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MeinKampf

(MyStruggle)
by

AdolphHitler

MeinKampf(MyStruggle)
byAdolphHitler

FairbornePublishing
TheColchesterCollection
www.colchestercollection.com

Summary
Hitler'smagnumopusisasunreadasitisinfamous.Whilebillionsofwordshavebeenspilledon
thesubjectofHitlerandhisintentions,fewhaveeverbotheredtoreadthewordsoftheman
himself.
Theshrillconsistencyofthewinnerswhowrotehistoryisevidenceofhegemonicconditioning.
ThatconsistencyisonlymatchedbytheconsistencyofHitlerhimself.Overthefollowingtwo
decades,hisactionsremainedtruetothewordswrittencirca192426.Tounderstandwhether
Hitlerwasademon,ahero,orsomethingelsealtogether,itisnecessarytocomparehisactionsto
thewordswritteninthisbook.

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ideas (summaries, web design, graphics, etc.) created by the Colchester Collection or its
employees. All rights to works under copyright are reserved to the copyright holder. The
ColchesterCollectionmakesnoclaimtocopyprotectionsonthecopyrightedworksofothers.
Theseworksarepublishedasapublicservice,underthetermsoftheFairUseprovisionsofUS
copyrightlaw.

TableofContents
Foreword...................................................................6
VolumeI:
AReckoning...........8

Chapter1:
IntheHouseofMyParents.......................................................9

Chapter2:
YearsofStudyandSufferinginVienna.............................................24

Chapter3:
GeneralPoliticalConsiderationsBasedonMyViennaPeriod............................70

Chapter4:
Munich......................................................................130

Chapter5:
TheWorldWar................................................................161

Chapter6:
WarPropaganda...............................................................179

Chapter7:
TheRevolution................................................................189

Chapter8:
TheBeginningofMyPoliticalActivity.............................................208

Chapter9:
TheGermanWorkers'Party....................................................217

Chapter10:
CausesoftheCollapse..........................................................225

Chapter11:
NationandRace...............................................................281

Chapter12:

TheFirstPeriodofDevelopmentoftheNationalSocialistGermanWorkers'Party...........326

VolumeII:

TheNationalSocialistMovement...........365

Chapter1:

PhilosophyandParty...........................................................366

Chapter2:

TheState.....................................................................381

Chapter3:

SubjectsandCitizens...........................................................438

Chapter4:

PersonalityandtheConceptionoftheFolkishState...................................442

Chapter5:

PhilosophyandOrganization.....................................................453

Chapter6:

TheStruggleoftheEarlyPeriodTheSignificanceoftheSpokenWord..................465

Chapter7:

TheStrugglewiththeRedFront..................................................483

Chapter8:

TheStrongManIsMightiestAlone................................................509

Chapter9:

BasicIdeasRegardingtheMeaningandOrganizationoftheSA.........................520

Chapter10:

FederalismasaMask...........................................................558

Chapter11:

PropagandaandOrganization....................................................583

Chapter12:

TheTradeUnionQuestion.......................................................601

Chapter13:
GermanAlliancePolicyAftertheWar..............................................614

Chapter14:
EasternOrientationorEasternPolicy...............................................651

Chapter15:
TheRightofEmergencyDefense..................................................677

Conclusion..................................................................697

Foreword
OnNovember9,1923,at12:30intheafternoon,infrontofthe
Feldherrnhalle as well as in the courtyard of the former War
Ministry the following men fell, with loyal faith in the
resurrectionoftheirpeople:
Alfarth,Felix,businessman,b.July5,1901
Bauriedl,Andreas,hatter,b.May4,1879
Casella,Theodor,bankclerk,a.August8,1900
Ehrlich,Wilhelm,bankclerk,b.August19,1894
Faust,Martin,bankclerk,b.January27,1901
Hechenberger,Anton,locksmith,b.September28,1902
Korner,Oskar,businessman,b.January4,1875
Kuhn,Karl,headwaiter,b.July26,1897
LaForce,Karl,studentofengineering,b.October28,1904
Neubauer,Kurt,valet,b.March27,1899
Pape,ClausVon,businessman,b.August1,1904
Pfordten,TheodorSonDer,countycourtcouncillor,b.May14,
1873
Rickmers,Johann,retiredcavalrycaptain,b.May7,1881
ScheubnerRichter,MaxErwinVon,doctorofengineering,b.
January9,1884
Stransky,Lorenz,RitterVon,engineer,b.March14,1889
Wolf,Wilhelm,businessman,a.October19,1898
Socalled national authorities denied these dead heroes a
commongrave.
Therefore I dedicate to them, for common memory, the first
volume of this work. As its blood witnesses, may they shine
forever,aglowingexampletothefollowersofourmovement.

AdolfHitler
LandsbergAmLech
FortressPrison
October16,1924

Volume I:

A Reckoning

Chapter1:

In the House of My Parents


TodayitseemstomeprovidentialthatFateshouldhavechosen
BraunauontheInnasmybirthplace.Forthislittletownlieson
the boundary between two German states which we of the
youngergenerationatleasthavemadeitourlifeworktoreunite
byeverymeansatourdisposal.
GermanAustriamustreturntothegreatGermanmothercountry,
andnotbecauseofanyeconomicconsiderations.No,andagain
no:evenifsuchaunionwereunimportantfromaneconomic
pointofview;yes,evenifitwereharmful,itmustnevertheless
take place. One blood demands one Reich. Never will the
German nation possess the moral right to engage in colonial
politicsuntil,atleast,itembracesitsownsonswithinasingle
state.OnlywhentheReichbordersincludetheverylastGerman,
butcannolongerguaranteehisdailybread,willthemoralright
toacquireforeignsoilarisefromthedistressofourownpeople.
Theirswordwillbecomeourplow,andfromthetearsofwarthe
dailybreadoffuturegenerationswillgrow.Andsothislittlecity
ontheborderseemstomethesymbolofagreatmission.Andin
anotherrespectaswell,itloomsasanadmonitiontothepresent
day.Morethanahundredyearsago,thisinsignificantplacehad
thedistinctionof beingimmortalizedintheannals atleast of
Germanhistory,foritwasthesceneofatragiccatastrophewhich
grippedtheentireGermannation.Atthetimeofourfatherland's
deepest humiliation, Johannes Palm of Nuremberg, burgher,
bookseller, uncompromising nationalist and French hater, died
therefortheGermanywhichhelovedsopassionatelyeveninher
misfortune. He had stubbornly refused to denounce his
accompliceswhowereinfacthissuperiors.Inthusheresembled
LeoSchlageter.Andlikehim,hewasdenouncedtotheFrench

byarepresentativeofhisgovernmentAnAugsburgpolicechief
wonthisunenviablefame,thusfurnishinganexampleforour
modernGermanofficialsinHerrSevering'sReich.
In this little town on the Inn, gilded by the rays of German
martyrdom,Bavarianbyblood,technicallyAustrian,livedmy
parentsinthelateeightiesofthepastcentury;myfatheradutiful
civilservantsmymothergivingallherbeingtothehousehold,
anddevotedabovealltouschildrenineternal,lovingcareLittle
remainsinmymemoryofthisperiod,forafterafewyearsmy
fatherhadtoleavethelittlebordercityhehadlearnedtolove,
movingdowntheInntotakeanewpositioninPassau,thatis,in
Germanyproper.
InthosedaysconstantmovingwasthelotofanAustriancustoms
official.Ashorttimelater,myfatherwassenttoLinz,andthere
hewasfinallypensioned.Yet,indeed,thiswasnottomean"res"'
fortheoldgentleman.Inhisyoungerdays,asthesonofapoor
cottager,hecouldn'tbeartostayathome.Beforehewaseven
thirteen,thelittleboylacedhistinyknapsackandranawayfrom
his home in the Waldviertel. Despite the at tempts of
'experienced' villagers to dissuade him, he made his way to
Vienna,theretolearnatrade.Thiswasinthefiftiesofthepast
century.Adesperatedecision,totaketotheroadwithonlythree
guldenfortravelmoney,andplungeintotheunknown.Bythe
timethethirteenyearoldgrewtobeseventeen,hehadpassed
hisapprentice'sexamination,buthewasnotyetcontent.Onthe
contrary. The long period of hardship, endless misery, and
sufferinghehadgonethroughstrengthenedhisdeterminationto
giveuphistradeandbecome'somethingbetter.Formerlythe
poor boy had regarded the priest as the embodiment of all
humanlyattainableheights;nowinthebigcity,whichhadso
greatlywidenedhisperspective,itwastherankofcivilservant.
Withallthetenacityofayoungmanwhomsufferingandcare
had made 'old' while still half a child, the seventeenyearold
clungtohisnewdecisionhedidenterthecivilservice.Andafter
nearlytwentythreeyears,Ibelieve,hereachedhisgoal.Thushe
seemedtohavefulfilledavowwhichhehadmadeasapoorboy:
thathewouldnotreturntohisbelovednativevillageuntilhehad

madesomethingofhimself.
Hisgoalwasachieved;butnooneinthevillagecouldremember
thelittleboyofformerdays,andtohimthevillagehadgrown
strange.
Whenfinally,attheageoffiftysix,hewentintoretirement,he
couldnotbeartospendasingledayofhisleisureinidleness.
NeartheUpperAustrianmarketvillageofLambachheboughta
farm,whichheworkedhimself,andthus,inthecircuitofalong
andindustriouslife,returnedtotheoriginsofhisforefathers.
Itwasatthistimethatthefirstidealstookshapeinmybreast.
Allmyplayingaboutintheopen,thelongwalktoschool,and
particularlymyassociationwithextremely'husky'boys,which
sometimescausedmymotherbitteranguish,mademethevery
oppositeofastayathome.AndthoughatthattimeIscarcely
had any serious ideas as to the profession I should one day
pursue,mysympathieswereinanycasenotinthedirectionof
myfather'scareer.Ibelievethateventhenmyoratoricaltalent
was being developed in the form of more or less violent
argumentswithmyschoolmates.Ihadbecomealittleringleader;
atschool I learnedeasilyandatthattimeverywell,butwas
otherwiseratherhardtohandle.SinceinmyfreetimeIreceived
singing lessons in the cloister at Lambach, I had excellent
opportunitytointoxicatemyselfwiththesolemnsplendorofthe
brilliantchurchfestivals.Aswasonlynaturaltheabbotseemed
tome,asthevillagepriesthadonceseemedtomyfather,the
highestandmostdesirableideal.Foratime,atleast,thiswasthe
case. But since my father, for understandable reasons, proved
unabletoappreciatetheoratoricaltalentsofhispugnaciousboy,
ortodrawfromthemanyfavorableconclusionsregardingthe
futureofhisoffspring,hecould,itgoeswithoutsaying,achieve
no understanding for such youthful ideas. With concern he
observedthisconflictofnature.
Asithappened,mytemporaryaspirationforthisprofessionwas
inanycasesoontovanish,makingplaceforhopesmorestatedto
mytemperament.Rummagingthroughmyfather'slibrary,Ihad
comeacrossvariousbooksofamilitarynatureamongthema

popular edition of the FrancoGerman War of 18707I It


consistedof twoissues ofanillustratedperiodicalfromthose
years,whichnowbecamemyfavoritereadingmatterItwasnot
longbeforethe great heroicstruggle had become mygreatest
inner experience. From then on I became more and more
enthusiasticabouteverythingthatwasinanywayconnectedwith
waror,forthatmatter,withsoldieringButinanotherrespectas
well,thiswastoassumeimportanceforme.Forthefirsttime,
thoughasyetinaconfusedform,thequestionwasforcedupon
my consciousness: Was there a difference and if so what
differencebetween the Germans who fought these battles and
otherGermans?Whyhadn'tAustriatakenpartinthiswar;why
hadn'tmyfatherandalltheothersfought?
ArewenotthesameasallotherGermans?
Dowenotallbelongtogether?Thisproblembegantognawat
mylittlebrainforthefirsttime.Iaskedcautiousquestionsand
withsecretenvyreceivedtheanswerthatnoteveryGermanwas
fortunateenoughtobelongtoBismarck'sReich..
ThiswasmorethanIcouldunderstand.
ItwasdecidedthatIshouldgotohighschool.
Frommywholenature,andtoanevengreaterdegreefrommy
temperament, my father believed he could draw the inference
thatthehumanisticGymnasiumwouldrepresentaconflictwith
mytalents.ARealschol seemedtohimmoresuitable.Inthis
opinionhewasespeciallystrengthenedbymyobviousaptitude
fordrawing;asubjectwhichinhisopinionwasneglectedinthe
AustrianGymnasiums.Anotherfactormayhavebeenhisown
laboriouscareerwhichmadehumanisticstudyseemimpractical
inhiseyes,andthereforelessdesirable.Itwashusbasicopinion
andintentionthat,likehimself,hissonwouldandmustbecomea
civilservant.Itwasonlynaturalthatthehardshipsofhisyouth
should enhance his subsequent achievement in his eyes,
particularlysinceitresultedexclusivelyfromhisownenergyand
irondiligence.Itwastheprideoftheselfmademanwhichmade
him want his son to rise to the same position in life, orJ of
course, even higher if possible, especially since, by his own

industrious life, he thought he would be able to facilitate his


child'sdevelopmentsogreatly.
ItwassimplyinconceivabletohimthatImightrejectwhathad
becomethecontentofhiswholelife.Consequently,myfathers
decisionwassimple,definite,andclear;inhisowneyesImean,
ofcourse.Finally,awholelifetimespentinthebitterstrugglefor
existencehadgivenhimadomineeringnature,anditwouldhave
seemed intolerable to him to leave the final decision in such
matters to an inexperienced boy, having as yet no Sense of
responsibility.Moreover,thiswouldhaveseemedasinfuland
reprehensible weakness in the exercise of his proper parental
authorityandresponsibilityforthefuturelifeofhischild,andas
such,absolutelyincompatiblewithhisconceptofduty.
Andyetthingsweretoturnoutdifferently.
Thenbarelyelevenyearsold,Iwasforcedintooppositionforthe
firsttimeinmylife.Hardanddeterminedasmyfathermightbe
inputtingthroughplansandpurposesonceconceivedhisson
wasjustaspersistentandrecalcitrantinrejectinganideawhich
appealedtohimnotatall,orinanycaseverylittle.
Ididnotwanttobecomeacivilservant.
Neitherpersuasionnor'serious'argumentsmadeanyimpression
onmyresistance.Ididnotwanttobeacivilservantno,and
againno.Allattemptsonmyfather'sparttoinspiremewithlove
or pleasure in this profession by stories from his own life
accomplishedtheexactopposite.Iyawnedandgrewsicktomy
stomachatthethoughtofsittinginanoffice,deprivedofmy
liberty; ceasing to be master of my own time and being
compelledtoforcethecontentofawholelifeintoblanksthat
hadtobefilledout.
Andwhatthoughtscouldthisprospectarouseinaboywhoin
realitywasreallyanythingbut'good'intheusualsenseofthe
word?
School work was ridiculously easy, leaving me so much free
timethatthesunsawmoreofmethanmyroom.Whentodaymy
political opponents direct their loving attention to the

examinationofmylife,followingitbacktothosechildhooddays
anddiscoveratlasttotheirreliefwhatintolerablepranksthis
"Hitler"playedeveninhisyouth,IthankHeaventhataportion
of the memories of those happy days still remains with me.
Woods and meadows were then the battlefields on which the
'conflicts'whichexisteverywhereinlifeweredecided.
In this respect my attendance at the Realschule, which now
commenced,madelittledifference.
Butnow,tobesure,therewasanewconflicttobefoughtout.
Aslongasmyfathersintentionofmakingmeacivilservant
encounteredonlymytheoreticaldistastefortheprofession,the
conflictwasbearable.Thusfar,Ihadtosomeextentbeenableto
keepmyprivateopinionstomyself;Ididnotalwayshaveto
contradicthimimmediately.Myownfirmdeterminationneverto
becomeacivilservantsufficedtogivemecompleteinnerpeace.
Andthisdecisioninmewasimmutable.Theproblembecame
moredifficultwhenIdevelopedaplanofmyowninopposition
tomyfather's.Andthisoccurredattheearlyageoftwelve.How
ithappened,Imyselfdonotknow,butonedayitbecameclearto
methatIwouldbecomeapainter,anartist.Therewasnodoubt
as to my talent for drawing; it had been one of my father's
reasonsforsendingmetotheRealschule,butneverinallthe
world would it have occurred to him to give me professional
training in this direction. On the contrary. When for the first
time,afteronceagainrejectingmyfather'sfavoritenotion,Iwas
askedwhatImyselfwantedtobe,andIratherabruptlyblurted
out the decision I had meanwhile made, my father for the
momentwasstruckspeechless.
'Painter?Artist?'
Hedoubtedmysanity,orperhapshethoughthehadheardwrong
ormisunderstoodme.Butwhenhewasclearonthesubject,and
particularly after he feltthe seriousness of my intention, he
opposeditwithallthedeterminationofhisnature.Hisdecision
wasextremelysimple,foranyconsiderationofwatabilitiesI
mightreallyhavewassimplyoutofthequestion.
'Artist,no,neveraslongasIlive!'Butsincehisson,among

various other qualities, had apparently inherited his father' s


stubbornness, the same answer came back at him. Except, of
course,thatitwasintheoppositesense.
Andthusthesituationremainedonbothsides.Myfatherdidnot
departfromhis'Never!'AndIintensifiedmy'Oh,yes!'
Theconsequences,indeed,werenonetoopleasant.Theoldman
grewembittered,and,muchasIlovedhim,sodidI.Allyfather
forbademetonourishtheslightesthopeofeverbeingallowedto
studyart.Iwentonestepfurtheranddeclaredthatifthatwasthe
case I would stop studying altogether. As a result of such
'pronouncements,'ofcourse,Idrewtheshortend;theoldman
begantherelentlessenforcementofhisauthority.Inthefuture,
therefore,Iwassilent,buttransformedmythreatintoreality.I
thoughtthatoncemyfathersawhowlittleprogressIwasmaking
attheRealschule,hewouldletmedevotemyselftomydream,
whetherhelikeditornot.
I do not know whether this calculation was correct. For the
momentonlyonethingwascertain:myobviouslackofsuccess
atschool.WhatgavemepleasureIlearned,especiallyeverything
which, in my opinion, I should later need as a painter. What
seemed to me unimportant in this respect or was otherwise
unattractivetome,Isabotagedcompletely.Myreportcardsat
this time, depending on the subject and my estimation of it,
showednothingbutextremes.Sidebysidewith'laudable'and
'excellent,'stood'adequate'oreven'inadequate.'Byfarmybest
accomplishmentswereingeographyandevenmoresoinhistory.
Theseweremyfavoritesubjects,inwhichIledthe;class.
Ifnow,aftersomanyyears,Iexaminetheresultsofthisperiod,I
regard two outstanding facts as particularly significant:
First:

became

nationalist
Second: I learned to understand and grasp the meaning of
history.
OldAustriawasa'stateofnationalities.'
Byandlarge,asubjectoftheGermanReich,atthattimeatleast,
wasabsolutelyunabletograspthesignificanceofthisfactforthe

lifeoftheindividualinsuchastate.Afterthegreatvictorious
campaign of the heroic armies in the FrancoGerman War,
peoplehadgraduallylostinterestintheGermanslivingabroad;
some could not, while others were unable to appreciate their
importancesEspeciallywithregardtotheGermanAustrians,the
degeneratedynastywasonlytoofrequentlyconfusedwiththe
people,whichatthecorewasrobustandhealthy.
Whattheyfailedtoappreciatewasthat,unlesstheGermanin
Austriahadreallybeenofthebestblood,hewouldneverhave
hadthepowertosethisstamponanationoffiftytwomillion
souls to such a degree that, even in Germany, the erroneous
opinioncouldarisethatAustriawasaGermanstate.Thiswasan
absurdityfraughtwiththedirestconsequences,andyetaglowing
testimonialtothetenmillionGermansintheOstmark.Onlya
handfulofGermansintheReichhadtheslightestconceptionof
the eternal and merciless struggle for the German language,
Germanschools,andaGermanwayoflife.Onlytoday,whenthe
samedeplorablemiseryisforcedonmanymillionsofGermans
fromtheReich,whounderforeignruledreamoftheircommon
fatherlandandstrive,amidtheirlonging,atleasttopreservetheir
holyrighttotheirmothertongue,dowidercirclesunderstand
whatitmeanstobeforcedtofightforone'snationality.Today
perhapssomecanappreciatethegreatnessoftheGermansinthe
Reich'soldOstmark,who,withnoonebutthemselvestodepend
on,forcenturiesprotectedtheReichagainstincursionsfromthe
East,andfinallycarriedonanexhaustingguerrillawarfareto
maintaintheGermanlanguagefrontier,atatimewhentheReich
washighlyinterestedincolonies,butnotinitsownfleshand
bloodatitsverydoorstep.
Aseverywhereandalways,ineverystruggle,therewere,inthis
fightforthelanguageinoldAustria,threestrata:
Thefighters,thelukewarmandthetraitors.
This sifting process began at school. For the remarkable fact
about the language struggle is that its waves strike hardest
perhaps in the school, since it is the seedbed of the coming
generation.Itisastruggleforthesoulofthechild,andtothe

childitsfirstappealisaddressed:
'Germanboy,donotforgetyouareaGerman,'and,'Littlegirl,
rememberthatyouaretobecomeaGermanmother.'
Anyonewhoknowsthesoulofyouthwillbeabletounderstand
thatitistheywholendearmostjoyfullytosuchabattlecry.
Theycarryonthisstruggleinhundredsofforms,intheirown
wayandwiththeirownweapons.TheyrefusetosingunGerman
songs. The more anyone tries to alienate them from German
heroicgrandeur,thewilderbecomestheirenthusiasm:theygo
hungrytosavepenniesforthegrownups'battlefundtheirears
areamazinglysensitivetounGermanteachers,andatthesame
time they are incredibly resistant; they wear the forbidden
insigniaoftheirownnationalityandarehappytobepunishedor
even beaten for it. Thus, on a small scale they are a faithful
reflectionoftheadults,exceptthatoftentheirconvictionsare
betterandmorehonest.
I, too, while still comparatively young, had an opportunity to
take part in the struggle of nationalities in old Austria.
Collections were taken for the Sudmark I and the school
association; we emphasized our convictions by wearing corn
flowersandredlack,andgoldcolors;'Heil'wasourgreeting,
andinsteadoftheimperialanthemwesang'Deutschlanduber
Alles,'despitewarningsandpunishments.Inthiswaythechild
receivedpoliticaltraininginaperiodwhenasarulethesubject
ofasocallednationalstateknewlittlemoreofhisnationality
thanitslanguage.ItgoeswithoutsayingthateventhenIwasnot
amongthelukewarm.InashorttimeIhadbecomeafanatical
'GermanNationalist,'thoughthetermwasnotidenticalwithour
presentpartyconcept.
Thisdevelopmentinmemaderapidprogress;bythetimeIwas
fifteenIunderstoodthedifferencebetweendynastic'patriotism'
andfolkish"nationalism';andeventhenIwasinterestedonlyin
thelatter.
Foranyonewhohasnevertakenthetroubletostudytheinner
conditionsoftheHabsburgmonarchy,suchaprocessmaynotbe
entirelyunderstandable.Inthiscountrytheinstructioninworld

historyhadtoprovidethegermforthisdevelopment,sincetoall
intents and purposes there is no such thing as a specifically
Austrianhistory.Thedestinyofthisstateissomuchboundup
with the life and development of all the Germans that a
separationofhistoryintoGermanandAustriandoesnotseem
conceivable.Indeed,whenatlengthGermanybegantodivide
intotwospheresofpower,thisdivisionitselfbecameGerman
history.
Theinsigniaofformerimperialglory,preservedinVienna,still
seem to cast a magic spell; they stand as a pledge that these
twofolddestiniesareeternallyone.
TheelementalcryoftheGermanAustrianpeopleforunionwith
the German mother country, that arose in the days when the
Habsburgstatewascollapsing,wastheresultofalongingthat
slumberedintheheartoftheentirepeoplealongingtoreturnto
the neverforgotten ancestral home. But this would be in
explicable if the historical education of the individual
GermanAustrianhadnotgivenrisetosogeneralalonging.Init
liesawellwhichnevergrowsdry;which,especiallyintimesof
forgetfulness, transcends all momentary prosperity and by
constantremindersofthepastwhisperssoftlyofanewfuture
Instructioninworldhistoryinthesocalledhighschoolsiseven
todayinaverysorrycondition.Fewteachersunderstandthatthe
aimofstudyinghistorycanneverbetolearnhistoricaldatesand
eventsbyheartandrecitethembyrote;thatwhatmattersisnot
whether the child knows exactly when this or that battle was
fought, when a general was born, or even when a monarch
(usually a very insignificant one) came into the crown of his
forefathers.No,bythelivingGod,thisisveryunimportant.
To'learn'historymeanstoseekandfindtheforceswhicharethe
causesleadingtothoseeffectswhichwesubsequentlyperceive
ashistoricalevents.
Theartofreadingasoflearningisthis:toretaintheessentialto
forgetthenonessential.
Perhapsitaffectedmywholelaterlifethatgoodfortunesentme
ahistoryteacherwhowasoneofthefewtoobservethisprinciple

inteachingandexamining.Dr.LeopoldPotsch,myprofessorat
theRealschuleinLinz,embodiedthisrequirementtoanideal
degree. This old gentleman's manner was as kind as it was
determined,hisdazzlingeloquencenotonlyheldusspellbound
butactuallycarriedusaway.EventodayIthinkbackwithgentle
emotion on this grayhaired man who, by the fire of his
narratives,sometimesmadeusforgetthepresent;who,asifby
enchantment,carriedusintopasttimesand,outofthemillennial
veilsofmist,moldeddryhistoricalmemoriesintolivingreality.
Onsuchoccasionswesatthere,oftenaflamewithenthusiasm,
andsometimesevenmovedtotears.
Whatmadeourgoodfortuneallthegreaterwasthatthisteacher
knewhowtoilluminatethepastbyexamplesfromthepresent,
andhowfromthepasttodrawinferencesforthepresent.Asa
resulthehadmoreunderstandingthananyoneelseforallthe
daily problems which then held us breathless. He used our
budding nationalistic fanaticism as a means of educating use
frequentlyappealingtooursenseofnationalhonor.Bythisalone
hewasabletodisciplineuslittleruffiansmoreeasilythanwould
havebeenpossiblebyanyothermeans.
Thisteachermadehistorymyfavoritesubject.
Andindeed,thoughhehadnosuchintention,itwasthenthatI
becamealittlerevolutionary.
ForwhocouldhavestudiedGermanhistoryundersuchateacher
withoutbecominganenemyofthestatewhich,throughitsruling
house,exertedsodisastrousaninfluenceonthedestiniesofthe
nation?
Andwhocouldretainhisloyaltytoadynastywhichinpastand
presentbetrayedtheneedsoftheGermanpeopleagainandagain
forshamelessprivateadvantage?
Didwenotknow,evenaslittleboys,thatthisAustrianstatehad
andcouldhavenoloveforusGermans?
OurhistoricalknowledgeoftheworksoftheHouseofHabsburg
wasreinforcedbyourdailyexperience.Inthenorthandsouth
the poison of foreign nations gnawed at the body of our

nationality, and even Vienna was visibly becoming more and


more of an unGerman city. The Royal House Czechized
whereverpossible,anditwasthehandofthegoddessofeternal
justice and inexorable retribution which caused Archduke
Francis Ferdinand, the most mortal enemy of Austrian
Germanism,tofallbythebulletswhichhehimselfhadhelpedto
mold.For hadhenot beenthepatronofAustria'sSlavization
fromabove!
Immense were the burdens which the German people were
expected to bear, inconceivable their sacrifices in taxes and
blood,andyetanyonewhowasnottotallyblindwasboundto
recognizethatallthiswouldbeinvain.Whatpainedusmostwas
thefactthatthisentiresystemwasmorallywhitewashedbythe
alliance with Germany, with the result that the slow
extermination of Germanism in the old monarchy was in a
certain sense sanctioned by Germany itself. The Habsburg
hypocrisy, which enabled the Austrian rulers to create the
outwardappearancethatAustriawasaGermanstate,raisedthe
hatredtowardthishousetoflamingindignationandatthesame
timecontempt.
OnlyintheReichitself,themenwhoeventhenwerecalledto
powersawnothingofallthis.Asthoughstrickenwithblindness,
theylivedbythesideofacorpse,andinthesymptomsofrotten
nesssawonlythesignsof'new'life.
TheunholyallianceoftheyoungReichandtheAustriansham
statecontainedthegermofthesubsequentWorldWarandofthe
collapseaswell.
InthecourseofthisbookIshallhaveoccasiontotakeupthis
problem at length. Here it suffices to state that even in my
earliestyouthIcametothebasicinsightwhichneverleftme,but
Onlybecamemoreprofound:
ThatGermanismcouldbesafeguardedonlybythedestructionof
Austria,and,furthermore,thatnationalsentimentisinnosense
Identicalwithdynasticpatriotism;thatabovealltheHouseof
Habsburg was destined to be the misfortune of the German
nation.

EventhenIhaddrawntheconsequencesfromthisrealization
ardentloveformyGermanAustrianhomelandstate.
ThehabitofhistoricalthinkingwhichIthuslearnedinschool
hasneverleftmeintheinterveningyears.Toaneverincreasing
extentworldhistorybecameformeaninexhaustiblesourceof
understandingforthehistoricaleventsofthepresent,inother
words, for politics. I do not want to'learn' it,I want itto in
instructme.
Thus,atanearlyage,Ihadbecomeapolitical'revolutionary,'
andIbecameanartisticrevolutionaryatanequallyearlyage.
TheprovincialcapitalofUpperAustriahadatthattimeatheater
which was, relatively speaking, not bad. Pretty much of
everythingwasproduced.AttheageoftwelveIsawWilhelm
Tellforthefirsttime,andafewmonthslatermyfirstopera,
Lohengrin.Iwascaptivatedatonce.Myyouthfulenthusiasmfor
themasterofBayreuthknewnobounds.AgainandagainIwas
drawntohisworks,anditstillseemstomeespeciallyfortunate
that the modest provincial performance left me open to an
intensifiedexperiencelateron.
Allthis,particularlyafterIhadoutgrownmyadolescence(which
in my case was an especially painful process), reinforced my
profounddistastefortheprofessionwhichmyfatherhadchosen
forme.MyconvictiongrewstrongerandstrongerthatIwould
neverbehappyasacivilservant.Thefactthatbythistimemy
giftfordrawinghadbeenrecognizedattheRealschulemademy
determinationallthefirmer.
Neitherpleasnorthreatscouldchangeitonebit.
Iwantedtobecomeapainterandnopowerintheworldcould
makemeacivilservant.
Yet,strangeasitmayseem,withthepassingyearsIbecame
moreandmoreinterestedinarchitecture.
AtthattimeIregardedthisasanaturalcomplementtomygiftas
a painter, and only rejoiced inwardly at the extension of my
artisticscope.
Ididnotsuspectthatthingswouldturnoutdifferently.

Thequestionofmyprofessionwastobedecidedmorequickly
thanIhadpreviouslyexpected.
In my thirteenth year I suddenly lost my father. A stroke of
apoplexyfelledtheoldgentlemanwhowasotherwisesohale,
thuspainlesslyendinghisearthlypilgrimage,plungingusallinto
thedepthsofgriefHismostardentdesirehadbeentohelphis
son forge his career, thus preserving him fromhis own bitter
experience.Inthis,toallappearances,hehadnotsucceeded.But,
thoughunwittingly,hehadsowntheseedforafuturewhichat
thattimeneitherhenorIwouldhavecomprehended.
Forthemomenttherewasnooutwardchange.
Mymother,tobesure,feltobligedtocontinuemyeducationin
accordancewithmyfather'swish;inotherwords,tohaveme
studyforthecivilservant'scareer.I,formypart,wasmorethan
ever determined absolutely not to undertake this career. In
proportionasmyschoolingdepartedfrommyidealinsubject
matterandcurriculum,Ibecamemoreindifferentatheart.Then
suddenlyanillnesscametomyhelpandinafewweeksdecided
myfutureandtheeternaldomesticquarrel.Asaresultofmy
serious lung ailment, a physician advised my mother in most
urgenttermsnevertosendmeintoanoffice.Myattendanceat
theRealschulehadfurthermoretobeinterruptedforatleasta
year.ThegoalforwhichIhadsolongsilentlyyearned,forwhich
Ihadalwaysfought,hadthroughthiseventsuddenlybecome
realityalmostofitsownaccord.
Concernedovermyillness,mymotherfinallyconsentedtotake
meoutoftheRealschuleandletmeattendtheAcademy.
Thesewerethehappiestdaysofmylifeandseemedtomealmost
adream;andameredreamitwastoremain.Twoyearslater,the
deathofmymotherputasuddenendtoallmyhighflownplans.
Itwastheconclusionofalongandpainfulillnesswhichfromthe
beginningleftlittlehopeofrecovery.Yetitwasadreadfulblow,
particularlyforme.Ihadhonoredmyfather,butmymotherI
hadloved.
Poverty and hard reality now compelled me to take a quick

decision. What little my father had left had been largely


exhaustedbymymother'sgraveillness;theorphan'spensionto
whichIwasentitledwasnotenoughformeeventoliveon,and
soIwasfacedwiththeproblemofsomehowmakingmyown
living.
Inmyhandasuitcasefullofclothesandunderwear;inmyheart
anindomitablewill,IjourneyedtoVienna.I,too,hopedtowrest
fromFatewhatmyfatherhadaccomplishedfiftyyearsbefore;I,
too, wanted to become 'something'but on no account a civil
servant.

Chapter 2:

Years of Study and Suffering


in Vienna
Whenmymotherdied,Fate,atleastinonerespect,hadmadeits
decisions.
Inthelastmonthsofhersickness,IhadgonetoViennatotake
theentranceexaminationfortheAcademy.Ihadsetoutwitha
pileofdrawings,convincedthatitwouldbechild'splaytopass
theexamination.AttheRealschuleIhadbeenbyfarthebestin
myclassatdrawing,andsincethenmyabilityhaddeveloped
amazingly;myownsatisfactioncausedmetotakeajoyfulpride
inhopingforthebest.
Yet sometimes a drop of bitterness put in its appearance: my
talent for painting seemed to be excelled by my talent for
drawing, especially in almost allfields of architecture.At the
sametimemyinterestinarchitectureassuchincreasedsteadily,
andthisdevelopmentwasacceleratedafteratwoweeks'tripto
ViennawhichItookwhennotyetsixteen.Thepurposeofmy
tripwastostudythepicturegalleryintheCourtMuseum,butI
had eyes for scarcely anything but the Museum itself. From
morninguntillateatnight,Iranfromoneobjectofinterestto
another,butitwasalwaysthebuildingswhichheldmyprimary
interest.ForhoursIcouldstandinfrontoftheOpera,forhoursI
couldgazeattheParliament;thewholeRingBoulevardseemed
to me like an enchantment out of The ThousandandOne
Nights.
Now I was in the fair city for the second time, waiting with
burningimpatience,butalsowithconfidentselfassurance,for
theresultofmyentranceexamination.IwassoconvincedthatI

wouldbesuccessfulthatwhenIreceivedmyrejection,itstruck
measaboltfromtheblue.Yetthatiswhathappened.WhenI
presentedmyselftotherector,requestinganexplanationformy
nonacceptance at the Academy's school of painting, that
gentleman assured me that the drawings I had submitted
incontrovertiblyshowedmyunfitnessforpainting,andthatmy
abilityobviouslylayinthefieldofarchitecture;forme,hesaid,
theAcademy'sschoolofpaintingwasoutofthequestion,the
place for me was the School of Architecture. It was
incomprehensible to him that I had never attended an
architecturalschoolorreceivedanyothertraininginarchitecture.
Downcast, I left von Hansen's magnificent building on the
Schillerplatz,for thefirsttimeinmyyounglifeatoddswith
myself.ForwhatIhadjustheardaboutmyabilitiesseemedlike
alightningflash,suddenlyrevealingaconflictwithwhichIhad
longbeenafflicted,althoughuntilthenIhadnoclearconception
ofitswhyandwherefore.
InafewdaysImyselfknewthatIshouldsomedaybecomean
architect.
Tobesure,itwasanincrediblyhardroad;forthestudiesIhad
neglectedoutofspiteattheRealschuleweresorelyneeded.One
could not attend the Academy's architectural school without
havingattendedthebuildingschoolattheTechnic,andthelatter
requiredahighschooldegree.Ihadnoneofallthis.Thefulfill
mentofmyartisticdreamseemedphysicallyimpossible.
WhenafterthedeathofmymotherIwenttoViennaforthethird
time,toremainformanyyears,thetimewhichhadmeanwhile
elapsed had restored my calm and determination. My old
defiancehadcomebacktomeandmygoalwasnowclearand
definitebeforemyeyes.Iwantedtobecomeanarchitect,and
obstaclesdonotexisttobesurrenderedto,butonlytobebroken.
Iwasdeterminedtoovercometheseobstacles,keepingbefore
myeyestheimageofmyfather,whohadstartedoutasthechild
of a village shoemaker, and risen by his own efforts to be a
governmentofficial.Ihadabetterfoundationtobuildon,and
hencemypossibilitiesinthestrugglewereeasier,andwhatthen
seemedtobetheharshnessofFate,Ipraisetodayaswisdomand

Providence.WhiletheGoddessofSufferingtookmeinherarms,
oftenthreateningtocrushme,mywilltoresistancegrew,andin
theendthiswillwasvictorious.
IoweittothatperiodthatIgrewhardandamstillcapableof
beinghard.Andevenmore,Iexaltitfortearingmeawayfrom
the hollowness of comfortable life; for drawing the mother's
darlingoutofhissoftdownybedandgivinghim'DameCare'for
anewmother;forhurlingme,despiteallresistance,intoaworld
ofmiseryandpoverty,thusmakingmeacquaintedwiththosefor
whomIwaslatertofight.
InthisperiodmyeyeswereopenedtotwomenacesofwhichI
had previously scarcely known the names, and whose terrible
importancefortheexistenceoftheGermanpeopleIcertainlydid
notunderstand:MarxismandJewry.
TomeVienna,thecitywhich,tosomany,istheepitomeof
innocent pleasure, a festive playground for merrymakers,
represents,Iamsorrytosay,merelythelivingmemoryofthe
saddestperiodofmylife.
Even today this city can arouse in me nothing but the most
dismal thoughts. For me the name of this Phaeacian city I
representsfiveyearsofhardshipandmisery.Fiveyearsinwhich
Iwasforcedtoearnaliving,firstasadaylaborer,thenasasmall
painter;atrulymeagerlivingwhichneversufficedtoappease
evenmydailyhunger.Hungerwasthenmyfaithfulbodyguard;
heneverleftmeforamomentandpartookofallIhad,shareand
sharealike.EverybookIacquiredarousedhisinterest;avisitto
theOperapromptedhisattentionsfordaysatatime;mylifewas
acontinuousstrugglewiththispitilessfriend.Andyetduringthis
timeIstudiedasneverbefore.Asidefrommyarchitectureand
myrarevisitstotheOpera,paidforinhunger,Ihadbutone
pleasure:mybooks.
AtthattimeIreadenormouslyandthoroughly.Allthefreetime
my work left me was employed in my studies. In this way I
forgedinafewyears'timethefoundationsofaknowledgefrom
whichIstilldrawnourishmenttoday.
Andevenmorethanthis:

Inthisperiodtheretookshapewithinmeaworldpictureanda
philosophywhichbecamethegranitefoundationofallmyacts.
InadditiontowhatIthencreated,Ihavehadtolearnlittle;andI
havehadtoalternothing.
Onthecontrary.
TodayIamfirmlyconvincedthatbasicallyandonthewholeall
creative ideas appear in our youth, in so far as any such are
present. I distinguish between the wisdom of age, consisting
solelyingreaterthoroughnessandcautionduetotheexperience
ofalonglife,andthegeniusofyouth,whichpoursoutthoughts
andideaswithinexhaustiblefertility,butcannotforthemoment
developthembecauseoftheirveryabundance.Itisthisyouthful
geniuswhichprovidesthebuildingmaterialsandplansforthe
future,fromwhichawiseragetakesthestones,carvesthemand
completestheedifice,insofarasthesocalledwisdomofage
hasnotstifledthegeniusofyouth.
ThelifewhichIhadhithertoledathomedifferedlittleornotat
allfromthelifeofotherpeople.Carefree,Icouldawaitthenew
day,andtherewasnosocialproblemforme.Theenvironmentof
myyouthconsistedofpettybourgeoiscircles,henceofaworld
having very little relation to the purely manual worker. For,
strangeasitmayseematfirstglance,thecleftbetweenthisclass,
which in an economic sense is by no means so brilliantly
situated,andthemanualworkerisoftendeeperthanweimagine.
Thereasonforthishostility,aswemightalmostcallit,liesinthe
fearofasocialgroup,whichhasbutrecentlyraiseditselfabove
thelevelofthemanualworker,thatitwillsinkbackintotheold
despisedclass,oratleastbecomeidentifiedwithit.Tothis,in
manycases,wemustaddtherepugnantmemoryofthecultural
povertyofthislowerclass,thefrequentvulgarityofitssocial
intercourse; the petty bourgeois' own position in society,
however insignificant it may be, makes any contact with this
outgrownstageoflifeandcultureintolerable.
Consequently, the higher classes feel less constraint in their
dealingswiththelowestoftheirfellowmenthanseemspossible
tothe'upstart.'

