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Historicity of Sri Krishna. Sri Kyena, the Christ of India, is regarded as a Saviour of mankind and ‘His teachings are mown as the Bhagavad- la or the "Song Celestial. Those ‘who have studied the Divine Ode have often wondered at the vast wisdom of its Teacher, and have asked: “Who was $m Krgna 9 When did he live, and what wore his works 9" Oziental scholars and Christian missionaries have often compared Tis life and teachings with those of Jesus Christ, Some of them have denied the historical personal- ity of Srt Krea; while others have tried to prove that He was a mythical god of ancient India, and that He dia not exist at all. Again, after noticing the wonderful similiarity that exists between the lives of Sr Kegna and Christ, many have come to the conolusion that the whole story of Sx Krena’e Life and teachings ie based upon the Life and sayings of Jesus the Christ, and that the Krgna-cult of the Hindus dia not oxist before the first invasion of this country by the carly Christian missionaries. Furthermore, some of the followers of the Christ were so astoniehed at finding in India a religion eo near Tike their own that they could only account for it by eupposing that the devil, forescaing the advent of their Saviour, originated a system of religion in advance of His, and just like it. All these ingenious oxplanations of the Ohristian echolars and missionari have not succesded in quenching the fire of reverence, devotion and love, which was kindled upon the altar of the Hindu heart by the unparalleled character and divine powers of Sst Krsna, the God Incarnate, Saviour of mankind. Waves of fanaticism have conquest and religions come to India from By Swat Apmepanapa, Pa. D. the West, one after another, and have swept away by thelr tromendous on- ruth millions and millions of Hives and the most glorious spiritual monuments which this countsy had produced; but still the marvellous ideal and the spiritual kingdom of tho cin-atoning Set Kygna have remained for ages Arm as the unshakable Himalayas, defying their strength and destructive powers. The fanatical Mahometans invaded India, holding their Scripture, the Koran, in one hand, end a sword in the other, and brought terror and havoo in the heart of Hindu communities, ruined the temples of Sst Krgna, looted the country, massacred the innocent priests and priestesses, cages and saints, and con- verted many to their faith of Islam by more brute force; notwithstanding all this, the illimitable powers of the Divine rt Krgna have survived the ravages of time. He still reigns over the hearts of the Hindu peopte, and will continue to do so in time to come. In the present age, the Christian missionaries, supported by the enormous resources of the Englich-epeakking nations, are trying with head and heart to place thelr ideal Jesus upon the altar of $x Krgna, and to convert His followers to their religion; but the undying divine powers which Sor Krona has manifested will surely be able to withstand the futile efforts of ordinary mortals ‘The name of Sit Krgna is heard in almost every corner of the Hindu com- munity throughout the length and breadth of the vaet Indian continent, His sweet and holy name is uttered and reverentially repeated atall hours of the day—in sleeping, in walking, in working, in prosperity, in adversity, in times of woe and suffering, as woll as during festivities and national rejoicings, ‘The popular songs which are sung in India. by the iterate masses describe the superhuman deeds and boyish sports of the Divine driKrena, the Shepherd of mankind, In viotory and in dofeat, in nuptial ceremony or erematory rite, atthe Hime of birth as awell os death, the name of SH xgna ip uttered by millions of worshippers with deepest feelings of devotion, love and roveronce, In short they have coupled the name of Set Krena with everything that takes place opon tho earth, whether good, bad or inaif- ferent, For the last three thousand years Hie has roled over the heart of the Hindu nation as the most beloved Lord and Saviour of all, The life of St Kena, to the Hinda mind, seas