for domestic enterprises to develop.

Suggested translation:

Text 1

CN IU CHNH LI H THNG BO HIM X HI

Nhn chung sau mt thi gian hot ng tr tr, nn cng nghip dt thu t nhn ca Thnh ph
H Ch Minh c khi phc v pht trin mc nht nh k t nm 1991.Tuy nhin s pht
trin khng n nh bi v hu ht cng vic ca cc x nghip t nhn u ph thuc vo n t hng
ca nc ngoi.Do vy, h khng th kim sot c k hoch sn xut, v gi lao ng cho sn phm
may mt b cc i tc nc ngoi qui nh rt thp (tin cng lao ng nm 1995 ch bng 65%-70%
so vi cc nm 1991 v 1992). Do tnh c th ca ngnh ny, nn lng trung bnh ca cng nhn
trong ngnh may-thu ch khong 400.000 ng/thng. Vi s cnh tranh gay gt hin nay, bo him
x hi chim n 15% v bo him y t l 2% trong tng s lng m cc doanh nghip phi ng, v
nu nh k hoch d kin ca bo him x hi c ph duyt, th gi thnh sn xut s rt cao gy kh
khn cho cc nh sn xut Vit Nam trong vic cnh tranh c hiu qu v chim lnh th trng. gip
cc doanh nghip thu-may t nhn sng cn, ng Nam ngh Nh nc nn sa i t l ng
gp ca cc doanh nghip ngoi quc doanh i vi chnh sch bo him x hi nh sau:

30

Bo him x hi: 10% i vi doanh nghip v 3% i vi cng nhn.


Bo him y t: 1% i vi doanh nghip v 1% i vi cng nhn.
Nh nc cng nn ban hnh mt qui nh c lin quan n ngi lao ng c cc doanh
nghip tuyn dng v o to buc phi lm vic ti thiu l 2 nm. Cc cng nhn lm vic trong cc
doanh nghip ngoi quc doanh cn phi c cp th lm vic. Nu mt cng nhn no mun thi
vic th phi c doanh nghip ch qun ng . Tt c mi thnh vin ca cc cng ty may-thu
Thnh ph H Ch Minh u ng thc hin y vic ng gp mt phn lng vo bo him x
hi v y t th theo ng quy nh ca Php lut.

Text 2

CC NH SN XUT A PHNG PHN NN


V S CNH TRANH KHNG LNH MNH

Cc ch doanh nghip ca cc cng ty ln TP H Ch Minh nu ra nhng kh khn m h


phi ng u trong vic cnh tranh gay gt vi cc cng ty nc ngoi, c bit l vi cc cng ty
khng l th gii.
Ti mt cuc hp bn v: Lm th no khuyn khch u t nc ngoi v m bo sn xut
trong nc c t chc ti TP H Ch minh tun qua, cc nh sn xut ca cc cng ty bt git Tico v
Lux, M phm P/S, nc gii kht Tribeco, dt Vit Thng, bia Si gn v cng ty gia cm vt nui TP H
Ch Minh u thng nht mt kin l cc doanh nghip trong nc khng cn sc trong vic cnh
tranh vi cc i tc nc ngoi v h khng c hng chnh sch u i thu nh cc doanh nghip
c vn u t nc ngoi. Ch 1 nm sau khi lnh cm vn ca M c bi b, cc cng ty nc gii
kht khng l nh Coca Cola, Pepsi Cola c hng u i v vn, chnh sch tip th v cc u i
khc theo lut u t nc ngoi, nn cc cng ty ny dn dn thm nhp th phn ca cc nh sn
xut trong nc. Cc sn phm khc cng ri vo hon cnh tng t. Bia Si Gn phi cnh tranh
quyt lit vi cc cng ty bia lin doanh vi nc ngoi. Cc nh sn xut bt git trong nc, mc d
c th p ng nhu cu trong nc n nm 2000, nhng li b cc cng ty khng l nh Procter &
Gamble v Unilever dn vo th b.
bo v vic sn xut trong nc, cc nh sn xut trong nc ngh vi Chnh ph mt s
bin php. Th nht, Nh nc nn c k hoch pht trin dnh ring cho vic u t nc ngoi v
lnh vc kinh doanh v phn b theo vng a l v khng nn khuyn khch u t nc ngoi vo vic
sn xut ra cc sn phm m cc doanh nghip trong nc c kh nng sn xut c nh nc gii
kht, bt git, giy v thuc l. Th hai, vic cp giy php nn c p dng cho cc cng ty lin
doanh hay cc doanh nghip c 100% vn u t nc ngoi tham gia vo cc d n i hi c nhiu
vn, cng ngh cao hay sn xut cc mt hng xut khu. Th ba, l nn c mt o lut chng i vic
cnh tranh khng lnh mnh c th dn c quyn kinh doanh, ph gi lm hi ngi tiu dng. Th t
nn c chnh sch khuyn khch u t trong nc v cho cc doanh nghip trong nc c hng
chnh sch u i thu nh cc nh u t nc ngoi. Th nm, nn pht ng mt chin dch ng
vin ngi Vit Nam dng hng ni a, to iu kin cho cc doanh nghip trong nc pht trin.

31

LESSON 13
Hm th by, mt on doanh nhn trao cho tng thng Indonesia Suharto, ng kim ch
tch ca Din n hp tc Kinh t Chu Thi Bnh Dng (APEC) mt bn bo co ngh t do
mu dch cn c thc hin nm 2001. Chng ti ang ng vin cc nh lnh o a khi nim v
t do mu dch vo nn kinh t vo nm 2001. l li ca ng Les Mac Craw, ng ch tch Din
n Kinh doanh Thi Bnh Dng (PBF) ni vi tng thng Suharto khi ng trao tay cho Tng thng
bn bo co ca on.
Bn bo co ca PBF mt t chc bao gm i din ca 33 doanh nghip t nhn ca 18 c cu
t chc thnh vin, nu r rng cc nn kinh t trong khi APEC pht trin nn thc hin t do mu
dch v s m rng t do u t trong khu vc vo nm 2002 v vo thi im khng qu nm 2010
i vi cc nn kinh t thuc thnh phn khc. Bn bo co cng nu r l mc ch ny cn c tha
nhn thc hin trong nm nay th hin vai tr ca n l mt din n chnh sch ch o cho s pht
trin ca khu vc Chu Thi Bnh Dng. Bn bo co cng nhc nh cc nh lnh o ca APEC
nn nhanh chng chp nhn v thc hin chnh sch tm ngng li v vic gii thiu kiu mu dch
mi v cc tr ngi v u t. Cc nh lnh o cng nn tha nhn cc nguyn tc ca iu l u t
p dng vo lut trong nc m iu ph hp v th hin y nhng li cam kt ca hi ngh
Uraguay cng nh bo m hn na nhng bin php m rng th trng. Mt nhm chuyn gia
APEC, on nhng chuyn gia ni ting EPG, trong thng 8, trnh ln Tng thng Shuharto bn
bo co ca h m trong h ngh t do mu dch v s m rng u t c hon tt vo nm
2020. Nhm EPG ngh rng s chuyn dch s c bt u vo nm 2000, vi nhng nc c
nn kinh t pht trin hot ng thng mi v u t trong vng 10 nm, cc nc mi cng nghip
ha trong vng 15 nm v cc nc cn li trong vng 20 nm.
ng Craw ni rng nhng ngh ca h rt rm beng nhng chng ti cng tha nhn rng
nhng thay i kinh t ang din ra mnh m. Chng ti mun chuyn n mt thng ip l cng
vic kinh doanh v nhng mi lu tm v vn ny tin trin nhanh hn nhng g cc Chnh ph c
th lm. ng Craw cho bit thm. Tuy nhin ng cho rng cc nh lnh o APEC c nhim v phi
quyt nh v thi hn i vi nn kinh t ton khu vc v vic m rng u t trong khu vc. Tng
thng Shuharto ni vi i din ca PBF rng bn bo co ca PBF cng vi bn bo co ca EPG s
gi n cc nh lnh o khc ca APEC cc v ny c c s v iu kin tho lun trong cuc
hi ngh thng nh gn Bogor vo ngy 15 thng 11. Tng thng ni ng hi vng hi ngh thng
nh s c th a ra mt gii php lm tng v to ra s hp tc kinh t kh thi gia cc thnh vin
APEC. Trong nhng li ngh , bn bo co mun nu ln l cc nh lnh o lun c gng thc
hin tnh trong sng trong qun l, lut l v cc qui tc, tha nhn mt lut quan thu chung, ci tin
nhng iu kin i hi v th thc i vi vic nhp cnh ca cc doanh nhn thuc khi APEC i du
lch v ci tin vic bo v tc quyn. Cng nh trong bn bo co EPG, bn bo co ca PBF cng gii
thiu rng cc thnh vin APEC khng phi l thnh vin GATT hin thi, nh Trung Quc, s tr nn
cc thnh kt giao cng sm cng tt.