Foranyoneisanupstartwhorisesbyhisowneffortsfromhis
previouspositioninlifetoahigherone.
Ultimatelythisstruggle,whichisoftensohard,killsallpity.Our
ownpainfulstruggleforexistencedestroysourfeelingforthe
miseryofthosewhohaveremainedbehind.
InthisrespectFatewaskindtome.Byforcingmetoreturnto
thisworldofpovertyandinsecurity,fromwhichmyfatherhad
riseninthecourseofhislife,itremovedtheblindersofanarrow
pettybourgeoisupbringingfrommyeyes.OnlynowdidIlearn
to know humanity, learning to distinguish between empty
appearancesorbrutalexternalsandtheinnerbeing.
Aftertheturnofthecentury,Viennawas,sociallyspeaking,one
ofthemostbackwardcitiesinEurope.
Dazzlingrichesandloathsomepovertyalternatedsharply.Inthe
centerandintheinnerdistrictsyoucouldreallyfeelthepulseof
thisrealmoffiftytwomillions,withallthedubiousmagicofthe
national melting pot. The Court with its dazzling glamour
attractedwealthandintelligencefromtherestofthecountrylike
a magnet. Added to this was the strong centralization of the
Habsburgmonarchyinitself.
Itofferedthesolepossibilityofholdingthismedleyofnations
together in any set form. But the consequence was an
extraordinary concentration of high authorities in the imperial
capitalYetnotonlyinthepoliticalandintellectualsensewas
ViennathecenteroftheoldDanubemonarchy,buteconomically
aswell.Thehostofhighofofficers,governmentofficials,artists,
andscholarswasconfrontedbyanevengreaterarmyofworkers,
andsidebysidewitharistocraticandcommercialwealthdwelt
direpoverty.OutsidethepalacesontheRingloiteredthousands
ofunemployed,andbeneaththisViaTriumphalisofoldAustria
dweltthehomelessinthegloomandmudofthecanals.
InhardlyanyGermancitycouldthesocialquestionhavebeen
studied better than in Vienna. But make no mistake. This
'studying'cannotbedonefromloftyheights.Noonewhohasnot
beenseizedinthejawsofthismurderousviper canknowits
poison fangs. Otherwise nothing results but superficial chatter

andfalsesentimentality.Bothareharmful.Theformerbecauseit
canneverpenetratetothecoreoftheproblem,thelatterbecause
itpassesitby.Idonotknowwhichismoreterrible:inattention
tosocialmiserysuchasweseeeverydayamongthemajorityof
thosewhohavebeenfavoredbyfortuneorwhohaverisenby
theirownefforts,orelsethesnobbish,orattimestactlessand
obtrusive,condescensionofcertainwomenoffashioninskirtsor
introusers,who'feelforthepeople.'Inanyevent,thesegentry
sinfarmorethantheirminds,devoidofallinstinct,arecapable
ofrealizing.Consequently,andmuchtotheirownamazement,
theresultoftheirsocial'efforts'isalwaysnil,frequently,infact,
anindignant rebuff,thoughthis,of course, ispassed off asa
proofofthepeople'singratitude.
Suchmindsaremostreluctanttorealizethatsocialendeavorhas
nothingincommonwiththissortofthing;thataboveallitcan
raisenoclaimtogratitude,sinceitsfunctionisnottodistribute
favorsbuttorestorerights.
Iwaspreservedfromstudyingthesocialquestioninsuchaway.
Bydrawingmewithinitssphereofsuffering,itdidnotseemto
invitemeto'study,'buttoexperienceitinmyownskin.Itwas
noneofitsdoingthattheguineapigcamethroughtheoperation
safeandsound.
An attempt to enumerate the sentiments I experienced in that
period could never be even approximately complete; I shall
describehereonlythemostessentialimpressions,thosewhich
often moved me most deeply, and the few lessons which I
derivedfromthematthetime.
Theactualbusinessoffindingworkwas,asarule,nothardfor
me,sinceIwasnotaskilledcraftsman,butwasobligedtoseek
mydailybreadasasocalledhelperandsometimesasacasual
laborer.
IadoptedtheattitudeofallthosewhoshakethedustofEurope
fromtheirfeetwiththeirrevocableintentionoffoundinganew
existence in the New World and conquering a new home.
Released from all the old, paralyzing ideas of profession and
position, environment and tradition, they snatch at every

livelihood that offers itself, grasp at every sort of work,


progressingstepbysteptotherealizationthathonestlabor,no
matterofwhatsort,disgracesnoone.I,too,wasdeterminedto
leap into this new world, with both feet, and fight my way
through.
Isoonlearnedthattherewasalwayssomekindofworktobe
had,butequallysoonIfoundouthoweasyitwastoloseit.
Theuncertaintyofearningmydailybreadsoonseemedtome
oneofthedarkestsidesofmynewlife.
The'skilled'workerdoesnotfindhimselfoutonthestreetas
frequentlyastheunskilled;butheisnotentirelyimmunetothis
fateeither.Andinhiscasethelossoflivelihoodowingtolackof
workisreplacedbythelockout,orbygoingonstrikehimself.
In this respect the entire economy suffers bitterly from the
individual'sinsecurityinearninghisdailybread.
Thepeasantboywhogoestothebigcity,attractedbytheeasier
natureofthework(realorimaginary),byshorterhours,butmost
of all bythedazzling lightemanatingfromthemetropolis, is
accustomedtoacertainsecurityinthematteroflivelihood.He
leaveshisoldjobonlywhenthereisatleastsomeprospectofa
newone.Forthereisagreatlackofagriculturalworkers,hence
theprobabilityofanylongperiodofunemploymentisinitself
small.Itisamistaketobelievethattheyoungfellowwhogoesto
the big city is made of poorer stuff than his brother who
continuestomakeanhonestlivingfromthepeasantsod.No,on
the contrary: experience shows that all those elements which
emigrate consist of the healthiest and most energetic natures,
rather than conversely. Yet among these 'emigrants' we must
count,notonlythosewhogotoAmerica,buttoanequaldegree
theyoungfarmhandwhoresolvestoleavehisnativevillagefor
thestrangecity.He,too,ispreparedtofaceanuncertainfate.As
arulehearrivesinthebigcitywithacertainamountofmoney;
hehasnoneedtoloseheartontheveryfirstdayifhehastheill
fortunetofindnoworkforanylengthoftime.Butitisworseif,
afterfindingajob,hesoonlosesit.Tofindanewone,especially
inwinter,isoftendifficultifnotimpossible.Evenso,thefirst

weeksaretolerable.Hereceivesanunemploymentbenefitfrom
hisunionfundsandmanagesaswellaspossible.Butwhenhis
lastcentisgoneandtheunion,duetothelongdurationofhis
unemployment,discontinuesitspayments,greathardshipsbegin.
Nowhewalksthestreets,hungry;oftenhepawnsandsellshis
lastpossessions;hisclothingbecomesmoreandmorewretched;
andthushesinksintoexternalsurroundingswhich,ontopofhis
physicalmisfortune,alsopoisonhissoul.Ifheisevictedandif
(asissooftenthecase)thisoccursinwinter,hismiseryisvery
great.Atlengthhefindssomesortofjobagain.Buttheoldstory
isrepeated.Thesamethinghappensasecondtime,thethirdtime
perhapsitisevenworse,andlittlebylittlehelearnstobearthe
eternalinsecuritywithgreaterandgreaterindifference.Atlast
therepetitionbecomesahabit.
Andsothisman,whowasformerlysohardworking,growslax
inhiswholeviewoflifeandgraduallybecomestheinstrument
ofthosewhousehimonlyfortheirownbaseadvantage.Hehas
sooftenbeenunemployedthroughnofaultofhisownthatone
time more or less ceases to matter, even when the aim is no
longer to fight for economic rights, but to destroy political,
social, or culturaL values in general. He may not be exactly
enthusiastic about strikes, but at any rate he has become
indifferent.
WithopeneyesIwasabletofollowthisprocessinathousand
examples.ThemoreIwitnessedit,thegreatergrewmyrevulsion
forthebigcitywhichfirstavidlysuckedmeninandthenso
cruellycrushedthem.
Whentheyarrived,theybelongedtotheirpeople;afterremaining
forafewyears,theywerelosttoit.
I,too,hadbeentossedaroundbylifeinthemetropolisinmy
ownskinIcouldfeeltheeffectsofthisfateandtastethemwith
mysoul.OnemorethingIsaw:therapidchangefromworkto
unemploymentandviceversa,plustheresultantfluctuationof
income,endbydestroyinginmanyallfeelingforthrift,orany
understandingforaprudentorderingoftheirlives.Itwouldseem
thatthebodygraduallybecomesaccustomedtolivingonthefat

ofthelandingoodtimesandgoinghungryinbadtimes.Indeed,
hungerdestroysanyresolutionforreasonablebudgetinginbetter
timestocomebyholdinguptotheeyesofitstormentedvictim
aneternalmirageofgoodlivingandraisingthisdreamtosucha
pitch of longing that a pathological desire puts an end to all
restraintassoonaswagesandearningsmakeitatallpossible.
The consequence is that once the man obtains work he
irresponsiblyforgetsallideasoforderanddiscipline,andbegins
toliveluxuriouslyforthepleasuresofthemoment.Thisupsets
even the small weekly budget, as even here any intelligent
apportionment is lacking; in the beginning it suffices for five
daysinsteadofseven,lateronlyforthree,finallyscarcelyforone
day,andintheenditisdrunkupintheveryfirstnight.
Oftenhehasawifeandchildrenathome.Sometimesthey,too,
areinfectedbythislife,especiallywhenthemanisgoodtothem
onthewholeandactuallylovestheminhisownway.Thenthe
weeklywageisusedupbythewholefamilyintwoorthreedays;
theyeatanddrinkaslongasthemoneyholdsoutandthelast
daystheygohungry.Thenthewifedragsherselfoutintothe
neighborhood,borrowsalittle,runsuplittledebtsatthefood
store,andinthiswaystrivestogetthroughthehardlastdaysof
theweek.Atnoontheyallsittogetherbeforetheirmeagerand
sometimesemptybowls,waitingforthenextpayday,speaking
of it, making plans, and, in their hunger, dreaming of the
happinesstocome.
Andsothelittlechildren,intheirearliestbeginnings,aremade
familiarwiththismisery.
It ends badly if the man goes his own way from the very
beginningandthewoman,forthechildren'ssake,opposeshim.
Then there is fighting and quarreling, and, as the man grows
estrangedfromhiswife,hebecomesmoreintimatewithalcohol.
He is drunk every Saturday, and, with her instinct of
selfpreservationforherselfandherchildren,thewomanhasto
fighttogetevenafewpenniesoutofhim;and,tomakematters
worse, thisusuallyoccursonhiswayfromthefactorytothe
barroom. When at length he comes home on Sunday or even
Mondaynight,drunkandbrutal,butalwayspartedfromhislast

cent,suchscenesoftenoccurthatGodhavemercy!
Ihaveseenthisinhundredsofinstances.AtfirstIwasrepelled
orevenoutraged,butlaterIunderstoodthewholetragedyofthis
miseryanditsdeepercauses.Thesepeoplearetheunfortunate
victimsofbadconditions!
Evenmoredismal inthose days werethehousingconditions.
ThemiseryinwhichtheViennesedaylaborerlivedwasfrightful
tobehold.EventodayitfillsmewithhorrorwhenIthinkof
thesewretchedcaverns,thelodginghousesandtenements,sordid
scenesofgarbage,repulsivefilth,andworse.
What wasand still isbound to happen some day, when the
streamofunleashedslavespoursforthfromthesemiserabledens
to avenge themselves on their thoughtless fellow men F For
thoughtlesstheyare!
Thoughtlesslytheyletthingsslidealong,andwiththeirutterlack
ofintuitionfaileventosuspectthatsoonerorlaterFatemust
bringretribution,unlessmenconciliateFatewhilethereisstill
time.
HowthankfulIamtodaytotheProvidencewhichsentmetothat
school!InitIcouldnolongersabotagethesubjectsIdidnotlike.
Iteducatedmequicklyandthoroughly.
If I did not wish to despair of the men who constituted my
environmentatthattime,Ihadtolearntodistinguishbetween
theirexternalcharactersandlivesandthefoundationsoftheir
development.Onlythencouldallthisbebornewithoutlosing
heart.Then,fromallthemiseryanddespair,fromallthefilthand
outward degeneration, it was no longer human beings that
emerged,butthedeplorableresultsofdeplorablelaws;andthe
hardshipofmyownlife,noeasierthantheothers,preservedme
from capitulating in tearful sentimentality to the degenerate
productsofthisprocessofdevelopment.
No,thisisnotthewaytounderstandallthesethings!
EventhenIsawthatonlyatwofoldroadcouldleadtothegoalof
improvingtheseconditions:
The deepest sense of social responsibility for the creation of

better foundations for our development, coupled with brutal


determinationonbreakingdownincurabletenors.
Just as Nature does not concentrate her greatest attention in
preservingwhatexists,butinbreedingoffspringtocarryonthe
species,likewise,inhumanlife,itislessimportantartificiallyto
alleviateexistingevil,which,inviewofhumannature,isninety
ninepercentimpossible,thantoensurefromthestarthealthier
channelsforafuturedevelopment.
DuringmystruggleforexistenceinVienna,ithadbecomeclear
to me that Social activity must never and on no account be
directed toward philanthropic flimflam, but rather toward the
eliminationofthebasicdeficienciesintheorganizationofour
economicandculturallifethatmustoratalleventscanleadto
thedegenerationoftheindividual.
Thedifficultyofapplyingthemostextremeandbrutalmethods
againstthecriminalswhoendangerthestateliesnotleastinthe
uncertaintyofourjudgmentoftheinnermotivesorcausesof
suchcontemporaryphenomena.
Thisuncertaintyisonlytoowellfoundedinourownsenseof
guiltregardingsuchtragediesofdegeneration;bethatasitmay,
it paralyzes any serious and firm decision and is thus partly
responsible for the weak and halfhearted, because hesitant,
execution of even the most necessary measures of
selfpreservation.
Onlywhenanepochceasestobehauntedbytheshadowofits
ownconsciousness ofguiltwillitachievetheinnercalmand
outward strength brutally and ruthlessly to prune off the wild
shootsandtearouttheweeds.
SincetheAustrianstatehadpracticallynosociallegislationor
jurisprudence,itsweaknessincombatingevenmalignanttumors
wasglaring.
Idonotknowwhathorrifiedmemostatthattime:theeconomic
miseryofmycompanions,theirmoralandethicalcoarseness,or
thelowleveloftheirintellectualdevelopment.
Howoftendoesourbourgeoisieriseinhighmoralindignation

whentheyhearsomemiserabletrampdeclarethatitisallthe
sametohimwhetherheisaGermanornot,thathefeelsequally
happywhereverheis,aslongashehasenoughtoliveon!
This lack of 'national pride' is most profoundly deplored, and
horroratsuchanattitudeisexpressedinnouncertainterms.
How many people have asked themselves what was the real
reasonforthesuperiorityoftheirownsentiments?
How many are aware of the infinite number of separate
memoriesofthegreatnessofournationalfatherlandinallthe
fieldsofculturalandartisticlife,whosetotalresultistoinspire
themwithjustprideatbeingmembersofanationsoblessed?
Howmanysuspecttohowgreatanextentprideinthefatherland
dependsonknowledgeofitsgreatnessinallthesefields?
Do our bourgeois circles ever stop to consider to what an
absurdlysmallextentthisprerequisiteofprideinthefatherland
istransmittedtothe'people'?
Letusnottrytocondonethisbysayingthat'itisnobetterin
othercountries,'andthatinthosecountriestheworkeravowshis
nationality'notwithstanding.'Evenifthiswereso,itcouldserve
asnoexcuseforourownomissions.Butitisnotso;forthething
that we constantly designate as 'chauvinistic' education; for
exampleamongtheFrenchpeople,isnothingotherthanextreme
emphasisonthegreatnessofFranceinallthefieldsofculture,
or,astheFrenchmanputsit,of'civilizationThefactisthatthe
young Frenchman is not brought up to be objective, but is
instilledwiththemostsubjectiveconceivableview,insofaras
the importance of the political or cultural greatness of his
fatherlandisconcerned.
This education will always have to be limited to general and
extremelybroadvalueswhich,ifnecessary,mustbeengravedin
thememoryandfeelingofthepeoplebyeternalrepetition.
Buttothenegativesinofomissionisaddedinourcountrythe
positivedestructionofthelittlewhichtheindividualhasthegood
fortunetolearninschool.Theratsthatpoliticallypoisonour
nationgnaweventhislittlefromtheheartandmemoryofthe

broad masses, in so far as this has not been previously


accomplishedbypovertyandsuffering.
Imagine,forinstance,thefollowingscene:
Inabasementapartment,consistingoftwostuffyrooms,dwells
aworker'sfamilyofseven.Amongthefivechildrenthereisa
boyof,letusassume,threeyears.Thisistheageinwhichthe
first impressions are made on the consciousness of the child
Talentedpersonsretaintracesofmemoryfromthisperioddown
toadvancedoldage.Theverynarrownessandovercrowdingof
theroomdoesnotleadtofavorableconditions.Quarrelingand
wrangling will very frequently arise as a result. In these
circumstances,peopledonotlivewithoneanother,theypress
against one another. Every argument, even the most trifling,
which in a spacious apartment can be reconciled by a mild
segregation, thus solving itself, here leads to loathsome
wranglingwithoutend.Amongthechildren,ofcourse,thisis
stillbearable;theyalwaysfightundersuchcircumstances,and
amongthemselvestheyquicklyandthoroughlyforgetaboutit.
Butifthisbattleiscarriedonbetweentheparentsthemselves,
andalmosteverydayinformswhichforvulgarityoftenleave
nothingtobedesired,then,ifonlyverygradually,theresultsof
suchvisualinstructionmustultimatelybecomeapparentinthe
children.Thecharacterthe)willinevitablyassumeifthismutual
quarreltakestheformofbrutalattacksofthefatheragainstthe
mother,ofdrunkenbeatings,ishardforanyonewhodoesnot
knowthismilieutoimagine.Attheageofsixthepitiablelittle
boysuspectstheexistenceofthingswhichcaninspireevenan
adult with nothing but horror. Morally poisoned, physically
undernourished, his poor little head full of lice, the young
'citizen'goesofftopublicschool.Afteragreatstrugglehemay
learn to read and write, but that is about all. His doing any
homework is out of the question. On the contrary, the very
motherandfather,eveninthepresenceofthechildren,talkabout
histeacherandschoolintermswhicharenotfittoberepeated,
andaremoreinclinedtocursethelattertotheirfacethantotake
their little offspring across their knees and teach them some
sense.Alltheotherthingsthatthelittlefellowhearsathomedo

nottendtoincreasehisrespectforhisdearfellowmen.Nothing
good remains of humanity, no institution remains unassailed;
beginningwithhisteacheranduptotheheadofthegovernment,
whetheritisaquestionofreligionorofmoralityassuch,ofthe
stateorsociety,itisallthesame,everythingisreviledinthe
most obscene terms and dragged into the filth of the basest
possibleoutlook.Whenattheageoffourteentheyoungmanis
dischargedfromschool,itishardtodecidewhatisstrongerin
him:hisincrediblestupidityasfarasanyrealknowledgeand
abilityareconcerned,orthecorrosiveinsolenceofhisbehavior,
combined with an immorality, even at this age, which would
make your hair stand on end What position can this manto
whomevennowhardlyanythingisholy,who,justashehas
encounterednogreatnessconverselysuspectsandknowsallthe
sordidness of life occupy in the life into which he is now
preparingtoemerge?
Thethreeyearoldchildhasbecomeafifteenyearolddespiser
ofallauthority.Thusfar,asidefromdirtandfilth,thisyoung
man has seen nothing which might inspire him to any higher
enthusiasm.
Butonlynowdoesheentertherealuniversityofthisexistence.
Nowhebeginsthesamelifewhichallalonghischildhoodyears
hehasseenhisfatherliving.Hehangsaroundthestreetcorners
andbars,cominghomeGodknowswhen;andforachangenow
andthenhebeatsthebrokendownbeingwhichwasoncehis
mother,cursesGodandtheworld,andatlengthisconvictedof
someparticularoffenseandsenttoahouseofcorrection.
Therehereceiveshislastpolish.
Andhisdearbourgeoisfellowmenareutterlyamazedatthelack
of'nationalenthusiasm'inthisyoung'citizen.'
Day by day, in the theater and in the movies, in backstairs
literatureandtheyellowpress,theyseethepoisonpouredinto
thepeoplebybucketfuls,andthentheyareamazedatthelow
'moralcontent,'the'nationalindifference,'ofthemassesofthe
people.

Asthoughtrashyfilms,yellowpress,andsuchlikedungcould.
furnishthefoundationsofaknowledgeofthegreatnessofour
fatherland!quiteasidefromtheearlyeducationoftheindividual.
What I had never suspected before, I quickly and thoroughly
learnedinthoseyears:
Thequestionofthe'nationalization'ofapeopleis,amongother
things,primarilyaquestionofcreatinghealthysocialconditions
asafoundationforthepossibilityofeducatingtheindividual.
Foronlythosewhothroughschoolandupbringinglearntoknow
thecultural,economic,butaboveallthepolitical,greatnessof
theirownfatherlandcanandunitachievetheinnerprideinthe
privilegeofbeingamemberofsuchapeople.AndIcanfight
only for something that I love, love only what I respect, and
respectonlywhatIatleastknow.
Oncemyinterestinthesocialquestionwasaroused,Ibeganto
study it with all thoroughness. It was a new and hitherto
unknownworldwhichopenedbeforeme.
In the years 1909 and 1910, my own situation had changed
somewhatinsofarasInolongerhadtoearnmydailybreadasa
commonlaborer.BythistimeIwasworkingindependentlyasa
smalldraftsmanandpainterofwatercolors.Hardasthiswaswith
regardtoearningsitwasbarelyenoughtoliveonitwasgood
formychosenprofession.NowIwasnolongerdeadtiredinthe
eveningwhenIcamehomefromwork,unabletolookatabook
without soon dozing off.My present workran parallel tomy
futureprofession.Moreover,Iwasmasterofmyowntimeand
couldapportionitbetterthanhadpreviouslybeenpossible.
Ipaintedtomakealivingandstudiedforpleasure.
ThusIwasabletosupplementmyvisualinstructioninthesocial
problembytheoreticalstudy.Istudiedmoreorlessallofthe
booksIwasabletoobtainregardingthiswholefield,andforthe
restimmersedmyselfinmyownthoughts.
Ibelievethatthosewhoknewmeinthosedaystookmeforan
eccentric.
Amid all this, as was only natural, I served my love of

architecturewithardentzeal.Alongwithmusic,itseemedtome
thequeenofthearts:undersuchcircumstancesmyconcernwith
itwasnot'work.'butthegreatestpleasure.Icouldreadanddraw
untillateintothenight,andnevergrowtired.Thusmyfaithgrew
thatmybeautifuldreamforthefuturewouldbecomerealityafter
all, even though this might require long years. I was firmly
convincedthatIshouldsomedaymakeanameformyselfasan
architect.
Inaddition,Ihadthegreatestinterestineverythingconnected
withpolitics,butthisdidnotseemtomeverysignificant.Onthe
contrary: in my eyes this was the selfevident duty of every
thinkingman.Anyonewhofailedtounderstandthislosttheright
toanycriticismorcomplaint.
Inthisfield,too,Ireadandstudiedmuch.
By'reading,'tobesure,Imeanperhapssomethingdifferentthan
theaveragememberofoursocalled'intelligentsia.'
Iknowpeoplewho'read'enormously,bookforbook,letterfor
letter,yetwhomIwouldnotdescribeas'wellread.'Truethey
possess a mass of 'knowledge,' but their brain is unable to
organizeandregisterthematerialtheyhavetakenin.Theylack
theartofsiftingwhatisvaluablefortheminabookfromthat
which is without value, of retaining the one forever, and, if
possible,notevenseeingtherest,butinanycasenotdraggingit
aroundwiththem asuseless ballast.Forreadingisnoendin
itself,butameanstoanend.Itshouldprimarilyhelptofillthe
framework constituted by every man's talents and abilities; in
addition,itshouldprovidethetoolsandbuildingmaterialswhich
theindividualneedsforhislife'swork,regardlesswhetherthis
consistsinaprimitivestruggleforsustenanceorthesatisfaction
ofahighcalling;secondly,itshouldtransmitageneralworld
view.Inbothcases,however,itisessentialthatthecontentof
what one reads at any time should not be transmitted to the
memoryinthesequenceofthebookorbooks,butlikethestone
ofamosaicshouldfitintothegeneralworldpictureinitsproper
place,andthushelptoformthispictureinthemindofthereader.
Otherwise there arises a confused muddleof memorized facts

whichnotonlyareworthless,butalsomaketheiruntofortunate
possessorconceited.Forsuchareadernowbelieveshimselfin
allseriousnesstobe{educated,'tounderstandsomethingoflife,
tohaveknowledge,whileinreality,witheverynewacquisition
ofthiskindof'education,'heisgrowingmoreandmoreremoved
fromtheworlduntil,notinfrequently,heendsupinasanitarium
orinparliament.
Neverwillsuchamindsucceedincullingfromtheconfusionof
his'knowledge'anythingthatsuitsthedemandsofthehour,for
hisintellectualballastisnotorganizedalongthelinesoflife,but
inthesequenceofthebooksashereadthemandastheircontent
haspiledupinhisbrainIfFate,intherequirementsofhisdaily
life,desiredtoremindhimtomakeacorrectapplicationofwhat
hehadread,itwouldhavetoindicatetitleandpagenumber,
sincethepoorfoolwouldotherwiseneverinallhislifefindthe
correctplace.ButsinceFatedoesnotdothis,thesebrightboysin
anycriticalsituationcomeintothemostterribleembarrassment,
cast about convulsively for analogous cases, and with mortal
certaintynaturallyfindthewrongformulas.
Ifthiswerenottrue,itwouldbeimpossibleforustounderstand
the political behavior of our learned and highly placed
government heroes, unless we decided to assume outright
villainyinsteadofpathologicalpropensities.
Ontheotherhand,amanwhopossessestheartofcorrectreading
will,instudyinganybook,magazine,orpamphlet,instinctively
and immediately perceive everything which in his opinion is
worthpermanentlyremembering,eitherbecauseitissuitedtohis
purposeorgenerallyworthknowing.Oncetheknowledgehehas
achieved in this fashion is correctly coordinated within the
somehowexistingpictureofthisorthatsubjectcreatedbythe
imaginations it will function either as a corrective or a
complement,thusenhancingeitherthecorrectnessortheclarity
ofthepicture.Then,iflifesuddenlysetssomequestionbeforeus
forexaminationoranswer,thememory,ifthismethodofreading
isobserved,willimmediatelytaketheexistingpictureasanorm,
andfromitwillderivealltheindividualitemsregardingthese
questions,assembledinthecourseofdecades,submitthemtothe

mindforexaminationandreconsideration,untilthequestionis
clarifiedoranswered.
Onlythiskindofreadinghasmeaningandpurpose.
An orator, for example, who does not thus provide his
intelligence with the necessary foundation will never be in a
positioncogentlytodefendhisviewinthefaceofopposition,
though it may be a thousand times true or real. In every
discussionhismemorywilltreacherouslyleavehiminthelurch;
hewillfindneithergroundsforreinforcinghisowncontentions
noranyforconfutingthoseofhisadversary.If,asinthecaseofa
speaker, it is only a question of making a fool of himself
personally, it may not be so bad, but not so when Fate
predestinessuchaknowitallincompetenttobetheleaderofa
state.
SincemyearliestyouthIhaveendeavoredtoreadinthecorrect
way,andinthisendeavorIhavebeenmosthappilysupportedby
mymemoryandintelligence.Viewedinthislight,myVienna
periodwas especially fertileand valuable.The experiences of
dailylifeprovidedstimulationforaconstantlyrenewedstudyof
themost varied problems. Thus atlast I was in a positionto
bolsteruprealitybytheoryandtesttheorybyreality,andwas
preservedfrombeingstifledbytheoryorgrowingbanalthrough
reality.
Inthisperiodtheexperienceofdailylifedirectedandstimulated
metothemostthoroughtheoreticalstudyoftwoquestionsin
additiontothesocialquestion.
WhoknowswhenIwouldhaveimmersedmyselfinthedoctrines
andessenceofMarxismifthatperiodhadnotliterallythrustmy
noseintotheproblem!
WhatIknewofSocialDemocracyinmyyouthwasexceedingly
littleandveryinaccurate.
Iwasprofoundlypleasedthatitshouldcarryonthestrugglefor
universal suffrage and the secret ballot. For even then my
intelligencetoldmethatthismusthelptoweakentheHabsburg
regime which I so hated. In the conviction that the Austrian

Empire could never be preserved except by victimizing its


Germans,butthateventhepriceofagradualSlavizationofthe
Germanelementbynomeansprovidedaguarantyofanempire
reallycapableofsurvival,sincethepoweroftheSlavstouphold
thestatemustbeestimatedasexceedinglydubious,Iwelcomed
everydevelopmentwhichinmyopinionwouldinevitablyleadto
the collapse of this impossible state which condemned ten
million Germans to death. The more the linguistic Babel
corroded and disorganized parliament, the closer drew the
inevitablehourofthedisintegrationofthisBabylonianEmpire,
andwithitthehouroffreedomformyGermanAustrianpeople.
Only in this way could the Anschluss with the old mother
countryberestored.
Consequently, this activity of the Social Democracy was not
displeasing to me. And the fact that it strove to improve the
livingconditionsoftheworker,as,inmyinnocence,Iwasstill
stupidenoughtobelieve,likewiseseemedtospeakratherforit
thanagainstit.Whatmostrepelledmewasitshostileattitude
toward the struggle for the preservation of Germanism, its
disgracefulcourtingoftheSlavic'comrade,'whoacceptedthis
declarationofloveinsofarasitwasboundupwithpractical
concessions, but otherwise maintained a lofty and arrogant
reserve,thusgivingtheobtrusivebeggarstheirdeservedreward.
Thus,attheageofseventeentheword'Marxism'wasasyetlittle
knowntome,while'SocialDemocracy'andsocialismseemed
tomeidenticalconcepts.HereagainitrequiredthefistofFateto
openmyeyestothisunprecedentedbetrayalofthepeoples.
UptothattimeIhadknowntheSocialDemocraticPartyonlyas
anonlookeratafewmassdemonstrations,withoutpossessing
eventheslightestinsightintothementalityofitsadherentsorthe
natureofitsdoctrine;butnow,atonestroke,Icameintocontact
withtheproductsofitseducationand'philosophy.'Andinafew
monthsIobtainedwhatmightotherwisehaverequireddecades:
an understanding of a pestilential whore,l cloaking herself as
socialvirtueandbrotherlylove,fromwhichIhopehumanitywill
ridthisearthwiththegreatestdispatch,sinceotherwisetheearth
mightwellbecomeridofhumanity.