historioot aa the Iife of Jesus the Christ is to the Christian, It is, of course, a well-known fact that no one has yot fucoseded in giving authentic evidenoce to establish the truth of all tho. stories that wo vead in the synoptic Gospels regarding the life of the Christ, On the contrary, the historic personslity of Tosus has been denied over and over again by the most able scholars and higher cxttios of Burope ad America, Still thomajority of Ohristians, disregard. ing their opinions, believe in the Lord Ghrist as historic personage, worship Him, revere Him, end expect to obtain selvation through Him after death. Similar ie the case with drt Kyena, the Hinds Christ, ‘There have been scholars in India who have denied His historic personality; some have regarded in as. mythical deity, while others have given authentic proofs of His earthly areas. "he masces of people, however, 0 not recognize such criticism, bat coneider rt rena a8 a veritable person age who lived among the Hindu people fsa great Hero, and showed His divine powers in order to ostablis is spiritual kingdom on earth, “Whether or not we can give the exact time, date and year of the advent of dot Krena, 60 mach is certain that His name was known in India hundreds of years before the Christian era. Centuries before Jesus the Christ, Sx Krma was not only loved, honoured and worshipped, but was recognized by the vast majority of Hindus as God Incarnate and Saviour of mankind. The most authentic evidence in favour of this point can be gathered from the accounts of Megasthe- nes, tho Greek ambassador of Seleuous, who lived in India in the court of the Hmperor Chandragupta in the fourth century B. 0, After the invasion of India by Alexander the Great, between 323 and 827 B. Oy Seleucus Nikator became his successor and ruled over the entire region between the Buphrates and the Indus, and sent his ambassador to the court of Chandragupta, the reigning emperor of India. ‘These are all histori- cal facts, Megasthenes lived in India, for several years and left some records. describing his experiences there, which have been preserved and handed down by Arvian, the Greok historian, Among other things, Megasthenes says: “Ho, the Indian Heracles, excelled all men in strength of body and spirit, he had purged the whole earth and sea of evil aud founded many cities; and after his death, divine honours were paid him." “This Heracles is especially wor- shipped by the Sourasonians, an Indian nation, in whose land are two great cities, Mathura and Cleisobara, and through it flows the navigable | river Johares (Jamuna)."" This Cleisobara or Chrysobara is identified by some with Calisapura;t but it wag supposed by Pliny, the historian, to be the came as Krenapura, the city of Krsna—probably modern Dwaraka—which was founded by Srt Kygna, Ptolemis mentions Mathura as the oity of the gods. Prof. Lassen “Asati ty Bd. Chioosk, pH. See Wiha’ Amacalypeis, Vol. 1, p. 2. ‘Testor of Ariane snd Idi of Aleznder identifies this Indian Heracles with drt Kyrgua, while Prof. Wilson and other Orientalists think that the Heracles of the Greck writers was indubitably Balardma, the brother of Srt Krsna. Respecting the Hercules of India, Captain Wilford says: “The Indian Horoales, according to Cicero, was called Belus, He is the same as Bala, the brother of Kygma, and both are conjointly worshipped at Muttra; indeed, they are considered a8 one Avatar or Incamation of Vienu, Bala is represented as a stout man with o club in his hand. He ia called aleo Balarama, As Bala springing from ‘Vignu or Heri? he is certainly Heri. cals, Herioulas, Hercules." # Arian says that Alexander the Great saw those cities and other kingdoms governed by Surasenas, or ‘the descendants of the royal family of Sst Kygna, “Both Arrian and Strabo assert that the God Krgna was anciently worshipped in Mathura on the river Jamuna, where he is worshipped at this day, but the emblems and attributes cetential to this deity are also transplanted into the mythologies of the west." These historical accounts show how unfounded are the remarks of the Obristian missionaries who believe that the whole