32

Nhm APEC gm: c, Bruny, Canada, Trung Quc, Hng Kng, New Zealand, Papua New
Guinea, Phi-lip-pin, Xingapo, Nam Triu Tin, i Loan, v M. Chil mong mi chnh thc tham gia vo
nhm hi ngh cp B Trng APEC t chc y vo thng 11. Trong lc y, Sydney, Th tng c
Paul Keating hoan nghnh bn bo co ca PBF v nhn mnh s cn thit cho vic a ra mt k
hn thc hin cho s t do mu dch gia APEC v cc thnh vin. Keating ni rng iu chnh yu i
vi PBF vin tng v Chu Thi Bnh Dng nng ng l s cn thit cho mt chuyn bin nhanh v
t do mu dch v vic m rng u t trong vng.

Suggested translation:
A group of businessmen Saturday handed over a report to the current chairman of the Asia Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, Indonesian President Suharto, proposing that Free Trade in the
region be reached by 2010. "We are encouraging the leaders to encourage their economies to reach the
concept of free trade by the year 2010," Les Mac Craw, who co-chairs the Pacific Business Forum (PBF) told
Suharto when handing over the group's report..
The report of the PBF, comprising 33 private business representatives of APEC's 18 member economies, said developed APEC economies should achieve free trade and investment liberalization in the region
by 2002 and no later than 2010 for the other member economies. The report also said that the goal should
be adopted this year and that. APEC should produce concrete. results this year in order to sustain its role as
a policy forum which would guide the growth of the Asia Pacific region. It recommended that the leaders of
APEC should immediately adopt. a policy of standstill on the introduction of new trade and invest-ment
barriers. They should also adopt the principles, of a non-binding investment code into domestic laws where
appropriate and implement the Uruguay Round commitments as well as undertake further market opening
measures. A group of APEC experts, the Eminent Person's Group (EPG), in August submitted their report to
Suharto in which they proposed that free trade and investment liberalization in the region be completed by
2020. The EPG suggested that the move be started in 2000, with; advanced economies freeing trade and
investment within 10 years, newly industrialized members within 15 years and the rest within 20 years.
Mc. Craw said their proposal was "very aggressive but we also recognize the winds of economic changes are blowing strongly". "We wanted to convey the recognition that the business and business interests tend
to sometimes outstrip and move faster than governments can", he said. However, he said that it was up to the
APEC leaders to decide on the dates for full trade and investment liberalization in the region. Suharto told
PBF representatives that the PBF report together with the EPG reports would be sent to the other APEC
leaders so that they would have sufficient material to discuss during their upcoming summit in nearby Bogor
on November 15. He said he hoped the summit would be able to produce resolution enhancing and making
pos-sible economic cooperation among APEC members. Among its various recommendations, the report
said that the leaders should also work towards a transparency in administrative systems, rules and regulations,
adopt a common custom code, improve visa requirements for intra - APEC business travel and improve
intellectual property protection. As in the EPG report, the PBF also recommended that APEC members that
were not currently GATT members, such as China, become contracting parties as soon as possible.
APEC group Australia, Brunei, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New

33

Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and the United
States. Chile is expected to formally join the group during the APEC ministerial summit here in November.
Meanwhile, in Sydney, Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating welcomed the PBF report and stressed the
need to set a realistic date for free trade among APEC members.

LESSON 14

VIETNAM TOLD TO PLAN WATER DEVELOPMENT


The overseas manager of the British water Association yesterday said Vietnam should work out a
development plan for its water sector before seeking joint projects with British companies. Speaking at a
press briefing in Hanoi, Paul Horton said British companies were here this time to seek business deals and
explore opportunities for future projects with local companies in waste water treatment and water equipment.
There were still legal and financial difficulties for build-operate-transfer (BOT) projects in Vietnam, but this
was a common situation in other developing countries and was not too difficult to overcome, said Clovis Hui,
financial manager of the Bovis company. Bovis has been selected to join the Hoc Mon water exploitation and
Supply company in a 20 year BOT water supply project with a daily capacity of 300,000 cubic meters for Ho
Chi Minh City. "We hope our project will progress smoothly " he said.
At the press briefing, U.K. Minister of Environment, communications and Regions Chris Mullin
handed a symbolic check for 25,000 pounds sterling (US $39,000) provided by the British government for a
project to protect rare animals in Cat Ba National Park in the country's north. The project, monitored by
Flora and Fauna International, also covers the training of forest rangers and park managers and raising local's
awareness of the park's biological diversity. Mullin is leading a delegation representing 10 British companies
engaged in water equipment, water infrastructure development and waste water treatment. Yesterday
morning, before the press briefing, the delegation joined a workshop on opportunities for UK-Vietnam cooperation in water and the environment with 150 Vietnamese participants. The delegation leaves Hanoi for
Ho Chi Minh City today.

Suggested translation:

VIT NAM CHO BIT K HOCH PHT TRIN NGUN NC


(SGT Hanoi), Ngy hm qua, gim c nc ngoi ca Hip hi Ngun nc Anh ni Vit
Nam s thc hin k hoch pht trin ngnh nc trc khi tm hiu mt d n chung vi cc cng ty
Anh. Ti cuc hp bo ngn H Ni, ng Paul Horton pht biu thi gian ny, cc cng ty Anh n

34

y tm mi quan h lm n v thm d thi c v d n trong tng lai vi cc cng ty ca nc


lng ging v cch x l lng ph nc v vic trang b cho ngun nc. ng Lovis Hui Gim c Ti
chnh ca cng ty Bovis pht biu vn cn nhng kh khn v ti chnh v lut php i vi d n xy
dng v thc hin chuyn i Vit Nam nhng y l mt tnh trng chung cc nc ang pht
trin m qu kh khc phc. Cng ty Bovis c chn lin kt cng ty khai thc v cung cp nc
Hc Mn trong vng 20 nm. D n c xy dng v chuyn i cung cp ngun nc hng
ngy vi sc cha l 300.000m3 cho Thnh ph H Ch Minh. Gim c Ti chnh cn ni thm: Chng
ta hi vng d n ca chng ta s tin trin tri chy ti cuc hp bo ngn.
B trng Mi trng, Thng tin khu vc Anh gi tay a ra k hiu v vic kim tra 25.000
bng Anh (39.000 la M) m Chnh ph Anh cung cp cho d n bo v ng vt qu him cng
vin quc gia Ct B pha Bc t nc. D n cng c t chc bo v ng thc vt quc t gim
st v vic hun luyn v nhiu lot sinh vt hc khc nhau ca cng vin, cho ngi gc rng v ngi
qun l cng vin. ng Mullin ang dn on biu i din cho 10 cng ty Anh ti tham d vo vic
trang b nc, chin dch pht trin nc v cch x l lng ph nc. Sng hm qua trc cuc hp bo
ngn, on i biu tht cht thi c ca cuc hi tho hp tc gia Vit Nam v Anh v mi trng
nc vi 150 thnh vin Vit Nam tham d. Hm nay, on i biu ri H Ni n Thnh ph H
Ch Minh.