MyfirstencounterwiththeSocialDemocratsoccurredduring
myemploymentasabuildingworker.
Fromtheverybeginningitwasnonetoopleasant.;Myclothing
wasstillmoreorlessinorder,myspeechcultivated,andmy
mannerreserved.IwasstillsobusywithmyowndestinythatI
couldnotconcernmyselfmuchwiththepeoplearoundme.I
looked for work only to avoid starvation, only to obtain an
opportunityofcontinuingmyeducation,thougheversoslowly.
PerhapsIwouldnothaveconcernedmyselfatallwithmynew
environmentifonthethirdorfourthdayaneventhadnottaken
placewhichforcedmeatoncetotakeaposition.Iwasaskedto
jointheorganization.
My knowledge of tradeunion organization was at that time
practically nonexistent. I could not have proved that its
existencewaseitherbeneficialorharmful.WhenIwastoldthatI
had to join, I refused. The reason I gave was that I did not
understandthematter,butthatIwouldnotletmyselfbeforced
intoanything.Perhapsmyfirstreasonaccountsformynotbeing
thrownoutatonce.Theymayperhapshavehopedtoconvertme
orbreakdownmyresistanceinafewdays.Inanyevent,they
hadmadeabigmistake.AttheendoftwoweeksIcouldno
longerhavejoined,evenifIhadwantedto.InthesetwoweeksI
cametoknowthemenaroundmemoreclosely,andnopowerin
theworldcouldhavemovedmetojoinanorganizationwhose
membershadmeanwhilecometoappeartomeinsounfavorable
alight.
DuringthefirstdaysIwasirritable.
Atnoonsomeoftheworkerswenttothenearbytavernswhile
othersremainedatthebuildingsiteandatealunchwhich,asa
rule was quite wretched. These were the married men whose
wives brought them their noonday soup in pathetic bowls.
Towardtheendoftheweektheirnumberalwaysincreased,why
Ididnotunderstanduntillater.Ontheseoccasionspoliticswas
discussed.
Idrankmybottleofmilkandatemypieceofbreadsomewhere
off to one side, and cautiously studied my new associates or

reflectedonmymiserablelot.Nevertheless,Iheardmorethan
enough;andoftenitseemedtomethattheypurposelymoved
closertome,perhapsinordertomakemetakeaposition.Inany
case,whatIheardwasofsuchanatureastoinfuriatemeinthe
extreme. These men rejected everything: the nation as an
inventionofthe'capitalistic'(howoftenwasIforcedtohearthis
single word!) classes; the fatherland as an instrument of the
bourgeoisie for the exploitation of the working class; the
authorityoflawasameansforoppressingtheproletariat;the
school as an institution for breeding slaves and slaveholders;
religionasameansforstultifyingthepeopleandmakingthem
easier to exploit; morality as a symptom of stupid, sheeplike
patience,etc.Therewasabsolutelynothingwhichwasnotdrawn
throughthemudofaterrifyingdepthsAtfirstItriedtokeep
silent. But at length it became impossible. I began to take a
positionandtoopposethem.ButIwasforcedtorecognizethat
this was utterly hopeless until I possessed certain definite
knowledge of the controversial points. And so I began to
examine the sources from which they drew this supposed
wisdom.Istudiedbookafterbook,pamphletafterpamphlet.
Fromthenonourdiscussionsatworkwereoftenveryheated.I
argued back, from day to day better informed than my
antagonistsconcerningtheirownknowledge,untilonedaythey
madeuseoftheweaponwhichmostreadilyconquersreason:
terrorandviolence.Afewofthespokesmenontheopposingside
forcedmeeithertoleavethebuildingatonceorbethrownoff
the scaffolding. Since I was alone and resistance seemed
hopeless, I preferred, richer by one experience, to follow the
formercounsel.
Iwentawayfilledwithdisgust,butatthesametimesoagitated
thatitwouldhavebeenutterlyimpossibleformetoturnmyback
onthewholebusiness.No,afterthefirstsurgeofindignation,my
stubbornnessregainedtheupperhand.Iwasdeterminedtogoto
work on another building in spite of my experience. In this
decisionIwasreinforcedbyPovertywhich,afewweekslater,
afterIhadspentwhatlittleIhadsavedfrommywages.enfolded
meinherheartlessarms.IhadtogobackwhetherIwantedtoor

not.Thesameoldstorybegananewandendedverymuchthe
sameasthefirsttime.
I wrestled with my innermost soul: are these people human,
worthytobelongtoagreatnation?
Apainfulquestion;forifitisansweredintheaffirmative,the
struggle for my nationality really ceases to be worth the
hardshipsandsacrificeswhichthebestofushavetomakeforthe
sake of such scum; and if itis answered in thenegative, our
nationispitifullypoorinhumanbeings.
On such days of reflection and cogitation, I pondered with
anxiousconcernonthemassesofthosenolongerbelongingto
their people and saw them swelling to the proportions of a
menacingarmy.
WithwhatchangedfeelingInowgazedattheendlesscolumns
ofamassdemonstrationofVienneseworkersthattookplaceone
dayastheymarchedpastfourabreast!ForneatlytwohoursI
stood there watching with bated breath the gigantic human
dragonslowlywindingby.Inoppressedanxiety,Ifinallyleftthe
placeandsaunteredhomeward.InatobaccoshoponthewayI
sawtheArbeiterZeitung,thecentralorganoftheoldAustrian
SocialDemocracy.Itwasavailableinacheappeople'scafe,to
whichIoftenwenttoreadnewspapers;butuptothattimeIhad
notbeenabletobringmyselftospendmorethantwominuteson
themiserablesheet,whosewholetoneaffectedmelikemoral
vitriol.Depressedbythedemonstration,Iwasdrivenonbyan
innervoicetobuythesheetandreaditcarefully.ThateveningI
didso,fightingdownthefurythatroseupinmefromtimeto
timeatthisconcentratedsolutionoflies.
More than any theoretical literature, my daily reading of the
SocialDemocraticpressenabledmetostudytheinnernatureof
thesethoughtprocesses.
For what a difference between the glittering phrases about
freedom, beauty, and dignity in the theoretical literature, the
delusive welter of words seemingly expressing the most
profound and laborious wisdom, the loathsome humanitarian
moralityallthiswrittenwiththeincrediblegallthatcomeswith

prophetic certaintyand the brutal daily press, shunning no


villainy, employing every means of slander, lying with a
virtuositythatwouldbendironbeams,allinthenameofthis
gospelofanewhumanity.Theoneisaddressedtothesimpletons
ofthemiddle,nottomentiontheupper,educated,'classes,'the
othertothemasses.
Formeimmersionintheliteratureandpressofthisdoctrineand
organizationmeantfindingmywaybacktomyownpeople.
Whathadseemedtomeanunbridgablegulfbecamethesource
ofagreaterlovethaneverbefore.
Onlyafoolcanbeholdtheworkofthisvillainouspoisonerand
stillcondemnthevictim.ThemoreindependentImademyselfin
thenextfewyearstheclearergrewmyperspective,hencemy
insightintotheinnercausesoftheSocialDemocraticsuccesses.
InowunderstoodthesignificanceofthebrutaldemandthatI
readonlyRedpapers,attendonlyRedmeetings,readonlyRed
books, etc. With plastic clarity I saw before my eyes the
inevitableresultofthisdoctrineofintolerance.
Thepsycheofthegreatmassesisnotreceptivetoanythingthatis
halfheartedandweak.
Like the woman, whose psychic state is determined less by
grounds of abstract reason than by an indefinable emotional
longingforaforcewhichwillcomplementhernature,andwho,
consequently,wouldratherbowtoastrongmanthandominatea
weakling,likewisethemassesloveacommandermorethana
petitioner and feel inwardly more satisfied by a doctrine,
tolerating no other beside itself, than by the granting of
liberalisticfreedomwithwhich,asarule,theycandolittle,and
are prone to feel that they have been abandoned. They are
equallyunawareoftheirshamelessspiritualterrorizationandthe
hideousabuseoftheirhumanfreedom,fortheyabsolutelyfailto
suspecttheinnerinsanityofthewholedoctrine.Alltheyseeis
theruthlessforceandbrutalityofitscalculatedmanifestations,to
whichtheyalwayssubmitintheend.
IfSocialDemocracyisopposedbyadoctrineofgreatertruth,but
equalbrutalityofmethods,thelatterwillconquer,thoughthis

mayrequirethebittereststruggle.
Beforetwoyearshadpassed,thetheoryaswellasthetechnical
methodsofSocialDemocracywerecleartome.
Iunderstoodtheinfamousspiritualterrorwhichthismovement
exerts,particularlyonthebourgeoisie,whichisneithermorally
normentallyequaltosuchattacks;atagivensignitunleashesa
veritablebarrageofliesandslandersagainstwhateveradversary
seemsmostdangerous,untilthenervesoftheattackedpersons
breakdownand,justtohavepeaceagain,theysacrificethehated
individual.
However,thefoolsobtainnopeace.
Thegamebeginsagainandisrepeatedoverandoveruntilfearof
themaddogresultsinsuggestiveparalysis.
SincetheSocialDemocratsbestknowthevalueofforcefrom
theirownexperience,theymostviolentlyattackthoseinwhose
nature they detect any of this substance which is so rare.
Conversely, they praise every weakling on the opposing side,
sometimescautiously,sometimesloudly,dependingonthereal
orsupposedqualityofhisintelligence.
They fear an irnpotent, spineless genius less than a forceful
natureofmoderateintelligence.
But with the greatest enthusiasm they commend weaklings in
bothmindandforce.
Theyknowhowtocreatetheillusionthatthisistheonlywayof
preservingthepeace,andatthesametime,stealthilybutsteadily,
they conquer one position after another, sometimes by silent
blackmail, sometimes by actual theft, at moments when the
generalattentionisdirectedtowardothermatters,andeitherdoes
notwanttobedisturbedorconsidersthemattertoosmalltoraise
astirabout,thusagainirritatingtheviciousantagonist.
This is a tactic based on precise calculation of all human
weaknesses, and its result will lead to success with almost
mathematicalcertaintyunlesstheopposingsidelearnstocombat
poisongaswithpoisongas.

Itisourdutytoinformallweaklingsthatthisisaquestionofto
beornottobe.
Iachievedanequalunderstandingoftheimportanceofphysical
terrortowardtheindividualandthemasses.
Here, too, the psychological effect can be calculated with
precision.
Terrorattheplaceofemployment,inthefactory,inthemeeting
hall,andontheoccasionofmassdemonstrationswillalwaysbe
successfulunlessopposedbyequalterror.
Inthiscase,tobesure,thepartywillcrybloodymurder;though
ithaslongdespisedallstateauthority,itwillsetupahowlingcry
forthatsameauthorityandinmostcaseswillactuallyattainits
goal amid the general confusion: it will find some idiot of a
higher official who, in the imbecilic hope of propitiating the
feared adversary for later eventualities, will help this world
plaguetobreakitsopponent.
Theimpressionmadebysuchasuccessonthemindsofthegreat
massesofsupportersaswellasopponentscanonlybemeasured
bythosewhoknowthesoulofapeople,notfrombooks,but
fromlife.Forwhileintheranksoftheirsupportersthevictory
achievedseemsatriumphofthejusticeoftheirowncause,the
defeatedadversaryinmostcasesdespairsofthesuccessofany
furtherresistance.
The more familiar I became, principally with the methods of
physical terror, the more indulgent I grew toward all the
hundredsofthousandswhosuccumbedtoit.
Whatmakesmemostindebtedtothatperiodofsufferingisthat
italonegavebacktomemypeople,taughtmetodistinguishthe
victimsfromtheirseducers.
Theresultsofthisseductioncanbedesignatedonlyasvictims.
ForifIattemptedtodrawafewpicturesfromlife,depictingthe
essence of these 'lowest' classes, my picture would not be
completewithouttheassurancethatinthesedepthsIalsofound
brightspotsintheformofararewillingnesstomakesacrifices,
ofloyalcomradeship,astonishingfrugality,andmodestreserve,

especiallyamongtheolderworkers.Eventhoughthesevirtues
were steadily vanishing in the younger generation, if only
throughthegeneraleffectsofthebigcity,thereweremany,even
among the young men, whose healthy blood managed to
dominatethefoultricksoflife.Ifintheirpoliticalactivity,these
good,oftenkindheartedpeopleneverthelessjoinedthemortal
enemiesofournationality,thushelpingtocementtheirranks,the
reasonwasthattheyneitherunderstoodnorcouldunderstandthe
baseness of the new doctrine, and that no one else took the
trouble to bother about them, and finally that the social
conditionswerestrongerthananywilltothecontrarythatmay
have beenpresent. Thepoverty towhich theysooner or later
succumbeddrovethemintothecampoftheSocialDemocracy.
Since on innumerable occasions the bourgeoisie has in the
clumsiestandmostimmoralwayopposeddemandswhichwere
justifiedfromtheuniversalhumanpointofview,oftenwithout
obtainingorevenjustifiablyexpectinganyprofitfromsuchan
attitude,eventhemostselfrespectingworkerwasdrivenoutof
thetradeunionorganizationintopoliticalactivity.
Millions of workers, I am sure, started out as enemies of the
Social Democratic Party in their innermost soul, but their
resistancewasovercomeinawaywhichwassometimesutterly
insane; that is, when the bourgeois parties adopted a hostile
attitudetowardeverydemandofasocialcharacter.Theirsimple,
narrowminded rejection of all attempts to better working
conditions,tointroducesafetydevicesonmachines,toprohibit
childlaborandprotectthewoman,atleastinthemonthswhen
she was bearing the future national comrade under her heart,
contributedtodrivethemassesintothenetofSocialDemocracy
which gratefully snatched at every case of such a disgraceful
attitude.Nevercanourpoliticalbourgeoisiemakegooditssins
inthisdirection,forbyresistingallattemptstodoawaywith
socialabuses,theysowedhatredandseemedtojustifyeventhe
assertionsofthemortalenemiesoftheentirenation,totheeffect
thatonlytheSocialDemocraticPartyrepresentedtheinterestsof
theworkingpeopleThus,tobeginwith,theycreatedthemoral
basisfortheactualexistenceofthetradeunions,theorganization

whichhasalwaysbeenthemosteffectivepandertothepolitical
party.
InmyVienneseyearsIwasforced,whetherIlikeditornot,to
takeapositiononthetradeunions.
SinceIregardedthemasaninseparableingredientoftheSocial
DemocraticPartyassuch,mydecisionwasinstantaneousand
mistaken.
Iflatlyrejectedthemwithoutthinking.
Andinthisinfinite]yimportantquestion,asinsomanyothers,
Fateitselfbecamemyinstructor.
Theresultwasareversalofmyfirstjudgment.
By my twentieth year I had learned to distinguish between a
unionasameansofdefendingthegeneralsocialrightsofthe
wageearner,andobtainingbetterlivingconditionsforhimasan
individual,andthetradeunionasaninstrumentofthepartyin
thepoliticalclassstruggle.
The fact that Social Democracy understood the enormous
importance of the tradeunion movement assured it of this
instrumentandhenceof success; thefactthatthebourgeoisie
werenotawareofthiscostthemtheirpoliticalposition.They
thoughttheycouldstopalogicaldevelopmentbymeansofan
impertinent 'rejection,' but in reality they only forced it into
illogicalchannels.Fortocallthetradeunionmovementinitself
unpatrioticisnonsenseanduntruetoboot.Ratherthecontraryis
true.Iftradeunionactivitystrivesandsucceedsinbetteringthe
lotofaclasswhichisoneofthebasicsupportsofthenation,its
workisnotonlynotantipatrioticorseditious,but'national'in
thetruestsenseoftheword.Forinthiswayithelpstocreatethe
social premises without which a general national education is
unthinkable. It wins the highest merit by eliminating social
cankers,attackingintellectualaswellasphysicalinfections,and
thus helping to contribute to the general health of the body
politic.
Consequently, the question of their necessity is really
superfluous.

Aslongasthereareemployerswithlittlesocialunderstandingor
adeficientsenseofjusticeandpropriety,itisnotonlytheright
butthedutyoftheiremployees,whocertainlyconstituteapartof
our nationality, to protect the interests of the general public
against the greed and unreason of the individual; for the
preservationofloyaltyandfaithinzsocialgroupisjustasmuch
to the interest of a nation as the preservation of the people's
health.
Bothoftheseareseriouslymenacedbyunworthyemployerswho
donotfeelthemselvestobemembersofthenationalcommunity
as a whole. From the disastrous effects of their greed or
ruthlessnessgrowprofoundevilsforthefuture.
Toeliminatethecausesofsuchadevelopmentistodoaservice
tothenationandinnosensetheopposite.
Let no one say that every individual is free to draw the
consequences from an actual or supposed injustice; in other
words,toleavehisjob.No!Thisisshadowboxingandmustbe
regardedasanattempttodivertattention.Eithertheelimination
ofbad,unsocialconditionsservestheinterestofthenationorit
doesnot.Ifitdoes,thestruggleagainstthenmustbecarriedon
withweaponswhichofferthehopeofsuccess.Theindividual
worker,however,isneverinapositiontodefendhimselfagainst
thepowerofthegreatindustrialist,forinsuchmattersitcannot
be superior justice that conquers (if that were recognized, the
wholestrugglewouldstopfromlackofcause)no,whatmatters
here is superior power. Otherwise the sense of justice alone
wouldbringthestruggletoafairconclusion,or,moreaccurately
speaking,thestrugglecouldneverarise.
No, if the unsocial or unworthy treatment of men calls for
resistance,thisstruggle,aslongasnolegaljudicialauthorities
havebeencreatedfortheeliminationoftheseevils,canonlybe
decidedbysuperiorpower.Andthismakesitobviousthatthe
poweroftheemployerconcentratedinasinglepersoncanonly
be countered by the mass of employees banded into a single
person,ifthepossibilityofavictoryisnottoberenouncedin
advance.

Thus,tradeunionorganizationcanleadtoastrengtheningofthe
socialideainitspracticaleffectsondailylife,andtherebytoan
elimination of irritants which are constantly giving cause for
dissatisfactionandcomplaints.
Ifthisisnotthecase,itistoagreatextentthefaultofthosewho
have been able to place obstacles in the path of any legal
regulation of social evils or thwart them by means of their
politicalinfluence.
Proportionatelyasthepoliticalbourgeoisiedidnotunderstand,or
ratherdidnotwanttounderstand,theimportanceoftradeunion
organization, and resisted it, the Social Democrats took
possession of the contested movement. Thus, farsightedly it
createdafirmfoundationwhichonseveralcriticaloccasionshas
stoodupwhenallothersupportsfailed.Inthiswaytheintrinsic
purposewasgraduallysubmerged,makingplacefornewaims.
ItneveroccurredtotheSocialDemocratstolimitthemovement
theyhadthuscapturedtoitsoriginaltask.
No,thatwasfarfromtheirintention.
Inafewdecadestheweaponfordefendingthesocialrightsof
manhad,intheirexperiencedhands?becomeaninstrumentfor
thedestructionofthenationaleconomy.Andtheydidnotlet
themselves be hindered in the least by the interests of the
workers.Forinpolitics,asinotherfields,theuseofeconomic
pressure always permits blackmail, as long as the necessary
unscrupulousness is present on the one side, and sufficient
sheeplikepatienceontheother.
SomethingwhichinthiscasewastrueofbothsidesBytheturn
ofthecentury,thetradeunionmovementhadceasedtoserveits
formerfunction.Fromyeartoyearithadenteredmoreandmore
intothesphereofSocialDemocraticpoliticsandfinallyhadno
useexceptasabatteringramintheclassstruggle.Itspurpose
was to cause the collapse of the whole arduously constructed
economicedificebypersistentblows,thus,themoreeasily,after
removingitseconomicfoundations,topreparethesamelotfor
theedificeofstate.Lessandlessattentionwaspaidtodefending
the real needs of the working class, and finally political

expediency made it seem undesirable to relieve the social or


culturalmiseriesofthebroadmassesatall,forotherwisethere
wasariskthatthesemasses,satisfiedintheirdesirescouldno
longerbeusedforeverasdocileshocktroops.
Theleadersoftheclassstrugglelookedonthisdevelopmentwith
suchdarkforebodinganddreadthatintheendtheyrejectedany
really beneficial social betterment out of hand, and actually
attackeditwiththegreatestdetermination.
Andtheywereneveratalossforanexplanationofalineof
behaviorwhichseemedsoinexplicable.
By screwing the demands higher and higher, they made their
possible fulfillment seem so trivial and unimportant that they
wereableatalltimestotellthemassesthattheyweredealing
withnothingbutadiabolicalattempttoweaken,ifpossiblein
facttoparalyze,theoffensivepoweroftheworkingclassinthe
cheapest way, by such a ridiculous satisfaction of the most
elementaryrights.Inviewofthegreatmasses'smallcapacityfor
thought, we need not be surprised at the success of these
methods.
Thebourgeoiscampwasindignantatthisobviousinsincerityof
SocialDemocratictactics,butdidnotdrawfromittheslightest
inference with regard to their own conduct. The Social
Democrats' fear of really raising the working class out of the
depthsoftheirculturalandsocialmiseryshouldhaveinspired
the greatest exertions in this very direction, thus gradually
wrestling the weapon from the hands of the advocates of the
classstruggle.
This,however,wasnotdone.
Instead of attacking and seizing the enemy's position, the
bourgeoisiepreferredtoletthemselvesbepressedtothewalland
finally had recourse to utterly inadequate makeshifts, which
remainedineffectualbecausetheycametoolate,and,moreover,
wereeasytorejectbecausetheyweretooinsignificant.Thus.in
reality,everythingremainedasbefore,exceptthatthediscontent
wasgreater.

Likeamenacingstormcloud,the'freetradeunion'hung,even
then, over the political horizon and the existence of the
individual.
Itwasoneofthemostfrightfulinstrumentsofterroragainstthe
securityandindependenceofthenationaleconomy,thesolidity
ofthestate,andpersonalfreedom.
And chiefly this was what made the concept of democracy a
sordid and ridiculous phrase, and held up brotherhood to
everlastingscorninthewords:'Andifourcomradeyouwon'tbe,
we'llbashyourheadinone,two,three!'
And that was how I became acquainted with this friend of
humanity.Inthecourseoftheyearsmyviewwasbroadenedand
deepened,butIhavehadnoneedtochangeit.
The greater insight I gathered into the external character of
Social Democracy, the greater became my longing to
comprehendtheinnercoreofthisdoctrine.
Theofficialpartyliteraturewasnotmuchuseforthispurpose.In
so far as it deals with economic questions, its assertions and
proofsarefalse;insofarasittreatsofpoliticalaims,itlies.
Moreover, I was inwardly repelled by the newfangled
pettifoggingphraseologyandthestyleinwhichitwaswritten.
Withanenormousexpenditureofwords,unclearincontentor
incomprehensible as to meaning, they stammer an endless
hodgepodgeofphrasespurportedlyaswittyasinrealitytheyare
meaningless.Onlyourdecadentmetropolitanbohemianscanfeel
athomeinthismazeofreasoningandcullan'innerexperience'
from this dungheap of literary dadaism, supported by the
proverbialmodestyofasectionofourpeoplewhoalwaysdetect
profound wisdom in what is most incomprehensible to them
personally. However, by balancing the theoretical untruth and
nonsenseofthisdoctrinewiththerealityofthephenomenon,I
graduallyobtainedaclearpictureofitsintrinsicwill.
At such times I was overcome by gloomy foreboding and
malignantfear.ThenIsawbeforemeadoctrine,comprisedof
egotism and hate, which can lead to victory pursuant to
mathematicallaws,butinsodoingmustputanendtohumanity.

Meanwhile,Ihadlearnedtounderstandtheconnectionbetween
thisdoctrineofdestructionandthenatureofapeopleofwhich,
uptothattime,Ihadknownnexttonothing.
OnlyaknowledgeoftheJewsprovidesthekeywithwhichto
comprehend the inner, and consequently real, aims of Social
Democracy.
Theerroneousconceptionsoftheaimandmeaningofthisparty
fallfromoureyeslikeveils,oncewecometoknowthispeople,
and from the fog and mist of social phrases rises the leering
grimaceofMarxism.
Todayitisdifficult,ifnotimpossible,formetosaywhenthe
word'Jew'firstgavemegroundforspecialthoughts.AthomeI
do not remember having heard the word during my father's
lifetime.Ibelievethattheoldgentlemanwouldhaveregarded
anyspecialemphasisonthistermasculturalbackwardness.In
thecourseofhislifehehadarrivedatmoreorlesscosmopolitan
views which, despite his pronounced national sentiments, not
onlyremainedintact,butalsoaffectedmetosomeextent.
LikewiseatschoolIfoundnooccasionwhichcouldhaveledme
tochangethisinheritedpicture.
AttheRealschule,tobesure,IdidmeetoneJewishboywhowas
treated by all of us with caution, but only because various
experienceshadledustodoubthisdiscretionandwedidnot
particularly trust him; but neither I nor the others had any
thoughtsonthematter.
NotuntilmyfourteenthorfifteenthyeardidIbegintocome
acrosstheword'Jew,'withanyfrequency,partlyinconnection
withpoliticaldiscussions.Thisfilledmewithamilddistaste,and
Icouldnotridmyselfofanunpleasantfeelingthatalwayscame
overmewheneverreligiousquarrelsoccurredinmypresence.
AtthattimeIdidnotthinkanythingelseofthequestion.
TherewerefewJewsinLinz.Inthecourseofthecenturiestheir
outwardappearancehadbecomeEuropeanizedandhadtakenon
a human look; in fact, I even took them for Germans. The
absurdity of this idea did not dawn on me because I saw no

distinguishingfeaturebutthestrangereligion.Thefactthatthey
had,asIbelieved,beenpersecutedonthisaccountsometimes
almostturnedmydistasteatunfavorableremarksabouttheminto
horror.
Thus far I did not so much as suspect the existence of an
organizedoppositiontotheJews.
ThenIcametoVienna.
Preoccupied by the abundance of my impressions in the
architecturalfield,oppressedbythehardshipofmyownlot,I
gainedatfirstnoinsightintotheinnerstratificationofthepeople
inthisgiganticcity.NotwithstandingthatViennainthosedays
counted nearly two hundred thousand Jews among its two
millioninhabitants,Ididnotseethem.Inthefirstfewweeksmy
eyesandmysenseswerenotequaltothefloodofvaluesand
ideas.Notuntilcalmgraduallyreturnedandtheagitatedpicture
begantocleardidIlookaroundmemorecarefullyinmynew
world, and then among other things I encountered the Jewish
question.
Icannot maintainthat thewayinwhichIbecameacquainted
withthemstruckmeasparticularlypleasant.FortheJewwas
still characterized for me by nothing but his religion, and
therefore, on grounds of human tolerance, I maintained my
rejection of religious attacks in this case as in others.
Consequently, the tone, particularly that of the Viennese
antiSemitic press, seemed to me unworthy of the cultural
traditionofagreatnation.Iwasoppressedbythememoryof
certainoccurrencesintheMiddleAges,whichIshouldnothave
likedtoseerepeated.Sincethenewspapersinquestiondidnot
enjoyanoutstandingreputation(thereasonforthis,atthattime,I
myself did not precisely know), I regarded them more as the
products of anger and envy than the results of 4 principled
thoughperhapsmistaken,pointofview.
Iwasreinforcedinthisopinionbywhatseemedtomethefar
moredignifiedforminwhichthereallybigpapersansweredall
theseattacks,or,whatseemedtomeevenmorepraiseworthy,
failedtomentionthem;inotherwords,simplykilledthemwith

silence.
Izealouslyreadthesocalledworldpress(NeueFreiePresse,
WienerTageblatt,etc.)andwasamazedatthescopeofwhatthey
offeredtheirreadersandtheobjectivityofindividualarticles.I
respectedtheexaltedtone,thoughtheflamboyanceofthestyle
sometimes caused me inner dissatisfaction, or even struck me
unpleasantly.Yetthismayhavebeenduetotherhythmoflifein
thewholemetropolis.
SinceinthosedaysIsawViennainthatlight,Ithoughtmyself
justifiedinacceptingthisexplanationofmineasavalidexcuse.
Butwhatsometimesrepelledmewastheundignifiedfashionin
whichthispresscurriedfavorwiththeCourt.Therewasscarcely
aneventintheHofburgwhichwasnotimpartedtothereaders
eitherwithrapturesofenthusiasmorplaintiveemotion,andall
thistodo,particularlywhenitdealtwiththe'wisestmonarch'of
alltime,almostremindedmeofthematingcryofamountain
cock.
Tomethewholethingseemedartificial.
Inmyeyesitwasablemishuponliberaldemocracy.
TocurryfavorwiththisCourtandinsuchindecentformswasto
sacrificethedignityofthenation.
Thiswasthefirstshadowtodarkenmyintellectualrelationship
withthe'big'Viennesepress.
AsIhadalwaysdonebefore,IcontinuedinViennatofollow
events in Germany with ardent zeal, quite regardless whether
they were political or cultural. With pride and admiration, I
compared the rise of the Reich with the wasting away of the
Austrianstate.Ifeventsinthefieldofforeignpoliticsfilledme,
byandlarge,withundividedjoy,thelessgratifyingaspectsof
internal life often aroused anxiety and gloom. a he struggle
whichatthattimewasbeingcarriedonagainstWilliamIIdid
not meet with my approval. I regarded him not only as the
German Emperor, but first and foremost as the creator of a
Germanfleet.TherestrictionsofspeechimposedontheKaiser
bytheReichstagangeredmegreatlybecausetheyemanatedfrom

asourcewhichinmyopinionreallyhadn'talegtostandon,
sinceinasinglesessiontheseparliamentarianimbecilesgabbled
morenonsensethanawholedynastyofemperors,includingits
veryweakestnumbers,couldeverhavedoneincenturies.
Iwasoutragedthatinastatewhereeveryidiotnotonlyclaimed
therighttocriticize,butwasgivenaseatintheReichstagandlet
loose upon the nation as a 'lawgiver,' the man who bore the
imperial crown had to take 'reprimands' from the greatest
babblers'clubofalltime.
But I was even more indignant that the same Viennese press
whichmadethemostobsequiousbowstoeveryricketyhorsein
theCourt,andflew intoconvulsions of joyif heaccidentally
swishedhistail,should,withsupposedconcern,yet,asitseemed
tome,illconcealedmalice,expressitscriticismsoftheGerman
Kaiser. Of course it had no intention of interfering with
conditionswithintheGermanReichoh,no,Godforbidbutby
placingitsfingeronthesewoundsinthefriendliestway,itwas
fulfillingthedutyimposedbythespiritofthemutualalliance,
and,conversely,fulfillingtherequirementsofjournalistictruth,
etc.Andnowitwaspokingthisfingeraroundinthewoundtoits
heart'scontent.
Insuchcasesthebloodrosetomyhead.
Itwasthiswhichcausedmelittlebylittletoviewthebigpapers
withgreatercaution.
AndononesuchoccasionIwasforcedtorecognizethatoneof
theantiSemiticpapers,theDeutschesVolksblatt,behavedmore
decently.
Anotherthingthatgotonmynerveswastheloathsomecultfor
Francewhichthebigpress,eventhen,carriedon.Amancouldn't
help feeling ashamed to be a German when he saw these
saccharine hymns of praise to the 'great cultural nation.' This
wretched licking of France's boots more than once made me
throw down one of these 'world newspapers.' And on such
occasions I sometimes picked up the Volksblatt, which, tobe
sure,seemedtomemuchsmaller,butinthesematterssomewhat
more appetizing. I was not in agreement with the sharp

antiSemitictone,butfromtimetotimeIreadargumentswhich
gavemesomefoodforthought.
Atallevents,theseoccasionsslowlymademeacquaintedwith
themanandthemovement,whichinthosedaysguidedVienna's
destinies:Dr.KarlLuegerIandtheChristianSocialParty.
WhenIarrivedinVienna,Iwashostiletobothofthem.
Themanandthemovementseemed'reactionary'inmyeyes.
Mycommonsenseofjustice,however,forcedmetochangethis
judgmentinproportionasIhadoccasiontobecomeacquainted
withthemanandhiswork;andslowlymyfairjudgmentturned
tounconcealedadmiration.Today,morethanever,Iregardthis
manasthegreatestGermanmayorofalltimes.
Howmanyofmybasicprincipleswereupsetbythischangein
myattitudetowardtheChristianSocialmovement!
MyviewswithregardtoantiSemitismthussuccumbedtothe
passageoftime,andthiswasmygreatesttransformationofall.
Itcostmethegreatestinnersoulstruggles,andonlyaftermonths
ofbattlebetweenmyreasonandmysentimentsdidmyreason
begintoemergevictorious.Twoyearslater,mysentimenthad
followed myreason, and from then on became its most loyal
guardianandsentinel.
Atthetimeofthisbitterstrugglebetweenspiritualeducationand
cold reason, the visual instruction of the Vienna streets had
performed invaluable services. There came a time when I no
longer,asinthefirstdays,wanderedblindlythroughthemighty
city;nowwithopeneyesIsawnotonlythebuildingsbutalsothe
people.
Once, as I was strolling through the Inner City, I suddenly
encounteredanapparitioninablackcaftanandblackhairlocks.
IsthisaJew?wasmyfirstthought.
For,tobesure,theyhadnotlookedlikethatinLinz.Iobserved
themanfurtivelyandcautiously,butthelongerIstaredatthis
foreignface,scrutinizingfeatureforfeature,themoremyfirst
questionassumedanewform:

IsthisaGerman?
Asalwaysinsuchcases,Inowbegantotrytorelievemydoubts
by books. For a few hellers I bought the first antiSemitic
pamphletsofmylife.Unfortunately,theyallproceededfromthe
suppositionthatinprinciplethereaderkneworevenunderstood
theJewishquestiontoacertaindegree.Besides,thetoneforthe
mostpartwassuchthatdoubtsagainaroseinme,dueinpartto
the dull and amazingly unscientific arguments favoring the
thesis.
Irelapsedforweeksatatime,onceevenformonths.
Thewholethingseemedtomesomonstrous,theaccusationsso
boundless,that,tormentedbythefearofdoinginjustice,Iagain
becameanxiousanduncertain.
YetIcouldnolongerverywelldoubtthattheobjectsofmy
studywerenotGermansofaspecialreligion,butapeoplein
themselves;forsinceIhadbeguntoconcernmyselfwiththis
questionandtotakecognizanceoftheJews,Viennaappearedto
meinadifferentlightthanbefore.WhereverIwent,Ibeganto
see Jews, andthemoreIsaw, themoresharplytheybecame
distinguishedinmyeyesfromtherestofhumanity.Particularly
the Inner City and the districts north of the Danube Canal
swarmed with a people which even outwardly had lost all
resemblancetoGermans.
And whatever doubts I may still have nourished were finally
dispelledbytheattitudeofaportionoftheJewsthemselves.
Among them there was a great movement, quite extensive in
Vienna,whichcameoutsharplyinconfirmationofthenational
characteroftheJews:thiswastheZionists.
Itlookedtobesure,asthoughonlyapartoftheJewsapproved
thisviewpoint,whilethegreatmajoritycondemnedandinwardly
rejectedsuchaformulation.Butwhenexaminedmoreclosely,
this appearance dissolved itself into an unsavory vapor of
pretextsadvancedformerereasonsofexpedience,nottosaylies.
ForthesocalledliberalJewsdidnotrejecttheZionistsasnon
Jews, but only as Jews with an impractical, perhaps even

dangerous,wayofpubliclyavowingtheirJewishness.
Intrinsicallytheyremainedunalterablyofonepiece.
In a short time this apparent struggle between Zionistic and
liberalJewsdisgustedme;foritwasfalsethroughandthrough,
foundedonliesandscarcelyinkeepingwiththemoralelevation
andpurityalwaysclaimedbythispeople.
Thecleanlinessofthispeople,moralandotherwise,Imustsay,
isapointinitself.Bytheirveryexterioryoucouldtellthatthese
werenoloversofwater,and,toyourdistress,youoftenknewit
withyoureyesclosed.LaterIoftengrewsicktomystomach
fromthesmellofthesecaftanwearers.Addedtothis,therewas
theiruncleandressandtheirgenerallyunheroicappearance.
Allthiscouldscarcelybecalledveryattractive;butitbecame
positively repulsive when, in addition to their physical
uncleanliness, youdiscoveredthemoralstainsonthis'chosen
people.'
InashorttimeIwasmademorethoughtfulthaneverbymy
slowlyrisinginsightintothetypeofactivitycarriedonbythe
Jewsincertainfields.
Wasthereanyformoffilthorprofligacy,particularlyincultural
life,withoutatleastoneJewinvolvedinit?
Ifyoucutevencautiouslyintosuchanabscess,youfound,likea
maggotinarottingbody,oftendazzledbythesuddenlighta
kike!
WhathadtobereckonedheavilyagainsttheJewsinmyeyes
waswhenIbecameacquaintedwiththeiractivityinthepress,
art, literature, and the theater. All the unctuous reassurances
helpedlittleornothingItsufficedtolookatabillboard,tostudy
thenamesofthemenbehindthehorribletrashtheyadvertised,to
makeyouhardfor alongtimetocome.Thiswaspestilence,
spiritualpestilence,worsethantheBlackDeathofoldentimes,
andthepeoplewasbeinginfectedwithit!Itgoeswithoutsaying
that the lower the intellectual level of one of these art
manufacturers,themoreunlimitedhisfertilitywillbe,andthe
scoundrelendsuplikeagarbageseparator,splashinghisfilthin

thefaceofhumanity.Andbearinmindthatthereisnolimitto
theirnumber;bearinmindthatforoneGoetheNatureeasilycan
foistontheworldtenthousandofthesescribblerswhopoison
men'ssoulslikegermcarriersoftheworsesort,ontheirfellow
men.
Itwasterrible,butnottobeoverlooked,thatpreciselytheJew,in
tremendousnumbers,seemedchosenbyNatureforthisshameful
calling.
IsthiswhytheJewsarecalledthe'chosenpeople'?
Inowbegantoexaminecarefullythenamesofallthecreatorsof
uncleanproductsinpublicartisticlife.Theresultwaslessand
less favorable for my previous attitude toward the Jews.
Regardless how my sentiment might resists my reason was
forcedtodrawitsconclusions.
Thefactthatninetenthsofallliteraryfilth,artistictrash,and
theatrical idiocy can be set to the account of a people,
constitutinghardlyonehundredthofallthecountry'sinhabitants,
couldsimplynotbetankedaway;itwastheplaintruth.
AndInowbegantoexaminemybeloved'worldpress'fromthis
pointofview.
And the deeper I probed, the more the object of my former
admiration shriveled. The style became more and more
unbearable;Icouldnothelprejectingthecontentasinwardly
shallowandbanal;theobjectivityofexpositionnowseemedto
memoreakintolies thanhonesttruth;andthewriterswere
Jews.
AthousandthingswhichIhadhardlyseenbeforenowstruckmy
notice, and others, which had previously given me food for
thought,Inowlearnedtograspandunderstand.
Inowsawtheliberalattitudeofthispressinadifferentlight;the
loftytoneinwhichitansweredattacksanditsmethodofIkilling
themwithsilencenowrevealeditselftomeasatrickascleveras
it was treacherous; the transfigured raptures of their theatrical
critics were always directed at Jewish writers, and their
disapproval never struck anyone but Germans. The gentle

pinpricks against William II revealed its methods by their


persistency,andsodiditscommendationofFrenchcultureand
civilization.Thetrashycontentoftheshortstorynowappeared
tome|asoutrightindecency,andinthelanguageIdetectedthe
accents0ofaforeignpeople;thesenseofthewholethingwasso
obviouslyhostiletoGermanismthatthiscouldonlyhavebeen
intentional.
Butwhohadaninterestinthis?
Wasallthisamereaccident?
GraduallyIbecameuncertain.
ThedevelopmentwasacceleratedbyinsightswhichIgainedinto
anumberofothermatters.Iamreferringtothegeneralviewof
1.ethicsandmoralswhichwasquiteopenlyexhibitedbyalarge
partoftheJews,andthepracticalapplicationofwhichcouldbe
seen.
Hereagainthestreetsprovidedanobjectlessonofasortwhich
wassometimespositivelyevil.
TherelationoftheJewstoprostitutionand,evenmore,tothe
whiteslavetraffic,couldbestudiedinViennaasperhapsinno
othercityofWesternEurope,withthepossibleexceptionofthe
southernFrenchports.Ifyouwalkedatnightthroughthestreets
and alleys of Leopoldstadt at every step you witnessed
proceedingswhichremainedconcealedfromthemajorityofthe
GermanpeopleuntiltheWargavethesoldiersontheeastern
frontoccasiontoseesimilarthings,or,betterexpressed,forced
themtoseethem.
WhenthusforthefirsttimeIrecognizedtheJewasthecold
hearted,shameless,andcalculatingdirectorofthisrevoltingvice
trafficinthescumofthebigcity,acoldshudderrandownmy
back.
But then a flame flared up within me. I no longer avoided
discussionoftheJewishquestion;no,nowIsoughtit.Andwhen
I learned to look for the Jew in all branches of cultural and
artistic life and its various manifestations, I suddenly
encounteredhiminaplacewhereIwouldleasthaveexpectedto

findhim.
When I recognized the Jew as the leader of the Social
Democracy, the scales dropped from my eyes. A long soul
strugglehadreacheditsconclusion.
Eveninmydailyrelationswithmyfellowworkers,Iobserved
the amazing adaptability with which they adopted different
positionsonthesamequestion,sometimeswithinanintervalofa
fewdays,sometimesinonlyafewhours.Itwashardformeto
understandhowpeoplewho,whenspokentoalone,possessed
somesensibleopinions,suddenlylostthemassoonastheycame
undertheinfluenceofthemasses.Itwasoftenenoughtomake
onedespair.When,afterhoursofargument,Iwasconvincedthat
nowatlastIhadbrokentheiceorclearedupsomeabsurdity,and
wasbeginningtorejoiceatmysuccess,onthenextdaytomy
disgustIhadtobeginalloveragain;ithadallbeeninvain.Like
aneternalpendulumtheiropinionsseemedtoswingbackagain
andagaintotheoldmadness.
AllthisIcouldunderstand:thattheyweredissatisfiedwiththeir
lotandcursedtheFatewhichoftenstruckthemsoharshly;that
they hated the employers who seemed to them the heartless
bailiffsofFate;thattheycursedtheauthoritieswhointheireyes
werewithoutfeelingfortheirsituation;thattheydemonstrated
againstfoodpricesandcarriedtheirdemandsintothestreets:this
muchcouldbeunderstoodwithoutrecoursetoreason.Butwhat
inevitablyremainedincomprehensiblewastheboundlesshatred
theyheapedupontheirownnationality,despisingitsgreatness,
besmirching its history, and dragging its great men into the
gutter.
Thisstruggleagainsttheirownspecies,theirownclan,theirown
homeland,wasassenselessasitwasincomprehensible.Itwas
unnatural.
Itwaspossibletocurethemtemporarilyofthisvice,butonlyfor
daysoratmostweeks.Iflateryoumetthemanyouthoughtyou
hadconverted,hewasjustthesameasbefore.
Hisoldunnaturalstatehadregainedfullpossessionofhim.