story of the life of Sr Kygpa and His teachings was aged upon those of Jesus Christ. On ‘the contrary, it is proven that gri Krsna existed centuries before Christ, and Hie teachings were already in writing at the time of the invasion of Ate Sanit, ata" the diet detest rom » family, Thaetoro, Hororles means a diet devtndast of Har}, ae Sviocr, This ord, secon to Hlggny $8 laid sign, Sco analysis Vol. 1) P. 82 2, Asati Mes, Vol. Y. P. o, Pe ueted ta Ba, a2 “slaameatal Ghlataney", pp. ‘ari? means Savoie; and Alexander the Great, Sir William Tones, the father of Oriental scholars in Sanskrit, after residing in India for veveral yeara said: “That the name of Chrishna ‘ana the general outline of his history were known in India long anterior to the birth of our Saviour and probably to the time of Homer (800 B. ©.) we know very certainly," * Sir Godfrey Higgins, one of the est Englich scholars and antiguarians of the last century, after making proper investigations and researches as far as he could, came to the conclusion that Srt Krsna lived at the end of the Brazen Age, “He passod a life of the most extraordinary and incom- prehentible devotion. His birth was concealed from the tyrant Kanes, to whom it had been predicted that one born at that time and in that family would destroy him, #. ¢, his power." # Mr. Higgins says: ‘In fact, the soulptares on the walls of the most ancient temples—temples by no one ever doubted to be long anterior to ‘the Christian cra, as well as written works equally old, prove beyond the possibility of doubt the superior antiquity of the history of Cristna to that of Jesus," * Again, he refut ‘the arguments of his opponents against the antiquity of Cristna by saying: NOxistna, his statues, temples and books, ete. respecting him are to be found where @ Obristian never came, Ie it not absurd to suppose that the Brahmans could invent the story of Gristna and make it dovetail into all their other superstitions (? )—make him form an integral part of their curious ‘Grinity, the actual Trinity of ancient Persia and of Plato—make him also fit, into the theological inferences of the 4. Bir Waliam Jones alvays eplls tho aame of vonage a8" Obie" Bia Ravan, Vol, Ty 9. 2 Asie Rear, Vol. 1, p27. 7 analyte, ol. 1, pe 18 modern Christians respecting the mean- ing of the fret chapter of Genosis—make his story exactly agree with the orthodox, massacre of the innocents, and finally make all this be received as an ancient Goctrine and article of faith by millions of people who must have known very woll that it was all perfectly new to them and that they had never heard of it bofore.""+ Captain Wilford, in his “Chronology of the Hindus" fixed the date of Sr Kygra aud Pardéara, who were contem- poraneous with the Emporor Yudhisthira, ‘as about 1180 B. C,; while the astronomer Davis, as well as Colebrooke, believed that they lived as early as 1891 B.C. Mr. W. Brennard, the author of “Hindu Astronomy", says: “The reocived opi- nion, however, as before stated, is that ‘Yudhigthira (with Garga and Paraéara ) Lived some time about tho 12th or 13th centuries before the Christian era.""} Porthermore, the most ancient sculpture of India in the Cave of Ele- phanta, ness Bombay, representing the ferocious Agure of King Kamsa (Iike the Herod of the Christian Bible), surrounded by slaughtered infant boys and holding adrawn sword, cannot be aocounted for even by the ingenious theory of the Oaris- tian missionaries, ‘This fact not only proves that Sri Krena lived centuries ‘before Cusist, but also establishes the antiguity of the whole story of Tie miraculous birth, His escape from the ‘grout Kempe, the infanticide by this wicked king and the ofaer principal evente of the divine life of this Saviour. ‘Tho popular belief among the ortho- ox Hindus is that He lived toward the end of Dwapara Yuga or the Brazen Age and the present Iron Age, or Kali Yuga, began on the very doy Srl Krgna ascended to heaven, According to. this Deliet or tradition, He must have lived about 3091 5, ©. Bid», 3. 