LESSON 15

CHNH SCH KINH T V VIC HUY NG VN U T


TRONG S NGHIP CNG NGHIP HA HIN I HA
Cng nghip hahin i ha phi c tin hnh theo m hnh kinh t m trong c nc v vi
nc ngoi. Pht huy hn na quyn t ch, tnh nng ng, sng to tng cng lin doanh lin kt,
hp tc cng c li gia cc ngnh, cc iah phng v cc c s pht trin sn xut kinh doanh c
hiu qu. Khuyn khch cc hnh thc a dng v cc gii php c th, thi ua ui kp v vt cc n
v a phng khc nhng phi chng cc b, bn v, v t chc, vi phm k lut, k cng, Php lut ca
Nh nc, phng tin n li ch chung. Nh nc cng nh doanh nghip phi tm cch thch ng v
khai thc nhng thun li ca xu th quc t ha sn xut v i sng, hiu r i tc, c chin lc v
sch lc khn ngoan chin thng trong cuc cnh tranh kinh t ngy cng gay gt.
Trong bi cnh khu vc v quc t hin nay, s hn ch qu t v v phn ln cc loi ti nguyn,
s di do v ngun nhn lc, li th v gi nhn cng r, v tr a l thun li i hi v cho php

35

chng ta la chn chin lc cng nghip ha hng v xut khu l chnh pht trin nhanh ng
thi thay th nhp khu nhng hng ha dch v trong nc t cung ng c hiu qu hn. Hng v
xut khu l cch thc tn dng nhng li th so snh, tranh th sc mua ln trn th trng th gii
tch t vn nhm nhanh chng m rng quy m v nng cao trnh sn xut trong nc, to thm
nhiu vic lm v thu nhp, tng kh nng nhp vt t thit b to ra nhng hng ha dch v c gi
tr gia tng ln, cht lng cao, c sc cnh tranh mnh c trn th trng ni a v th trng th gii,
p ng nhu cu sn xut v i sng ca nhn dn thc hin thnh cng chin lc hng v xut
khu, to c s tin cy trong quan h quc t trn ba mt sau: trong thanh ton bng ngoi t, trong
vic thc hin cc hp ng bun bn, trong vic bo m phm cht hng ha, c bit ch trng
khng ngng nng cao cht lng hng xut khu. Hng v xut khu phi i i vi khuyn khch
pht trin mnh v bo h ng mc sn xut ni a, khng hng ngoi nhp lu trn lan, bp cht
hng ni, khin sn xut trong nc b gim st hoc nh n, ngi lao ng mt cng n vic lm v
thu nhp.

Suggested translation:

OPEN ECONOMIC POLICY AND INVESTMENT CAPITAL MOBILIZATION


IN INDUSTRIALIZATION AND MODERNIZATION
Industrialization-modernization must be carried out with an open economic model, both domestically
and abroad. Autonomy right, creative dynamism must be stimulated, joint venture and integration, mutual
benefit cooperation among sectors, localities and units must be intensified for efficient business and
production development. Diverse form and specific measures, emulation for catching up with and surpassing
other units and localities must be encouraged in the framework of preventing from sectionalism, out of
control violation of state disciplines principles and laws detrimental to common interests. The state and
enterprises must find out the way to adapt to and well exploit the advantages of the tendencies production
and life internationalize correctly understand partners and work out prudent strategies and tactics to conquer
in the economic competition which is getting increasingly fiercer.
In the present international and regional context, the constriction of land stock and various national
resources, the abundance of human power, the advantages of cheap labor costs, favorable geographical
position require and allow us to choose the industrialization strategy mainly for export for rapid development
and at the same time for import substitution of goods and services more efficient if provided domestically.
Outwards policy means measures for full use of comparative advantages, gaining great purchasing power in
the world market to accumulate capital to expand rapidly dimensions and upgrade domestic production
ability, create more jobs and income, increase in capacity of importing raw materials and equipment to
produce goods and services of great added values, high quality, strong competitiveness in both domestic and
international markets meeting demand for production and life of people. To carry out successfully the
strategy in the direction to export, the confidence in international relations must be generated with three
regards as follow: Foreign currency payment, trade contact implementation and goods quality assured. Much

36

attention must be paid to upgrading interruptedly export good quality. Export oriented strategy must be
coupled with encouraging rapid development and adequate protection of domestic production, preventing
contraband from spreading, hampering domestic goods, making domestic production contracted or
stagnated, labors out of jobs and income.

LESSON 16

BACK IN BUSINESS
Doimoi, or Vietnams policy of economic renovation, has paved the way for more than US $20 billion
in foreign direct investment into the country. This much needed capital, gained from countries and territories
around the world, is brightening the general outlook of the economy, creating jobs and raising the
populations standard of living. Among the tops investors, those from regional countries sentence and ahead
and shoulder above the large corporations of Europe and North American. While Europe companies seem
to prefer small-to-medium sized projects and American ones are still fairly new to the market (US-Vietnam
diplomatic relationships but a year old), it is business people from Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore and
Hong Kong that are dominating the Vietnamese market with portfolios worth billions of dollars. As of April
this year, of the 33 licensed projects valued over US $100 million, more than 20 are committed by Southeast
Asian companies. And with Vietnam now an official member of Southeast Asian Nations, which comprises
Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei, the number of regional investors is
expected to grow even further.
International corporations, including Daewoo and Hyundai of South Korea, Chinfon and Vedan of
Taiwan, Telstra of Australia, Kinnevik and Comvik of Sweden, see Vietnam as a potential gold mine. Already with large investments, these groups, among others, continue to expand their stake in projects ranging
from hotel construction and infrastructure to motorbike production and telecommunication. The Chaebol
Daewoo currently heads the investors' list in Vietnam with some US $565 millions invested in 33 projects,
inclu-ding an oil and gas exploring contract an auto-assembly and electronics plant, a business center, a
good-course and a five-star hotel in Hanoi. According to Daewoo, these undertakings have provided jobs for
about 4,700 local residents. In partnership with the Hanoi Electronics Corporation (Hanel), Daewoo has
completed the US $177 million Daeha Business Center in Hanoi which features an offices tower, a five-star
hotel and a residential building with serviced apartments and a shopping hall. The eighteen-floor Hanoi
Daewoo Hotel boasts to be the first international five-star hotel in Hanoi, offering 411 rooms, an outdoor
swimming pool, fitness center and other amenities. Opened on July 1st,1996, the hotel provides much
needed competition for the few top-rate hotels now serving the capital.
Late last year, Daewoo announced that the group intends to invest another US $200 billion to Vietnam

37

by the year 2000. One month after this pledge, the Chaebol entered the negotiations with Hanoi Car Service
Company to discuss building a US 136 million public transportation network nationwide. Once approved by
the Government, the close project will modernize Vietnams public transportation system with 4000 new
vehicles, including local and intercity buses, taxis and trucks.
South Korea, however, is not the largest territory to invest into Vietnam. That distinction goes to
Taiwan whose roster includes Vedan, which operates an integrative food-processing complex in Dong Nai
province, and Fei-Yuen. Investing and Development Co Ltd with its commercial complex in Ho Chi Minh
City is worth US $115.486 million. Another major Taiwanese player is the Chinfon Group which has so far
poured into Vietnam more than US $420 million in three major sectors: cement, motorcycle and banking.
Chinfon marked its presence in Vietnam Manufacturing and Export Processing Company Ltd (VMEP) to
assemble motorbikes and a cement plant in Hai Phong. Later on, to better support its own bank in Hanoi.
Apart from heavy and manufacturing includes, which claim US $9,5 billion of the total investment figure,
other major sectors include infrastructure construction (US $6,6 billion) and oil and gas (US $1,2). With the
Government currently considering a massive US $2,1billion residential and commercial compound for Hanoi
(proposed by a Singaporean Group), the construction sector could soon rival for the leading position. For
1996 and the near future, Vietnam Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI) looks to shift away from small
projects (which now dominate the local scene) to bigger ventures promising fatter portfolios. Its time to
concentrate on erious players one MPI official said. Under this policy, the ministry expects to license and
commitment of each undertaking.

Suggested translation:

NGI KHNG L VO CUC


Cng cuc i mi Vit Nam m ng cho hn 20 t la u t trc tip ca nc ngoi
vo nn kinh t nc ny. Lng vn u t phn no lm thay i b mt nn kinh t Vit Nam.
Cho d nm 1966, vn u t vo Vit Nam c v chm li nhng nhn chung u t nc ngoi vn
tip tc tng. i Loan v Hn Quc, vi kh nng u t di do vn ang dn u trong lnh vc ny
ti Vit Nam. Cc quc gia chu u thng thch u t vo cc x nghip va v nh nn vn t ra kh
lng tng khi quyt nh nhng khon u t ln, ngc li, cc nc Chu Thi Bnh Dng li ch
trng vo cc d n ln gi tr triu la. Trong s 33 d n vi tng s vn hn 1 triu la c cp
giy php thng t va ri th 20 d n thuc v cc cng ty chu t i Loan, Hn Quc, Nht Bn
v cc nc trong khi ASEAN. V vi Vit Nam by gi l thnh vin chnh thc ca ASEAN, bao gm
Thi Lan, Phi-lp-pin, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei, s lng cc nh u t nc ngoi
c mong i s nhiu hn.
Cc Tp on quc t trong c c Daewoo v Hyundai ca Hn Quc, Chinfon v Vedan ca
i Loan, Tesltra ca c, Kinnevik v Comvik ca Thy in vn coi Vit Nam nh mt g trng
vng y ha hn. c bit n vi nhng khon u t ln, nhng tp on ny trong s cc tp
on khc tip tc rt vn u t vo cc d n trong cc lnh vc t xy dng khch sn, c s h tng