IgraduallybecameawarethattheSocialDemocraticpresswas
directed predominantly by Jews; yet I did not attribute any
specialsignificancetothiscircumstance,sinceconditionswere
exactly the same in the other papers. Yet one fact seemed
conspicuous:therewasnotonepaperwithJewsworkingonit
whichcouldhavebeenregardedastrulynationalaccordingto
myeducationandwayofthinking.
IswallowedmydisgustandtriedtoreadthistypeofMarxist
press production,butmyrevulsionbecamesounlimitedinso
doingthatIendeavoredtobecomemorecloselyacquaintedwith
themenwhomanufacturedthesecompendiumsofknavery.
Fromthepublisherdown,theywereallJews.
ItookalltheSocialDemocraticpamphletsIcouldlayhandson
andsoughtthenamesoftheirauthors:Jews.Inotedthenamesof
theleaders;byfarthegreatestpartwerelikewisemembersofthe
'chosen people,' whether they were representatives in the
Reichsratortradeunionsecretaries,theheadsoforganizationsor
streetagitators.Itwasalwaysthesamegruesomepicture.The
namesoftheAusterlitzes,Davids,Adlers,Ellenbogens,etc.,will
remainforevergraveninmymemory.Onethinghadgrowndear
to me: the party with whose petty representatives I had been
carrying on the most violent struggle for months was, as to
leadership,almostexclusivelyinthehandsofaforeignpeople;
for,tomydeepandjoyfulsatisfaction,Ihadatlastcometothe
conclusionthattheJewwasnoGerman.
OnlynowdidIbecomethoroughlyacquaintedwiththeseducer
ofourpeople.
AsingleyearofmysojourninViennahadsufficedtoimbueme
withtheconvictionthatnoworkercouldbesostubbornthathe
wouldnotintheendsuccumbtobetterknowledgeandbetter
explanations. Slowly I had become an expert in their own
doctrine andusedit as aweaponinthestruggle for myown
profoundconviction.
Successalmostalwaysfavoredmyside.
The great masses could be saved, if only with the gravest

sacrificeintimeandpatience.
ButaJewcouldneverbepartedfromhisopinions.
At that time I was still childish enough to try to make the
madnessoftheirdoctrinecleartothem;inmylittlecircleItalked
mytonguesoreandmythroathoarse,thinkingIwouldinevitably
succeedinconvincingthemhowruinoustheirMarxistmadness
was;butwhatIaccomplishedwasoftentheopposite.Itseemed
asthoughtheirincreasedunderstandingofthedestructiveeffects
ofSocialDemocratictheoriesandtheirresultsonlyreinforced
theirdetermination.
ThemoreIarguedwiththem,thebetterIcametoknowtheir
dialectic.Firsttheycountedonthestupidityoftheiradversary,
and then, when there was no other way out, they themselves
simplyplayedstupid.Ifallthisdidn'thelp,theypretendednotto
understand,or,ifchallenged,theychangedthesubjectinahurry,
quotedplatitudeswhich,ifyouacceptedthem,theyimmediately
relatedtoentirelydifferentmatters,andthen,ifagainattacked,
gavegroundandpretendednottoknowexactlywhatyouwere
talkingabout.Wheneveryoutriedtoattackoneoftheseapostles,
your hand closed on a jellylike slime which divided up and
pouredthroughyourfingers,butinthenextmomentcollected
again.Butifyoureallystruckoneofthesefellowssotellinga
blowthat,observedbytheaudience,hecouldn'thelpbutagree,
and if you believed that this had taken you at least one step
forward,youramazementwasgreatthenextday.TheJewhad
nottheslightestrecollectionofthedaybefore,herattledoffhis
sameoldnonsenseasthoughnothingatallhadhappened,and,if
indignantly challenged, affected amazement; he couldn't
rememberathing,exceptthathehadprovedthecorrectnessof
hisassertionsthepreviousday.
SometimesIstoodtherethunderstruck.
Ididn'tknowwhattobemoreamazedat:theagilityoftheir
tonguesortheirvirtuosityatlying.
GraduallyIbegantohatethem.
All this had but one goodside: that inproportion as thereal

leadersoratleastthedisseminatorsofSocialDemocracycame
withinmyvision,myloveformypeopleinevitablygrew.For
who,inviewofthediabolicalcraftinessoftheseseducers,could
damnthelucklessvictims?Howharditwas,evenforme,toget
thebetterofthusraceofdialecticalliars!Andhowfutilewas
suchsuccessindealingwithpeoplewhotwistthetruthinyour
mouthwhowithoutsomuchasablushdisavowthewordthey
havejustspoken,andintheverynextminutetakecreditforit
afterall.
No. The better acquainted I became with the Jew, the more
forgivingIinevitablybecametowardtheworker.Inmyeyesthe
gravestfaultwasnolongerwithhim,butwithallthosewhodid
notregarditasworththetroubletohavemercyonhim,withiron
righteousnessgivingthesonofthepeoplehisjustdeserts,and
standingtheseducerandcorrupterupagainstthewall.
Inspiredbytheexperienceofdailylife,Inowbegantotrack
downthesourcesoftheMarxistdoctrine.Itseffectshadbecome
cleartomeinindividualcases;eachdayitssuccesswasapparent
tomyattentiveeyes,and,withsomeexerciseofmyimagination,
I was able to picture the consequences. The only remaining
question was whether the result of their action in its ultimate
formhadexistedinthemind'seyeofthecreators,orwhether
theythemselveswerethevictimsofanerror.
Ifeltthatbothwerepossible.
Intheonecaseitwasthedutyofeverythinkingmantoforce
himselftotheforefrontoftheilIstarredmovement,thusperhaps
avertingcatastrophe;intheother,however,theoriginalfounders
ofthisplagueofthenationsmusthavebeenveritabledevilsfor
onlyinthebrainofamonsternotthatofamancouldtheplanof
anorganizationassumeformandmeaning,whoseactivitymust
ultimatelyresult inthecollapseofhumancivilizationandthe
consequentdevastationoftheworld.
Inthiscasetheonlyremaininghopewasstruggle,strugglewith
all the weapons which the human spirit, reason, and will can
devise,regardlessonwhichsideofthescaleFateshouldlayits
blessing.

ThusIbegantomakemyselffamiliarwiththefoundersofthis
doctrine,inordertostudythefoundationsofthemovement.IfI
reached my goal more quickly than at first I had perhaps
venturedtobelieve,itwasthankstomynewlyacquired,though
atthattimenotveryprofound,knowledgeoftheJewishquestion.
Thisaloneenabledmetodrawapracticalcomparisonbetween
therealityandthetheoreticalflimflamofthefoundingfathersof
SocialDemocracy,sinceittaughtmetounderstandthelanguage
oftheJewishpeople,whospeakinordertoconcealoratleastto
veiltheirthoughts;theirrealaimisnotthereforetobefoundin
thelinesthemselves,butslumberswellconcealedbetweenthem.
ForormethiswasthetimeofthegreatestspiritualupheavalI
haveeverhadtogothrough.
Ihadceasedtobeaweakkneedcosmopolitanandbecomean
antiSemite.
Just once moreand this was the last timefearful, oppressive
thoughtscametomeinprofoundanguish.
When over long periods of human history I scrutinized the
activityoftheJewishpeople,suddenlythereroseupinmethe
fearfulquestionwhetherinscrutableDestiny,perhapsOrreasons
unknowntouspoormortals,didnotwitheternalandimmutable
resolve,desirethefinalvictoryofthislittlenation.
Wasitpossiblethattheearthhadbeenpromisedasarewardto
thispeoplewhichlivesonlyforthisearth?
Haveweanobjectiverighttostruggleforourselfpreservation,
oristhisjustifiedonlysubjectivelywithinourselves?
AsIdelvedmoredeeplyintotheteachingsofMarxismandthus
intranquilclaritysubmittedthedeedsoftheJewishpeopleto
contemplation,Fateitselfgavemeitsanswer.
TheJewishdoctrineofMarxismrejectsthearistocraticprinciple
ofNatureandreplacestheeternalprivilegeofpowerandstrength
bythemassofnumbersandtheirdeadweight.Thusitdeniesthe
value of personality in man, contests the significance of
nationalityandrace,andtherebywithdrawsfromhumanitythe
premiseofitsexistenceanditsculture.Asafoundationofthe

universe,thisdoctrinewouldbringabouttheendofanyorder
intellectuallyconceivabletoman.Andas,inthisgreatestofail
recognizableorganisms,theresultofanapplicationofsuchalaw
couldonlybechaos,onearthitcouldonlybedestructionforthe
inhabitantsofthisplanet.
If,withthehelpofhisMarxistcreed,theJewisvictoriousover
the other peoples of the world, his crown will be the funeral
wreathofhumanityandthisplanetwill,asitdidthousandslof
yearsago,movethroughtheetherdevoidofmen.
Eternal Nature inexorably avenges the infringement of her
commands.
HencetodayIbelievethatIamactinginaccordancewiththe
willoftheAlmightyCreator:bydefendingmyselfagainstthe
Jew,IamfightingfortheworkoftheLord.

Chapter 3:

General Political
Considerations Based on My
Vienna Period
Todayitismyconvictionthatingeneral,asidefromcasesof
unusual talent, a man should not engage in public political
activitybeforehisthirtiethyear.Heshouldnotdoso,becauseup
to this time, as a rule, he is engaged in molding a general
platform, on the basis of which he proceeds to examine the
various political problems and finally establishes his own
position on them. Only after he has acquired such a basic
philosophy,andtheresultantfirmnessofoutlookonthespecial
problemsoftheday,ishe,inwardlyatleast,matureenoughtobe
justifiedin partaking inthe politicalleadership of the general
public.
Otherwiseherunstheriskofeitherhavingtochangehisformer
position on essential questions, or, contrary to his better
knowledge and understanding, of clinging to a view which
reasonandconvictionhavelongsincediscarded.Intheformer
case this is most embarrassing to him personally, since, what
withhisownvacillations,hecannotjustifiablyexpectthefaithof
hisadherentstofollowhimwiththesameunswervingfirmness
asbefore;forthoseledbyhim,ontheotherhand,suchareversal
onthepartoftheleadermeansperplexityandnotrarelyacertain
feelingofshametowardthosewhomtheyhithertoopposed.In
thesecondcase,thereoccursathingwhich,particularlytoday,
oftenconfrontsus:inthesamemeasureastheleaderceasesto
believeinwhathesays,hisargumentsbecomeshallowandflat,
buthetriestomakeupforitbyvilenessinhischoiceofmeans.
Whilehehimselfhasgivenupallideaoffightingseriouslyfor

hispoliticalrevelations(amandoesnotdieforsomethingwhich
hehimselfdoesnotbelievein),hisdemandsonhissupporters
become correspondingly greater and more shameless until he
endsupbysacrificingthelastshredofleadershipandturning
intoa'politician;inotherwords,thekindofmanwhoseonlvreal
conviction is lack of conviction, combined with offensive
impertinenceandanartoflying,oftendevelopedtothepointof
completeshamelessness.
Iftothemisfortuneofdecentpeoplesuchacharactergetsintoa
parliament,wemayaswellrealizeatoncethattheessenceofhis
politics will from now on consist in nothing but an heroic
struggleforthepermanentpossessionofhisfeedingbottlefor
himselfandhisfamily.Themorehiswifeandchildrendepend
onit,themoretenaciouslyhewillfightforhismandate.This
alone will make every other man with political instincts his
personal enemy; in every new movement he will scent the
possiblebeginningofhisend,andineverymanofanygreatness
thedangerwhichmenaceshimthroughthatman.
Ishallhavemoretosayaboutthistypeofparliamentarybedbug.
Evenamanofthirtywillhavemuchtolearninthecourseofhis
life,butthiswillonlybetosupplementandfillintheframework
providedhimbythephilosophyhehasbasicallyadoptedWhen
helearns,hislearningwillnothavetobearevisionofprinciple,
butasupplementarystudy,andhissupporterswillnothaveto
chokedowntheoppressivefeelingthattheyhavehithertobeen
falselyinstructedbyhim.Onthecontrary:thevisibleorganic
growth of the leader will give them satisfaction, for when he
learns,hewillonlybedeepeningtheirownphilosophy.Andthis
intheireyeswillbeaproofforthecorrectnessoftheviewsthey
havehithertoheld.
A leader who must depart from the platform of his general
philosophyassuch,becauseherecognizesittobefalse,behaves
withdecencyonlyif,inrecognizing theerror of his previous
insight,heispreparedtodrawtheultimateconsequence.Insuch
acasehemust,attheveryleast,renouncethepublicexerciseof
any further political activity. For since in matters of basic

knowledge he has once succumbed to an error, there is a


possibilitythatthiswillhappenasecondtime.Andinnoevent
does he retain the right to continue claiming, not to mention
demanding,theconfidenceofhisfellowcitizens.
Howlittleregardistakenofsuchdecencytodayisattestedbythe
generaldegeneracyoftherabblewhichcontemporaneouslyfeel
justifiedin'goinginto'politics.
Hardlyaoneofthemisfitforit.
Ihadcarefullyavoidedanypublicappearance,thoughIthink
thatIstudiedpoliticsmorecloselythanmanyothermen.Onlyin
the smallest groups did I speak of the things which inwardly
movedorattractedme.Thisspeakinginthenarrowestcircles
hadmanygoodpoints:Ilearnedtoorateless,buttoknowpeople
withtheiropinionsandobjectionsthatwereoftensoboundlessly
primitive. And I trained myself, without losing the time and
occasionforthecontinuanceofmyowneducation.Itiscertain
thatnowhereelseinGermanywastheopportunityforthisso
favorableasinVienna.
GeneralpoliticalthinkingintheoldDanubianmonarchywasjust
then broader and more comprehensive in scope than in old
Germany,excludingpartsofPrussia,Hamburg,andtheNorth
Sea coast, at the same period. In this case, to be sure, I
understand,underthedesignationof'Austria,'thatsectionofthe
great Habsburg Empire which, in consequence of its German
settlement,notonlywasthehistoriccauseoftheveryformation
of this state, but whose population, moreover, exclusively
demonstratedthatpowerwhichforsomanycenturieswasableto
givethisstructure,soartificialinthepoliticalsense,itsinner
culturallife.Astimeprogressed,theexistenceandfutureofthis
statecametodependmoreandmoreonthepreservationofthis
nuclearcelloftheEmpire.
If the old hereditary territories were the heart of the Empire
continually driving fresh blood into the circulatory stream of
politicalandculturallife,Viennawasthebrainandwillinone
Itsmereoutwardappearancejustifiedoneinattributingtothis
city the power to reign as a unifying queen amid such a

conglomeration of peoples, thus by the radiance of her own


beautycausingustoforgettheuglysymptomsofoldageinthe
structureasawhole.
TheEmpiremightquiverandquakebeneaththebloodybattlesof
the different nationalities, yet foreigners, and especially
Germans,sawonlythecharmingcountenanceofthiscity.Wblt
madethedeceptionallthegreaterwasthatViennaatthattime
seemedengagedinwhatwasperhapsitslastandgreatestvisible
revival. Under the rule of a truly gifted mayor, the venerable
residenceoftheEmperorsoftheoldregimeawokeoncemoreto
a:niraculousyouth.ThelastgreatGermantobeborninthe
ranks of the people who had colonized the Ostmark was not
officiallynumberedamongsocalledStatesmen';butasmayorof
Vienna,thiscapitalandimperialresidence,'Dr.Luegerconjured
uponeamazingachievementafteranotherin,wemaysay,every
field of economic and cultural municipal politics, thereby
strengthening the heart of the whole Empire, and indirectly
becomingastatesmangreaterthanallthesocalled'diplomats'of
the time If the conglomeration of nations called 'Austria'
neverthelessperishedintheend,thisdoesnotdetractintheleast
fromthepoliticalabilityoftheGermansintheoldOstmark,but
was the necessary result of the impossibility of permanently
maintaining a state of fifty million people of different
nationalities by means of ten million people, unless certain
definiteprerequisiteswereestablishedintime.
TheideasoftheGermanAustrianweremorethangrandiose.
Hehadalwaysbeenaccustomedtolivinginagreatempireand
hadneverlosthisfeelingforthetasksboundupwithit.Hewas
theonlyoneinthisstatewho,beyondthenarrowboundariesof
thecrownlands,stillsawtheboundariesoftheReich;indeed,
whenFatefinallypartedhimfromthecommonfatherland,he
keptonstrivingtomasterthegigantictaskandpreserveforthe
GermanpeoplewhathisfathershadoncewrestedfromtheEast
inendlessstruggles.Inthisconnectionitshouldbeborneinmind
thatthishadtobedonewithdividedenergy;fortheheartand
memoryofthebestneverceasedtofeelforthecommonmother
country,andonlyaremnantwasleftforthehomeland.

The general horizon of the GermanAustrian was in itself


comparatively broad. His economic connections frequently
embracedalmosttheentiremultiformEmpire.Nearlyallthebig
businessenterpriseswereinhishands;thedirectingpersonnel,
both technicians and officials, were in large part provided by
him.HewasalsoinchargeofforeigntradeinsofarastheJews
hadnotlaidtheirhandsonthisdomain,whichtheyhavealways
seizedfortheirown.Politically,healoneheldthestatetogether.
Militaryservicealonecasthimfarbeyondthenarrowboundaries
of his homeland. The GermanAustrian recruit might join a
Germanregiment,buttheregimentitselfmightequallywellbe
inHerzegovina,Vienna,orGalicia.Theofficers'corpswasstill
German,thehigherofficialspredominantlyso.Finally,artand
sciencewereGerman.Asidefromthetrashofthemoremodern
artisticdevelopment,whichanationof Negroesmightjustas
well have produced, the German alone possessed and
disseminated a truly artistic attitude. In music, architecture,
sculpture, and painting, Vienna was the source supplying the
entiredualmonarchyininexhaustibleabundance,withoutever
seemingtogodryitself.
Finally, the Germans directed the entire foreign policy if we
disregardasmallnumberofHungarians.
AndyetanyattempttopreservethisEmpirewasinvain,forthe
mostessentialpremisewaslacking.
For the Austrian state of nationalities there was only one
possibilityofovercomingthecentrifugalforcesoftheindividual
nations.Eitherthestatewascentrallygovernedhenceinternally
organized along the same lines. or it was altogether
inconceivable.
Atvariouslucidmomentsthisinsightdawnedonthe'supreme'
authority. But as a rule it was soon forgotten or shelved as
difficult of execution. Any thought of a more federative
organizationoftheEmpirewasdoomedtofailureowingtothe
lackofastrongpoliticalgermcellofoutstandingpower.Added
tothisweretheinternalconditionsoftheAustrianstatewhich
differed essentially from the German Empire of Bismarck. In

Germany it was only a question of overcoming political


conditions, since there was always a common cultural
foundation. Above all, the Reich, aside from little foreign
splinters,embracedmembersofonlyonepeople.
InAustriatheoppositewasthecase.
Heretheindividualprovinces,asidefromHungary,lackedany
politicalmemoryoftheirowngreatness,orithadbeenerasedby
thespongeoftime,oratleastblurredandobscured.Intheperiod
when the principle of nationalities was developing, however,
national forces rose up in the various provinces, and to
counteractthemwasallthemoredifficultasontherimofthe
monarchy national states began to form whose populations,
raciallyequivalentorrelatedtotheAustriannationalsplinters,
were now able to exert a greater power of attraction than,
conversely,remainedpossiblefortheGermanAustrian.
EvenViennacouldnotforeverendurethisstruggle.
WiththedevelopmentofBudapestintoabigcity,shehadforthe
firsttimearivalwhosetaskwasnolongertoholdtheentire
monarchytogether,butrathertostrengthenapartofit.Inashort
timePraguewastofollowherexample,thenLemberg,Laibach,
etc.Withtheriseoftheseformer provincialcitiestonational
capitalsofindividualprovinces,centersformedformoreorless
independentculturallifeintheseprovinces.Andonlythendid
the politiconational instincts obtain their spiritual foundation
anddepth.Thetimeinevitablyapproachedwhenthesedynamic
forcesoftheindividualpeoples wouldgrowsponger thanthe
forceofcommoninterests,andthatwouldbetheendofAustria.
SincethedeathofJosephIIthecourseofthisdevelopmentwas
clearlydiscernible.Itsrapiditydependedonaseriesoffactors
whichinpartlayinthemonarchyitselfandinpartwerethe
resultoftheEmpire'smomentarypositiononforeignpolicy.
Ifthefighfforthepreservationofthisstatewastobetakenup
andcarriedoninearnest,onlyaruthlessandpersistentpolicyof
centralization could lead to the goal. First of all, the purely
formalcohesionhadtobeemphasizedbytheestablishmentin
principleofauniformofficiallanguage,andtheadministration

hadtobegiventhetechnicalimplementwithoutwhichaunified
statesimplycannotexist.Likewiseaunifiedstateconsciousness
could only be bred for any length of time by schools and
education.Thiswasnotfeasibleintenortwentyyears;itwas
inevitably a matter of centuries; for in all questions of
colonization, persistence assumes greater importance than the
energyofthemoment.
It goes without saying that the administration as well as the
politicaldirectionmustbeconductedwithstrictuniforrnity.To
me it was infinitely instructive to ascertain why this did not
occur,.orrather,whyitwasnotdone.lHewhowasguiltyofthis
omissionwasalonetoblameforthecollapseoftheEmpire.
OldAustriamorethananyotherstatedependedonthegreatness
ofherleaders.Thefoundationwaslackingforanationalstate,
which in its national basis always possesses the power of
survival,regardlesshowdeficienttheleadershipassuchmaybe.
Ahomogeneousnationalstatecan,byvirtueofthenaturalinertia
of its inhabitants, and the resulting power of resistance,
sometimes withstand astonishingly long periods of the worst
administrationorleadershipwithoutinwardlydisintegrating.At
suchtimesitoftenseemsasthoughtherewerenomorelifein
suchabody,asthoughitweredeadanddonefor,butonefine
day the supposed corpse suddenly rises and gives the rest of
humanityastonishingindicationsofitsunquenchablevitalforce.
Itisdifferent,however,withanempirenotconsistingofsimilar
peoples,whichisheldtogethernotbycommonbloodbutbya
commonfist.Inthiscasetheweakness ofleadershipwillnot
cause a hibernation of the state, but an awakening of all the
individualinstinctswhicharepresentintheblood,butcarmot
develop in times when there is a dominant will. Only by a
common education extending over centuries, by common
tradition,commoninterests,etc.,canthisdangerbeattenuated.
Hence the younger such state formations are, the more they
dependonthegreatnessofleadership,andiftheyaretheworkof
outstanding soldiers and spiritual heroes, they often crumble
immediately after the death of the great solitary founder. But
even after centuries these dangers cannot be regarded as

overcome;theyonlyliedormant,oftensuddenlytoawakenas
soonastheweaknessofthecommonleadershipandtheforceof
educationandallthesublimetraditionscannolongerovercome
theimpetusofthevitalurgeoftheindividualtribes.
Not to have understood this is perhaps the tragic guilt of the
HouseofHabsburg.
ForonlyasingleoneofthemdidFateonceagainraisehighthe
torchoverthefutureofhiscountry,thenitwasextinguishedfor
ever.
JosephIIXRomanEmperoroftheGermannation,sawwithfear
andtrepidationhowhisHouse,forcedtotheoutermostcornerof
theEmpire,wouldonedayinevitablyvanishinthemaelstromof
aBabylonofnationsunlessattheeleventhhourtheomissionsof
hisforefathersweremadegood.Withsuperhumanpowerthis
'friend of man' braced himself against the negligence of his
ancestors and endeavored to retrieve in one decade what
centurieshadfailedtodo.Ifhehadbeengrantedonlyfortyyears
forhiswork,andifafterhimeventwogenerationshadcontinued
hisworkashebeganit,themiraclewouldprobablyhavebeen
achieved.Butwhen,afterscarcelytenyearsonthethronesworn
inbodyandsoul,hedied,hisworksankwithhimintothegrave,
toawakennomoreandsleepforeverintheCapuchincrypt.His
successorswereequaltothetaskneitherinmindnorinwill.
When the first revolutionary lightnings of a new era flashed
throughEurope,Austria,too,slowlybegantocatchfire,littleby
little.Butwhenthefireatlengthbrokeout,theflamewasfanned
lessbysocialorgeneralpoliticalcausesthanbydynamicforces
ofnationalorigin.
The revolution of 1848 may have been a class struggle
everywhere,butinAustriaitwasthebeginningofanewracial
war. By forgetting or not recognizing this origin and putting
themselves in the service of the revolutionary uprising, the
Germanssealedtheirownfate.Theyhelpedtoarousethespirit
of 'Western democracy,' which in a short time removed the
foundationsoftheirownexistence.
With the formation of a parliamentary representative body

without the previous establishment and crystallization of a


commonstatelanguage,thecornerstonehadbeenlaidfortheend
ofGermandominationofthemonarchy.'Fromthismomenton
thestateitselfwaslost.Allthatfollowedwasmerelythehistoric
liquidationofanempire.
Tofollowthisprocessofdissolutionwasasheartrendingasit
was instructive. This execution of an historical sentence was
carriedoutindetailinthousandsandthousandsofforrns.The
factthatalargepartofthepeoplemovedblindlythroughthe
manifestationsofdecayshowedonlythatthegodshadwilled
Austria'sdestruction.
Ishallnotlosemyselfindetailsonthispoint,forthatisnotthe
function of this book. I shall only submit to a more
thoroughgoing observation those events which are the
everunchangingcausesofthedeclineofnationsandstates,thus
possessing significance for our time as well, and which
ultimately contributed to securing the foundations of my own
politicalthinking.
Attheheadofthoseinstitutionswhichcouldmostclearlyhave
revealed the erosion of the Austrian monarchy, even to a
shopkeepernototherwisegiftedwithsharpeyes,wasonewhich
oughttohavehadthegreateststrengthparliament,or,asitwas
calledinAustria,theReichsrat.
Obviously the example of this body had been taken from
England,thelandofclassical'democracy.'Fromtherethewhole
blissful institution was taken and transferred as unchanged as
possibletoVienna.
The English twochamber system was solemnly resurrected in
the Abgeordnetenhaus and the Herrenhaus. Except that the
houses'themselvesweresomewhatdifferent.WhenBarryraised
hisparliamentbuildingsfromthewatersoftheThames,hethrust
into the history of the British Empire and from it took the
decorationsforthetwelvehundredniches,consoles,andpillars
ofhismagnificentedifice.Thus,intheirsculptureandpainting,
the House of Lords and the House of Commons became the
nation'sHallofFame.

ThiswaswherethefirstdifficultycameinforVienna.Forwhen
Hansen,theDanishbuilder,hadcompletedthelastpinnacleon
themarblebuildingofthenewparliament,therewasnothinghe
could use as decoration except borrowings from antiquity.
Roman and &reek statesmen and philosophers now embellish
thisoperahouseofWesterndemocracy,andinsymbolicirony
thequadrigaefiyfromoneanotherinallfourdirectionsabove
thetwohouses,inthiswaygivingthebestexternalexpression
oftheactivitiesthatwentoninsidethebuilding.
The'nationalities'hadvetoedtheglorificationofAustrianhistory
inthisworkasaninsultandprovocation,justasintheReich
itselfitwasonlybeneaththethunderofWorldWarbattlesthat
theydaredtodedicateWallot'sReichstagBuildingtotheGerman
peoplebyaninscription.
When,notyettwentyyearsold,Isetfootforthefirsttimeinthe
magnificentbuildingontheFranzensringtoattendasessionof
theHouseofDeputiesasaspectatorandlistener,Iwasseized
withthemostconflictingsentiments.
Ihadalwayshatedparliament,butnotasaninstitutioninitself.
On the contrary, as a freedomloving man I could not even
conceiveofanyotherpossibilityofgovernment,fortheideaof
anysortofdictatorshipwould,inviewofmyattitudetowardthe
HouseofHabsburg,haveseemedtomeacrimeagainstfreedom
andallreason.
Whatcontributednolittletothiswasthatasayoungman,in
consequenceofmyextensivenewspaperreading,Ihad,without
myselfrealizingit,beeninoculatedwithacertainadmirationfor
the British Parliament, of which I was not easily able to rid
myself.ThedignitywithwhichtheLowerHousetherefulfilled
itstasks(aswassotouchinglydescribedinourpress)impressed
meimmensely.Couldapeoplehaveanymoreexaltedformof
selfgovernment?
But for this very reason I was an enemy of the Austrian
parliament.Iconsidereditswholemodeofconductunworthyof
thegreatexample.Tothisthefollowingwasnowadded:
ThefateoftheGermansintheAustrianstatewasdependenton

theirpositionintheReichsrat.Uptotheintroductionofuniversal
andsecretsuffrage,theGermanshadhadamajority,thoughan
insignificant one, in parliament. Even this condition was
precarious, for the Social Democrats, with their unreliable
attitude in national questions, always turned against German
interestsincriticalmattersaffectingtheGermansinordernotto
alienatethemembersofthevariousforeignnationalities.Evenin
those days the Social Democracy could not be regarded as a
Germanparty.Andwiththeintroductionofuniversalsuffrage
theGermansuperiorityceasedeveninapurelynumericalsense.
Therewasnolongeranyobstacleinthepathofthefurtherde
Germanizationofthestate.
Forthisreasonmyinstinctofnationalselfpreservationcaused
meeveninthosedaystohavelittleloveforarepresentativebody
inwhichtheGermanswerealwaysmisrepresentedratherthan
represented. Yet these were deficiencies which, like so many
others, were attributable, not to the thing in itself, but to the
Austrianstate.Istill believedthatif aGermanmajoritywere
restoredintherepresentativebodies,therewouldnolongerbe
anyreasonforaprincipledoppositiontothem,thatis,aslongas
theoldstatecontinuedtoexistatall.
TheseweremyinnersentimentswhenforthefirsttimeIsetfoot
inthesehallsashallowedastheyweredisputed.Forme,tobe
sure, they were hallowed only by the lofty beauty of the
magnificentbuilding.AHellenicmiracleonGermansoil!
HowsoonwasItogrowindignantwhenIsawthelamentable
comedythatunfoldedbeneathmyeyes!
Presentwereafewhundredofthesepopularrepresentativeswho
had to take a position on a question of most vital economic
importance.
Theveryfirstdaywasenoughtostimulatemetothoughtfor
weeksonend.
Theintellectualcontentofwhatthesemensaidwasonareally
depressinglevel,insofarasyoucouldunderstandtheirbabbling
atall;forseveralofthegentlemendidnotspeakGerman,but
their native Slavic languages or rather dialects. I now had

occasiontohearwithmyownearswhatpreviouslyIhadknown
only from reading the newspapers. A wild gesticulating mass
screamingallatonceineverydifferentkey,presidedoverbya
goodnaturedoldunclewhowasstrivinginthesweatofhisbrow
torevivethedignityoftheHousebyviolentlyringinghisbell
andalternatinggentlereproofswithgraveadmonitions.
Icouldn'thelplaughing.
AfewweekslaterIwasintheHouseagain.Thepicturewas
changed beyond recognition. The hall was absolutely empty.
Downbeloweverybodywasasleep.Afewdeputieswereintheir
places, yawning at one another; one was 'speaking.' A
vicepresidentoftheHousewaspresent,lookingintothehallwith
obviousboredom.
Thefirstmisgivingsaroseinme.Fromnowon,whenevertime
offered me the slightest opportunity, I went back and, with
silenceandattention,viewedwhateverpicturepresenteditself,
listenedtothespeechesinsofarastheywereintelligible,studied
themoreorlessintelligentfacesoftheelectofthepeoplesof
thiswoebegonestateandlittlebylittleformedmyownideas.
Ayearofthistranquilobservationsufficedtotallytochangeor
eliminatemyformerviewofthenatureofthisinstitution.My
innermost position was no longer against the misshapen form
whichthisideaassumedinAustria;no,bynowIcouldnolonger
accept the parliament as such. Up till then I had seen the
misfortuneoftheAustrianparliamentintheabsenceofaGerman
majority;nowIsawthatitsruinationlayinthewholenatureand
essenceoftheinstitutionassuch.
Awholeseriesofquestionsroseupinme.
Ibegantomakemyselffamiliarwiththedemocraticprincipleof
majority rule as the foundation of this whole institution, but
devotednolessattentiontotheintellectualandmoralvaluesof
thesegentlemen,supposedlytheelectofthenations,whowere
expectedtoservethispurpose.
ThusIcametoknowtheinstitutionanditsrepresentatives at
once.

Inthecourseofafewyears,myknowledgeandinsightshapeda
plastic model of that most dignified phenomenon of modern
times:theparliamentarian.Hebegantoimpresshimselfuponme
inaformwhichhasneversincebeensubjectedtoanyessential
change.
Here again the visual instruction of practical reality had
preventedmefrombeingstifledbyatheorywhichatfirstsight
seemedseductivetosomany,butwhichnonethelessmustbe
countedamongthesymptomsofhumandegeneration.
TheWesterndemocracyoftodayistheforerunnerofMarxism
whichwithoutitwouldnotbethinkable.Itprovidesthisworld
plaguewiththecultureinwhichitsgermscanspread.Initsmost
extreme forrn, parliamentarianism created a 'monstrosity of
excrement and fire,' in which, however, sad to say, the 'fire'
seemstomeatthemomenttobeburnedout.
Imust bemore than thankfultoFatefor layingthis question
beforemewhileIwasinVienna,forIfearthatinGermanyat
thattimeIwouldhavefoundtheanswertooeasily.ForifIhad
firstencounteredthisabsurdinstitutionknownas'parliament'in
Berlin, I might have fallen into the opposite fallacy, and not
withoutseeminglygoodcausehavesidedwiththosewhosawthe
salvationofthepeopleandtheReichexclusivelyinfurthering
thepoweroftheimperialidea,andwhoneverthelesswerealien
andblindatoncetothetimesandthepeopleinvolved.
InAustriathiswasimpossible.
Hereitwasnotsoeasytogofromonemistaketotheother.If
parliament was worthless, the Habsburgs were even more
worthlessinnoevent,lessso.Toreject'parliamentarianism'was
notenough,forthequestionstillremainedopen:whatthen?The
rejection and abolition of the Reichsrat would have left the
HouseofHabsburgthesolegoverningforce,athoughtwhich,
especiallyforme,wasutterlyintolerable.
Thedifficultyof thisspecial caseledmetoamorethorough
contemplationoftheproblemassuchthanwouldotherwisehave
beenlikelyatsuchtenderyears.