4} Bade Anteorem But modern Hindu scholars like Babu Bankim Chandra Chatterjeo and others have fized the historical date of Sr Kygna and of the battle of Kurukeetra 281430 B. Ge Although the name ‘Krsna’ ocours in many places in the Hymms of the Rgveda, ¢ @ in verse 23, Hymn 116, Book or Monjata i, and algo in verse 7, Hymn 117, Mandata i, Oriental soholars cannot trace the identity of this Krgna, and are not sure whether he was the son of Devakt and Vasudeva, In one passage of the Chhindogya Upanisad, we Sind the name of ‘Krma, the son of Devakt. Again Krgna ‘was also the inepired Ry ( Seer ) of many ‘Hymns (85-87 of Mangaia viii; and 42—44 Of MapJele x) of Revede. From this we learn that He was contemporaneous with ‘Vyisa, who divided the Vedas into four parts ‘The Sanskrit Grammar of Panini, who lived in the eleventh century B. ©. mentions the name of Yudhisthira, Arjuna and Visndeva'( the son of Vasudeva), another name of rt Kygna, Porthermore, in the Atakidhdqye, oF the Great Commentary by Patafijal, on PAnini'e Sanskrit Grainmu, which dates ft least the second contury B. Oy we find convincing proof that the story of $x equa and Kamea was ourrent and popular during his lifetime and that Srt Krma was worshipped as @ God in those days. Prof, Bhandarkar of Bombay mon- tions the following allusions to $7! Krena dn the stahabhyye (1) That the stories of the death of Kamsa and subjugation of Bali were popular and current in Patafijali's time, 4 See "Henna-Chanva’” by 8. O. Cote, p28 sud pp. 48, According #2 thin thor, che Eaperor teed 205 yeart fore Chandrapers tecetor of Alesundor the Grost, sp 8 bate 40d dy the Ores out of Tats, Wenning the Enpereof dia ects HS) B.C, porary of Bl elk (2) That Krena or Vasudeva was mentioned in the story as having killed Kamea, (3) That such stories formed the subjects of dramatic representations, as Puranio stories are still popularly ro- presented on the Hindu stage. (4) That the event of Kamea's death at the hands of Kysna was in Patafjali's time believed to have occurred at a vory romote time. Another convinoing proot that Srt Krgpa was an important Deity in Tndia, long before any Christians visited the country, we gather from the Bhitari pillar inscription, dating probably the Second century A. D., which was trane- cribed and translated by Dr, W. H. Mill. The passage in Dr. Mill's transla~ tion reads thus: “May he whois, like Kygua, still obeying bis mother Devakt, after his foes are vanquished, he of golden rays with meroy protect this my dosign."} ‘The German Antiquarian Lassen corrects it thus: “Like the con- queror of his enemies, Kyena, enoircled with golden raye, who honours Devakt, may ho maintain his purpote.’"{ In the "Chronology of Ancient India’ published by the University of Calcutta, 4 Indian Autiqaary, Dombey, Vol, 152854), onal the Asia Seley of Benge gp. 168, T tice altertamakonde, (154), 7 2108 nee, — however, Sita Nath Pradhan, M. Sc., Ph.D. places the date of the great war of Kurakgetra, in which Sx Krgna was the charioteer of Arjuna, between 1150 B.C, and 1162 B.C. ‘These evidences will be enough to convince the reader that Sr Krsna was a historic personage and that He lived in India conturies before Jesus the Ohrist. In Bie carly life, $:t Kr9na showed to His playmates that He was the em- bodiment of Divine Love; in His youth, that He was tho perfonification of heroism, patriotism, justice and righ- teousnecs; in His maturity He married a Deautifel girl to set before the world’s oye the ideal of a perfect householder; yot His non-attachment to earthly re- ations wae t0 groat that He witnessed the destruction of His own royal 7ace before He pasted away, because His rel- atives and kinemen deviated from the path of virtue, ‘Through all the acts of ‘Bis Ifo, whether in politios, wat, oF im the duties of shousoholder, He em- phasized ond proved the truth of the grand ethical Inw—"Wherever there is virtue, there is viotory and glorious life both in this world and hereafter; and wherever there is vice, unrighteousness, injustice and immorality, there is de- straction physically, morally and spixi- tually. ‘Adapted from te Authors “Orest Saviour ofthe ‘Wert Yo. I, pubes hy the Renabrion Vetta Society, 1 8, Raja Ra} Kato Stree, Caleta, 28