38

m sn xut xe my v bu chnh vin thng. Hin nay Daewoo vn dn u danh sch cc nh u t


ti Vit Nam vi tng s vn khong 565 triu la thuc 33 d n ang thc thi, trong c mt hp
ng khai thc du v kh t, mt xng lp rp t, mt nh my sn xut hng in t v mt trung
tm thng mi v mt khch sn 5 sao H Ni. Theo Daewoo, nhng vic ny to cng n vic
lm cho khong 4.700 ngi dn a phng. Cng trnh ng ch nht ca Daewoo v i tc Vit
Nam - Cng ty in t H Ni (Hanel) ti H Ni l khu trung tm thng mi khng l Daeha gm mt
ta nh cao c, cc vn phng, mt khch sn 5 sao, mt khu chung c vi cc cn h tin nghi v mt
khu bn hng vi s vn u t 177 triu la. Khch sn 18 tng Daewoo H Ni hnh din l khch
sn quc t 5 sao u tin H Ni, vi 411 phng, h bi ngoi tri, trung tm th hnh v nhiu tin
ch khc. M ca t thng Ging 1996, khch sn cho thy c s cnh tranh cn thit vi mt vi
khch sn hng u phc v ngi dn th . Mt thng sau tuyn b ny, Daewoo li tham gia
m phn vi cng ty vn ti H Ni v vic thit lp mt mng li giao thng cng cng trn ton
Vit Nam. D n ny tr gi 136 triu la ang ch c Chnh ph Vit Nam ph duyt. V ngay sau
khi c chp thun, cng ty ny s trang b li h thng giao thng cng cng ca Vit Nam vi 4.000
u phng tin mi bao gm cc xe ti, xe but ni v lin tnh, taxi v xe ti.
Tuy nhin Hn Quc vn cha phi l quc gia u t nhiu nht vo Vit Nam v i Loan lun
dn u danh sch ny, tiu biu l Vedan, hin ang c mt trung tm ch bin thc phm ti ng
Nam v Cng ty Pht trin v u t Fei-Yeun ang xy dng mt trung tm thng mi vi s vn
115,468 triu la ti Thnh ph H Ch Minh. Trong s cc cng ty i Loan, Tp on Chinfon l cng
ty rt vn vo Vit Nam nhiu nht vi hn 420 triu la trong 3 lnh vc chnh: xi mng, xe my v
ngn hng. Chinfon nh du s c mt ca mnh Vit Nam vi Cng ty Hu hn Ch ti cng
nghip v Gia cng ch bin hng xut khu Vit Nam (VMEP) chuyn lp rp xe my v nh my sn
xut xi mng Hi Phng. Tip sau , Tp on ny thnh lp mt ngn hng H Ni nhm h
tr cc d n khc v k ton v tn dng. Ngoi ngnh cng nghip nng v sn xut, vn chim 9,5 t
la trong tng s u t, nhng ngnh khc ca cng ty bao gm u t xy dng c s h tng vi
6,6 t la, du m v kh t vi 1,2 t la. Hin nay Chnh ph ang xem xt d n xy dng mt
trung tm thng mi v nh tr gi 2,1 t la c ngh bi mt Tp on Singapore v hi vng
s nhanh chng nng cao tng lng u t vo lnh vc ny. V vic cp giy php trong nm 1996,
B K hoch-u t cho bit Vit Nam ang trng i c thm nhng d n nhiu triu la v cc nh
u t t quc gia khc. Mt quan chc ca B ny ni: By gi l lc chng ta quan tm n
nhng nh u t thc th cng nh cht lng cc d n. ng cn nhn mnh rng B K hochu t ang tp trung lm chm li dng vn u t vo Vit Nam nhm t c nhng d n tt
hn, c chun b k lng hn.

39

LESSON 17

HANOI PLANS TO DOUBLE TO GDP BY THE YEAR 2000


Hanoi is trying to nearly double its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to US $1,100 per capita over the
next five years. The ambitious projection has been based on the current annual GDP growth rate of 11.9%.
Participants at yesterdays Hanoi Communist Party Conference were told if the current growth rate continues
as expected, it should reach 15% by the turn of the century. This should translate into a doubling of the GDP.
The conference was also told the traditional rural and small industry base of the capital citys economy
had rapidly been replaced by industrial endeavor and the trading and services industries, and that about 19%
of Hanoi families could now be classified as well-off. Last years average GDP was estimated at US $650 per
capita compared with US $470 in 1991. The sharp rise was due to massive investments from both foreign and
domestic sources estimated as VND32, 570 (about US $3.257 billion), according to a senior Hanoi party
official. Deputy Secretary of the Hanoi Party Committee Le Xuan Tung told participants at the conference
yesterday that part of the investment was spent on transfer of new technology and renovating equipment in
existing industrial plants. The major part of the investment, however, was for setting up new joint ventures
with foreign partners.
By the end of 1995, up to 210 foreign investment projects had been licensed to operate in Hanoi
involving US $3.3 billion of prescribed capital. Of this amount US $1.3 billion has been consumed, Tung
said. This has helped Hanoi along its chosen path to restructure its economic base towards industries and
services rather than rely on its traditional agricultural and small industry underpinning. The proportion of
industries and that of trade and services in Hanoi GDP in the 1991-1995 period rose sharply to 33.1% and
61.6% respectively. Meanwhile the agricultural share fell to just 5.3% of the total GDP share, Tung said. Tung
said the change in the economic face of Hanoi was because of the sharp increase in the annual growth rate
for the past five years. He said that a growth rate of 11.9% was ensured year after year, which is almost
double the figure set for the same period by the Hanoi Party Committee back in 1991. Tung told participants
that by the year 2000 the growth rate would reach 15% per year and GDP per capita would be estimated at
US $1,100. By that stage the industrial share in Hanoi GDP should reach 40%, up seven% on the current rate.
Five industries have been targeted as the key industries for the city, Tung said. They include mechanical
engineering and electrical equipment production; textiles, garments and leather goods; the food processing
industry electronics; and construction materials.
In the next five years, Hanoi would need up to US $9 billion in investment to develop new industrial
zones, renovate existing industrial zones and build more high rise buildings in the inner city for office space,
trade centers and entertainment centers. Hanoi has about 10 established and five new industrial zones. Many
of the existing industrial areas need intensive investment to replace old technology, and expand their
premises for more plants. However the deputy party secretary for Hanoi reminded participants to the
conference that more effort was needed to keep development in line with what he termed as a socialistoriented market economy. Hanoi authorities had failed to pay due attention to the consolidation of socialist
production relationships while the administration at all levels remained weak and the role of the Party in
different economic and social organizations remained limited, he said. Tungs comments were supported by
Party General Secretary Do Muoi, who also addressed the conference. The party leader told the Hanoi

40

conference that despite its initial success, Hanoi should be more aware of economic development and human
resource development. About 6% of Hanois population remained unemployed which, Do Muoi said, was a
challenge Hanoi had to tackle. Part of the solution was to set up production groups, which could be engaged
in small industries and the services industry. Deputy Secretary Tung said that in the 1991-1995 period the
number of well-to-do families increased to nearly 19% while those families classified as financially needy
dropped to about 2%.

Suggested translation:

H NI T K HOCH TNG GP I GDP VO NM 2000


H Ni ang c gng tng gp i GDP ln 1100 la M trong vng 5 nm ti. K hoch y
tham vng ny c a ra trn c s 11,9% t l tng GDP hng nm ca thnh ph. Ti i hi i
biu ng B thnh ph H Ni c t chc va qua, cc i biu c thng bo: nu t l tng
trng vn tip tc nh d tnh th GDP s t khong 15% vo u th k. iu c ngha l GDP
tng gp i.
i hi cng cp n vn c s CN nh truyn thng ca nn kinh t th tng nhanh b
thay th bi cc hot ng CN v nghnh cng nghip dch v-thng mi. Ngoi ra i hi cn c
bo co l khong 19% s h gia nh H Ni c th xp vo din h giu. Mc GDP bnh qun nm
ngoi ca thnh ph c c tnh l khong 650 la. Cao hn so vi 470 la nm 1991 (tc tng
trng mnh m). S tng trng ny l kt qu ca hng lot cc d n u t trong nc v nc
ngoi c tnh vo khong 32.570 VND (khong 3.275 triu USD). Ph ch tch hi ng Nhn Dn
thnh ph H Ni, ng L Xun Hng bo co vi i hi rng: Mt phn ca s vn u t c s
dng cho qu trnh chuyn giao cng ngh, i mi thit b trong ngnh CN. Phn ln s vn u t
cn li c dng vo vic thit lp cng ty lin doanh vi i tc nc ngoi. Vo cui nm 1995 c
n hn 210 d n u t nc ngoi c cp giy php kinh doanh trn a bn thnh ph H
Ni vi tng s tin ln ti 3,3 t la. ng Tng ni trong s l 1 phn 3 t la c s dng.
iu ny gip H Ni trong vic la chn hng c cu li c s kinh t theo hng CN-DV thay cho
c cu c vi vai tr tr ct ca CN nh v nng nghip truyn thng. Theo li ng Tng, t l sn phm
CN, thng mi, dch v trong tng sn phm quc ni ca thnh ph H Ni giai on 1991-1995
tng ln n 33,1% i vi cng nghip v 61,6% i vi thng mi v dch v trong khi t l nng
nghip li gim xung cn 5,3% trong tng GDP. ng Tng cn ni s thay i ca b mt kinh t H
Ni cn nh vo s tng vt ca t l tng trng hng nm ca 5 nm trc. ng ni t l tng trng
11,9% hng nm cng c m bo chc chn, con s ny cao hn gp i so vi t l ra nm
1991. ng Tng bo co vi cc i biu rng vo nm 2000 t l tng trng ca thnh ph s t
15% mt nm. GDP c tnh t khong 1000 la. Vo thi im t l sn phm cng nghip tng
s GDP ca thnh ph H Ni s t 40% tng 7% so vi hin ti. Nm ngnh cng nghip t c
mc ch tr thnh ngnh cng nghip then cht ca thnh ph bao gm: ngnh sn xut thit b in,
my mc, c kh; ngnh dt; ch bin thc phm; in t; vt liu xy dng.

41

Trong 5 nm ti H Ni cn khong 9 t USD u t xy dng pht trin nhng khu cng


nghip mi, i mi cc khu cng nghip c, xy dng cc to nh ln trung tm thnh ph lm
cc vn phng i din, khu thng mi, khu vui chi gii tr, H Ni c khong 10 khu cng nghip
v 5 ci khc ang c xy dng. Nhiu khu cng nghip hin nay cn nhng khong u t theo
chiu su thay th cc k thut c, m rng xy dng nhiu nh my hn na. Tuy nhin ph b th
ng u thnh ph H Ni cn nhc nh cc i biu rng cn phi n lc hn na gi vng s pht
trin theo hng nn kinh t th trng theo nh hng x hi ch ngha. ng cn ni chnh quyn
thnh ph H Ni tht bi trong vic xy dng s on kt cc quan h sn xut kinh doanh x hi
ch ngha. Trong khi b my hnh chnh cc cp cn yu v vai tr ca ng trong cc t chc kinh t
x hi khc nhau vn cn hn ch. Nhng tham vn ca ng Tng cn c Tng b th Mi cng
c thm, ng Tng ch pht biu vi i hi rng: Bn cnh nhng thnh cng ban u H Ni cn ch
n vic pht trin kinh t v xy dng ngun nhn lc. ng ch ni 6% nhn dn thnh ph H Ni
tht nghip l mt thch thc m thnh ph cn phi gii quyt. C th l bng cch lp nn cc nhm
sn xut t hnh thnh cc c s cng nghip nh v pht trin cng nghip dch v. ng ch
ph b th L Xun Tng ni rng: trong giai on 1991- 1995 s lng cc gia nh giu tng ln gn
19%. S h ngho gim xung ch cn khong 2%.

LESSON 18

KHAI THC DU TI VIT NAM


Sau khi t nhiu hi vng vo vic khoan trng cc m du kh ngoi khi Vit Nam, cc cng ty
du m khng l trn th gii nhn ra nhng ri ro. Ci gi u t khng l nhng li nhn c
mt khon li nhun cm ci. Tm trng gim i trong s nhng cng ty nc ngoi tham gia
trin lm trng by cc mt hng ca ngnh cng ngh ti cuc Trin lm Du v Kh t quc t ln
th hai H Ni. ng Melchior de Matharel, V Trng ng Nam ca hng Total Php pht
biu: Kt qu khng phi l t, nhng khng ln nh mt s ngi hy vng. Nu s ch by gi
l khu hiu lm tht vng cc cng ty du la nc ngoi c th to ngun an i t nhng khm
ph y khch l va qua v du do cng ty Mitsubishi v cng ty du Petrornas Cairigali ca Malaisia, v
v kh t ca BP, ngoi b bin nam Vit Nam.
Vic thm d du kh thm lc a Vit Nam l ht sc kh khn. Tuy nhin, ng Matherel ni

42

rng thm lc a Vit Nam l mt ni cha du. S nhit tnh ca nhng ngi thm d t nhin suy
gim vo thng 5 trc khi cng ty du BHP ca c thng bo tr lng du v tr m i Hng, 375
cy s ng Nam TP. HCM l t i hn so vi d tr. Ti v tr ny, BHP c tnh s khi l tr lng
y khong t 700 n 800 triu thng du, nhng hin nay con s y xung 100 n 200 triu
thng. Vic sn xut c d kin bt u vo thng ti, mc khim nhng l 25.000 thng mt
ngy. iu l mt n ging mnh cho BHP, mt cng ty u t n 240 triu la Vit Nam
v mt na ca kinh ph ny c s dng cho d n i Hng.
BHP ng u mt hip hi quc t bu chn vo thng 4/1993 c trch nhim trin khai tng
kinh ph 1,5 t trong lnh vc ny. BHP chim 43,75% tng s vn ca Hip hi, Petronas chim 20%,
cng ty quc doanh Petro-Vietnam chim 15%. Phn 21,25% cn li chia u cho cng ty Total (Php)
v cng ty Sumitomo ca Nht. Vo thi im , chnh Nht Bn l khch mua hng chnh ca du th
Vit Nam l din c c mt c may tt nht. Cng ty Du kh Vit Nam-Nht Bn (JVPC), mt
chi nhnh ca tp on du kh Mitsubishi thng bo trong thng 6 l c mt s khm ph rt
ha hn ti v tr Rng ng. Theo kt qu ghi nhn c t mt t mt ging du thm d, khu vc
khai thc c th c cng cht lng nh v tr m Bch H gn mt a im duy nht hin gi ang
c kinh doanh khai thc Vit Nam. Tr lng ca Bch H c tnh mc cao nht l 3.000 triu
thng. Nhng t nht cn phi mt nm na v cn n vic khoan d na th mi c th xc nh chnh
xc c mc tiu vic thm d ca cng ty Nht. Nhng ngi bi quan th cho rng cn n khong 5
nm mi nh gi ng v y tr lng du ca Vit Nam. Vic thm d v khai thc kh t cng
chng t l mt dch v ang gp kh khn d c may mm ci vi vi cng ty BP Anh, mt n
v m trong thng 9 thng bo l pht hin ra hai ti du kh, c tnh t c 57 t mt khi
Nam Cn Sn, pha nam TP. HCM. Cng ty BHP v cng ty Quc gia Na Uy Statoil mua li cc phn
c nhng ca cng ty kh t v du kh quc gia n (ONGC) vo nm 1992. Lin hip vi ONGC
nm 55% c phn, BP 30% v Statoil 5% tin hnh thm d v th nghim theo mt hp ng phn
chia sn phm vi Vit Nam, mt n v ln lt nhn 5% tin gp vo, cn c trn quyn li ca mi
i tc Chu u.