Whatgavememostfoodforthoughtwastheobviousabsenceof
anyresponsibilityinasingleperson.
The parliament arrives at some decision whose consequences
maybeeversoruinousnobodybearsanyresponsibilityforthis,
no one can be taken to account. For can it be called an
acceptanceofresponsibilityif,afteranunparalleledcatastrophe,
theguiltygovernment resigns? Orif thecoalitionchanges, or
evenifparliamentisitselfdissolved?
Canafluctuatingmajorityofpeopleeverbemaderesponsiblein
anycase?
Isn'ttheveryideaofresponsibilityboundupwiththeindividual?
Butcananindividualdirectingagovernmentbemadepractically
responsibleforactionswhosepreparationandexecutionmustbe
set exclusivelytotheaccountofthewillandinclinationofa
multitudeofmen?
Orwillnotthetaskofaleadingstatesmanbeseen,notinthe
birthofacreativeideaorplanassuch,butratherintheartof
making the brilliance of his projects intelligible to a herd of
sheepandblockheads,andsubsequentlybeggingfortheirkind
approval?
Isitthecriterionofthestatesmanthatheshouldpossesstheart
ofpersuasioninashighdegreeasthatofpoliticalintelligencein
formulating great policies or decisions? Is the incapacity of a
leadershownbythefactthathedoesnotsucceedinwinningfor
acertainideathemajorityofamobthrowntogetherbymoreor
lesssavoryaccidents?
Indeed, has this mob ever understood an idea before success
proclaimeditsgreatness?
Isn'teverydeedofgeniusinthisworldavisibleprotestofgenius
againsttheinertiaofthemass?
And what should the statesman do, who does not succeed in
gainingthefavorofthismobforhisplansbyflattery?
Shouldhebuyit?
Or, in view of the stupidity of his fellow citizens, should he

renouncetheexecutionofthetaskswhichhehasrecognizedto
bevitalnecessities?Shouldheresignorshouldheremainathis
post?
Insuchacase,doesn'tamanoftruecharacterfindhimselfina
hopeless conflict between knowledge and decency, or rather
honestconviction?
Whereisthedividinglinebetweenhisdutytowardthegeneral
publicandhisdutytowardhispersonalhonor?
Mustn'teverytrueleaderrefusetobethusdegradedtothelevel
ofapoliticalgangster?
And,conversely,mustn'teverygangsterfeelthatheiscutoutfor
politics,sinceitisneverhe,butsomeintangiblemob,whichhas
tobeartheultimateresponsibility?
Mustn't our principle of parliamentary majorities lead to the
demolitionofanyideaofleadership?
Doesanyonebelievethattheprogressofthisworldspringsfrom
themindofmajoritiesandnotfromthebrainsofindividuals?
Ordoesanyoneexpectthatthefuturewillbeabletodispense
withthispremiseofhumanculture?
Doesitnot,onthecontrary,todayseemmoreindispensablethan
ever?
Byrejectingtheauthorityoftheindividualandreplacingitby
the numbers of some momentary mob, the parliamentary
principle of majority rule sins against the basic aristocratic
principleofNature,thoughitmustbesaidthatthisviewisnot
necessarilyembodiedinthepresentdaydecadenceofourupper
tenthousand.
The devastation caused by this institution of modern
parliamentaryruleishardforthereaderofJewishnewspapersto
imagine, unless he has learned to think and examine
independently. It is, first and foremost, the cause of the
incredibleinundationofallpoliticallifewiththemostinferior,
andImeanthemostinferior,charactersofourtime.Justasthe
trueleaderwillwithdrawfromallpoliticalactivitywhichdoes

notconsistprimarilyincreativeachievementandwork,butin
bargainingandhagglingforthefavorofthemajority,inthesame
measurethisactivitywillsuitthesmallmindandconsequently
attractit.
Themoredwarfishoneofthesepresentdayleathermerchantsis
inspiritandability,themoreclearlyhisowninsightmakeshim
awareofthelamentablefigureheactuallycutsthatmuchmore
willhesingthepraisesofasystemwhichdoesnotdemandof
himthepowerandgeniusofagiant,butissatisfiedwiththe
craftiness of a village mayor, preferring in fact this kind of
wisdom to that of a Pericles. And this kind doesn't have to
tormenthimselfwithresponsibilityforhisactions.Heisentirely
removed from such worry, for he well knows that, regardless
whattheresultofhis'statesmanlike'bunglingmaybe,hisend
haslongbeenwritteninthestars:onedayhewillhavetocede
his place to another equally great mind, for it is one of the
characteristicsofthisdecadentsystemthatthenumberofgreat
statesmenincreasesinproportionasthestatureoftheindividual
decreases With increasing dependence on parliamentary
majoritiesitwillinevitablycontinuetoshrink,sinceontheone
hand great minds will refuse to be the stooges of idiotic
incompetentsandbigmouths,andontheother,conversely,the
representativesofthemajority,henceofstupidity,hatenothing
morepassionatelythanasuperiormind.
ForsuchanassemblyofwisemenofGotham,itisalwaysa
consolation to know that they are headed by a leader whose
intelligenceisatthelevelofthosepresent:thiswillgiveeach
onethepleasureofshiningfromtimetotimeand,aboveall,if
Tom can be master, what is to prevent Dick and Harry from
havingtheirturntoo?
This invention of democracy is most intimately related to a
qualitywhichinrecenttimeshasgrowntobearealdisgrace,to
wit,thecowardiceofagreatpartofoursocalled'leadership.
What luck to be able to hide behind the skirts of a socalled
majorityinalldecisionsofanyrealimportance!
Takealookatoneofthesepoliticalbandits.Howanxiouslyhe

begstheapprovalofthemajorityforeverymeasure,toassure
himself of the necessary accomplices, so he can unload the
responsibilityatanytime.Andthisisoneofthemainreasons
whythistypeofpoliticalactivityisalwaysrepulsiveandhateful
toanymanwhoisdecentatheartandhencecourageous,whileit
attractsalllowcharactersandanyonewhoisunwillingtotake
personal responsibility for his acts, but seeks a shield, is a
cowardlyscoundrel.Whentheleadersofanationconsistofsuch
vilecreatures,theresultswillsoonbedeplorable.Suchanation
willbeunabletomusterthecourageforanydeterminedact;it
willprefertoacceptanydishonor,eventhemostshameful,rather
thanrisetoadecision;forthereisnoonewhoispreparedofhis
ownaccordtopledgehispersonandhisheadfortheexecutionof
adauntlessresolve.
Forthereisonethingwhichwemustneverforget:inthis,too,
the majority can never replace the man. It is not only a
representative of stupidity, but of cowardice as well. And no
morethanahundredemptyheadsmakeonewisemanwillan
heroicdecisionarisefromahundredcowards.
The less the responsibility of the individual leader, the more
numerous will be those who, despite their most insignificant
stature, feel called upon to put their immortal forces in the
serviceofthenation.Indeed,theywillbeunabletoawaittheir
turn;theystandinalongline,andwithpainandregretcountthe
numberofthosewaitingaheadofthem,calculatingalmostthe
precisehouratwhich,inallprobability,theirturnwillcome.
Consequently,theylongforanychangeintheofficehovering
beforetheireyes,andarethankfulforanyscandalwhichthins
outtheranksaheadofthem.Andifsomemanisunwillingto
movefromthepostheholds,thisintheireyesispracticallya
breachofaholypactofsolidarity.Theygrowvindictive,and
theydonotrestuntiltheimpudentfellowisatlastoverthrown,
thusturninghiswarmplacebacktothepublic.And,restassured,
hewon'trecoverthepositionsoeasily.Forassoonasoneof
thesecreaturesisforcedtogiveupaposition,hewilltryatonce
towedgehiswayintothe'waitingline'unlessthehueandcry
raisedbytheotherspreventshim.

Theconsequenceofallthisisaterrifyingturnoverinthemost
importantofficesandpositionsofsuchastate,aresultwhichis
alwaysharmful,butsometimespositivelycatastrophic.Foritis
notonlythesimpletonandincompetentwhowillfallvictimto
thuscustom,buttoanevengreaterextenttherealleader,ifFate
somehowmanagestoputoneinthisplace.Assoonasthisfact
has been recognized, a solid front will form against him,
especiallyifsuchamindhasnotarisenfromtheirownranks,but
none the less dares to enter into this exalted society. For on
principlethesegentryliketobeamongthemselvesandtheyhate
asacommonenemyanybrainwhichstandsevenslightlyabove
thezeros.Andinthisrespecttheirinstinctisasmuchsharperas
itisdeficientineverythingelse.
The result will be a steadily expanding intellectual
impoverishmentoftheleadingcircles.Theresultforthenation
andthestate,everyonecanjudgeforhimself,exceptinginsofar
ashehimselfisoneofthesekindof'leaders.'
Old Austria possessed the parliamentary regime in its purest
form.
Tobesure,theprimeministerswerealwaysappointedbythe
EmperorandKing,butthisveryappointmentwasnothinghalt
the execution of the parliamentary will. The haggling and
bargaining for the individual portfolios represented Western
democracyofthefirstwater.Andtheresultscorrespondedtothe
principles applied. Particularly the change of individual
personalities occurred in shorter and shorter terms, ultimately
becomingaveritablechase.Inthesamemeasure,thestatureof
the'statesmen'steadilydiminisheduntilfinallynooneremained
but that type of parliamentary gangster whose statesmanship
couldonlybemeasuredandrecognizedbytheirabilityinpasting
togetherthecoalitionsofthemoment;inotherwords,concluding
thosepettiestofpoliticalbargainswhichalonedemonstratethe
fitnessoftheserepresentativesofthepeopleforpracticalwork.
ThustheVienneseschooltransmittedthebestimpressionsinthis
field.
Butwhatattractedmenolesswastocomparetheabilityand

knowledgeoftheserepresentativesofthepeopleandthetasks
whichawaitedthem.Inthiscase,whetherIlikeditornot,Iwas
impelled to examine more closely the intellectual horizon of
theseelectofthenationsthemselves,andinsodoing,Icouldnot
avoidgivingthenecessaryattentiontotheprocesseswhichlead
tothediscoveryoftheseornamentsofourpubliclife.
Thewayinwhichtherealabilityofthesegentlemenwasapplied
andplacedintheserviceofthefatherlandinotherwords,the
technicalprocessoftheiractivitywasalsoworthyofthorough
studyandinvestigation.
ThemoredeterminedIwastopenetratetheseinnerconditions,to
studythepersonalitiesandmaterialfoundationswithdauntless
andpenetratingobjectivity,themoredeplorablebecamemytotal
picture of parliamentary life. Indeed, this is an advisable
procedureindealingwithaninstitutionwhich,inthepersonof
its representatives, feels obliged to bring up ' objectivity ' in
every second sentence as the only proper basis for every
investigation and opinion. Investigate these gentlemen
themselvesandthelawsoftheirsordidexistence,andyouwillbe
amazedattheresult.
Thereisnoprinciplewhich,objectivelyconsidered,isasfalsea,s
thatofparliamentarianism.
Here we may totally disregard the manner in which our fine
representativesofthepeoplearechosen,howtheyarriveattheir
office and their new dignity. That only the tiniest fraction of
themriseinfulfillmentofageneraldesire,letaloneaneed,will
at once be apparent to anyone who realizes that the political
understanding of the broad masses is far from being highly
enoughdevelopedtoarriveatdefinitegeneralpoliticalviewsof
theirownaccordandseekoutthesuitablepersonalities.
Thethingwedesignatebytheword'publicopinion'restsonlyin
the smallest part on experience or knowledge which the
individualhasacquiredbyhirnself,butratheronanideawhichis
inspiredbysocalled'enlightenment,'oftenofahighlypersistent
andobtrusivetype.
Just as a man's denominational orientation is the result of

upbringing,andonlythereligiousneedassuchslumbersinhis
soul,thepoliticalopinionofthemassesrepresentsnothingbut
the final result of an incredibly tenacious and thorough
manipulationoftheirmindandsoul.
Byfarthegreatestshareintheirpolitical'education,'whichin
thiscaseismostaptlydesignatedbytheword'propaganda,'falls
totheaccountofthepress.Itisforemostinperformingthis'work
ofenlightenment'andthusrepresentsasortofschoolforgrown
ups.Thisinstruction,however,isnotinthehandsofthestate,
but in the claws of forces which are in part very inferior. In
Vienna as a very young man I had the best opportunity to
becomeacquaintedwiththeownersandspiritualmanufacturers
ofthismachineforeducatingthemasses.AtfirstIcouldnothelp
butbeamazedathowshortatimeittookthisgreatevilpower
withinthestatetocreateacertainopinionevenwhereitmeant
totally falsifying profound desires and views which surely
existedamongthepublic.Inafewdaysaridiculousepisodehad
becomeasignificantstateaction,while,conversely,atthesame
time,vitalproblemsfellapreytopublicoblivion,orratherwere
simply filched from the memory and consciousness of the
masses.
Thus,inthecourseofafewweeksitwaspossibletoconjureup
namesoutofthevoid,toassociatethemwithincrediblehopeson
thepartofthebroadpublic,eventogivethemapopularitywhich
thereallygreatmanoftendoesnotobtainhiswholelifelong;
nameswhichamonthbeforenoonehadevenseenorheardof,
whileatthesametimeoldandprovedfiguresofpoliticalorother
publiclife,thoughinthebestofhealth,simplydiedasfaras
theirfellowmenwereconcemed,orwereheapedwithsuchvile
insultsthattheirnamessoonthreatenedtobecomethesymbolof
somedefiniteactofinfamyorvillainy.Wemuststudythisvile
Jewish technique of emptying garbage pails full of the vilest
slandersanddefamationsfromhundredsandhundredsofsources
atonce,suddenlyandasifbymagic,onthecleangarmentsof
honorablemen,ifwearefullytoappreciatetheentiremenace
representedbythesescoundrelsofthepress.
Thereisabsolutelynothingoneofthesespiritualrobberbarons

willnotdotoachievehissavoryaims.
Hewillpokeintothemostsecretfamilyaffairsandnotrestuntil
his trufResearching instinct digs up some miserable incident
whichiscalculatedtofinishofftheunfortunatevictim.Butif,
afterthemostcarefulsniffing,absolutelynothingisfound,either
intheman'spublicorprivatelife,oneofthesescoundrelssimply
seizesonslander,inthefirmconvictionthatdespiteathousand
refutationssomethingalwayssticksand,moreover,throughthe
immediateandhundredfoldrepetitionofhisdefamationsbyall
hisaccomplices,anyresistanceonthepartofthevictimisin
mostcasesutterlyimpossible;anditmustbeborneinmindthat
thisrabbleneveractsoutofmotiveswhichmightseemcredible
or even understandable to the rest of humanity. God forbid!
Whileoneofthesescumisattackinghisbelovedfellowmenin
themostcontemptiblefashion,theoctopuscovershimselfwitha
veritable cloud of respectability and unctuous phrases, prates
about'journalisticduty'andsuchlikelies,andevengoessofar
astoshootoffhismouthatcommitteemeetingsandcongresses
thatis,occasionswherethesepestsarepresentinlargenumbers
aboutaveryspecialvarietyof'honor,'towit,thejournalistic
variety, which the assembled rabble gravely and mutually
confirm.
These scum manufacture more than three quarters of the so
called 'public opinion,' from whose foam the parliamentarian
Aphroditearises.Togiveanaccuratedescriptionofthisprocess
anddepictitinallitsfalsehoodandimprobability,onewould
have to write volumes. But even if we disregard all this and
examineonlythegivenproductalongwithitsactivity,thisseems
tomeenoughtomaketheobjectivelunacy of this institution
dawnoneventhenaivestmind.
This human error, as senseless as it is dangerous, will most
readily be understood as soon as we compare democratic
parliamentarianismwithatrulyGermanicdemocracy.
Thedistinguishingfeatureoftheformeristhatabodyof,letus
sayfivehundredmen,orinrecenttimesevenwomen,ischosen
andentrustedwithmakingtheultimatedecisioninanyandall

matters. And so for practical purposes they alone are the


government; for even if they do choose a cabinet which
undertakestheexternaldirectionoftheaffairsofstate,thisisa
meresham.Inrealitythissocalledgovernmentcannottakea
stepwithoutfirstobtainingtheapprovalofthegeneralassembly.
Consequently,itcannotbemaderesponsibleforanything,since
theultimatedecisionneverlieswithit,butwiththemajorityof
parliament. In every case it does nothing but carry out the
momentarywillofthemajority.Itspoliticalabilitycanonlybe
judged according to the skill with which it understands how
eithertoadapt itselftothewillofthemajorityortopullthe
majorityovertoitsside.Therebyitsinksfromtheheightsofreal
governmenttothelevelofabeggarconfrontingthemomentary
majority.Indeed,itsmosturgenttaskbecomesnothingmorethan
eithertosecurethefavoroftheexistingmajority,astheneed
arises,ortoformamajoritywithmorefriendlyinclinations.If
thissucceeds,itmay'govern'alittlewhilelonger;ifitdoesn't
succeed,itcanresign.Thesoundnessofitspurposesassuchis
besidethepoint.
Forpracticalpurposes,thisexcludesallresponsibilityTowhat
consequences this leads can be seen from a few simple
considerations:
The internal composition of the five hundred chosen
representativesofthepeople,withregardtoprofessionoreven
individualabilities,givesapictureasincoherentasitisusually
deplorable.Fornoonecanbelievethatthesemenelectedbythe
nationareelectofspiritorevenofintelligence!Itistobehoped
thatnoonewillsupposethattheballotsofanelectoratewhichis
anything else than brilliant will give rise to statesmen by the
hundreds.Altogetherwecannotbetoosharpincondemningthe
absurdnotionthatgeniusescanbebornfromgeneralelections.
Inthefirstplace,anationonlyproducesarealstatesmanoncein
a blue moon and not a hundred or more at once; and in the
secondplace,therevulsionofthemassesforeveryoutstanding
geniusispositivelyinstinctive.Soonerwillacamelpassthrough
aneedle'seyethanagreatmanbe'discovered'byanelection.
Inworldhistorythemanwhoreallyrisesabovethenormofthe

broadaverageusuallyannounceshimselfpersonally.
Asitis,however,fivehundredmen,whosestatureistosaythe
leastmodest,voteonthemostimportantaffairsofthenation,
appoint governments which in every single case and in every
specialquestionhavetogettheapprovaloftheexaltedassembly,
sothatpolicyisreallymadebyfivehundred.
Andthatisjustwhatitusuallylookslike.
Butevenleavingthegeniusoftheserepresentativesofthepeople
aside, bear in mind how varied are the problems awaiting
attention,inwhatwidelyremovedfieldssolutionsanddecisions
mustbemade,andyouwillrealizehowinadequateagoverning
institutionmustbewhichtransferstheultimaterightofdecision
to a mass assembly of people, only a tiny fraction of which
possessknowledgeandexperienceofthemattertobetreated.
Themostimportanteconomicmeasuresarethussubmittedtoa
forum, only a tenth of whose members have any economic
educationtoshow.Thisisnothingmorenorlessthanplacingthe
ultimatedecisioninamatterinthehandsofmentotallylacking
ineveryprerequisiteforthetask.
Thesameistrueofeveryotherquestion.Thedecisionisalways
madebyamajorityofignoramusesandincompetents,sincethe
composition of this institution remains unchanged while the
problems under treatment extend to nearly every province of
publiclifeandwouldtherebypresupposeaconstantturnoverin
thedeputieswhoaretojudgeanddecideonthem,sinceitis
impossible to let the same persons decide matters of
transportationas,letussay,aquestionofhighforeignpolicy.
Otherwise these men would all have to be universal geniuses
such as we actually seldom encounter once in centuries.
Unfortunatelywearehereconfronted,forthemostpart,notwith
'thinkers,'butwithdilettantesaslimitedastheyareconceitedand
infiated,intellectualdemimondeoftheworstsort.Andthisisthe
sourceoftheoftenincomprehensiblefrivolitywithwhichthese
gentryspeakanddecideonthingswhichwouldrequirecareful
meditationeveninthegreatestminds.Measuresofthegravest
significanceforthefutureofawholestate,yes,ofanation,are

passedasthoughagameofschafDopfortarock,lwhichwould
certainlybebettersuitedtotheirabilities,layonthetablebefore
themandnotthefateofarace.
Yetitwouldsurelybeunjusttobelievethatallofthedeputiesin
suchaparliamentwerepersonallyendowedwithsolittlesenseof
responsibility.
No,bynomeans.
Butbyforcingtheindividualtotakeapositiononsuchquestions
completely illsuited to him, this system gradually ruins hus
character. No one will summon up the courage to declare:
Gentlemen,IbelieveweunderstandnothingaboutthismatterI
personallycertainlydonot.'(Besides,thiswouldchangematters
little, for surely this kind of honesty would remain totally
unappreciated, and what is more, our friends would scarcely
allowonehonorablejackasstospoiltheirwholegame.)Anyone
withaknowledgeofpeoplewillrealizethatinsuchanillustrious
companynooneiseagertobethestupidest,andincertaincircles
honesty is almost synonymous with stupidity Thus, even the
representative who at first was honest is thrown end page 89
Page90intothistrackofgeneralfalsehoodanddeceit.Thevery
conviction that the nonparticipation of an individual in the
business would in itself change nothing kills every honorable
impulsewhichmayriseupinthisorthatdeputy.Andfinally,
moreover, he may tell himself that he personally is far from
beingtheworstamongtheothers,andthatthesoleeffectofhis
collaborationisperhapstopreventworsethingsfromhappening.
Itwillbeobjected,tobesure,that.thoughtheindividualdeputy
possesses no special understanding in this or that matter, his
position has been discussed by the fraction which directs the
policyofthegentlemaninquestion,andthatthefractionhasits
specialcommitteeswhicharemorethanadequatelyenlightened
byexpertsanyway.
Atfirstglancethisseemstobetrue.Butthenthequestionarises:
Why are five hundred chosen when only a few possess the
necessary wisdom to take a position in the most important
matters?

Andthisisthewormintheapple!
It is not the aim of our presentday parliamentarianism to
constituteanassemblyofwisemen,butrathertocomposeaband
ofmentallydependentnonentitieswhoarethemoreeasilyledin
certain directions, the greater is the personal limitation of the
individual.Thatistheonlywayofcarryingonpartypoliticsin
the malodorous presentday sense. And only in this way is it
possible for the real wirepuller to remain carefully in the
backgroundandneverpersonallybecalledtoresponsibility.For
theneverydecision,regardlesshowharmfultothenation,will
notbesettotheaccountofascoundrelvisibletoall,butwillbe
unloadedontheshouldersofawholefraction.
And thereby every practical responsibility vanishes. For
responsibilitycanlieonlyintheobligationofanindividualand
notinaparliamentarybullsession.
Suchaninstitutioncanonlypleasethebiggestliarsandsneaksof
thesortthatshunthelightofday,becauseitisinevitablyhateful
to an honorable, straightforward man who welcomes personal
responsibility.
And that is why this type of democracy has become the
instrumentofthatracewhichinitsinnergoalsmustshunthe
lightofday,nowandinallagesofthefuture.OnlytheJewcan
praiseaninstitutionwhichisasdirtyandfalseashehimself.
JuxtaposedtothisisthetrulyGermanicdemocracycharacterized
bythefreeelectionofaleaderandhisobligationfullytoassume
allresponsibilityforhisactionsandomissions.Initthereisno
majorityvoteonindividualquestions,butonlythedecisionofan
individualwhomustanswerwithhisfortuneandhislifeforhis
choice.
If it be objected that under such conditions scarcely anyone
wouldbepreparedtodedicatehispersontosoriskyatask,there
isbutonepossibleanswer:
ThanktheLord,Germanicdemocracymeansjustthis:thatany
old climber or moral slacker cannot rise by devious paths to
governhisnationalcomrades,butthat,bytheverygreatnessof

theresponsibilitytobeassumed,incompetentsandweaklingsare
frightenedoff.
Butif,nevertheless,oneofthesescoundrelsshouldattemptto
sneakin,wecanfindhimmoreeasily,andmercilesslychallenge
him: Out, cowardly scoundrel! Remove your foot, you are
besmirchingthesteps;thefrontstepsofthePantheonofhistory
arenotforsneakthieves,butforheroes!
I had fought my way to this conclusion after two years
attendanceattheViennaparliament.
AfterthatIneverwentback.
The parliamentary regime shared the chief blame for the
weakness, constantly increasing in the past few years, of the
Habsburgstate.Themoreitsactivitiesbrokethepredominance
oftheGermans,themorethecountrysuccumbedtoasystemof
playingoffthenationalitiesagainstoneanother.IntheReichsrat
itselfthiswasalwaysdoneattheexpenseoftheGermansand
thereby,inthelastanalysis,attheexpenseoftheEmpire;forby
theturnofthecenturyitmusthavebeenapparenteventothe
simplestthatthemonarchy'sforceofattractionwouldnolonger
beabletowithstandtheseparatisttendenciesoftheprovinces.
Onthecontrary.
The more pathetic became the means which the state had to
employforitspreservation,themorethegeneralcontemptforit
increased.NotonlyinHungary,butalsointheseparateSlavic
provinces,peoplebegantoidentifythemselvessolittlewiththe
commonmonarchythattheydidnotregarditsweaknessastheir
owndisgrace.Onthecontrary,theyrejoicedatsuchsymptomsof
oldage;fortheyhopedmorefortheEmpire'sdeaththanforits
recovery.
In parliament, for the moment, total collapse was averted by
undignifiedsubmissivenessandacquiescenceateveryextortion,
forwhichtheGermanhadtopayintheend;andinthecountry,
bymostskillfullyplayingoffthedifferentpeoplesagainsteach
other. But the general line of development was nevertheless
directedagainsttheGermans.EspeciallysinceArchdukeFrancis

Ferdinand became heir apparent and began to enjoy a certain


influence,therebegantobesomeplanandorderinthepolicyof
Czechizationfrom above.Withallpossiblemeans,thisfuture
ruler of the dual monarchy tried to encourage a policy of
deGermanization,toadvanceithimselforatleasttosanctionit.
Purely German towns, indirectly through government official
dom,wereslowlybutsteadilypushedintothemixedlanguage
dangerzones.EveninLowerAustriathisprocessbegantomake
increasinglyrapidprogress,andmanyCzechsconsideredVienna
theirlargestcity.
ThecentralideaofthisnewHabsburg,whosefamilyhadceased
to speak anything but Czech (the Archduke's wife, a former
Czechcountess,hadbeenmorganaticallymarriedtothePrince
she came from circles whose antiGerman attitude was
traditional),wasgraduallytoestablishaSlavicstateinCentral
Europe which for defense against Orthodox Russia should be
placedonastrictlyCatholicbasis.Thus,astheHabsburgshadso
oftendonebefore,religionwasonceagainputintotheserviceof
a purely political idea, and what was worseat least from the
Germanviewpointofacatastrophicidea.
Theresultwasmorethandismalinmanyrespects.Neitherthe
House of Habsburg nor the Catholic Church received the
expectedreward.
Habsburglostthethrone,Romeagreatstate.
Forbyemployingreligiousforcesintheserviceofitspolitical
considerations,thecrownarousedaspiritwhichattheoutsetit
hadnotconsideredpossible.
InanswertotheattempttoexterminatetheGermansintheold
monarchybyeverypossiblemeans,therearosethePanGerman
movementinAustria.
By the eighties the basic Jewish tendency of Manchester
liberalism had reached, if not passed, its high point in the
monarchy.Thereactiontoit,however,aswitheverythinginold
Austria, arose primarily from a social, not from a national
standpoint.TheinstinctofselfpreservationforcedtheGermans
toadoptthesharpestmeasuresofdefense.Onlysecondarilydid

economicconsiderationsbegintoassumeadecisiveinfluence.
Andso,twopartyformationsgrewoutofthegeneralpolitical
confusion, the one with the more national, the other with the
moresocial,attitude,butbothhighlyinterestingandinstructive
forthefuture.
After the depressing end of the War of 1866, the House of
Habsburgharboredtheideaofrevengeonthebattlefield.Only
the death of Emperor Max of Mexico, whose unfortunate
expedition was blamed primarily on Napoleon III and whose
abandonment by the French aroused general indignation,
prevented a closer collaboration with France. Habsburg
neverthelesslurkedinwait.IftheWarof187071hadnotbeen
so unique a triumph, the Vienna Court would probably have
riskedabloodyventuretoavengeSadowa.Butwhenthefirst
amazingandscarcelycredible,butnonethelesstrue,talesof
heroismarrivedfromthebattlefields,the'wisest'ofallmonarchs
recognized that the hour was not propitious and put the best
possiblefaceonabadbusiness.
Buttheheroicstruggleoftheseyearshadaccomplishedaneven
mightiermiracle;forwiththeHabsburgsachangeofposition
neverarosefromtheurgeoftheinnermostheart,butfromthe
compulsionofcircumstances.However,theGermanpeopleof
the old Ostmark were swept along by the Reich's frenzy of
victory,andlookedonwithdeepemotionasthedreamoftheir
fatherswasresurrectedtogloriousreality.
For makenomistake: thetrulyGermanmindedAustrianhad,
evenatKoniggratz,andfromthistimeon,recognizedthetragic
butnecessaryprerequisitefortheresurrectionofaReichwhich
wouldnolongerbeandactuallywasnotafflictedwiththefoul
morassoftheoldUnion.Aboveall,hehadcometounderstand
thoroughly,byhisownsuffering,thattheHouseofHabsburg
had at last concluded its historical mission and that the new
Reich could choose as Emperor only him whose heroic
convictionsmadehimworthytobearthe'CrownoftheRhine.'
ButhowmuchmorewasFatetobepraisedforaccomplishing
thisinvestitureinthescionofahousewhichinFrederickthe
Greathadgiventhenationagleamingandeternalsymbolofits

resurrection.
ButwhenafterthegreatwartheHouseofHabsburgbeganwith
desperatedeterminationslowlybutinexorablytoexterminatethe
dangerous German element in the dual monarchy (the inner
convictionsofthiselementcouldnotbeheldindoubt),forsuch
would be the inevitable result of the Slavization policy the
doomed people rose to a resistance such as modern German
historyhadneverseen.
Forthefirst time,menofnationalandpatrioticmindbecame
rebels.
Rebels,notagainstthenationandnotagainstthestateassuch,
butrebelsagainstakindofgovernmentwhichintheirconviction
wouldinevitablyleadtothedestructionoftheirownnationality.
ForthefirsttimeinmodernGermanhistory,traditionaldynastic
patriotismpartedwayswiththenationalloveoffatherlandand
people.
ThePanGermanmovementinGermanAustriaintheninetiesis
tobepraisedfordemonstratinginclear,unmistakabletermsthat
astateauthorityisentitledtodemandrespectandprotectiononly
whenitmeetstheinterestsofapeople,oratleastdoesnotharm
them.
Therecanbenosuchthingasstateauthorityasanendinitself,
for, if there were, every tyranny in this world would be
unassailableandsacred.
If,bytheinstrumentofgovernmentalpower,anationalityisled
toward its destruction, then rebellion is not only the right of
everymemberofsuchapeopleitishisduty.
And the questionwhen is this the case?is decided not by
theoreticaldissertations,butbyforceandresults.
Since,asamatterofcourse,allgovernmentalpowerclaimsthe
dutyof preservingstateauthorityregardless howviciousitis,
betrayingtheinterests of apeopleathousandfoldthenational
instinctofselfpreservation,inoverthrowingsuchapowerand
achieving freedom or independence, will have to employ the
sameweaponsbymeansofwhichtheenemytriestomaintainhis

power.Consequently,thestrugglewillbecarriedonwith'legal'
means as long as the power to be overthrown employs such
means;butitwillnotshunillegalmeansiftheoppressoruses
them.
In general it should not be forgotten that the highest aim of
humanexistenceisnotthepreservationofastate,letalonea
government,butthepreservationofthespecies.
Andifthespeciesitselfisindangerofbeingoppressedorutterly
eliminated,thequestionoflegalityisreducedtoasubordinate
role.Then,evenifthemethodsoftherulingpowerareallegedto
be legal a thousand times over, nonetheless the oppressed
people's instinct of selfpreservation remains the loftiest
justificationoftheirstrugglewitheveryweapon.
Onlythroughrecognitionofthisprinciplehavewarsofliberation
againstinternalandexternalenslavementofnationsonthisearth
comedowntousinsuchmajestichistoricalexamples.
Humanlawcancelsoutstatelaw.
Andifapeopleisdefeatedinitsstruggleforhumanrights,this
merely meansthat it has beenfoundtoolightinthescale of
destinyforthehappinessofsurvivalonthisearth.Forwhena
peopleisnotwillingorabletofightforitsexistenceProvidence
initseternaljusticehasdecreedthatpeople'send.
Theworldisnotforcowardlypeoples.
Howeasyitisforatyrannytocoveritselfwiththecloakofso
called'legality'isshownmostclearlyandpenetratinglybythe
exampleofAustria.
ThelegalstatepowerinthosedayswasrootedintheantiGerman
soil of parliament with its nonGerman majorities and in the
equallyantiGermanrulinghouse.Inthesetwofactorstheentire
state authority was embodied. Any attempt to change the
destiniesoftheGermanAustrianpeoplefromthispositionwas
absurd.Hence,intheopinionsofourfriendstheworshipersof
stateauthorityassuchandofthe'legal'way,allresistancewould
havehadtobeshunned,asincompatiblewithlegalmethods.But
this,withcompellingnecessity,wouldhavemeanttheendofthe

Germanpeopleinthemonarchyandinaveryshorttime.And,as
amatteroffact,theGermansweresavedfromthisfateonlyby
thecollapseofthisstate.
Thebespectacledtheoretician,itistrue,wouldstillprefertodie
forhisdoctrinethanforhispeople.
Sinceitismenwhomakethelaws,hebelievesthattheylivefor
thesakeoftheselaws.
The PanGerman movement in Austria had the merit of
completelydoingawaywiththisnonsense,tothehorrorofall
theoretical pedants and other fetishworshiping isolationists in
thegovernment.
Since the Habsburgs attempted to attack Germanism with all
possible means, this party attacked the 'exalted' ruling house
itself,andwithoutmercy.Forthefirsttimeitprobedintothis
rottenstateandopenedtheeyesofhundredsofthousands.Toits
creditbeitsaidthatitreleasedthegloriousconceptofloveof
fatherlandfromtheembraceofthissorrydynasty.
Intheearlydaysofitsappearance,itsfollowingwasextremely
great, threatening to become a veritable avalanche. But the
successdidnotlast.WhenIcametoVienna,themovementhad
longbeenovershadowedbytheChristianSocialPartywhichhad
meanwhile attained powerand had indeed been reduced to
almostcompleteinsignificance.
ThiswholeprocessofthegrowthandpassingofthePanGerman
movementontheonehand,andtheunprecedentedriseofthe
ChristianSocialPartyontheother,wastoassumethedeepest
significanceformeasaclassicalobjectofstudy.
WhenIcametoVienna,mysympathieswerefullyandwholly
onthesideofthePanGermantendency.
That they mustered the courage to cry 'Loch Hohenzollern'
impressedmeasmuchasitpleasedme;thattheystillregarded
themselvesasanonlytemporarilyseveredpartoftheGerman
Reich,andneverletamomentpasswithoutopenlyattestingthis
fact, inspired me with joyful confidence; that in all questions
regardingGermanismtheyshowedtheircolorswithoutreserve,

andneverdescendedtocompromises,seemedtometheonestill
passable road to the salvation of our people; and I could not
understand how after its so magnificent rise the movement
should have taken such a sharp decline. Even less could I
understandhowtheChristianSocialPartyatthissameperiod
could achieve such immense power. At that time it had just
reachedtheapogeeofitsglory.
AsIsetaboutcomparingthesemovements,Fate,acceleratedby
myotherwisesadsituation,gavemethebestinstructionforan
understandingofthecausesofthisriddle.
Ishall beginmycomparisonswiththetwomenwhomaybe
regardedastheleadersandfoundersofthetwoparties:Georg
vonSchonererandDr.KarlLueger.
Fromapurelyhumanstandpointtheybothtowerfarabovethe
scopeandstatureofsocalledparliamentaryfigures.Amidthe
morassofgeneralpoliticalcorruptiontheirwholeliferemained
pureandunassailable.Neverthelessmypersonalsympathylayat
firstonthesideofthePanGermanSchonerer,andturnedonly
littlebylittletowardtheChristianSocialleaderaswell.
Comparedastoabilities,Schonererseemedtomeeventhenthe
betterandmoreprofoundthinkerinquestionsofprinciple.He
foresawtheinevitableendoftheAustrianstatemoreclearlyand
correctlythananyoneelse.If,especiallyintheReich,peoplehad
paid more attention to his warnings against the Habsburg
monarchy, the calamity of Germany's World War against all
Europewouldneverhaveoccurred.
But if Schonerer recognized the problems in their innermost
essence,heerredwhenitcametomen.
Here,ontheotherhand,layDr.Lueger'sstrength.
Hehadarareknowledgeofmenandinparticulartookgoodcare
not to consider people better than they are. Consequently, he
reckonedmorewiththerealpossibilitiesoflifewhileSchonerer
hadbutlittleunderstandingforthem.Theoreticallyspeaking,all
thePanGerman'sthoughtswerecorrect,butsincehelackedthe
forceandastutenesstotransmithistheoreticalknowledgetothe

massesthatis,toputitinaformsuitedtothereceptivityofthe
broadmasses,whichisandremainsexceedinglylimitedallhis
knowledge was visionary wisdom, and could never become
practicalreality.
Andthislackofactualknowledgeofmenledinthecourseof
timetoanerrorinestimatingthestrengthofwholemovements
aswellasageoldinstitutions.
Finally,Schonererrealized,tobesure,thatquestionsofbasic
philosophywereinvolved,buthedidnotunderstandthatonly
thebroadmassesofapeopleareprimarilyabletoupholdsuch
wellnighreligiousconvictions.
Unfortunately,hesawonlytoalimitedextenttheextraordinary
limitationofthewilltofightinsocalled'bourgeois'circles,due,
if nothing else, to their economic position which makes the
individualfeartolosetoomuchandtherebyholdshimincheck.
Andyet,onthewhole,aphilosophycanhopeforvictoryonlyif
thebroadmassesadheretothenewdoctrineanddeclaretheir
readinesstoundertakethenecessarystruggle.
Fromthisdeficientunderstandingoftheimportanceofthelower
strataofthepeoplearoseacompletelyinadequateconceptionof
thesocialquestion.
InallthisDr.LuegerwastheoppositeofSchonerer.
His thorough knowledge of men enabled him to judge the
possibleforcescorrectly,atthesametimepreservinghimfrom
underestimatingexistinginstitutions,andperhapsforthisvery
reasontaughthimtomakeuseoftheseinstitutionsasinstruments
fortheachievementofhispurposes.
Heunderstoodonlytoowellthatthepoliticalfightingpowerof
the upper bourgeoisie at the present time was but slight and
inadequateforachievingthevictoryofagreatmovement.He
therefore laid the greatest stress in his political activity on
winning over the classes whose existence was threatened and
thereforetendedtospurratherthanparalyzethewilltofight.
Likewisehewasinclinedtomakeuseofallexistingimplements
of power, to incline mighty existing institutions in his favor,

drawingfromtheseoldsourcesofpowerthegreatestpossible
profitforhisownmovement.
Thus he adjusted his new party primarily to the middle class
menaced with destruction, and thereby assured himself of a
followingthat wasdifficulttoshake,whosespiritofsacrifice
wasasgreatasitsfightingpower.HispolicytowardtheCatholic
Church,fashionedwithinfiniteshrewdness,inashorttimewon
overtheyoungerclergytosuchanextentthattheoldClerical
Partywasforcedeithertoabandonthefield,or,morewisely,to
join the new party, in order slowly to recover position after
position.
Totakethisaloneasthecharacteristicessenceofthemanwould
betodohimagraveinjustice.Forinadditiontobeinganastute
tactician, he had the qualities of a truly great and brilliant
reformer:thoughhere,too,heobservedthelimitssetbyaprecise
knowledge of the existing possibilities as well as his own
personalabilities.
Itwasaninfinitelypracticalgoalthatthistrulysignificantman
hadsethimself.HewantedtoconquerVienna.Viennawasthe
heartofthemonarchy;fromthiscitythelastflushoflifeflowed
out into the sickly, old body of the crumbling empire. The
healthiertheheartbecame,themoretherestofthebodywas
boundtorevive:anidea,correctinprinciple,butwhichcouldbe
appliedonlyforacertainlimitedtime.
Andhereinlaythisman'sweakness.
WhathehaddoneasmayorofViennaisimmortalinthebest
senseoftheword;buthecouldnolongersavethemonarchy,it
wastoolate.
His opponent, Schonerer, had seen this more clearly All Dr.
Lueger'spracticaleffortswereamazinglysuccessfulthehopeshe
basedonthemwerenotrealized.
Schonerer'seffortswerenotsuccessful,buthismostterriblefears
cametrue.
Thus neither man realized his ultimate goal. Lueger could no
longer save Austria, and Schonerer could no longer save the

Germanpeoplefromruin.
Itisinfinitelyinstructiveforourpresentdaytostudythecauses
forthefailureofbothparties.Thisisparticularlyusefulformy
friends,sinceinmanypointsconditionstodayaresimilartothen
anderrorscantherebybeavoidedwhichatthattimecausedthe
endoftheonemovementandthesterilityoftheother.
Tomymind,therewerethreecausesforthecollapseofthePan
GermanmovementinAustria.
Inthefirstplace,itsunclearconceptionofthesignificanceofthe
socialproblem,especiallyforanewandessentiallyrevolutionary
party.
Since Schonerer and his followers addressed themselves
principallytobourgeoiscircles,theresultwasboundtobevery
feebleandtame.
Thoughsomepeoplefailtosuspectit,theGermanbourgeoisie,
especiallyinitsuppercircles,ispacifistictothepointofpositive
selfabnegation,whereinternalaffairsofthenationorstateare
concerned.Ingoodtimesthatis,inthiscase,intimesofgood
government such an attitude makes these classes extremely
valuable to the state; but in times of an inferior regime it is
positivelyruinous.Tomakepossiblethewagingofanyreally
serious struggle, the PanGerman movement should above all
havededicateditselftowinningthemasses.Thatitfailedtodo
sodepriveditinadvanceoftheelementalimpetuswhichawave
ofitskindsimplymusthaveifitisnotinashorttimetoebb
away.
Unlessthisprincipleisborneinmindandcarriedoutfromthe
verystart,thenewpartylosesallpossibilityoflatermakingup
for what has been lost. For, by the admission of numerous
moderatebourgeoiselements,thebasicattitudeofthemovement
will always be governed by them and thus lose any further
prospectofwinningappreciableforcesfromthebroadmasses.
Asaresult,suchamovementwillnotriseabovemeregrumbling
and criticizing. The faith bordering more or less on religion,
combinedwithasimilarspiritofsacrifice,willceasetoexist;in
itsplacewillariseaneffortgraduallytogrindofftheedgesof

strugglebymeansof'positive'collaboration;thatis,inthiscase,
byacceptanceoftheexistingorder,thusultimatelyleadingtoa
putridpeace.
And this is what happened to the PanGerman movement
becauseithadnotfromtheoutsetlaiditschiefstressonwinning
supporters from the circles of the great masses. It achieved
'bourgeoisrespectabilityandamuffledradicalism.'
Fromthiserrorarosethesecondcauseofitsrapiddecline.
AtthetimeoftheemergenceofthePanGermanmovementthe
situationoftheGermansinAustriawasalreadydesperate.From
year to year the parliament had increasingly become an
institutionfortheslowdestructionoftheGermanpeople.Any
attemptat salvationintheeleventhhour couldoffer eventhe
slightesthopeofsuccessonlyifthisinstitutionwereeliminated.
Thus the movement was faced with a question of basic
importance:
Shoulditsmembers,todestroyparliament,gointoparliament,in
order,aspeopleusedtosay,'toborefromwithin,'orshouldthey
carryonthestrugglefromoutsidebyanattackonthisinstitution
assuch?
Theywentinandtheycameoutdefeated.
Tobesure,theycouldn'thelpbutgoin.
To carry on the struggle against such a power from outside
meanstoarmwithunflinchingcourageandtobepreparedfor
endlesssacrifices.Youseizethebullbythehorns,yousuffer
many heavy blows, you are sometimes thrown to the earth,
sometimes you get up with broken limbs, and only after the
hardestcontestdoesvictoryrewardtheboldassailant.Onlythe
greatnessofthesacrificeswillwinnewfightersforthecause,
untilatlasttenacityisrewardedbysuccess.
Butforthisthesonsofthebroadmassesarerequired.
Theyalonearedeterminedandtoughenoughtocarrythroughthe
fighttoitsbloodyend.
And the PanGerman movement did not possess these broad

masses;thusnocourseremainedopenbuttogointoparliament
Itwouldbeamistaketobelievethatthisdecisionwastheresult
of long soul torments, or even meditations; no, no other idea
enteredtheirheads.Participationinthisabsurditywasonlythe
sedimentresultingfromgeneral,unclearconceptionsregarding
thesignificanceandeffectofsuchaparticipationinaninstitution
whichhadinprinciplebeenrecognizedasfalse.Ingeneral,the
partyhopedthatthiswouldfacilitatetheenlightenmentofthe
broadmasses,sinceitwouldnowhaveanopportunitytospeak
before the 'forum of the whole nation.' Besides, it seemed
plausiblethatattackingtherootoftheevilwasboundtobemore
successful than storming it from outside. They thought the
securityoftheindividualfighterwasincreasedbytheprotection
ofparliamentaryimmunity,andthatthiscouldonlyenhancethe
forceoftheattack.
Inreality,itmustbesaid,thingsturnedoutverydifferently.
TheforumbeforewhichthePanGermandeputiesspokehadnot
become greater but smaller; for each man speaks only to the
circlewhichcanhearhim,orwhichobtainsanaccountofhis
wordsinthenewspapers.
And,notthehallsofparliament,butthegreatpublicmeeting,
representsthelargestdirectforumoflisteners.
For,inthelatter,therearethousandsofpeoplewhohavecome
onlytohearwhatthespeakerhastosaytothem,whileinthe
hallsofparliamentthereareonlyafewhundreds,andmostof
thesearepresentonlytocollecttheirattendancefees,andcer
tainlynottobeilluminatedbythewisdomofthisorthatfellow
'representativeofthepeople.'
Andaboveall:
Thisisalwaysthesamepublic,whichwillneverlearnanything
new,since,asidefromtheintelligence,itislackinginthevery
rudimentsofwill.
Neverwill oneofthese representatives of thepeoplehonora
superiortruthofhisownaccord,andplacehimselfinitsservice.
No,thisissomethingthatnotasingleoneofthemwilldounless

he has reason to hope that by such a shift he may save his


mandateforonemoresession.Onlywhenitisintheairthatthe
partyinpowerwillcomeoffbadlyinacomingelection,will
theseornamentsofvirilityshifttoapartyortendencywhichthey
presumewillcomeoutbetter,thoughyoumaybeconfidentthat
this change of position usually occurs amidst a cloudburst of
moral justifications. Consequently, when an existing party
appearstobefallingbeneaththedisfavorofthepeopletosuchan
extent that the probability of an annihilating defeat threatens,
suchagreatshiftwillalwaysbegin:thentheparliamentaryrats
leavethepartyship.
Allthishasnothingtodowithbetterknowledgeorintentions,
butonlywiththatpropheticgiftwhichwarnstheseparliamentary
bedbugsattherightmomentandcausesthemtodrop,againand
again,intoanotherwarmpartybed.
Buttospeaktosucha'forum'isreallytocastpearlsbeforethe
wellknown domestic beasts. It is truly not worth while. The
resultcanbenothingbutzero.
Andthatisjustwhatitwas.
The PanGerman deputies could talk their throats hoarse: the
effectwaspracticallynil.
The press either killed them with silence or mutilated their
speechesinsuchawaythatanycoherence,andofteneventhe
sense,wastwistedorentirelylost,andpublicopinionreceiveda
verypoorpictureoftheaimsofthenewmovement.Whatthe
various gentlemen said was quite unimportant; the important
thingwaswhatpeoplereadaboutthem.Andthiswasanextract
fromtheirspeeches,sodisjointedthatitcouldasintendedonly
seem absurd. The only forum to which they really spoke
consistedoffivehundredparliamentarians,andthatisenough
said.
Buttheworstwasthefollowing:
The PanGerman movement couldcount onsuccess onlyif it
realizedfromtheveryfirstdaythatwhatwasrequiredwasnota
newparty,butanewphilosophy.Onlythelattercouldproduce

theinwardpowertofightthisgiganticstruggletoitsend.And
forthis,onlytheverybestandcourageousmindscanserveas
leaders.
Ifthestruggleforaphilosophyisnotleadbyheroespreparedto
make sacrifices, there will, in a short time, cease to be any
warriors willing todie. The man whois fightingfor his own
existencecannothavemuchleftoverforthecommunity.
Inordertomaintainthisrequirement,everymanmustknowthat
thenewmovementcanofferthepresentnothingbuthonorand
fameinposterity.Themoreeasilyattainablepostsandofficesa
movementhastohandout,themoreinferiorstuffitwillattract,
andintheendthesepoliticalhangersonoverwhelmasuccessful
partyinsuchnumberthatthehonestfighterofformerdaysno
longer recognizes the old movement and the new arrivals
definitely reject him as an unwelcome intruder. When this
happens,the'mission'ofsuchamovementisdonefor.
AssoonasthePanGermanmovementsolditssoultoparlia
ment, it attracted 'parliamentarians' instead of leaders and
fighters.
Thusitsanktotheleveloftheordinarypoliticalpartiesofthe
dayandlostthestrengthtoopposeacatastrophicdestinywith
thedefianceofmartyrdom.Insteadoffighting,itnowlearnedto
make speeches and 'negotiate.' And in a short time the new
parliamentarian found it a more attractive, because less
dangerous, duty to fight for the new philosophy with the
'spiritual'weaponsofparliamentaryeloquence,thantoriskhis
ownlife,ifnecessary,bythrowinghimselfintoastrugglewhose
issuewasuncertainandwhichinanycasecouldbringhimno
profit.
Once they had members in parliament, the supporters outside
begantohopeandwaitformiracleswhich,ofcourse,didnot
occur and couldnot occur.For this reason they soon became
impatient,forevenwhattheyheardfromtheirowndeputieswas
by no means up to the expectations of the voters. This was
perfectlynatural,sincethehostilepresstookgoodcarenotto
give the people any faithful picture of the work of the Pan

Germandeputies.
Themorethenewrepresentativesofthepeopledevelopedataste
for the somewhat gentler variety of 'revolutionary' struggle in
parliamentandtheprovincialdiets,thelesspreparedtheywere
toreturntothemoredangerousworkofenlighteningthebroad
massesofthepeople.Themassmeeting,theonlywaytoexerta
trulyeffective,becausepersonal,influenceonlargesectionsof
thepeopleandthuspossiblytowinthem,wasthrustmoreand
moreintothebackground.
Oncetheplatformofparliamentwasdefinitelysubstitutedforthe
beertableofthemeetinghall,andfromthisforumspeecheswere
poured,notintothepeople,butontheheadsoftheirsocalled
'elect,'thePanGermanmovementceasedtobeamovementof
the people and in a short time dwindled into an academic
discussionclubtobetakenmoreorlessseriously.
Consequently,thebadimpressiontransmittedbythepresswasin
no way corrected by personal agitation at meetings by the
individual gentlemen, with the result that finally the word
'PanGerman'begantohaveaverybadsoundintheearsofthe
broadmasses.
Forletitbesaidtoallourpresentdayfopsandknightsofthe
pen: the greatest revolutions in this world have never been
directedbyagoosequill!
No, to the pen it has always been reserved to provide their
theoreticalfoundations.
Butthepowerwhichhasalwaysstartedthegreatestreligiousand
politicalavalanchesinhistoryrollinghasfromtimeimmemorial
beenthemagicpowerofthespokenword,andthatalone.
Particularlythebroadmassesofthepeoplecanbemovedonly
bythepowerofspeech.Andallgreatmovementsarepopular
movements,volcaniceruptionsofhumanpassionsandemotional
sentiments,stirredeitherbythecruelGoddessofDistressorby
thefirebrandofthewordhurledamongthemasses;theyarenot
the lemonadelike outpourings of literary aesthetes and
drawingroomheroes.

Onlyastormofhotpassioncanturnthedestiniesofpeoples,and
healonecanarousepassionwhobearsitwithinhimself.
Italonegivesitschosenonethewordswhichlikehammerblows
canopenthegatestotheheartofapeople.
Butthemanwhompassionfailsandwhoselipsaresealedhe
hasnotbeenchosenbyHeaventoproclaimitswill.
Therefore, let the writer remain by his inkwell, engaging in
'theoretical'activity,ifhisintelligenceandabilityareequaltoit;
forleadershipheisneitherbornnorchosen.
Amovementwithgreataimsmustthereforebeanxiouslyonits
guardnottolosecontactwiththebroadmasses.
Itmustexamineeveryquestionprimarilyfromthisstandpoint
andmakeitsdecisionsaccordingly.
Itmust,furthermore,avoideverythingwhichmightdiminishor
evenweakenitsabilitytomovethemasses,notfor'demagogic'
reasons, but inthe simple knowledgethat withoutthe mighty
forceofthemassofapeople,nogreatidea,howeverloftyand
nobleitmayseem,canberealized.
Hard reality alone must determine the road to the goal;
unwillingnesstotravelunpleasantroadsonlytooofteninthis
worldmeanstorenouncethegoal;whichmayormaynotbe
whatyouwant.
As soon as the PanGerman movement by its parliamentary
attitudehadshiftedtheweightofitsactivitytoparliamentinstead
ofthepeople,itlostthefutureandinsteadwoncheapsuccesses
ofthemoment.
It chose the easier struggle and thereby became unworthy of
ultimatevictory.
EveninViennaIponderedthisveryquestionwiththegreatest
care,andinthefailuretorecognizeitsawoneofthemaincauses
of the collapse of the movement which in those days, in my
opinion, was predestined to undertake the leadership of the
Germanelement.
ThefirsttwomistakeswhichcausedthePanGermanmovement

tofounderwererelatedtoeachother.Insufficientknowledgeof
theinnerdrivingforcesofgreatrevolutionsledtoaninsufficient
estimationoftheimportanceofthebroadmassesofthepeople;
fromthisresulteditsinsufficientinterestinthesocialquestion,
itsdeficientandinadequateeffortstowinthesoulofthelower
classesofthenation,aswellasitsoverfavorableattitudetoward
parliament.
Iftheyhadrecognizedthetremendouspowerwhichatalltimes
must be attributed to the masses as the repository of
revolutionaryresistance,theywouldhaveworkeddifferentlyin
socialandpropagandistmatters.Thenthemovement'scenterof
gravity would not have been shifted to parliament, but to the
workshopandthestreet.
Likewise the third error finds its ultimate germ in failure to
recognizethevalueofthemasses,which,itistrue,needsuperior
mindstosettheminmotioninagivendirection,butwhichthen,
like a flywheel, lend the force of the attack momentum and
uniformpersistence.
The hard struggle which the Pangermans fought with the
CatholicChurchcanbeaccountedforonlybytheirinsufficient
understandingofthespiritualnatureofthepeople.
Thecausesforthenewparty'sviolentattackonRomewereas
follows:
AssoonastheHouseofHabsburghaddefinitelymadeupits
mindtoreshapeAustriaintoaSlavicstate,itseizeduponevery
meanswhichseemedinanywaysuitedtothistendency.Even
religious institutions were, without the slightest qualms,
harnessed to the service of the new ' state idea ' by this
unscrupulousrulinghouse.
TheuseofCzechpastoratesandtheirspiritualshepherdswasbut
one of the many means of attaining this goal, a general
SlavizationofAustria.
Theprocesstookapproximatelythefollowingform:
CzechpastorswereappointedtoGermancommunities;slowly
butsurelytheybegantosettheinterests oftheCzechpeople

abovetheinterestsofthechurches,becominggermcellsofthe
deGermanizationprocess.
The German clergy did practically nothing to counter these
methods.Notonlyweretheycompletelyuselessforcarryingon
thisstruggleinapositiveGermansense;theywereevenunable
toopposethenecessaryresistancetotheattacksoftheadversary.
Indirectly,bythemisuseofreligionontheonehand,andowing
toinsufficientdefenseontheother,Germanismwasslowlybut
steadilyforcedback.
Ifinsmallmattersthesituationwasasdescribed,inbigthings,
unfortunately,itwasnotfardifferent.
Here, too, the antiGerman efforts of the Habsburgs did not
encountertheresistancetheyshouldhave,especiallyonthepart
ofthehighclergy,whilethedefenseofGermaninterestssank
completelyintothebackground.
ThegeneralimpressioncouldonlybethattheCatholicclergyas
suchwasgrosslyinfringingonGermanrights.
ThustheChurchdidnotseemtofeelwiththeGermanpeople,
buttosideunjustlywiththeenemy.Therootofthewholeevil
lay,particularlyinSchonerer'sopinion,inthefactthatthedi
rectingbodyoftheCatholicChurchwasnotinGermany,and
thatforthisveryreasonaloneitwashostiletotheinterestsofour
nationality.
Thesocalledculturalproblems,inthisasinvirtuallyeveryother
connectioninAustriaatthattime,wererelegatedalmostentirely
tothebackground.TheattitudeofthePanGermanmovement
toward the Catholic Church was determined far less by its
position on science, etc., than by its inadequacy in the
championingofGermanrightsand,conversely,itscontinuedaid
andcomforttoSlavicarroganceandgreed.
GeorgSchonererwasnotthemantodothingsbyhalves.He
tookupthestruggletowardtheChurchintheconvictionthatby
italonehecouldsavetheGermanpeople.The'AwayfromRome'
movement seemed the most powerful, though, to be sure, the
mostdifficult,modeofattack,whichwouldinevitablyshatterthe

hostilecitadel.Ifitwassuccessful,thetragicchurchschismin
Germany would be healed, and it was possible that the inner
strength of the Empire and the German nation would gain
enormouslybysuchavictory.
Butneitherthepremisenortheinferenceofthisstrugglewas
correct.
Withoutdoubt thenationalforceof resistanceof theCatholic
clergy of German nationality, in all questions connected with
Germanism,waslessthanthatoftheirnonGerman,particularly
Czech,brethren.
Likewiseonlyanignoramuscouldfailtoseethatanoffensivein
favorofGermaninterestswassomethingthatpracticallynever
occurredtotheGermanclergyman.
Andanyonewhowasnotblindwasforcedequallytoadmitthat
thiswasdueprimarilytoacircumstanceunderwhichallofus
Germanshavetosufferseverely:thatis,theobjectivityofour
attitudetowardournationalityaswellaseverythingelse.
WhiletheCzechclergymanwassubjectiveinhisattitudetoward
hispeopleandobjectiveonlytowardtheChurch,theGerman
pastor was subjectively devoted to the Church and remained
objective toward the nation. A phenomenon which, to our
misfortune,wecanobserveequallywellinthousandsofother
cases.
ThisisbynomeansaspeciallegacyofCatholicism,butwithus
it quickly corrodes almost every institution, whether it be
governmentalorideal.
Justcomparethepositionwhichourcivilservants,forexample,
take toward the attempts at a national awakening with the
positionwhichinsuchacasethecivilservantsofanotherpeople
would take. Or does anyone believe that an officers' corps
anywhereelseintheworldwouldsubordinatetheinterestsofthe
nationamidmouthingsabout'stateauthority,'inthewaythathas
beentakenforgrantedinourcountryforthelastfiveyears,in
fact,hasbeenviewedasespeciallymeritorious?IntheJewish
question,forexample,donotbothdenominationstodaytakea

standpointwhichcorrespondsneithertotherequirementsofthe
nationnortotherealneedsofreligion?Comparetheattitudeofa
Jewishrabbiinallquestionsofeventheslightestimportancefor
theJewsasaracewiththeattitudeofbyfarthegreatestpartof
ourclergyofbothdenominations,ifyouplease!
We always find this phenomenon when it is a question of
defendinganabstractideaassuch.
'Stateauthority,''democracy,''pacifism,''internationalsolidarity,'
etc.,areall concepts whichwithusnearlyalways become so
rigidandpurelydoctrinairethatsubsequentlyallpurelynational
vitalnecessitiesarejudgedexclusivelyfromtheirstandpoint.
Thiscatastrophicwayofconsideringallmattersfromtheangle
of a preconceived opinion kills every possibility of thinking
oneselfsubjectivelyintoamatterwhichisobjectivelyopposedto
one'sowndoctrine,andfinallyleadstoatotalreversalofmeans
andends.Peoplewillrejectanyattemptatanationaluprisingif
it can take place only after the elimination of a bad, ruinous
regime,sincethiswouldbeanoffenseagainst'stateauthority,'
and'stateauthority'isnotameanstoanend,butintheeyesof
suchafanaticalobjectivistratherrepresentstheaimitself,which
is sufficient to fill out his whole lamentable life. Thus, for
example, they would indignantly oppose any attempt at a
dictatorship,evenifitwasrepresentedbyaFredericktheGreat
and the momentary political comedians of a parliamentary
majoritywereincapabledwarfsorreallyinferiorcharacters,just
becausethelawofdemocracyseemsholiertosuchaprinciple
monger than the welfare of a nation. The one will therefore
defendtheworsttyranny,atyrannywhichisruiningthepeople,
sinceatthemomentitembodies'stateauthority,'whiletheother
rejectseventhemostbeneficialgovernmentassoonasitfailsto
satisfyhisconceptionof'democracy.'
In exactly the same way, our German pacifist will accept in
silencethebloodiestrapeofournationatthehandsofthemost
viciousmilitarypowersifachangeinthisstateofaffairscanbe
achieved only by resistancethat is, forcefor this would be
contrarytothespiritofhispeacesociety.Lettheinternational

GermanSocialist beplunderedinsolidaritybytherestofthe
world,hewillacceptitwithbrotherlyaffectionandnothoughtof
retributionorevendefense,justbecauseheisaGerman.
Thismaybeasadstateofaffairs,buttochangeathingmeansto
recognizeitfirst.
ThesameistrueoftheweakdefenseofGermaninterestsbya
partoftheclergy.
Itisneithermaliciousillwillinitself,norisitcaused,letussay,
by commands from 'above'; no, in such a lack of national
determination we see merely the result of an inadequate
educationinGermanismfromchildhoodupand, onthe other
hand,anunlimitedsubmissiontoanideawhichhasbecomean
idol.
Educationindemocracy,insocialismoftheinternationalvariety,
in pacifism, etc., is a thing so rigid and exclusive, so purely
subjectivefromthesepointsofview,thatthegeneralpictureof
the remaining world is colored by this dogmatic conception,
whiletheattitudetowardGermanismhasremainedexceedingly
objectivefromearlyyouth.Thus,thepacifist,bygivinghimself
subjectivelyandentirelytohisidea,will,inthepresenceofany
menacetohispeople,beiteversograveandunjust,always(in
sofarasheisaGerman)seekaftertheobjectiverightandnever
frompureinstinctofselfpreservationjointheranksofhisherd
andfightwiththem.
Towhatextentthisisalsotrueofthedifferentreligionsisshown
bythefollowing:
Protestantism as such is a better defender of the interests of
Germanism,insofarasthisisgroundedinitsgenesisandlater
tradition:itfails,however,inthemomentwhenthisdefenseof
nationalinterestsmusttakeplaceinaprovincewhichiseither
absent from the general line of its ideological world and
traditionaldevelopment,orisforsomereasonrejected.
Thus,Protestantismwillalwaysstandupfortheadvancementof
all Germanism as such, as long as matters of inner purity or
nationaldeepeningaswellasGermanfreedomareinvolvedsince

allthesethingshaveafirmfoundationinitsownbeing;butit
combats with the greatest hostility any attempt to rescue the
nation from the embrace of its most mortal enemy, since its
attitude toward the Jews just happens to be more or less
dogmatically established. Yet here we are facing the question
without whose solution all other attempts at a German
reawakeningorresurrectionareandremainabsolutelysenseless
andimpossible.
InmyViennaperiodIhadleisureandopportunityenoughforan
unprejudicedexaminationofthisquestiontoo,andinmydaily
contacts was able to establish the correctness of this view a
thousandtimesover.
In this focus of the most varied nationalities, it immediately
becomes clearly apparent that the German pacifist is alone in
always attempting to view the interests of his own nation
objectively,butthattheJewwillneverregardthoseoftheJewish
people in this way; that only the German Socialist is
linternaticnal'inasensewhichforbidshimtobegjusticeforhis
ownpeopleexceptbywhimperingandwhininginthemidstof
hisinternationalcomrades,butneveraCzechoraPole,etc.;in
short,Irecognizedeventhenthatthemisfortuneliesonlypartly
inthesedoctrines,andpartlyinourtotallyinadequateeducation
in national sentiment and a resultant lack of devotion to our
nation.
Thus, the first theoretical foundation for a struggle of the
PanGermanmovementagainstCatholicismassuchwaslacking.
LettheGermanpeopleberaisedfromchildhoodupwiththat
exclusiverecognitionoftherightsoftheirownnationality,and
letnottheheartsofchildrenbecontaminatedwiththecurseof
our 'objectivity,' evenin matters regardingthe preservation of
their own ego. Then in a short time it will be seen that
(presupposing, of course, a radically national government) in
Germany, as in Ireland, Poland, or France, the Catholic will
alwaysbeaGerman.
Themightiestproofofthiswasprovidedbythatepochwhichfor
thelasttimeledournationintoalifeanddeathstrugglebefore

thejudgmentseatofhistoryindefenseofitsownexistence.
Aslongasleadershipfromabovewasnotlacking,thepeople
fulfilled their duty and obligation overwhelmingly. Whether
Protestant pastor or Catholic priest, both together contributed
infinitelyinmaintainingforsolongourpowertoresist,notonly
atthefrontbutalsoathome.Intheseyearsandparticularlyatthe
firstflare,therereallyexistedinbothcampsbutasingleholy
GermanReich,forwhoseexistenceandfutureeachmanturned
tohisownheaven.
ThePanGermanmovementinAustriashouldhaveaskeditself
onequestion:
Is the preservation of GermanAustrianism possible under a
Catholicfaith,orisitnot?Ifyes,thepoliticalpartyhadnoright
toconcernitselfwithreligiousordenominationalmatters;ifnot,
thenwhatwasneededwasareligiousreformationandnevera
politicalparty.
Anyonewhothinkshecanarriveatareligiousreformationby
thedetourofapoliticalorganizationonlyshowsthathehasno
glimmerofknowledgeofthedevelopmentofreligiousideasor
dogmasandtheirecclesiasticalconsequences.
Verily a man cannot serve two masters. And I consider the
foundation or destruction of a religion far greater than the
foundationordestructionofastate,letaloneaparty.
And let it not be said that this is only a defense against the
attacksfromtheotherside!
Itiscertainthatatalltimesunscrupulousscoundrelshavenot
shunnedtomakeevenreligiontheinstrumentoftheirpolitical
bargains (for that is what such rabble almost always and
exclusivelydealin):butjustascertainlyitiswrongtomakea
religiousdenominationresponsibleforanumberoftrampswho
abuseitinexactlythesamewayastheywouldprobablymake
anythingelseservetheirlowinstincts.
Nothingcanbettersuitoneoftheseparliamentariangoodfor
nothingsandloungelizardsthanwhenanopportunityisoffered
tojustifyhispoliticalswindling,evenafterthefact.

Forassoonasreligionorevendenominationismaderesponsible
forhispersonalvicesandattackedonthatground,thisshameless
liarsetsupagreatoutcryandcallsthewholeworldtowitness
thathisbehaviorhasbeencompletelyjustifiedandthathealone
andhiseloquencearetobethankedforsavingreligionofthe
Church. The public, as stupid as it is forgetful, is, as a rule,
preventedbytheveryoutcryfromrecognizingtherealinstigator
ofthestruggleorelsehasforgottenhim,andthescoundrelhasto
allintentsandpurposesachievedhisgoal.
Theslyfoxknowsperfectlywellthatthishasnothingtodowith
religion;andhewillsilentlylaughuphissleevewhilehishonest
butclumsyopponentlosesthegameandoneday,despairingof
theloyaltyandfaithofhumanity,withdrawsfromitall.
Andinanothersenseitwouldbeunjusttomakereligionassuch
oreventheChurchresponsibleforthefailingsofindividuals.
Comparethegreatnessofthevisibleorganizationbeforeoureyes
withtheaveragefallibilityofmaningeneral,andyouwillhave
toadmitthatinittherelationofgoodandevilisbetterthan
anywhereelse.Tobesure,evenamongtheprieststhemselves
there are those towhom their holyoffice is onlya means of
satisfyingtheirpoliticalambition,yes,whoinpoliticalstruggle
forget,inafashionwhichisoftenmorethandeplorablethatthey
aresupposedtobetheguardiansofahighertruthandnotthe
representatives of lies and slanderbut for one such unworthy
priestthereareathousandandmorehonorableones,shepherds
mostloyallydevotedtotheirmission,who,inourpresentfalse
anddecadentperiod,standoutofthegeneralmorasslikelittle
islands.
NomorethanIcondemn,orwouldbejustifiedincondemning,
theChurchassuchwhenadegenerateindividualinacassock
obscenelytransgressesagainstmorality,doIcondemnitwhen
oneofthemanyothersbesmirchesandbetrayshisnationalityat
a time when this is a daily occurrence anyway. Particularly
today,wemustnotforgetthatforonesuchEphialtesthereare
thousandswhowithbleedingheartfeelthemisfortuneoftheir
peopleandlikethebestofournationlongforthehourinwhich
Heavenwillsmileonusagain.

Andifanyonerepliesthatherewearenotconcernedwithsuch
everydayproblems,butwithquestionsofprincipleandtruthor
dogmaticcontent,wecanaptlycounterwithanotherquestion:
IfyoubelievethatyouhavebeenchosenbyFatetorevealthe
truthinthismatter,doso;butthenhavethecouragetodoso,not
indirectlythroughapoliticalpartyforthisisaswindle;butfor
today'sevilsubstituteyourfuturegood.
Butifyoulackcourage,orifyourgoodisnotquiteclearevento
yourself,thenkeepyourfingersoutofthematter;inanycase,do
not attempt by roundabout sneaking through a political
movementtodowhatyoudarenotdowithanopenvizor.
Politicalpartieshavenothingtodowithreligiousproblems,as
longasthesearenotalientothenation,underminingthemorals
andethicsoftherace;justasreligioncannotbeamalgamated
withtheschemingofpoliticalparties.
When Churchdignitaries make use of religious institutions or
doctrinestoinjuretheirnation,wemustneverfollowthemon
thispathandfightwiththesamemethods.
Forthepoliticalleaderthereligiousdoctrinesandinstitutionsof
hispeopletrustalwaysremaininviolable;orelsehehasnoright
tobeinpolitics,butshouldbecomeareformer,ifhehaswhatit
takes!
Especially in Germany any other attitude would lead to a
catastrophe.
In my study of the PanGerman movement and its struggle
against Rome, I then, and even more in the years to come,
arrivedatthefollowingconviction:Thismovement'sinadequate
appreciationoftheimportanceofthesocialproblemcostitthe
trulymilitantmassofthepeople;itsentryintoparliamenttook
awayitsmightyimpetusandburdeneditwithalltheweaknesses
peculiar to this institution; the struggle against the Catholic
Churchmadeitimpossibleinnumeroussmallandmiddlecircles,
and thus robbed it of countless of the best elements that the
nationcancallitsown.
ThepracticalresultoftheAustrianKulturkampfAtwasnextto

To be sure, it succeeded in tearing some hundred thousand


members away from the Church, yet without causing it any
particulardamage.InthiscasetheChurchreallyhadnoneedto
shedtearsoverthelost'lambs';foritlostonlythosewhohad
long ceased to belong to it. The difference between the new
reformationandtheoldonewasthatintheolddaysmanyofthe
bestpeopleintheChurchturnedawayfromitthroughprofound
religiousconviction,whilenowonlythosewhowerelukewarm
to begin with departed, and this from 'considerations' of a
politicalnature.
Andpreciselyfromthepoliticalstandpointtheresultwasjustas
laughableasitwassad.
Onceagainapromisingpoliticalmovementforthesalvationof
theGermannationhadgonetothedogsbecauseithadnotbeen
ledwiththenecessary coldruthlessness, buthadlostitself in
fieldswhichcouldonlyleadtodisintegration.
Foronethingisassuredlytrue:
ThePanGermanmovementwouldneverhavemadethismistake
butforitsinsufficientunderstandingofthepsycheofthebroad
masses.Ifitsleadershadknownthattoachieveanysuccessone
should,onpurelypsychologicalgrounds,nevershowthemasses
twoormoreopponents,sincethisleadstoatotaldisintegration
oftheirfightingpower,forthisreasonalonethethrustofthe
PanGerman movement would have been directed at a single
adversary.Nothingismoredangerousforapoliticalpartythanto
beledbythosejacksofalltradeswhowanteverythingbutcan
neverreallyachieveanything.
Regardless how much room for criticism there was in any
religiousdenominationapoliticalpartymustneverforamoment
losesightofthefactthatinallprevioushistoricalexperiencea
purelypoliticalpartyinsuchsituationshadneversucceededin
producing a religious reformation. And the aim of studying
historyisnottoforgetitslessonswhenoccasionarisesforits
practical application, or to decide that the present situation is
differentafterall,andthatthereforeitsoldeternaltruthsareno
longerapplicable;no,thepurposeofstudyinghistoryisprecisely

itslessonforthepresent.Themanwhocannotdothismustnot
conceive of himself as a political leader; in reality he is a
shallow,thoughusuallyveryconceited,fool,andnoamountof
goodwillcanexcusehispracticalincapacity.
Ingeneraltheartofalltrulygreatnationalleadersatalltimes
consists among other things primarily in not dividing the
attentionofapeople,butinconcentratingituponasinglefoe.
Themoreunifiedtheapplicationofapeople'swilltofight,the
greaterwillbethemagneticattractionofamovementandthe
mightierwillbetheimpetusofthethrust.Itbelongstothegenius
ofagreatleadertomakeevenadversariesfarremovedfromone
anotherseemtobelongtoasinglecategory,becauseinweakand
uncertaincharacterstheknowledgeofhavingdifferentenemies
canonlytooreadilyleadtothebeginningofdoubtintheirown
right.
Oncethewaveringmassseesitselfinastruggleagainsttoomany
enemies,objectivitywillputinanappearance,throwingopenthe
questionwhetherallothersarereallywrongandonlytheirown
peopleortheirownmovementareintheright.
And this brings about the first paralysis of their own power.
Hence a multiplicity of different adversaries must always be
combined so that in the eyes of the masses of one's own
supportersthestruggleisdirectedagainstonlyoneenemy.This
strengthens their faith in their own right and enhances their
bitternessagainstthosewhoattackit.
That the old PanGerman movement failed to understand this
depriveditofsuccess.
Itsgoalhadbeencorrect,itswillpure,buttheroaditchosewas
wrong.Itwaslikeamountainclimberwhokeepsthepeaktobe
climbedinviewandwhosetsoutwiththegreatestdetermination
andenergy,butpaysnoattentiontothetrail,forhiseyesare
always on his goal, so that he neither sees nor feels out the
characteroftheascentandthuscomestogriefintheend.
The opposite state of affairs seemed to prevail with its great
competitor,theChristianSocialParty.

Theroaditchosewascorrectandwellchosen,butitlackedclear
knowledgeofitsgoal.
InnearlyallthemattersinwhichthePanGermanmovementwas
wanting,theattitudeoftheChristianSocialPartywascorrect
andwellplanned.
Itpossessedthenecessaryunderstandingfortheimportanceof
themassesandfromtheveryfirstdayassureditselfofatleasta
partofthembyopenemphasisonitssocialcharacter.Byaiming
essentiallyat winningthesmallandlowermiddleclassesand
artisans, it obtained a following as enduring as it was self
sacrificing.Itavoidedanystruggleagainstareligiousinstitution
andthussecuredthesupportofthatmightyorganizationwhich
theChurchrepresents.Consequently,itpossessedonlyasingle
truly great central opponent. It recognized the value of large
scale propaganda and was a virtuoso in influencing the
psychologicalinstinctsofthebroadmassesofitsadherents.
Ifneverthelessitwasunabletoachieveitsgoalanddreamof
savingAustria,thiswasduetotwodeficienciesinitsmethodand
toitslackofclarityconcerningtheaimitself.
TheantiSemitismofthenewmovementwasbasedonreligious
ideasinsteadofracialknowledge.Thereasonfortheintrusionof
this mistake was the same which brought about the second
fallacyIftheChristianSocialPartywantedtosaveAustria,then
is; the opinion of its founders it must not operate from the
standpointoftheracialprinciple,forifitdidadissolutionofthe
state would,in a shorttime,inevitably occur.Particularlythe
situation in Vienna itself, in the opinion of the party leaders,
demanded that all points which would divide their following
shouldbesetasideasmuchaspossible,andthatallunifying
conceptionsbeemphasizedintheirstead.
AtthattimeViennawassostronglypermeatedespeciallywith
Czechelementsthatonlythegreatesttolerancewithregardtoall
racialquestionscouldkeeptheminapartywhichwasnotanti
German to begin with. If Austria were to be saved, this was
indispensable.AndsotheyattemptedtowinoversmallCzech
artisanswhowereespeciallynumerousinVienna,byastruggle

against liberal Manchesterism, and in the struggle against the


Jews on a religious basis they thought they had discovered a
slogantranscendingallofoldAustria'snationaldifferences.
ItisobviousthatcombatingJewryonsuchabasiscouldprovide
theJewswithsmallcauseforconcern.Iftheworstcametothe
worst,asplashofbaptismalwatercouldalwayssavethebusiness
andtheJewatthesametime.Withsuchasuperficialmotivation,
aseriousscientifictreatmentofthewholeproblemwasnever
achieved,andasaresultfartoomanypeople,towhomthistype
of antiSemitism was bound to be incomprehensible, were
repelled. The recruiting power of the idea was limited almost
exclusively to intellectually limited circles, unless true
knowledge were substituted for purely emotional feeling. The
intelligentsiaremainedaloofasamatterofprinciple.Thusthe
wholemovementcametolookmoreandmorelikeanattemptat
anewconversionoftheJews,orperhapsevenanexpressionofa
certain competitive envy. And hence the struggle lost the
characterofaninnerandhigherconsecration;tomany,andnot
necessarily the worst people, it came to seem immoral and
reprehensible.Lackingwastheconvictionthatthiswasavital
questionforallhumanity,withthefateofallnonJewishpeoples
dependingonitssolution.
Through this halfheartedness the antiSemitic line of the
ChristianSocialPartylostitsvalue.
ItwasashamantiSemitismwhichwasalmostworsethannone
atall;foritlulledpeopleintosecurity;theythoughttheyhadthe
foebytheears,whileinrealitytheythemselveswerebeingled
bythenose.
InashorttimetheJewhadbecomesoaccustomedtothistypeof
antiSemitismthathewouldhavemisseditsdisappearancemore
thanitspresenceinconveniencedhim.
IfinthistheChristianSocialPartyhadtomakeaheavysacrifice
tothestateofnationalities,theyhadtomakeanevengreaterone
whenitcametochampioningGermanismassuch.
Theycouldnotbe'nationalistic'unlesstheywantedtolosethe
groundfrombeneaththeirfeetinVienna.Theyhopedthatbya

pussyfootingevasionofthisquestiontheycouldstillsavethe
Habsburgstate,andbythatverythingtheyencompasseditsruin.
Andthemovementlostthemightysourceofpowerwhichalone
canfill a political partywithinner strengthfor anylengthof
time.
ThroughthisalonetheChristianSocialPartybecameapartylike
anyother.
InthosedaysIfollowedbothmovementsmostattentivelyOne,
byfeelingthebeatofitsinnermostheart,theother,carriedaway
byadmirationfortheunusualmanwhoeventhenseemedtome
abittersymbolofallAustrianGermanism.
Whenthemightyfuneralprocessionborethedeadmayorfrom
theCityHalltowardtheRing,Iwasamongthemanyhundred
thousandslookingonatthetragicspectacle.Iwasprofoundly
movedandmyfeelingstoldmethatthework,evenofthisman,
wasboundtobeinvain,owingtothefataldestinywhichwould
inevitablyleadthisstatetodestruction.IfDr.KarlLuegerhad
livedinGermany,hewouldhavebeenrankedamongthegreat
mindsofourpeople;thathelivedandworkedinthisimpossible
statewasthemisfortuneofhisworkandofhimself.
Whenhedied,thelittleflamesintheBalkanswerebeginningto
leap up more greedily from month to month, and it was a
gracious fate which spared him from witnessing what he still
thoughthecouldprevent.
Outofthefailureoftheonemovementandthemiscarriageofthe
other,Iformypartsoughttofindthecauses,andcametothe
certain conviction that, quite aside from the impossibility of
bolsteringupthestateinoldAustria,theerrorsofthetwoparties
wereasfollows:
The PanGerman movement was right in its theoretical view
about the aim of a German renascence, but unfortunate in its
choice of methods. It was nationalistic, but unhappily not
socialisticenoughtowinthemasses.ButitsantiSemitismwas
basedonacorrectunderstandingoftheimportanceoftheracial
problem,andnotonreligiousideas.Itsstruggleagainstadefinite
denomination,however,wasactuallyandtacticallyfalse.