Suggested translation:

OIL EXPLOITATION IN VIETNAM


After getting high on the hopes of striking black gold off the shores of Vietnam, the world's oil giants
have now glumly awoken to the hazards - the immense coot of investment and, so far, the meager rewards.
The mood was subdued among foreign companies exhibiting their technological wares this week at the
second International Oil and Gas Fair in Hanoi. "The results aren't bad, but they, are not as great as some
had hoped, "said Melchior de Matharel, head of Southeast Asia operations with the French firm - Total. If
caution is now the watchword, disappointed foreign petroleum companies may draw comfort from the
recent. "encouraging" discoveries of oil made by Mitsubishi Oil and the Malaysian firm Petronas Carigali,

43

and of gas made by British Petroleum (BP), off the coast of southern Vietnam.
"Oil exploration is plainly hazardous. But the good news is that the Vietnamese basin is oil-bearing",
Matharel said. Prospectors enthusiasm was abruptly dampened last May, when BHP Petroleum of Australia
announced the reserves at the Dai Hung (Great Bear) site, 375 kilometers (235 miles) southeast of Ho Chi
Minh City, were far smaller than projected. BHP initially estimated the site to contain 700 million to 800
million barrels of oil, but has now downgraded it to 100 million to 200 million. Production is scheduled to
begin neat month, at a modest level of 25,000 barrels per day. That was a tough blow for BHP. It has already
invested 240 million dollars in Vietnam and half of it went into the first phase of the Dai Hung project.
BHP headed an international consortium, selected in April 1993, to develop the field at a total cost
estimated at 1.5 billion dollars. BHP holds 43.75% of the consortium, with Petronas holding 20%, and stateowned PetroVietnam 15%. The remaining 21.25% share is equally split between Total and the Japanese firm
Sumitomo. For the moment, it is the Japanese - the main buyers of Vietnam's crude oil - who appear to have
had the best luck. The Japan Vietnam Petroleum Co. (JVPC), a branch of the Mitsubishi Oil group,
announced in June a "very promising" discovery at the Rang Dong (Dawn) site. According to the results of
an exploratory well, the field may be "of the same caliber" as neighboring Bach Ho (White Tiger) the only
site now being commercially exploited in Vietnam. Bach Ho's reserves are estimated at a maximum of:300
million barrels. But et will take at least another year and other drillings to precisely determine the scope of
the Japanese discovery, industry experts in Hanoi cautioned. Pessimists say it will take four to five years in all
to gauge Vietnam's oil potentially. Gas exploration and exploitation have also proven to be a risk business,
although fortune has so far smiled on British Petroleum, which announced in September the discovery of two
gas pockets, estimated to be 57 billion cubic meters (1,995 billion cubic feet), in Nam Con Son, south of Ho
Chi Minh City. BHP and the Norwegian national company, Statoil, bought shares in the offshore concession,
held by the Indian state firm Oil and Natural Gas Co. (ONGC), in 1992. The consortium, with ONGC
holding 55%, BP 30% and Statoil 5%, has conducted exploration and tests under a shared production contract
with PetroVietnam, which in turn has taken a 5% stake on the interests of each of the European partners.

44

LESSON 19
Cc nh xut khu c uy th ca Trung Quc ang cha tm ngm ca mnh vo Vit Nam. Nhn
ra nc lng ging phng nam nh chn mui cho mt k hoch qung co trong vic mua sm
hng ha tiu dng v my mc, cc nh qun l iu hnh Trung Quc pht biu nh th vo hm
th nm. H ni trong bui l khai mc hi ch t chc ti H Ni: Nhng Vit Nam c mt kinh
nghim lu di trc khi nhn ra hng xut khu ca mnh vo Trung Quc tng ln khi mt vi sn
phm l c th xm nhp vo th trng Trung quc m rng hn. Khong 60 cng ty Bc Kinh
trng by nhng mt hng ca h t chi bng nha r tin v cc trang tr cho n cc loi
xe c ti hi ch H Ni, mt hi ch u tin trin lm cc mt hng Trung Quc k t khi hai nc
c quan h tr li vi nhau.
Jeep-Bc Kinh, mt lin doanh sn xut t Trung-M, hi vng s chen chn vo th trng xe hi
ang ln mnh ti Vit Nam, nhng ang i mt vi mt s cnh tranh khc nghit vi th trng xe
hi Nht Bn xy phng tuyn xung quanh y, ng Guo Fengli, ph ch tch cng ty Xut nhp
khu t Bc Kinh pht biu nh vy. Theo li ca ng Guo th Th trng y ang m ra kh
nhanh cho cc sn phm ca chng ti, c bit l khi gi c ca chng ti thc s cnh tranh c vi
cc i th ca chng ti. BAIEC ang mong mun thit lp quan h mu dch vi Vit Nam nhng
cng ang phi i u vi vic tm kim cc mt hng thch hp bun bn, mc d l ng Guo ngh
l c th tm ra li gii p cho mt vn bnh thng. Cng ty Trung Quc d kin trao i xe hi ly
lng thc v s lng thc ny s em bn Nam Trung Quc. Tuy nhin h vn thch trao i nhng
mt hng c gi tr cao hn. Chng ti khng bit nhiu v nhng g m Vit Nam mi cho. ng Guo
ni n iu ny, mt quan im c cc nh doanh thng khc nhc li nhiu ln. Nhng ngi
nn nng bn hng hn l mua hng. Vic bun bn qua bin gii tng vt k t ngy hai nc m
li bin gii vo nm 1991. Ni mt cch chnh thc th, vic bun bn hai chiu c gi tr khong 500
triu la d cho vic bun bn bt hp php c th cao hn nhiu. Trung Quc c hng mt gi
tr thng d to ln.
Trong chuyn ving thm Trung Quc tun trc, Ph th tng Phan Vn Khi ku gi hai bn
thay th vic bun bn qua bin gii bng nhng tha hip chnh thc gia cc cng ty thng mi v
cc nh ch to m cch lm ny s lm tng gi ca cc sn phm Vit Nam. Vit Nam mun y
mnh hn na vic xut khu than v du kh cho cc trung tm sn xut ang bng pht Nam Trung
Quc, ni xa ngun nng lng ca Trung Quc c hng ngn cy s. ng Phan Vn Khi cn nhn
mnh thm v gi go v cc mt hng thc phm khc v pha Vit Nam nhp nhiu hn na cc my
mc ch to v cc cng ngh khc ca Trung Quc.

45

Suggested translation:
China's powerful exporters are training their sights on, Vietnam, seeing their southern neighbor as ripe
for a boost in purchases of consumer goods and machinery, Chinese executives said here Thursday. But
Vietnam has a long way to go before it sees its exports to China grow as few products are likely to break into
the more developed Chinese market, the executives said at the opening of a trade fair here. Some 60 firms
from Beijing are showing off their wares ranging from cheap plastic toys and ornaments to off-road vehicles at
the fair in Hanoi in what is the first exhibition of Chinese goods here since the two countries began patching
up their relations.
Beijing Jeep, a Sino-American auto manufacturer, is hoping to squeeze into Vietnam's growing car
market but is facing stiff competition from Japanese firms already entrenched here, said Beijing Automotive
Import Export Corp. (BAIEC) vice president Guo Fengli. "The market here is opening up quite quickly for
our products, particularly as we are very competitive in pricing with our rivals," Guo said. BAIEC is looking
to set up barter deals with Vietnam but is facing problems finding suitable moods to trade although Guo
thinks he may have found the answer in the humble sweet potato. The Chinese firm is planning to trade cars
for foodstuffs that will be sold in southern China but would prefer to exchange higher value goods. "We
don't know much about what Vietnam has to offer," said Guo, a point repeated by other traders who were
more eager to sell than buy. Cross border trade has boomed since the frontier was reopened in 1991.
Officially, two-way trade stands at around 500 million US dollars although the illegal frontier trade is believed
to b! much higher, with China enjoying a massive surplus.
During a visit to China last week, Deputy Prime Minister Phan Van Khai called for both sides to
replace the cross border trade with official agreements between trading companies and manufacturers that
would boost sales of Vietnamese products. Vietnam wants to step up exports of coal and oil to southern
China's booming manufacturing centers, which are thousands of kilometers (miles) from China's own sources
of energy. Khai also called for more sales of rice and other food products and for Vietnam to import more
manufacturing machinery and other technology from China.

46

LESSON 20
The countrys GDP growth rate in 2000 has reached roughly 6.7%, much higher than 1999 and the set
target. The Partys guideline to develop the countrys internal strength has been realized with high determination by production and business circles, enterprises of different economic sectors, and authorities at all
levels. The slowdown in growth rate as a result of regional financial and monetary crisis has been stopped.
Notably, the Party and the state have since early this year focused their efforts on resolving social issues. The
national programme for hunger elimination and poverty reduction, labour and job generation, education and
training, and health care are part of the efforts.
An impetus has been given to socio-economic growth. Many positive changes have been effected in
production and business operations of different economic entities. The countrys political stability, national
security and public order have been firmly maintained. Those achievements can be attributed to the untiring
efforts made by the entire Party, people and army. From the events of the past year, many valuable lessons
can be drawn but the biggest one for the leadership of the Party and the state is to count on the people and
work for the people. Only when policies and guidelines of the Party take root in practical life can they be
translated into reality. The central government and the local authorities have this year kept close contact with
producers and businessmen to better understand their views and aspirations. Many amendments have been
made to the guidelines and policies in a bid to simplify procedures and reduce bureaucracy in the states
administrative and management apparatus.
Vietnam is still beset with many socio-economic difficulties. We have to cope with fierce competition in
overseas markets while not many changes have been effected in the structure and quality of our export
goods. Market information remains limited and economic forecasts are far from accurate. Commercial
services do not yet meet the demand and smuggling and trade frauds have not yet been controlled. These
are major challenges. It is imperative that we generate the momentum needed to meet them and bring about
a new strength and position in our international economic relations. Only this can help us take the initiative
in the process of regional and global integration.
2001 will be the first year that the country implements resolutions passed by the Ninth Party Congress
on the socio-economic development strategy for the 2001-2010 period. The general objective at this state is to
accelerate the process of industrialization and modernization to take the country out of an under-developed
state and cement the foundations for the Vietnam to become an industrialized country by 2020. The quality
of the peoples material, cultural and spiritual life will be raised substantially. The institution of socialistoriented market economy will take its main shape. Human resources and skills, scientific and technological
capacities, infrastructure, economic potential security and national defense will be further improved. The
countrys role and position in the international arena will be constantly enhanced. In the first year of the 20012005 five-year plan, we will have to achieve the following main targets: in a higher and more stable economic
growth rate in parallel with cultural and social development; improved scientific and technological research
and applications to raise the competitiveness of products, sectors and the economy as a whole; improved
quality of education and training, and better health care. Greater investment will be made to create jobs;
eradicate hunger and alleviate poverty; fight social evils, drug addiction in particular; and reduce traffic
accidents.