TheChristianSocialmovementhadanunclearconceptionofthe
aimofaGermanreawakening,buthadintelligenceandluckin
seekingitsmethodsasaparty.Itunderstoodtheimportanceof
thesocialquestion,erredinitsstruggleagainsttheJews,andhad
nonotionofthepowerofthenationalidea.
If,inadditiontoitsenlightenedknowledgeofthebroadmasses,
the Christian Social Party had had a correct idea of the
importance of the racial question, such as the PanGerman
movement had achieved; and if, finally, it had itself been
nationalistic,orifthePanGermanmovement,inadditiontoits
correctknowledgeoftheaimoftheJewishquestion,hadadopted
thepracticalshrewdnessoftheChristianSocialParty,especially
in its attitude toward socialism, there would have resulted a
movement which even then in my opinion might have
successfullyintervenedinGermandestiny.
Ifthisdidnot comeabout,itwas overwhelminglyduetothe
natureoftheAustrianstate.
SinceIsawmyconvictionrealizedinnootherparty,Icouldin
theperiodthatfollowednotmakeupmymindtoenter,letalone
fight with, any of the existing organizations. Even then I
regardedallpoliticalmovementsasunsuccessfulandunableto
carry out a national reawakening of the German people on a
largerandnotpurelyexternalscale.
ButinthisperiodmyinnerrevulsiontowardtheHabsburgstate
steadilygrew.
The more particularly I concerned myself with questions of
foreignpolicy,themoremyconvictionroseandtookrootthat
thispoliticalformationcouldresultinnothingbutthemisfortune
ofGermanism.MoreandmoreclearlyIsawatlastthatthefate
oftheGermannationwouldnolongerbedecidedhere,butinthe
Reichitself.Thiswastrue,notonlyofpoliticalquestions,butno
lessforallmanifestationsofculturallifeingeneral.
Alsointhefieldofculturalorartisticaffairs,theAustrianstate
showed all symptoms of degeneration, or at least of
unimportancefortheGermannation.Thiswasmosttrueinthe
field of architecture. The new architecture could achieve no

specialsuccessesinAustria,iffornootherreasonbecausesince
the completion of the Ring its tasks, in Vienna at least, had
become insignificant in comparison with the plans arising in
Germany.
ThusmoreandmoreIbegantoleadadoublelife;reasonand
realitytoldmetocompleteaschoolasbitterasitwasbeneficial
inAustria,butmyheartdweltelsewhere.
Anoppressivediscontenthadseizedpossessionofme,themoreI
recognized the inner hollowness of this state and the
impossibilityofsavingit,andfeltthatinallthingsitcouldbe
nothingbutthemisfortuneoftheGermanpeople.
I was convinced that this state inevitably oppressed and
handicappedanyreallygreatGermanas,conversely,itwould
helpeveryunGermanfigure.
Iwasrepelledbytheconglomerationofraceswhichthecapital
showed me, repelled by this whole mixture of Czechs, Poles,
Hungarians,Ruthenians,Serbs,andCroats,andeverywhere,the
eternalmushroomofhumanityJewsandmoreJews.
To me the giant city seemed the embodiment of racial
desecration.
TheGermanofmyyouthwasthedialectofLowerBavaria,I
couldneitherforgetitnorlearntheViennesejargon.ThelongerI
lived in this city, the more my hatred grew for the foreign
mixtureofpeopleswhichhadbeguntocorrodethisoldsiteof
Germanculture.
Theideathatthisstatecouldbemaintainedmuchlongerseemed
tomepositivelyridiculous.
Austria was then like an old mosaic; the cement, binding the
various little stones together, had grown old and begun to
crumble;aslongastheworkofartisnottouched,itcancontinue
togiveashowofexistence,butassoonasitreceivesablow,it
breaksintoathousandfragments.Thequestionwasonlywhen
theblowwouldcome.
SincemyhearthadneverbeatenforanAustrianmonarchy,but
onlyforaGermanReich,thehourofthisstate'sdownfallcould

onlyseemtomethebeginningoftheredemptionoftheGerman
nation.
Forallthesereasonsalongingrosestrongerandstrongerinme,
togoatlastwhithersincemychildhoodsecretdesiresandsecret
lovehaddrawnme.
Ihopedsomedaytomakeanameformyselfasanarchitectand
thus,onthelargeorsmallscalewhichFatewouldallotme,to
dedicatemysincereservicestothenation.
ButfinallyIwantedtoenjoythehappinessoflivingandworking
intheplacewhichsomedaywouldinevitablybringaboutthe
fulfillmentofmymostardentandheartfeltwish:theunionofmy
beloved homeland with the common fatherland, the German
Reich.
Eventodaymanywouldbeunabletocomprehendthegreatness
ofsuchalonging,butIaddressmyselftothosetowhomFatehas
eitherhithertodeniedthis,orfromwhominharshcrueltyithas
takenitaway;Iaddressmyselftoallthosewho,detachedfrom
theirmothercountry,havetofightevenfortheholytreasureof
theirlanguage,whoarepersecutedandtorturedfortheirloyalty
tothefatherland,andwhonow,withpoignantemotion,longfor
thehourwhichwillpermitthemtoreturntotheheartoftheir
faithfulmother;Iaddressmyselftoallthese,andIknowthat
theywillunderstandme!
Only he who has felt in his own skin what it means to be a
German, deprived of the right to belong to his cherished
fatherland,canmeasurethedeeplongingwhichburnsatalltimes
intheheartsofchildrenseparatedfromtheirmothercountry.It
tormentsthosewhomitfillsanddeniesthemcontentmentand
happinessuntilthegatesoftheirfather'shouseopen,andinthe
commonReich,commonbloodgainspeaceandtranquillity.
YetViennawasandremainedformethehardest,thoughmost
thorough,schoolofmylife.Ihadsetfootinthistownwhilestill
halfaboyandIleftitaman,grownquietandgrave.InitI
obtained the foundations for a philosophy in general and a
political view in particular which later I only needed to
supplementindetail,butwhichneverleftme.Butnotuntiltoday

haveIbeenabletoestimateattheirfullvaluethoseyearsof
study.
ThatiswhyIhavedealtwiththisperiodatsomelength,because
itgavememyfirstvisualinstructioninpreciselythosequestions
whichbelongedtothefoundationsofapartywhich,arisingfrom
smallest beginnings, after scarcely five years is beginning to
developintoagreatmassmovement.Idonotknowwhatmy
attitudetowardtheJews,SocialDemocracy,orratherMarxism
asawhole,thesocialquestion,etc.,wouldbetodayifatsuchan
earlytimethepressureofdestinyandmyownstudyhadnot
builtupabasicstockofpersonalopinionswithinme.
Forifthemiseryofthefatherlandcanstimulatethousandsand
thousands of men to thought on the inner reasons for this
collapse, this can never lead to that thoroughness and deep
insightwhicharedisclosedtothemanwhohashimselfmastered
Fateonlyafteryearsofstruggle.

Chapter 4:

Munich
Inthespringof1912IcameatlasttoMunich.
ThecityitselfwasasfamiliartomeasifIhadlivedforyears
within its walls. This is accounted for by my study which at
everystephadledmetothismetropolisofGermanart.Notonly
has one not seen Germany if one does not know Munichno,
aboveall,onedoesnotknowGermanartifonehasnotseen
Munich.
Inanycase,thisperiodbeforetheWarwasthehappiestandby
farthemostcontentedofmylife.Evenifmyearningswerestill
extremelymeager,Ididnotlivetobeabletopaint,butpainted
onlytobeabletosecuremylivelihoodorrathertoenablemyself
togoonstudying.IpossessedtheconvictionthatIshouldsome
day,inspiteofallobstacles,achievethegoalIhadsetmyself.
Andthisaloneenabledmetobearallotherpettycaresofdaily
existencelightlyandwithoutanxiety.
Inadditiontothis,therewastheheartfeltlovewhichseizedme
forthiscitymorethanforanyotherplacethatIknew,almost
fromthefirsthourofmysojournthere.AGermancity!Whata
differencefromVienna!IgrewsicktomystomachwhenIeven
thoughtbackonthisBabylonofraces.Inaddition,thedialect,
muchclosertome,whichparticularlyinmycontactswithLower
Bavarians,remindedmeofmyformerchildhood.Therewerea
thousandandmorethingswhichwereorbecameinwardlydear
and precious to me. But most of all I was attracted by this
wonderfulmarriageofprimordialpowerandfineartisticmood,
this single line from theHofbrauhaus tothe Odeon, fromthe
October Festival to the Pinakothek, etc. If today I am more
attachedtothiscitythantoanyotherspotofearthinthisworld,
itispartlyduetothefactthatitisandremainsinseparablybound

upwiththedevelopmentofmyownlife;ifeventhenIachieved
thehappinessofatrulyinwardcontentment,itcanbeattributed
only to the magic which the miraculous residence of the
Wittelsbachsexertsoneverymanwhoisblessed,notonlywitha
calculatingmindbutwithafeelingsoul.
Whatattractedmemostasidefrommyprofessionalworkwas,
hereagain,thestudyofthepoliticaleventsoftheday,among
themparticularlytheoccurrencesinthefieldofforeignaffairs.I
cametotheselatterindirectlythroughtheGermanalliancepolicy
whichfrommyAustriandaysIconsideredabsolutelymistaken.
However,thefullextentofthisselfdeceptiononthepartofthe
ReichhadnotbeencleartomeinVienna.InthosedaysIwas
inclinedtoassumeorperhapsImerelytalkedmyselfintoitasan
excusethatBerlinperhapsknewhowweakandunreliablethe
allywouldbeinreality,yet,formoreorlessmysteriousreasons,
heldbackthisknowledgeinordertobolsterupanalliancepolicy
whichafterallBismarckhimselfhadfoundedandthesudden
cessationofwhichcouldnotbedesirable,iffornootherreason
lest the lurking foreigner be alarmed in any way, or the
shopkeeperathomebeworried.
Tobesure,myassociations,particularlyamongthepeopleitself,
soonmademeseetomyhorrorthatthisbeliefwasfalse.Tomy
amazement I could not help seeing everywhere that even in
otherwise wellinformed circles there was not the slightest
glimmer of knowledgeconcerningthenatureoftheHabsburg
monarchy.Particularlythecommonpeoplewerecaughtinthe
mad idea that the ally could be regarded as a serious power
which in the hour of need would surely rise to the situation.
Among the masses the monarchy was still regarded as a '
German' state on which we could count. They were of the
opinion that there, too, the power could be measured by the
millionsasinGermanyitself,andcompletelyforgotthat,inthe
firstplace:AustriahadlongceasedtobeaGermanstate;andin
the second place: the internal conditions of this Empire were
fromhourtohourmovingclosertodisintegration.
Ihadcometoknowthisstateformationbetterthanthesocalled
official 'diplomats,' who blindly, as almost always, rushed

headlong toward catastrophe; for the moodof the people was


always a mere discharge of what was funneled into public
opinionfromabove.Butthepeopleontopmadeacultofthe
'ally,'asifitweretheGoldenCalf.Theyhopedtoreplaceby
cordialitywhatwaslackinginhonesty.Andwordswerealways
takenforcoinoftherealm.
EveninViennaIhadbeenseizedwithangerwhenIreflectedon
thedisparityappearingfromtimetotimebetweenthespeeches
oftheofficialstatesmenandthecontentoftheViennesepress.
AndyetVienna,inappearanceatleast,wasstillaGermancity.
How different it was if you left Vienna, or rather German
Austria,andwenttotheSlavicprovincesoftheEmpire!You
hadonlytotakeupthePraguenewspaperstofindoutwhatthey
thoughtofthewholeexaltedhocuspocusoftheTripleAlliance.
Theretherewasnothingbutbitterscornandmockeryforthis
'masterpiece of statecraft.' In the midst of peace, with both
emperorspressingkissesoffriendshiponeachother'sforeheads,
theCzechsmadenosecretofthefactthatthisalliancewouldbe
doneforonthedaywhenanattemptshouldbemadetotranslate
it from themoonbeams of the Nibelungen ideal into practical
reality.
What excitement seized these same people several years later
whenthetimefinallycameforthealliancestoshowtheirworth
andItalyleaptoutofthetriplepact,leavinghertwocomradesin
the lurch, and in the end even becoming their enemy ! That
anyoneevenforamomentshouldhavedaredtobelieveinthe
possibilityofsuchamiracletowit,themiradethatItalywould
fight side by side with Austriacould be nothing but
incomprehensible to anyone who was not stricken with
diplomatic blindness. But in Austria things were not a hair's
breadthdifferent.
In Austria the only exponents of the alliance idea were the
HabsburgsandtheGermans.TheHabsburgs,outofcalculation
and compulsion; the Germans, from good faith and political
stupidity.Fromgoodfaith,fortheythoughtthatbytheTriple
AlliancetheywereperformingagreatservicefortheGerman
Reichitself,helpingtostrengthenandsecureit;frompolitical

stupidity,becauseneitherdidthefirstmentionedoccur,buton
thecontrary,theytherebyhelpedtochaintheReichtothecorpse
ofastatewhichwouldinevitablydragthembothintotheabyss,
andaboveallbecausetheythemselves,solelybyvirtueofthis
alliance,fellmoreandmoreapreytodeGermanization.Forby
thealliancewiththeReich,theHabsburgsthoughttheycouldbe
secure against any interference from this side, which
unfortunately was thecase, and thus they were ablefar more
easilyandsafelytocarrythroughtheirinternalpolicyofslowly
eliminatingGermanism.Notonlythatinviewofourwellknown
'objectivity'theyhadnoneedtofearanyinterventiononthepart
oftheReichgovernment,but,bypointingtothealliance,they
couldalsosilenceanyembarrassingvoiceamongtheAustrian
Germans which might rise in German quarters against
Slavizationofanexcessivelydisgracefulcharacter.
ForwhatwastheGermaninAustriatodoiftheGermansofthe
Reich recognized and expressed confidence in the Habsburg
government?Shouldheofferresistanceandbebrandedbythe
entireGermanpublicasatraitortohisownnationality?When
fordecadeshehadbeenmakingthemostenormoussacrifices
preciselyforhisnationality!
Butwhatvaluedidthisalliancehave,onceGermanismhadbeen
exterminatedintheHabsburgmonarchy?Wasn'tthevalueofthe
Triple Alliance for Germany positively dependent on the
preservationofGermanpredominanceinAustria?Ordidthey
really believe that they could live in an alliance with a
SlavicHabsburgEmpire?
The attitude of official German diplomacy and of all public
opiniontowardtheinternalAustrianproblemofnationalitieswas
beyondstupidity,itwaspositivelyinsane!Theybankedonan
alliance, made the future and security of a people of seventy
millionsdependentonitandlookedonwhilethesolebasisfor
thisalliancewasfromyeartoyear,inexorablyandbyplan,being
destroyed in the partnernation. The day was bound to come
whena'treaty'withViennesediplomacywouldremain,butthe
aidofanalliedempirewouldbelost.

WithItalythiswasthecasefromtheverybeginning.
If people in Germany had only studied history a little more
clearly,andgoneintothepsychologofnations,theywouldnot
havebeenabletosupposeevenforanhourthattheQuirinaland
the Vienna Hofburg would ever stand together n a common
fighting front. Sooner would Italy have turned into a volcano
thanagovernmenthavedaredtosendevenasingleItaliantothe
battlefieldforthefanaticallyhatedHabsburgstate,exceptasan
enemy. More than once in Vienna I saw outbursts of the
passionatecontemptandbottomlesshatredwithwhichtheItalian
was'devoted'totheAustrianstate.ThesinsoftheHouseof
HabsburgagainstItalianfreedomandindependenceinthecourse
ofthecenturieswastoogreattobeforgotten,evenifthewillto
forgetthemhadbeenpresent.Anditwasnotpresent;neitherin
thepeoplenorintheItaliangovernment.ForItalytherewere
therefore two possibilities for relations with Austna: either
allianceorwar.
By choosing the first, the Italians were able to prepare,
undisturbed,forthesecond.
EspeciallysincetherelationofAustriatoRussiahadbegunto
drivecloserandclosertoamilitaryclash,theGermanalliance
policywasassenselessasitwasdangerous.
Thiswasaclassiccase,bearingwitnesstotheabsenceofany
broadandcorrectlineofthinking.
Why,then,wasanallianceconcluded?Onlyinorderbetterto
guardthefutureoftheReichthan,reducedtoherownresources,
shewouldhavebeeninapositiontodo.Andthisfutureofthe
Reich was nothing other than the question of preserving the
Germanpeople'spossibilityofexistence.
Thereforethequestioncouldbeformulatedonlyasfollows:
What form must the lifeof theGermannationassume inthe
tangiblefuture,andhowcanthisdevelopmentbeprovidedwith
thenecessaryfoundationsandtherequiredsecuritywithinthe
frameworkofgeneralEuropeanrelationofforces?
Aclearexaminationofthepremisesforforeignactivityonthe

part of German statecraft inevitably led to the following


conviction:
Germany has an annual increase in population of nearly nine
hundredthousandsouls.Thedifficultyoffeedingthisarmyof
newcitizensmustgrowgreaterfromyeartoyearandultimately
endincatastrophe,unlesswaysandmeansarefoundtoforestall
thedangerofstarvationandmiseryintime.
Therewerefourwaysofavoidingsoterribleadevelopmentfor
thefuture:
1.FollowingtheFrenchexample,theincreaseofbirthscouldbe
artificially restricted, thus meeting the problem of
overpopulation.Natureherselfintimesofgreatpovertyorbad
climactic conditions, as well as poor harvest, intervenes to
restricttheincreaseofpopulationofcertaincountriesorraces;
this, to be sure, by a method as wise as it is ruthless. She
diminishes, not the power of procreation as such, but the
conservationoftheprocreated,byexposingthemtohardtrials
anddeprivationswiththeresultthatallthosewhoarelessstrong
andlesshealthyareforcedbackintothewomboftheeternal
unknown.Thosewhomshepermitstosurvivetheinclemencyof
existenceareathousandfoldtestedhardened,andwelladaptedto
procreatein turn, in order that the process of thoroughgoing
selectionmaybeginagainfromthebeginning.Bythusbrutally
proceedingagainsttheindividualandimmediatelycallinghim
backtoherselfassoonasheshowshimselfunequaltothestorm
oflife,shekeepstheraceandspeciesstrong,infact,raisesthem
tothehighestaccomplishments.
At the same time the diminution of number strengthens the
individualandthusinthelastanalysisfortifiesthespecies.
Itisdifferent,however,whenmanundertakesthelimitationof
hisnumber.Heisnotcarvedofthesamewood,heis'humane.'
Heknowsbetterthanthecruelqueenofwisdom.Helimitsnot
the conservation of the individual, but procreation itself. This
seemstohim,whoalwaysseeshimselfandnevertherace,more
humanandmorejustifiedthantheoppositeway.Unfortunately,
however,theconsequencesarethereverse:

While Nature, by making procreation free, yet submitting


survival to a hard trial, chooses from an excess number of
individualsthebest asworthyof living,thus preserving them
alone and in them conserving their species, man limits
procreation,but is hystericallyconcernedthatoncea beingis
bornitshouldbepreservedatanyprice.Thiscorrectionofthe
divinewillseemstohimaswiseasitishumane,andhetakes
delightinhavingonceagaingottenthebestofNatureandeven
havingprovedherinadequacy.Thenumber,tobesure,hasreally
beenlimited,butatthesametimethevalueoftheindividualhas
dirninished;this,however,issomethingthedearlittleapeofthe
Almightydoesnotwanttoseeorhearabout.
Forassoonasprocreationassuchislimitedandthenumberof
birthsdiminished,thenaturalstruggleforexistencewhichleaves
onlythestrongestandhealthiestaliveisobviouslyreplacedby
theobviousdesireto'save'eventheweakestandmostsicklyat
anyprice,andthisplantstheseedofafuturegenerationwhich
mustinevitablygrowmoreandmoredeplorablethelongerthis
mockeryofNatureandherwillcontinues.
Andtheendwillbethatsuchapeoplewillsomedaybedeprived
ofitsexistenceonthisearth;formancandefytheeternallawsof
thewilltoconservationforacertaintime,butsoonerorlater
vengeancecomes.Astrongerracewilldriveouttheweak,forthe
vitalurgeinitsultimateformwill,timeandagain,burstallthe
absurdfettersofthesocalledhumanityofindividuals,inorder
toreplaceitbythehumanityofNaturewhichdestroystheweak
togivehisplacetothestrong.
Therefore, anyone who wants to secure the existence of the
Germanpeoplebyaselflimitationofitsreproductionisrobbing
itofitsfuture.
2.Asecondwaywouldbeonewhichtodaywe,timeandtime
again, see proposed and recommended: internal colonization.
Thisisaproposalwhichiswellmeantbyjustasmanyasby
most people it is misunderstood, thus doing the greatest
conceivabledamagethatanyonecanimaginedWithoutdoubtthe
productivityofthesoilcanbeincreaseduptoacertainlimit.But

onlyuptoacertainlimit,andnotcontinuouslywithoutend.For
acertaintimeitwillbepossibletocompensatefortheincreaseof
the German people without having to think of hunger, by
increasingtheproductivityofoursoil.Butbesidethis,wemust
facethefactthatourdemandsonlifeordinarilynseevenmore
rapidlythanthenumberofthepopulationMan's requirements
withregardtofoodandclothingincreasefromyeartoyear,and
evennow,forexample,standinnorelationtotherequirements
ofourancestors,sayahundredyearsago.ItIS,therefore,insane
tobelievethateveryriseinproductionprovidesthebasisforan
increaseinpopulation:no;thisistrueonlyuptoacertaindegree,
sinceat least apart of theincreasedproductionof thesoilis
spentinsatisfyingtheincreasedneedsofmen.Butevenwiththe
greatestlimitationontheonehandandtheutmostindustryonthe
other,hereagainalimitwillonedaybereached,createdbythe
soilitself.Withtheutmosttoilitwillnotbepossibletoobtain
anymorefromitsandthen,thoughpostponedforacertaintime,
catastrophe again manifests itself. First, there will be hunger
fromtimetotime,whenthereisfamine,etc.Asthepopulation
increases,thiswillhappenmoreandmoreoften,sothatfinallyit
willonlybeabsentwhenrareyearsofgreatabundancefillthe
granaries.Butatlengththetimeapproacheswheneventhenit
will not be possible to satisfy men's needs, and hunger has
becometheeternal companionofsuchapeople.ThenNature
musthelpagainandmakeachoiceamongthosewhomshehas
chosenforlife;butagainmanhelpshimself;thatis,heturnsto
artificialrestrictionofhisincreasewithalltheaboveindicated
direconsequencesforraceandspecies.
Theobjectionmaystillberaisedthatthisfuturewillfacethe
whole of humanity in any case and that consequently the
individualnationcannaturallynotavoidthisfate.
At first glance this seems perfectly correct. Yet here the
followingmustbeborneinmind:
Assuredly at a certain time the whole of humanity will be
compelled, in consequence of the impossibility of making the
fertility of the soil keep pace with the continuous increase in
population,tohalttheincreaseofthehumanraceandeitherlet

Nature again decide or, by selfhelp if possible, create the


necessarybalance,though,tobesure,inamorecorrectwaythan
isdonetoday.Butthenthiswillstrikeallpeoples,whiletoday
onlythoseracesarestrickenwithsuchsufferingwhichnolonger
possess the force and strength to secure for themselves the
necessaryterritoriesinthisworld.Forasmattersstandthereare
atthepresenttimeonthisearthimmenseareasofunusuedsoil,
onlywaitingforthementotillthem.Butitisequallytruethat
Natureassuchhasnotreservedthissoilforthefuturepossession
ofanyparticularnationorrace;onthecontrary,thissoilexists
for the people which possesses the force to take it and the
industrytocultivateit.
Nature knows no political boundaries. First, she puts living
creaturesonthisglobeandwatchesthefreeplayofforces.She
thenconfersthemaster'srightonherfavoritechild,thestrongest
incourageandindustry.
Whenapeoplelimitsitselftointernalcolonizationbecauseother
races are clinging fast to greater and greater surfaces of this
earth,itwillbeforcedtohaverecoursetoselflimitationata
time when the other peoples are still continuing to increase.
Some day this situation will arise, and the smaller the living
spaceatthedisposalofthepeople,thesooneritwillhappen.
Sinceingeneral,unfortunately,thebestnations,or,evenmore
correctly,theonlytrulyculturedraces,thestandardbearersofall
human progress, all too frequently resolve in their pacifistic
blindness to renounce new acquisitions of soil and content
themselveswith'internal'colonization,whiletheinferiorraces
know how to secure immense living areas in this world for
themselvesthiswouldleadtothefollowingfinalresult:
The culturally superior, but less ruthless races, would in
consequenceoftheirlimitedsoil,havetolimittheirincreaseata
time when the culturally inferior but more brutal and more
natural tpeoples,inconsequenceoftheirgreaterlivingareas,
wouldstillbeinapositiontoincreasewithoutlimit.Inother
words:somedaytheworldwillthuscomeintopossessionofthe
culturallyinferiorbutmoreactivemen.

Then,thoughinaperhapsverydistantfuture,therewillbebut
twopossibilitieseithertheworldwillbegovernedaccordingto
theideasofourmoderndemocracy,andthentheweightofany
decisionwillresultinfavorofthenumericallystrongerraces,or
theworldwillbedominatedinaccordancewiththelawsofthe
naturalorderofforce,andthenitisthepeoplesofbrutalwill
whowillconquer,andconsequentlyonceagainnotthenationof
selfrestriction.
Noonecandoubtthatthisworldwillsomedaybeexposedtothe
severeststrugglesfortheexistenceofmankind.Intheend,only
theurgeforselfpreservationcanconquer.Beneathitsocalled
humanity,theexpressionofamixtureofstupidity,cowardice,
andknowitallconceit,willmeltlikesnowintheMarchsun.
Mankindhasgrowngreatineternalstruggle,andonlyineternal
peacedoesitperish.
ForusGermansthesloganof'innercolonization'iscatastrophic,
iffornootherreasonbecauseitautomaticallyreinforcesusinthe
opinionthatwehavefoundameanswhich,inaccordancewith
thepacifistictendency,allowsus'toearn'ourrighttoexistby
laborinalifeofsweetslumbers.Oncethisdoctrineweretaken
seriouslyinourcountry,itwouldmeantheendofeveryexertion
topreserveforourselvestheplacewhichisourdue.Oncethe
averageGermanbecameconvincedthathecouldsecurehislife
andfutureinthisway,allattemptsatanactive,andhencealone
fertile,defenseofGermanvitalnecessitieswouldbedoomedto
failure.Inthefaceofsuchanattitudeonthepartofthenation
anyreallybeneficialforeignpolicycouldberegardedasburied,
andwithitthefutureoftheGermanpeopleasawhole.
Takingtheseconsequencesintoaccount,itisnoaccidentthatit
isalwaysprimarilytheJewwhotriesandsucceedsinplanting
such mortally dangerous modes of thought in our people. He
knowshiscustomerstoowellnottorealizethattheygratefully
letthemselvesbeswindledbyanygoldbricksalesmanwhocan
makethem thinkhehasfoundawaytoplayalittletrickon
Nature, to make the hard, inexorable struggle for existence
superfluous,andinstead,sometimesbywork,butsometimesby
plain doing nothing, depending on how things 'come out,' to

becomethelordoftheplanet.
It cannot be emphasized sharply enough that any German
internal colonization must serve to eliminate social abuses
particularlytowithdrawthesoilfromwidespread speculation,
bestcanneversufficetosecurethefutureofthenationwithout
theacquisitionofnewsoil.
Ifwedonotdothis,weshallinashorttimehavearrived,not
onlyattheendofoursoil,butalsoattheendofourstrength.
Finally,thefollowingmustbestated:
Thelimitationtoadefinitesmallareaofsoil,inherentininternal
colonization,likethesamefinaleffectobtainedbyrestrictionof
procreation,leadstoanexceedinglyunfavorablepoliticomilitary
situationinthenationinquestion.
Thesizeoftheareainhabitedbyapeopleconstitutesinitselfan
essentialfactorfordeterminingitsoutwardsecurity.Thegreater
thequantityofspaceatthedisposalofapeople,thegreaterits
naturalprotection;formilitarydecisionsagainstpeopleslivingin
asmallrestrictedareahavealwaysbeenobtainedmorequickly
andhencemoreeasily, andinparticular moreeffectively and
completelythancan,conversely,bepossibleagainstterritorially
extensivestates.Inthesizeofastate'sterritorytherealwayslies
acertainprotectionagainstfrivolousattacks,sincesuccesscan
beachievedonlyafterhardstruggles,andthereforetheriskofa
rashassaultwillseemtoogreatunlesstherearequiteexceptional
groundsforit.Hencetheverysizeofastateoffersinitselfa
basisformoreeasilypreservingthefreedomandindependence
ofapeople,while,conversely,thesmallnessofsuchaformation
isapositiveinvitationtoseizure.
Actuallythetwofirstpossibilitiesforcreatingabalancebetween
the rising population and the stationary amount of soil were
rejectedinthesocallednationalcirclesoftheReich.Thereasons
for this position were, to be sure, different from those above
mentioned: government circles adopted a negative attitude
towardthelimitationofbirthsoutofacertainmoralfeeling;they
indignantly rejected internal colonization because in it they
scented an attack against large landholdings and therein the

beginningofawiderstruggleagainstprivatepropertyingeneral.
Inviewoftheforminwhichparticularlythelatterpanaceawas
put forward, they may very well have been right in this
assumption.
Onthewhole,thedefenseagainstthebroadmasseswasnotvery
skillfulandbynomeansstruckattheheartoftheproblem.
Thusthereremainedbuttwowaysofsecuringworkandbread
fortherisingpopulation.
3.Eithernewsoilcouldbeacquiredandthesuperfluousmillions
sentoffeachyear,thuskeepingthenationonaselfsustaining
basis;orwecould4.Produceforforeignneedsthroughindustry
andcommerce,anddefraythecostoflivingfromtheproceeds.
In other words: either a territorial policy, or a colonial and
commercialpolicy.
Both ways were contemplated, examined, recommended, and
combated by different political tendencies, and the last was
finallytaken.
Thehealthierwayofthetwowould,tobesure,havebeenthe
first.
The acquisition of new soil for the settlement of the excess
population possesses an infinite number of advantages,
particularlyifweeturnfromthepresenttothefuture.
Foroncething,thepossibilityofpreservingahealthypeasant
class as afoundationfor awholenationcannever bevalued
highlyenough.Manyofourpresentdaysufferingsareonlythe
consequenceoftheunhealthyrelationshipbetweenruralandcity
populationAsolidstockofsmallandmiddlepeasantshasatall
timesbeenthebestdefenseagainstsocialillssuchaswepossess
today.And,moreoverthisistheonlysolutionwhichenablesa
nation to earn its daily bread within the inner circuit of its
economy.Industryandcommercerecedefromtheirunhealthy
leadingpositionandadjustthemselvestothegeneralframework
ofanationaleconomyofbalancedsupplyanddemand.Boththus
ceasetobethebasisofthenation'ssustenanceandbecomea
mereinstrumenttothatend.Sincetheynowhaveonlyabalance'

Aberdeen domestic production and demand in all fields, they


make the Subsistence of the people as a whole more or less
independent foreign countries, and thus help to secure the
freedom of the stite and the independence of the nation,
particularlyindifficultPeriods.
Itmustbesaidthatsuchaterritorialpolicycannotbefulfilledin
the Cameroons, but today almost exclusively in Europe. We
must,therefore,coollyandobjectivelyadoptthestandpointthat
itcancertainlynotbetheintentionofHeaventogiveonepeople
fiftytimesasmuchlandandsoilinthisworldasanother.Inthis
case we must not let political boundaries obscure for us the
boundariesofeternaljustice.Ifthisearthreallyhasroomforall
tolivein,letusbegiventhesoilweneedforourlivelihood.
True, they will no t willingly do this. But then the law of
selfpreservaiongoesintoeffect;andwhatisrefusedtoamicable
methods,itisuptothefisttotake.Ifourforefathershadlettheir
decisions depend on the same pacifistic nonsense as our
contemporaries,weshouldpossessonlyathirdofourpresent
territory;butinthatcasetherewouldscarcelybeanyGerman
peopleforustoworryaboutinEuropetoday.Noitistoour
naturaldeterminationtofightforourownexistencethatweowe
the two Ostmarks of the Reich and hence that inner strength
arising from the greatness of our state and national territory
whichalonehasenabledustoexistuptothepresent.
Andforanotherreasonthiswouldhavebeenthecorrectsolution
TodaymanyEuropeanstates arelikepyramidsstoodontheir
heads.TheirEuropeanareaisabsurdlysmallincomparisonto
theirweightofcolonies,foreigntrade,etc.Wemaysay:summit
in Europe, base in the whole world; contrasting with the
AmericanUnionwhichpossessesitsbaseinitsowncontinent
andtouchestherestoftheearthonlywithitssummit.Andfrom
this comes the immense inner strength of this state and the
weaknessofmostEuropeancolonialpowers.
NorisEnglandanyprooftothecontrary,sinceinconsideration
oftheBritishEmpirewetooeasilyforgettheAngloSaxonworld
assuch.ThepositionofEngland,ifonlybecauseofherlinguistic

andculturalbondwiththeAmericanUnion,canbecomparedto
nootherstateinEurope.
ForGermany,consequently,theonlypossibilityforcarryingout
ahealthyterritorialpolicylayintheacquisitionofnewlandin
Europe itself. Colonies cannot serve this purpose unless they
seeminlargepartsuitedforsettlementbyEuropeans.Butinthe
nineteenth century such colonial territories were no longer
obtainable by peaceful means. Consequently, such a colonial
policy could only have been carried out by means of a hard
strugglewhich,however,wouldhavebeencarriedontomuch
betterpurpose,notforterritoriesoutsideofEurope,butforland
onthehomecontinentitself.
Suchadecision,itistrue,demandsundivideddevotion.Itisnot
permissible to approach with half measures or even with
hesitation a task whose execution seems possible only by the
harnessingoftheverylastpossibleounceofenergy.Thismeans
that the entire political leadership of the Reich should have
devoteditselftothisexclusiveaim;nevershouldanystephave
beentaken,guidedbyotherconsiderationsthantherecognition
of this task and its requirements. It was indispensable to see
dearly that this aim could be achieved only by struggle, and
consequently to face the contest of arms with calm and
composure.
All alliances, therefore, should have been viewed exclusively
from this standpoint and judged according to their possible
utilization.IflandwasdesiredinEurope,itcouldbeobtainedby
andlargeonlyattheexpenseofRussia,andthismeantthatthe
newReichmustagainsetitselfonthemarchalongtheroadof
theTeutonicKnightsofold,toobtainbytheGermanswordsod
fortheGermanplowanddailybreadforthenation.
ForsuchapolicytherewasbutoneallyinEurope:England.
WithEnglandalonewasitpossible,ourrearprotected,tobegin
thenewGermanicmarch.Ourrighttodothiswouldhavebeen
nolessthantherightofourforefathers.Noneofourpacifists
refusestoeatthebreadoftheEast,althoughthefirstplowshare
initsdayborethenameof'sword'!