47

the GDP growth rate:

t l tng trng GDP

the set target:

mc tiu ra

The Partys guideline:

ng li ca ng

internal strength:

ni lc

enterprises:

x nghip

economic sectors:

b phn kinh t, lnh vc kinh t

slow down in growth rate:

suy gim t l tng trng

financial and monetary crisis:

khng hong ti chnh v tin t

social issues:

nhng vn x hi

be attributed to:

nh vo

untiring efforts:

nhng n lc khng mt mi

take root in:

bt ngun t

be translated into reality:

bin thnh hin thc

bureaucracy:

quan liu

cope with:

ng u vi

the Ninth Party Congress:

i hi ng ln th 9

major challenges:

nhng thch thc to ln

cement the foundations for:

t nn tng cho

infrastructure:

c s h tng

Suggested translation:
Tc tng trng GDP nc ta trong nm 2000 t khong 6,7%, cao hn nhiu so vi nm
1999 v ch tiu ra. Gii sn xut kinh doanh, cc doanh nghip thuc nhiu thnh phn kinh t
cng nh chnh quyn cc cp thc r rng v tr lnh o ca ng trong vai tr pht trin ni lc
ca t nc. Tc pht trin chm li do cuc khng hong ti chnh tin t trong khu vc. ng ch
l ngay t u nm, ng v Nh nc tp trung mi ni lc nhm gii quyt cc vn x hi.
Trong vic thc hin chng trnh xa i gim ngho, to cng n vic lm cho lc lng lao ng,
nng cao hiu qu gio dc o to v chm sc sc khe l mt phn trong nhng n lc ny.
S tng trng kinh t x hi l mt ng lc mi. Nhng thay i tch cc nh hng tt n
hot ng kinh doanh ca cc thnh phn kinh t, s n nh v chnh tr, an ninh quc phng v trt t
an ninh c gi vng. S d t c nhng thnh qu trn l nh s n lc khng mt mi ca
ton ng, ton dn v ton dn. Chng ta c th rt ra nhiu bi hc qu gi t nhng bin c trong
nm va qua, nhng bi hc quan trng nht m bo cho s lnh o ca ng v Nh nc l phi
do dn v v dn. Cc ch trng, chnh sch ca ng ch c th tr thnh hin thc mt khi xut pht
t thc t. Nm nay Chnh quyn cc cp tip cn vi gii kinh doanh nhm hiu r hn quan im
cng nh yu cu ca h. Nhiu khon trong cc ch trng, chnh sch c iu chnh nhm n
gin ha cc th tc hnh chnh cng nh nn ca quyn trong cc n v qun l.

48

Vit Nam ang gp phi nhiu kh khn v kinh t x hi. Trong khi c cu v cht lng cc mt
hng xut khu ca nc ta khng thay i l my, chng ta phi i u vi s cnh tranh gay gt vi
th trng nc ngoi. Thng tin v th trng vn cn hn ch, d bo kinh t li khng chnh xc v
khng ng tin cy. Dch v thng mi cha p ng c nhu cu ngi dn, nn bun lu v gian
ln thng mi vn ang honh hnh. Trn y l nhng th thch c bn. Vn c t ra l phi
to bc cn thit i u vi nhng th thch v mang li ngun lc cng nh v th mi
trong quan h kinh t quc t ca mnh. Ch iu ny mi gip chng ta bc khi u hi nhp vo
khu vc v th gii.
Nm 2001 s l nm u tin nc ta thc hin Ngh quyt v chin lc pht trin kinh t x hi
trong giai on 2001-2010 c i hi ng ton quc ln th 9 thng qua. Mc tiu c bn trong
giai on ny l y nhanh tin trnh cng nghip ha, hin i ha nhm a t nc thot khi tnh
trng km pht trin v thit lp mt nn tng vng chc n nm 2020 Vit Nam s l mt quc gia
cng nghip. Cht lng i sng vt cht, vn ha v tinh thn s t c bc tin quan trng. Ch
X hi Ch ngha pht trin theo nn kinh t th trng s c hnh thnh. Ngun nhn lc v i
ng lnh ngh, i ng khoa hc k thut, c s h tng, tim nng kinh t, an ninh quc phng ngy
cnh c ci thin. Vai tr, v tr ca ca nc ta trn trng quc t s ngy cng c khng nh.
Vo nm u tin ca k hoch 5 nm t 2001-2005 chng ta phi t c cc mc tiu sau: tc
tng trng kinh t cao v n nh hn i km vi s pht trin vn ha x hi; ci tin khoa hc cng
ngh v ng dng vo vic tng sc cnh tranh ca cc loi sn phm, cc ngnh kinh t v ton b
nn kinh t; nng cao cht lng gio dc o to v chm sc y t. S tp trung u t nhiu hn
nhm to cng n vic lm, xa i gim ngho v bi tr t nn x hi, c bit l nn nghin ma ty,
cng nh gim tai nn giao thng.

LESSON 21

HOT NG XUT NHP KHU: THNH QU V TRIN VNG


Vi kim ngch xut khu 11,4 triu USD, tng 22% so vi nm 1998, tng 10 ln so vi tc tng
trng ca nm 1998 (2,4%) v tnh trng nhp siu c ci thin lm cho bc tranh xut nhp khu
(XNK) nm 1999 ca nc ta dn sng ln trong bi cnh kh khn ca cuc khng hong kinh t khu
vc. Mt trong nhng ng lc chnh to nn nhng chuyn bin ng ghi nhn trn y xut pht t
s i mi c ch, chnh sch XNK ca Nh nc. l Ngh nh 57/1998/CP v khuyn khch sn xut

49

hng xut khu; m rng quyn XNK ca cc doanh nghip (DN); ch khen thng XNK; chnh sch
thng hn ngch dt may, ch trng m rng xut khu i vi Lo; thnh lp qu h tr xut
khu,...
Trong bc tranh tng th trn, hot ng XNK nc ta c nhng chuyn bin ng mng. Mc
d ma l lin tc lm st gim kim ngch hn 1,4 triu USD, song nm qua kim ngch XNK ca nc ta
c t 43,25 triu USD, tng gn 8% so vi nm 1998. Trong kim ngch xut khu t gn 27,2
triu USD, tng 11,2%; kim ngch nhp khu hn 16 triu USD, tng 2,7%. Ngoi nhng sn phm
truyn thng, Cng ty Thy sn tnh v Cng ty xut khu thy sn Sng Hng u t thm thit b,
nng cao cht lng sn xut, to thm mt hng mi v m rng th trng xut khu. Bn cnh cc
th trng truyn thng nh Nht Bn, i Loan,... cc DN m thm th trng ti M, Thi Lan, Lo,...
Ring sn lng xut khu hi sn ng lnh trn 996 tn vi gi tr 1,35 triu USD, tng 36% so vi nm
1998. c bit trong nm qua sn lng mc kh lt da ca Cng ty thy sn tnh c tng Huy
chng vng.
V khong sn xut khu, nhng bin ng th trng lm gim sn lng xut khu ca qung
imenic, ring qung zincon t sn lng hn 3143 tn, tng 41,6% so vi nm 1998. Ch trng
khuyn khch kinh doanh XNK ca Nh nc to ng lc v c hi cho Cng ty Thng mi Tng hp
tnh tng nhanh kim ngch XNK bng hot ng hng i hng. Ngoi ra, nm 1999 vic sn xut
hng v bt hng xut khu ca cng ty cng c bc pht trin mi, t gi tr xut khu hn 0,43
triu USD, tng 13,4% so vi nm 1998. Do bin ng ca th trng nn hot ng ca Cng ty XNK
tnh vn tip tc gp phi nhng kh khn. Nm qua cng ty ch t kim ngch 11,8 triu USD, t
86,1% s vi k hoch v gim 1,2 triu USD so vi nm 1998. u th ca DN ny l sn xut gia cng
hng th cng xut khu. Song nm qua do nh hng ca khng hong ti chnh khu vc nn cc c
s lm vo tnh trng kh khn, gi tr xut khu cng nh kim ngch nhp khu sn lng nguyn liu
hng gia cng gim gn 30% so vi nm 1998. y l nguyn nhn ch yu lm gim st kim ngch
ca DN. Trong bi cnh , cng ty pht trin vic thu mua xut khu hng nng sn, c bit l vic
thu mua xut khu cc sn phm khc nh t, mui, lc, ti,... Hot ng trn nng cao kim ngch
xut khu nm 1999 ln 7,5 triu USD, tng 0,8 triu USD so vi nm 1998.

kim ngch xut khu:

export turnover

tc tng trng:

growth rate

cuc khng hong khu vc:

regional economic crisis

ng lc:

impetus

s i mi c ch:

change in mechanism

Ngh nh 57:

the Decree 57

Hn ngch dt may:

quota of garment

Huy chng Vng:

Gold Medal

50

Suggested translation:

EXPORT-IMPORT ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECT


With the export turnover of US $11.4 million, increasing by 22% (10 times as much as that in 1998
(2.4%)) and the improvement in the limitation of trade deficit, the export-import sector of our country is
gradually enjoying favourable conditions despite the difficulties caused by the regional crisis. One of the
motives for that remarkable change originated from the reforms in the economy mechanism as well as the
state export-import policy including the 57/1998/CP Decree of encouraging the production of encouraging
the production of export goods and broadening the export right for the businesses; the regulation for export
and import reward; the policy of garment quota reward; the decision of expanding export to Laos; and the
establishment of the export supporting fund.
In the overall picture, our provinces activities have had encouraging changes. Despite of the fact that
continuous floods resulted in the reduction of the turnover by more than US $1.4 million, the export-import
turnover of our province last year was estimated to be $43.26 million, increasing by 8% in comparison with
that in 1998 (export turnover was nearly US $27.2 million, increasing by 11.2%, import turnover US $16
million , increasing by 2.7%). Apart from the traditional products, the Provincial Sea Products Company and
the Perfume River Sea products Company and the Perfume River Sea-products exporting Company have
invested for more equipment, created how to improve products and expand the export market. Along with
traditional market such as Japan, Taiwan many business enterprises have entered those of the markets in
the USA, Thailand and Laos In consideration only to the frozen sea-products, the yielding was over 996
tons, worth US $199835 million, increasing by over 36% in comparison with that in 1998. Particularly, the
dried squid of the Sea Product Company was rewarded with Gold Medal last year.
As far as mineral products are concerned, the markets fluctuation made the export of Irenic ore
decrease. However, Zircon ore used over 3143 tons, increasing by 41.6% in comparison with that in 1998.
The state encouragement policy for export-import business has created the impetus and opportunities for the
provinces General Commercial Company to boost up the export-import turnover of goods-for-goods activities (barter). Moreover, in 1999 the production of exporting joss stick and incense pulp did have a higher
development, yielding over US $0.43 million in the export value, increasing by 13,4% compared with that in
1998. The Export-Import Companys operation is still facing difficulties due to the markets fluctuation. Last
year the Companys turnover was only US $11.8 million accounting for 86.1% of the target and decreasing US
$19.982 million in comparison with that in 1998. The enterprises supremacy is to produce handicraft goods
for export. Many enterprises, however, had to undergo hardship as a result of the effect of regional financial
crisis. The export value as well as the import turnover of the handicraft output decreased by nearly 30% in
comparison with that in 1998. This was the main factor leading to the fall of the enterprises turnover. In this
context, the Company turned to purchasing and exporting agricultural products, especially the new ones
including coffee, silk,... along with chili, salt, peanuts, garlic. That helped to make export turnover reach US
$7.5 million, 0.8 million higher than that in 1998.

51

REFERENCES
Bronte, E. 1995. Withering Heights. Oxford University Press, London UK.
Butler, O. 1993. A Good Scent From A Strange Mountain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Clark, A. 1976. The Secret Of The Andes. Penguin Group, Maryland, USA.
Grisham, J. 1999. A Time To Kill. Penguin Readers Ltd Original Publishing House, Maryland, USA.
Hailey, A. 1999. Airport. Penguin Books, Maryland, USA.
Hawthorn, N. 2000. The Scarlet Letter. Penguin Group, Maryland, USA.
Lawrence, D. 1999. British And American Short Stories. Penguin Ltd, Maryland, USA. London, J. 1994. The
Call Of The Wild. Penguin Group, Maryland, USA.
Lowry, L. 1989. Number The Stars. Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Maryland, USA. Shelley,
Mary. 1988. Frankenstein. Oxford University Press, London, UK
Spack, R. 1999. International Story. Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House, HCM City, Vietnam.

52

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 1
CHAPTER I: GENERAL ECONOMIC ISSUES .......................................................................................2
Lesson 1: Reforestation an uphill battle in mountainous Tay Nguyen............................................................ 3
Lesson 2: Vietnam seeks assistance for highlands developments .................................................................... 5
Lesson 3: ADB assistance to help fight poverty, create more jobs .................................................................. 6
Lesson 4: Political and administrative structure ................................................................................................ 7
Lesson 5: The economy, agriculture & food production ................................................................................ 9
Lesson 6: Economic structure.......................................................................................................................... 11
Lesson 7: Investment ........................................................................................................................................ 13
Lesson 8: Agriculture ....................................................................................................................................... 15
Lesson 9: S n nh v pht trin kinh t trong nhng nm qua ................................................................ 18
CHAPTER II: STRATEGIES FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH................................................................. 25
Lesson 10: Nhng ngnh kinh t trng im .......................................................................................... 26
Lesson 11: Tourism growing as hotel occupancy drops................................................................................. 28
Lesson 12 ........................................................................................................................................................... 29
Lesson 13 ........................................................................................................................................................... 32
Lesson 14: Vietnam told to plan water development .................................................................................... 34
Lesson 15: Chnh sch kinh t v vic huy ng vn u t trong s nghip cng nghip ha hin i
ha ..................................................................................................................................................................... 35
Lesson 16: Back in business ............................................................................................................................ 37
Lesson 17: Hanoi plans to double to GDP by the year 2000 ......................................................................... 40
Lesson 18: Khai thc du ti Vit Nam ............................................................................................................ 42
Lesson 19 ........................................................................................................................................................... 45
Lesson 20 ........................................................................................................................................................... 47
Lesson 21: Hot ng xut nhp khu: thnh qu v trin vng .................................................................. 49

REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................. 52

53

THNG TIN V TC GI CA GIO TRNH

H v tn: Nguyn Vn Tun


Sinh nm: 1963
C quan cng tc: T Bin-phin dch, Khoa Ting Anh, Trng i hc Ngoi Ng Hu
a ch email: tuannguyen11863@yahoo.com

Phm vi v i tng s dng gio trnh:

Gio trnh Translation 4 ch yu s dng dy cho sinh vin ngnh Ting Anh, chuyn ngnh S phm
v Bin phin dch. Gio trnh ny cn c th dng dy hoc dng nh ngun tham kho cho sinh vin
ngnh Quc t hc, Vit Nam hc.

Gio trnh c th dng cho cc trng i hc ngoi ng, i hc s phm ngoi ng.

Yu cu kin thc trc lc hc mn ny:


hc tt mn ny, ngi hc cn c trnh ting Anh t Intermediate tr ln v c li din t ting
Vit r rng, chnh xc. Ngoi ra ngi hc cn phi c k nng c hiu, tra cu, phn tch v vit vn
bn tt. Ngi hc cn phi chun b lng t vng nht nh lin quan n ch im kinh t tip cn,
hiu v dch vn bn v ch ny tt hn.

Cc t kha tra cu: General economic issues, food production, highlands economic development,
planning, decentralized development, joint-stock company, market mechanism, startegies for economic
growth, eco-tourism, sustainable management.
Gio trnh cha c xut bn, nhng c s dng lm gio trnh ging dy trong chng trnh o to c

nhn s phm ting Anh ca i hc Ngoi ng Hu v chng trnh E-Learning ca i hc Hu.

54