Consequently, no sacrifice should have been too great for


winning England's willingness. We should have renounced
colonies and sea power, and spared English industry our
competition.
Onlyanabsolutelyclearorientationcouldleadtosuchagoal:
renunciation of world trade and colonies; renunciation of a
Germanwarfleet;concentrationofallthestate'sinstrumentsof
poweronthelandarmy.
Theresult,tobesure,wouldhavebeenamomentarylimitation
butagreatandmightyfuture.
TherewasatimewhenEnglandwouldhavelistenedtoreasonon
thispoint,sinceshewaswellawarethatGermanyasaresultof
herincreasedpopulationhadtoseeksomewayoutandeither
finditwithEnglandinEuropeorwithoutEnglandintheworld.
Anditcanprimarilybeattributedtothisrealizationifattheturn
ofthecenturyLondonitselfattemptedtoapproachGermany.For
thefirsttimeathingbecameevidentwhichinthelastyearswe
havehadoccasiontoobserveinatrulyterrifyingfashion.People
were unpleasantly affected by the thought of having to pull
Fngland'schestnutsoutofthefire;asthoughthereevercouldbe
anallianceonanyotherbasisthanamutualbusinessdeal.And
with England such a deal could very well have been made.
British diplomacy was still clever enough to realize that no
servicecanbeexpectedwithoutareturn.
JustsupposethatanastuteGermanforeignpolicyhadtakenover
the role of Japan in 1904, and we can scarcely measure the
consequencesthiswouldhavehadforGermany.
Therewouldneverhavebeenany'WorldWar.'
Thebloodshedintheyear1904wouldhavesavedtentimesas
muchintheyears1914to1918.
AndwhatapositionGermanywouldoccupyintheworldtoday!
In that light, to be sure, the alliance with Austria was an
absurdity.
For this mummy of a state allieditself withGermany, notin

order tofight awar toitsend,butforthepreservationofan


eternal peace which could astutely be used for the slow but
certainexterminationofGermanisminthemonarchy.
Thisalliancewasanimpossibilityforanotherreason:becausewe
couldnot expect astate totaketheoffensive inchampioning
nationalGermaninterestsaslongasthisstatedidnotpossessthe
power and determination to put an end to the process of de
Germanizationonitsownimmediateborders.IfGermanydidnot
possessenoughnationalawarenessandruthlessdeterminationto
snatchpoweroverthedestiniesoftenmillionnationalcomrades
fromthehandsoftheimpossibleHabsburgstate,thentrulywe
hadnorighttoexpectthatshewouldeverlendherhandtosuch
farseeingandboldplans.TheattitudeoftheoldReichonthe
Austrian question was the touchstone of its conduct in the
struggleforthedestinyofthewholenation.
Inanycasewewerenotjustifiedinlookingon,asyearafteryear
Germanism was increasingly repressed, since the value of
Aushia'sfitnessforalliancewasdeterminedexclusivelybythe
preservationoftheGermanelement.
Thisroad,however,wasnottakenatall.
Thesepeoplefearednothingsomuchasstruggle,yettheywere
finallyforcedintoitatthemostunfavorablehour.
Theywantedtorunawayfromdestiny,anditcaughtupwith
them.Theydreamedofpreservingworldpeace,andlandedinthe
WorldWar.
Andthiswasthemostsignificantreasonwhythisthirdwayof
moldingtheGermanfuturewasnotevenconsidered.Theyknew
thattheacquisitionofnewsoilwaspossibleonlyintheEast,
theysawthestrugglethatwouldbenecessaryandyetwanted
peaceatanyprice;forthewatchwordofGermanforeignpolicy
hadlongceasedtobe:preservationoftheGermannationbyall
methods;butrather:preservationofworldpeacebyallmeans.
Withwhatsuccess,everyoneknows.
Ishallreturntothispointinparticular.
Thus there remained the fourthpossibility Industryand world

trade,seapowerandcolonies.
Suchadevelopment,tobesure,wasatfirsteasierandalsomore
quicklyattainable.Thesettlementoflandisaslowprocess,often
lasting centuries; in fact, its inner strength is to be sought
preciselyinthefactthatitisnotasuddenblaze,butagradualyet
solid and continuous growth, contrasting with an industrial
developmentwhichcanbeblownupinthecourseofafewyears,
butinthatcaseismorelikeasoapbubblethansolidstrength.A
fieet,tobesure,canbebuiltmorequicklythanfarmscanbe
establishedinstubbornstruggleandsettledwithpeasants,butit
isalsomorerapidlydestroyedthanthelatter.
If,nevertheless,Germanytookthisroad,sheshouldatleasthave
clearly recognized that this development would some day
likewiseendinstruggle.Onlychildrencouldhavethoughtthat
theycouldgettheirbananasinthe'peacefulcontestofnations,'
byfriendlyandmoralconductandconstantemphasisontheir
peacefulintentions,astheysohighsoundinglyandunctuously
babbled;inotherwords,withouteverhavingtotakeuparms.
No:ifwechosethisroad,Englandwouldsomedayinevitably
become our enemy. It was more than senselessbut quite in
keepingwithourowninnocencetowaxindignantoverthefact
that England should one day take the liberty to oppose our
peacefulactivitywiththebrutalityofaviolentegoist.
Itistruethatwe,Iamsorrytosay,wouldneverhavedonesuch
athing.
IfaEuropeanterritorialpolicywasonlypossibleagainstRussia
inalliancewithEngland,conversely,apolicyofcoloniesand
world trade was conceivable only against England and with
Russia.Butthenwehaddauntlesslytodrawtheconsequences
and,aboveall,abandonAustriainallhaste.
Viewed from all angles, this alliance with Austria was real
madnessbytheturnofthecentury.
But we did not think of concluding an alliance with Russia
againstEngland,anymorethanwithEnglandagainstRussia,for
inbothcasestheendwouldhavebeenwar,andtopreventthis
wedecidedinfavorofapolicyofcommerceandindustry.Inthe

'peacefuleconomic'conquestoftheworldwepossessedarecipe
whichwasexpectedtobreaktheneckoftheformerpolicyof
violenceonceandforall.lOccasionally,perhaps,wewerenot
quite sure of ourselves, particularly when from time to time
incomprehensiblethreatscameoverfromEngland;therefore,we
decided to build a fleet, though not to attack and destroy
England,butforthe'defense'ofouroldfriend'worldpeace'and
'peaceful'conquestoftheworld.Consequently,itwaskeptona
somewhatmoremodestscaleinallrespects,notonlyinnumber
but also in the tonnage of the individual ships as well as in
armament, so as in the final analysis to let our 'peaceful'
intentionsshinethroughafterall.
Thetalkaboutthe'peacefuleconomic'conquestoftheworldwas
possiblythegreatestnonsensewhichhaseverbeenexaltedtobe
a guiding principle of state policy. What made this nonsense
evenworsewasthatitsproponentsdidnothesitatetocallupon
England as a crown witness for the possibility of such an
achievement. The crimes of our academic doctrine and
conceptionofhistoryinthisconnectioncanscarcelybemade
goodandareonlyastrikingproofofhowmanypeoplethereare
who'learn'historywithoutunderstandingorevencomprehending
it. England, in particular, should have been recognized as the
striking refutation of this theory; for no people has ever with
greaterbrutalitybetterprepareditseconomicconquestswiththe
sword, and later ruthlessly defended theme than the English
nation.IsitnotpositivelythedistinguishingfeatureofBritish
statesmanship to draw economic acquisitions from political
strength,andatoncetorecasteverygainineconomicstrength
intopoliticalpower?AndwhatanerrortobelievethatEnglandis
personallytoomuchofacowardtostakeherownbloodforher
economicpolicy!ThefactthattheEnglishpeoplepossessedno
'people'sarmy'innowayprovedthecontrary;forwhatmattersis
notthemomentarymilitaryformofthefightingforces,butrather
thewillanddeterminationtoriskthosewhichdoexist.England
hasalwayspossessedwhateverarmamentshehappenedtoneed.
Shealwaysfoughtwiththeweaponswhichsuccessdemanded.
Shefoughtwithmercenariesaslongasmercenariessufficed;but

shereacheddownintothepreciousbloodofthewholenation
when only such a sacrifice could bring victory; but the
determinationforvictory,thetenacityandruthlesspursuitofthis
struggle,remainedunchanged.
In Germany, however, the school, the press, and comic
magazinescultivatedaconceptionoftheEnglishman'scharacter,
andalmostmoresoofhisempire,whichinevitablyledtooneof
themostinsidiousdelusions;forgraduallyeveryonewasinfected
bythisnonsense,andtheconsequencewasanunderestimation
forwhichwewouldhavetopaymostbitterly.Thisfalsification
went so deep that people became convinced that in the
Englishmantheyfacedabusinessmanasshrewdaspersonally
hewasunbelievablycowardly.Thefactthataworldempirethe
sizeoftheBritishcouldnotbeputtogetherbymeresubterfuge
and swindling was unfortunately something that never even
occurredtoourexaltedprofessorsofacademicscience.Thefew
whoraisedavoiceofwarningwereignoredorkilledbysilence.I
remember well my comrades' looks of astonishment when we
facedtheTommies inpersoninFlanders.After the veryfirst
daysofbattletheconvictiondawnedoneachandeveryoneof
themthattheseScotsmendidnotexactlyjibewiththepictures
theyhadseenfittogiveusinthecomicmagazinesandpress
dispatches.
ItwasthenthatIbeganmyfirstreflectionsabouttheimportance
oftheformofpropaganda.
Thisfalsification,however,didhaveonegoodsideforthosewho
spreadit: bythisexample,eventhoughitwasincorrect,they
were able to demonstrate the correctness of the economic
conquestoftheworld.IftheEnglishmanhadsucceeded,wetoo
wereboundtosucceed,andourdefinitelygreaterhonesty,the
absenceinusofthatspecificallyEnglish'perfidy,'wasregarded
asaveryspecialplus.Foritwashopedthatthiswouldenableus
towintheaffection,particularlyofthesmallernations,andthe
confidenceofthelargeonesthemoreeasily.
Itdidnotoccurtousthatourhonestywasaprofoundhorrorto
theothers,iffornootherreasonbecauseweourselvesbelieved

allthesethingsseriouslywhiletherestoftheworldregarded
such behavior as the expression of a special slyness and
disingenuousness, until, totheir great, infiniteamazement, the
revolution gave them a deeper insight into the boundless
stupidityofourhonestconvictions.
However,theabsurdityofthis'economicconquest'atoncemade
theabsurdityoftheTripleAllianceclearandcomprehensible.
Forwithwhatotherstatecouldweallyourselves?Inalliance
withAustria,tobesure,wecouldnotundertakeanymilitary
conquest,eveninEuropealone.Preciselythereinconsistedthe
inner weakness of the alliance from the very first day. A
Bismarckcouldpermithimselfthismakeshift,butnotbyalong
shoteverybunglingsuccessor,leastofallatatimewhencertain
essential premises of Bismarck's alliance had long ceased to
exist;forBismarckstillbelievedthatinAustriahehadtodowith
aGermanstate.Butwiththegradualintroductionofuniversal
suffrage, this country had sunk to the status of an unGerman
hodgepodgewithaparliamentarygovernment.
Also from the standpoint of racial policy, the alliance with
Austriawassimplyruinous.Itmeanttoleratingthegrowthofa
newSlavicpoweronthebordersoftheReich,apowerwhich
soonerorlaterwouldhavetotakeanentirelydifferentattitude
towardGermanythan,forexample,Russia. Andfromyearto
yeartheallianceitselfwasboundtogrowinwardlyhollowerand
weakerinproportionasthesolesupportersofthisideainthe
monarchy lost influence and were shoved out of the most
decisivepositions.
BytheturnofthecenturythealliancewithAustriahadentered
theverysamestageasAustria'spactwithItaly.
Hereagaintherewereonlytwopossibilities:eitherwewereina
pact with the Habsburg monarchy or we had to lodge protest
againsttherepressionofGermanism.Butonceapowerembarks
onthiskindofundertaking,itusuallyendsinopenstruggle.
EvenpsychologicallythevalueoftheTripleAlliancewassmall,
sincethestabilityofanallianceincreasesinproportionasthe
individualcontractingpartiescanhopetoachievedefiniteand

tangibleexpansiveaims.And,conversely,itwillbetheweaker
the more it limits itself to the preservation of an existing
condition.Here,aseverywhereelse,strengthliesnotindefense
butinattack.
Eventhenthiswasrecognizedinvariousquarters,unfortunately
notbythesocalled'authorities.'ParticularlyLudendorff,thena
colonelandofficer inthegreatgeneralstaff,pointedtothese
weaknessesinamemorialwrittenin1912.Ofcourse,noneofthe
'statesmen'attachedanyvalueorsignificancetothematter;for
clearcommonsense isexpectedtomanifestitselfexpediently
onlyin commonmortals, butmay onprincipleremain absent
where'diplomats'areconcenned.
For Germany it was sheer good fortune that in 1914 the war
brokeoutindirectlythroughAustria,sothattheHabsburgswere
forcedtotakepart;forifithadhappenedtheotherwayaround
Germany would have been alone. Never would the Habsburg
statehavebeenable,letalonewilling,totakepartinaconfiict
whichwouldhavearisenthroughGermany.Whatwelater so
condemnedinItalywouldthenhavehappenedevenearlierwith
Austria:theywouldhaveremained'neutral'inorderatleastto
save the state from a revolution at the very start. Austrian
Slavdomwouldratherhaveshatteredthemonarchyevenin1914
thanpermitaidtoGermany.
How great were the dangers and difficulties entailed by the
alliancewiththeDanubianmonarchy,onlyveryfewrealizeda'
thattime.
Inthefirstplace,Austriapossessedtoomanyenemieswhowere
planningtograbwhattheycouldfromtherottenstatetoprevent
a certain hatred from arising in the course of time against
Germany, in whom they saw the cause of preventing the
generallyhopedandlongedforcollapseofthemonarchy.They
cametotheconvictionthatViennacouldfinallybereachedonly
byadetourthroughBerlin.
Inthesecondplace,Germanythuslostherbestandmosthopeful
possibilitiesofalliance.Theywerereplacedbyanevermounting
tension with Russia and even Italy. For in Rome the general

moodwasjustasproGermanasitwasantiAustrian,slumbering
intheheartoftheverylastItalianandoftenbrightlyflanngup.
Now,sincewehadthrownourselvesintoapolicyofcommerce
andindustry,therewasnolongertheslightestgroundforwar
againstRussiaeither.Onlytheenemiesofbothnationscouldstill
haveanactiveinterestinit.Andactuallythesewereprimarily
theJewsandtheMarxists,who,witheverymeans,incitedand
agitatedforwarbetweenthetwostates.
Thirdlyandlastly,thisallianceinevitablyinvolvedaninfinite
peril for Germany, because a great power actually hostile to
Bismarck'sReichcouldatanytimeeasilysucceedinmobilizing
a whole series of states against Germany, since it was in a
positiontopromiseeachofthemenrichmentattheexpenseof
ourAustrianally.
The whole East of Europe could be stirred up against the
DanubianmonarchyparticularlyRussiaandItaly.Neverwould
theworldcoalitionwhichhadbeenformingsincetheinitiating
effortsofKingEdwardhavecomeintoexistenceifAustriaas
Germany'sallyhadnotrepresentedtootemptingalegacy.This
alone made it possible to bring states with otherwise so
heterogeneous desires and aims into a single offensive front.
Each one could hope that in case of a general action against
Germanyit,too,wouldachieveenrichmentatAustria'sexpense.
ThedangerwasenormouslyincreasedbythefactthatTurkey
seemedtobeasilentpartnerinthisunfortunatealliance.
InternationalJewishworldfinanceneededtheselurestoenableit
to carry out its longdesired plan for destroying the Germany
whichthusfardidnotsubmittoitswidespreadsuperst3tecontrol
offinanceandeconomics.Onlyinthiswaycouldtheyforgea
coalitionmadestrongandcourageousbythesheernumbersof
thegiganticarmiesnowonthemarchandpreparedtoattackthe
hornySiegfriedatlast.
ThealliancewiththeHabsburgmonarchy,whicheveninAustria
hadfilledmewithdissatisfaction,nowbecamethesourceoflong
innertrialswhichinthetimetocomereinforcedmeevenmorein
theopinionIhadalreadyconceived.

Eventhen,amongthosefewpeoplewhomIfrequentedImade
nosecretofmyconvictionthatourcatastrophicalliancewitha
stateonthebrinkofruinwouldalsoleadtoafatalcollapseof
Germanyunlessweknewenoughtoreleaseourselvesfromiton
time.Thisconvictionofminewasfirmasarock,andIdidnot
falterillitforonemomentwhenatlastthestormoftheWorld
Warseemedtohaveexcludedallreasonablethoughtandafrenzy
of enthusiasm had seized even those quarters for which there
shouldhavebeenonlythecoldestconsiderationofreality.And
whileImyselfwasatthefront,Iputforwardswheneverthese
problemswerediscussed,myopinionthatthealliancehadtobe
brokenoff,thequickerthebetterfortheGermannation,andthat
thesacrificeoftheHabsburgmonarchywouldbenosacrificeat
alltomakeifGermanytherebycouldachievearestrictionofher
adversaries;foritwasnotforthepreservationofadebauched
dynastythatthemillionshaddonnedthesteelhelmet,butforthe
salvationoftheGermannation.
OnafewoccasionsbeforetheWaritseemedasthough,inone
campatleast,agentledoubtwasarisingastothecorrectnessof
thealliancepolicythathadbeenchosen.Germanconservative
circles began from time to time to warn against excessive
confidence,but,likeeverythingelsethatwassensible,thiswas
throwntothewinds.Theywereconvincedthattheywereonthe
pathtoaworld'conquest,'whosesuccesswouldbetremendous
andwhichwouldentailpracticallynosacrifices.
Therewasnothingforthosenotinauthoritytodobuttowatchin
silence why and how the ' authorities' marched straight to
destruction,drawingthedearpeoplebehindthemlikethePied
PiperofHamelin.
Thedeepercausethatmadeitpossibletorepresenttheabsurdity
ofan'economicconquest'asapracticalpoliticalmethod,and
thepreservationof'worldpeace'asapoliticalgoalforawhole
people, and even to make these things intelligible, lay in the
generalsickeningofourwholepoliticalthinking.
WiththevictoriousmarchofGermantechnologyandindustry,
therisingsuccessesofGermancommerce,therealizationwas

increasinglylostthatallthiswasonlypossibleonthebasisofa
strongstate.Onthecontrary,manycircleswentsofarastoput
forwardtheconvictionthatthestateoweditsveryexistenceto
thesephenomena,thatthestateitselfDrimarilvrepresentedan
economic institution, that it could be governed according to
economicrequirements,andthatitsveryexistencedependedon
economics,astateofaffairswhichwasregardedandglorifiedas
byfarthehealthiestandmostnatural.
Butthestatehasnothingatalltodowithanydefiniteeconomic
conceptionordevelopment.
Itisnotacollectionofeconomiccontractingpartiesinadefinite
delimitedlivingspaceforthefulfillmentofeconomictasks,but
the organization of a community of physically and
psychologicallysimilarlivingbeingsforthebetterfacilitationof
themaintenanceoftheirspeciesandtheachievementoftheaim
whichhasbeenallottedtothisspeciesbyProvidence.Thisand
nothingelseistheaimandmeaningofastate.Economicsisonly
oneofthemanyinstrumentsrequiredfortheachievementofthis
aim.Itisneverthecauseortheaimofastateunlessthisstateis
basedonafalse,becauseunnatural,foundationtobeginwith.
Onlyinthiswaycanitbeexplainedthatthestateassuchdoes
not necessarily presuppose territorial limitation. This will be
necessary only among the peoples who want to secure the
maintenanceoftheirnationalcomradesbytheirownresources;
inotherwords,arepreparedtofightthestruggleforexistenceby
theirownlabor.Peopleswhocansneaktheirwayintotherestof
mankindlikedrones,tomakeothermenworkforthemunderall
sorts of pretexts, can form states even without any definitely
delimited living space of their own. This applies first and
foremosttoapeopleunderwhoseparasitismthewholeofhonest
humanityissuffering,todaymorethanever:theJews.
The Jewish state was never spatially limited in itself, but
universallyunlimitedastospace,thoughrestrictedinthesense
ofembracingbutonerace.Consequently,thispeoplehasalways
formedastatewithinstates.Itisoneofthemostingenioustricks
thatwaseverdevised,tomakethisstatesailunderthefiagof
'religion,'thusassuringitof thetolerancewhichtheAryanis

alwaysreadytoaccordareligiouscreed.ForactuallytheMosaic
religionisnothingotherthanadoctrineforthepreservationof
the Jewish race. It therefore embraces almost all sociological,
political,andeconomicfieldsofknowledgewhichcanhaveany
bearingonthisfunction.
The urge to preserve the species is the first cause for the
formation of human communities; thus the state is a national
organismandnotaneconomicorganization.Adifferencewhich
isjustaslargeasitisincomprehensible,particularlytoourso
called'statesmen'oftoday.Thatiswhytheythinktheycan
buildupthestatethrougheconomicswhileinrealityitresults
andalwayswillresultsolelyfromtheactionofthosequalities
whichlieinlinewiththewilltopreservethespeciesandrace.
And these are always heroic virtues and never the egoism of
shopkeepers,sincethepreservationoftheexistenceofaspecies
presupposesaspiritofsacrificeintheindividual.Thesenseof
thepoet'swords,'Ifyouwillnotstakeyourlife,youwillwinno
life,'isthatthesacrificeof personalexistenceisnecessary to
securethepreservationofthespecies.Thus,themostsensible
prerequisitefortheformationandpreservationofastateisthe
presenceofacertainfeelingofcohesionbasedonsimilarityof
natureandspecies,andawillingnesstostakeeverythingonit
withallpossiblemeans,somethingwhichinpeopleswithsoilof
theirownwillcreateheroicvirtues,butinparasiteswillcreate
lying hypocrisy and malignant cruelty, or else these qualities
mustalreadybepresentasthenecessaryanddemonstrablebasis
fortheirexistenceasastatesodifferentinform.Theformation
ofastate,originallyatleast,willoccurthroughtheexerciseof
these qualities, and in the subsequent struggle for self
preservationthosenationswillbedefeatedthatis,willfalla
preytosubjugationandthussoonerorlaterdieoutwhichinthe
mutualstrugglepossessthesmallestshareofheroicvirtues,or
arenotequaltotheliesandtrickeryofthehostileparasite.Butin
thiscase,too,thismustalmostalwaysbeattributedlesstoalack
ofastutenessthantoalackofdeterminationandcourage,which
only tries to conceal itself beneath a cloak of humane
convictions.

How little the stateforming and statepreserving qualities are


connectedwitheconomicsismostclearlyshownbythefactthat
theinnerstrengthofastateonlyintherarestcasescoincideswith
socalledeconomicprosperity,butthatthelatter,ininnumerable
cases,seemstoindicatethestate's approachingdecline.Ifthe
formation of human societies were primarily attributable to
economic forces or even impulses, the highest economic
development would have to mean the greatest strength of the
stateandnottheopposite.
Belief in the stateforming and statepreserving power of
economicsseemsespeciallyincomprehensiblewhenitobtainsin
acountrywhichinallthingsclearlyandpenetratinglyshowsthe
historic reverse. Prussia, in particular, demonstrates with
marveloussharpnessthatnotmaterialqualitiesbutidealvirtues
alonemakepossibletheformationofastate.Onlyundertheir
protectioncaneconomiclifeflourish,untilwiththecollapseof
the pure stateforming faculties the economy collapses too; a
processwhichwecanobserveinsoterribleandtragicaform
rightnow.Thematerialinterestsofmancanalwaysthrivebestas
longastheyremainintheshadowofheroicvirtues;butassoon
astheyattempttoenter theprimarysphereofexistence,they
destroythebasisfortheirownexistence.
Always when in Germany there was an upsurge of political
power,theeconomicconditionsbegantoimprove;butalways
wheneconomicsbecamethesolecontentofourpeople's life,
stiflingtheidealvirtues,thestatecollapsedandinashorttime
dreweconomiclifealongwithit.
If,however,weconsiderthequestion,what,inreality,arethe
stateformingorevenstatepreservingforces,wecansumthem
upunderonesinglehead:theabilityandwilloftheindividualto
sacrificehimselfforthetotality.Thatthesevirtueshavenothing
at all to do with economics can be seen from the simple
realizationthatmanneversacrificeshimselfforthelatter,or,in
otherwords:amandoesnotdieforbusiness,butonlyforideals.
Nothing proved the Englishman's superior psychological
knowledgeofthepopularsoulbetterthanthemotivationwhich
he gave to his struggle. While we fought for bread, England

foughtfor'freedom';andnotevenforherown,no,forthatofthe
smallnations.Inourcountrywelaughedatthiseffrontery,or
wereenragedatit,andthusonlydemonstratedhowemptyheaded
andstupidthesocalledstatesmenofGermanyhadbecorneeven
beforetheWar.Wenolongerhadtheslightestideaconcerning
theessenceoftheforcewhichcanleadmentotheirdeathoftheir
ownfreewillanddecision.
In1914aslongastheGermanpeoplethoughttheywerefighting
forideals,theystoodfirm;butassoonastheyweretoldtofight
fortheirdailybread,theypreferredtogiveupthegame.
Andourbrilliant'statesmen'wereastonishedatthischangein
attitude.It never became clear tothemthatfromthemoment
whenamanbeginstofightforaneconomicinterest,heavoids
deathasmuchaspossible,sincedeathwolidforeverdeprivehim
of his rewardfor fighting.Anxietyfor therescue of her own
childmakesaheroineofeventhefeeblestmother,andonlythe
struggleforthepreservationofthespeciesandthehearth,orthe
state that protects it, has at all times driven men against the
spearsoftheirenemies.
Thefollowingtheoremmaybeestablishedasaneternallyvalid
truth:
Neveryethasastatebeenfoundedbypeacefuleconomicmeans,
butalwaysandexclusivelybytheinstinctsofpreservationofthe
species regardless whether these are found in the province of
heroicvirtueorofcunningcraftiness;theoneresultsinAryan
statesbasedonworkandculture,theotherinJewishcoloniesof
parasites. As soon as economics as such begins to choke out
theseInstinctsinapeopleorinastate,itbecomestheseductive
causeofsubjugationandoppression.
Thebeliefofprewardaysthattheworldcouldbepeacefully
openedupto,letaloneconqueredfor,theGermanpeoplebya
commercialandcolonialpolicywasaclassicsignofthelossof
real stateforming and statepreserving virtues and of all the
insight,willpower,andactivedeterminationwhichfollowfrom
them;thepenaltyforthis,inevitableasthelawofnature,wasthe
WorldWarwithitsconsequences.

For those who do not look more deeply into the matter, this
attitude of the German nationfor it was really as good as
generalcould only represent an insoluble riddle: for was not
Germanyaboveallothercountriesamarvelousexampleofan
empire which had risen from foundations of pure political
power?Prussia,thegermcellof theEmpire,cameintobeing
throughresplendentheroismandnotthroughfinancialoperations
orcommercialdeals,andtheReichitselfinturnwasonlythe
gloriousrewardofaggressivepoliticalleadershipandthedeath
defying courage of its soldiers. How could this very German
people have succumbed to such a sickening of its political
instinct? For here we face, not an isolated phenomenon, but
forcesofdecaywhichintrulyterrifyingnumbersoonbeganto
flareuplikewillo'thewisps,brushingupanddownthebody
politic,oreatinglikepoisonousabscessesintothenation,now
hereandnowthere.Itseemedasthoughacontinuousstreamof
poisonwasbeingdrivenintotheoutermostbloodvesselsofthis
once heroic body by a mysterious power, and was inducing
progressivelygreaterparalysisofsoundreasonandthesimple
instinctofselfpreservation.
As innumerable times I passed in review all these questions,
arisingthroughmypositionontheGermanalliancepolicyand
theeconomicpolicyoftheReichintheyears1912to1914the
only remaining solution to the riddle became to an ever
increasingdegreethatpowerwhich,fromanentirelydifferent
viewpoint,IhadcometoknowearlierinVienna:theMarxist
doctrineandphilosophy,andtheirorganizationalresults.
ForthesecondtimeIdugintothisdoctrineofdestructionthis
timenolongerledbytheimpressionsandeffectsofmydaily
associations,butdirectedbytheobservationofgeneralprocesses
of political life. I again immersed myself in the theoretical
literature of this new world, attempting to achieve clarity
concerningitspossible effects, andthencompareditwiththe
actualphenomenaandeventsitbringsaboutinpolitical,cultural,
andeconomiclife.
NowforthefirsttimeIturnedmyattentiontotheattemptsto
masterthisworldplague.

I studied Bismarck's Socialist legislation 1 in its intention


struggle,andsuccess.GraduallyIobtainedapositivelygranite
foundationformyownconviction,sothatsincethattimeIhave
neverbeenforcedtoundertakeashiftinmyowninnerviewon
thisquestion.LikewisetherelationofMarxismtotheJewswas
submittedtofurtherthoroughexamination.
ThoughpreviouslyinVienna,Germanyaboveallhadseemedto
meanunshakablecolossus,nowanxiousmisgivingssometimes
enteredmymind.Insilentsolitudeandinthesmallcirclesofmy
acquaintance,IwasfilledwithwrathatGermanforeignpolicy
andlikewisewithwhatseemedtometheincrediblyfrivolous
way in which the most important problem then existing for
Germany,Marxism,wastreated.Itwasreallybeyondmehow
people could rush so blindly into a danger whose effects,
pursuanttotheMarxists'ownintention,wereboundsomedayto
bemonstrous.Eventhen,amongmyacquaintance,justastoday
on a large scale, I warned against the phrase with which all
wretchedcowardscomfortthemselves:'Nothingcanhappento
us!'Thispestilential attitudehadoncebeenthedownfallofa
giganticempire.CouldanyonebelievethatGermanyalonewas
not subject to exactly the same laws as all other human
organisms?
Intheyears1913and1914,I,forthefirsttimeinvariouscircles
which today in part faithfully support the National Socialist
movement, expressed the conviction that the question of the
future of the German nation was the question of destroying
Marxism.
InthecatastrophicGermanalliancepolicyIsawonlyoneofthe
consequencescalledforthbythedisruptiveworkofthisdoctrine;
fortheterriblepartofitwasthatthispoisonalmostinvisibly
destroyedallthefoundationsofahealthyconceptionofeconomy
andstate,andthatoftenthoseaffectedbyitdidnotthemselves
realizetowhatanextenttheir activitiesanddesiresemanated
fromthisphilosophysrhichtheyotherwisesharplyejected.
TheinternaldeclineoftheGermannationhadlongsincebegun,
yet, as so often in life, people had not achieved clarity

concerning the force that was destroying their existence.


Sometimestheytinkeredaroundwiththedisease,butconfused
theformsofthephenomenonwiththevirusthathadcausedit.
Sincetheydidnotknoworwanttoknowthecause,thestruggle
againstMalsisrswasnobetterthanbunglingquackery.

Chapter 5:

The World War


Asayoungscampinmywildyears,nothinghadsogrievedme
ashavingbeenbornatatimewhichobviouslyerecteditsHalls
of Fame only to shopkeepers and government officials. The
wavesofhistoriceventsseemedtohavegrownsosmooththat
thefuturereallyseemedtobelongonlytothe'peacefulcontestof
nations';inotherwords,acozymutualswindlingmatchwiththe
exclusion of violent methods of defense. The various nations
began to be more and more like private citizens who cut the
ground from under one another's feet, stealing each other's
customersandorders,tryingineverywaytogetaheadofone
another,andstagingthiswholeactamidahueandcryasloudas
itisharmless.Thisdevelopmentseemednotonlytoendurebut
was expected in time (as was universally recommended) to
remodelthewholeworldintoonebigdepartmentstoreinwhose
vestibules the busts of the shrewdest profiteers and the most
lamblike administrative officials would be garnered for all
eternity.TheEnglishcouldsupplythemerchants,theGermans
theadministrativeofficials,andtheJewsnodoubtwouldhaveto
sacrifice themselves to being the owners, since by their own
admissiontheynevermakeanymoney,butalways'pay,'and,
besides,speakthemostlanguages.
Whycouldn'tIhavebeenbornahundredyearsearlier?Sayat
thetimeoftheWarsofLiberationwhenaman,evenwithouta
'business,'wasreallyworthsomething?!
Thus I had often indulged in angry thoughts concerning my
earthlypilgrimage,which,asitseemedtome,hadbeguntoo
late,andregardedtheperiod'oflawandorder'aheadofmeasa
mean and undeserved trick of Fate. Even as a boy I was no
'pacifist,'andallattemptstoeducatemeinthisdirectioncameto
nothing.

TheBoerWarwaslikesummerlightningtome.
EverydayIwaitedimpatientlyforthenewspapersanddevoured
dispatchesandnewsreports,happyattheprivilegeofwitnessing
thisheroicstruggleevenatadistance.
TheRussoJapaneseWarfoundmeconsiderablymoremature,
butalsomoreattentive.MorefornationalreasonsIhadalready
takensides,andinourlittlediscussionsatoncesidedwiththe
Japanese.InadefeatoftheRussiansIsawthedefeatofAustrian
Slavdom.
Since then many years have passed, and what as a boy had
seemed to me a lingering disease, I now felt to be the quiet
before the storm. As early as my Vienna period, the Balkans
were immersed in that livid sultriness which customarily
announces the hurricane, and from time to time a beam of
brighter light flared up, only to vanish again in the spectral
darkness.ButthencametheBalkanWarandwithitthefirstgust
ofwindsweptacrossaEuropegrownnervous.Thetimewhich
nowfollowedlayonthechestsofmenlikeaheavynightmare,
sultryasfeverishtropicheat,sothatduetoconstantanxietythe
sense of approachingcatastropheturnedatlasttolonging:let
Heavenatlastgivefreereintothefatewhichcouldnolongerbe
thwarted. And then the first mighty lightning flash struck the
earth;thestormwasunleashedandwiththethunderofHeaven
theremingledtheroaroftheWorldWarbatteries.
WhenthenewsofthemurderofArchdukeFrancisFerdinand
arrivedinMunich(Ihappenedtobesittingathomeandheardof
itonlyvaguely),Iwasatfirstseizedwithworrythatthebullets
mayhavebeenshotfromthepistolsofGermanstudents,who,
out of indignation at the heir apparent's continuous work of
Slavization,wantedtofreetheGermanpeoplefromthisinternal
enemy.Whattheconsequenceofthiswouldhavebeenwaseasy
toimagine:anewwaveofpersecutionswhichwouldnowhave
been'justified'and'explained'intheeyesofthewholeworld.But
when, soon afterward, I heard the names of the supposed
assassins, and moreover read that they had been identified as
Serbs,alightshudderbegantorunthroughmeatthisvengeance

ofinscrutableDestiny.
ThegreatestfriendoftheSlavshadfallenbeneaththebulletsof
Slavicfanatics.
Anyonewithconstantoccasioninthelastyearstoobservethe
relationofAustriatoSerbiacouldnotforamomentbeindoubt
thatastonehadbeensetrollingwhosecoursecouldnolongerbe
arrested.
Those who today shower the Viennese government with
reproachesontheformandcontentoftheultimatumitissued,do
itaninjustice.Nootherpowerintheworldcouldhaveacted
differentlyinthesamesituationandthesameposition.Ather
southeasternborderAustriapossessedaninexorableandmortal
enemywhoatshorterandshorterintervalskeptchallengingthe
monarchy and would never have left off until the moment
favorablefortheshatteringoftheEmpirehadarrived.Therewas
reasontofearthatthiswouldoccuratthelatestwiththedeathof
theoldEmperor;bythenperhapstheoldmonarchywouldno
longerbeinapositiontoofferanyseriousresistance.Inthelast
fewyearsthestate hadbeenso boundupwiththepersonof
Francis Joseph that the death of this old embodiment of the
Empirewas felt bythebroadmasses tobetantamounttothe
death of the Empire itself. Indeed, it was one of the craftiest
artifices, particularly of the Slavic policy, to create the
appearancethattheAustrianstatenolongeroweditsexistenceto
anythingbutthemiraculousanduniqueskillofthismonarch;
thisflatterywasallthemorewelcomeintheHofburg,sinceit
correspondednotatalltotherealmeritsoftheEmperor.The
thorn hiddenin these paeans of praise remained undiscovered
Therulersdidnotsee,orperhapsnolongerwantedtosee,that
themorethemonarchydependedontheoutstandingstatecraft,as
they put it, of this 'wisest monarch' of all times, the more
catastrophicthesituationwasboundtobecomeifonedayFate
weretoknockathisdoor,too,demandingitstribute.
WasoldAustriaevenconceivablewithouttheEmperor?!
Wouldn't the tragedy which had once stricken Maria Theresa
havebeenrepeated?

No,itisreallydoingtheViennacirclesaninjusticetoreproach
themwithrushingintoawarwhichmightotherwisehavebeen
avoided.Itnolongercouldbeavoided,butatmostcouldhave
beenpostponedforoneortwoyears.Butthiswasthecurseof
GermanaswellasAustriandiplomacy,thatithadalwaysstriven
topostponetheinevitablereckoning,untilatlengthitwasforced
tostrikeatthemostunfavorablehour.Wecanbeconvincedthat
afurtherattempttosavepeacewouldhavebroughtwaratan
evenmoreunfavorabletime.
No,thosewhodidnotwantthiswarhadtohavethecourageto
facetheconsequences,whichcouldhaveconsistedonlyinthe
sacrificeofAustria.Eventhenthewarwouldhavecome,butno
longerasastruggleofallagainstourselves,butintheformofa
partitionoftheHabsburgmonarchy.Andthentheyhadtomake
uptheirmindstojoinin,ortolookonwithemptyhandsandlet
Faterunitscourse.
Thoseverypeople,however,whotodayareloudestincursing
thebeginningofthewarandofferthesagestopinionswerethose
whocontributedmostfatallytosteeringusintoit.
For decades the Social Democrats had carried on the most
scoundrelly war agitation against Russia, and the Center for
religiousreasonshadbeenmostactiveinmakingtheAustrian
statethehingeandpivotof Germanypolicy.Nowwehadto
suffertheconsequencesofthislunacy.Whatcamehadtocome,
andcouldnolongerunderanycircumstancesbeavoided.The
guiltoftheGermangovernmentwasthatinordertopreserve
peaceitalwaysmissedthefavorablehoursforstriking,became
entangledintheallianceforthepreservationofworldpeace,and
thus finally became the victim of a world coalition which
counteredtheideaofpreservingworldpeacewithnothingless
thandeterminationforworldwar.
If the Vienna government had given the ultimatum another
milderform,thiswouldhavechangednothinginthesituation
exceptatmostonething,thatthisgovernmentwoulditselfhave
beensweptawaybytheindignationofthepeople.Forintheeyes
ofthebroadmassesthetoneoftheultimatumwasfartoogentle

andbynomeanstoobrutal,letalonetoofarreachingAnyone
who today attempts to argue this away is either a forgetful
blockheadoraperfectlyconsciousswindlerandliarThestruggle
oftheyear1914wasnotforcedonthemassesno,bytheliving
Goditwasdesiredbythewholepeople.
Peoplewantedatlengthtoputanendtothegeneraluncertainty.
Only thus can it be understood that more than two million
Germanmenandboysthrongedtothecolorsforthishardestof
allstruggles,preparedtodefendtheflagwiththelastdropof
theirblood.
To me those hours seemed like a release from the painful
feelingsofmyyouth.EventodayIamnotashamedtosaythat,
overpoweredbystormyenthusiasm,Ifelldownonmykneesand
thankedHeavenfromanoverflowingheartforgrantingmethe
goodfortuneofbeingpermittedtoliveatthistime.
Afightforfreedomhadbegun,mightierthantheearthhadever
seen; for once Destiny had begun its course, the conviction
dawnedoneventhebroadmassesthatthistimenotthefateof
SerbiaorAustriawasinvolved,butwhethertheGermannation
wastobeornottobe.
Forthelasttimeinmanyyearsthepeoplehadapropheticvision
ofitsownfuture.Thus,rightatthebeginningofthegigantic
strugglethenecessarygraveundertoneenteredintotheecstasy
ofanoverflowingenthusiasm;forthisknowledgealonemadethe
national uprising more than a mere blaze of straw The
earnestnesswasonlytoonecessary;forinthosedayspeoplein
generalhadnotthefaintestconceptionofthepossiblelengthand
durationofthestrugglethatwasnowbeginning.Theydreamed
of being home again that winter to continue and renew their
peacefullabors.
What a man wants is what he hopes and believes. The
overwhelmingmajorityofthenationhadlongbeenwearyofthe
eternally uncertain state of affairs; thus it was only too
understandable that they no longer believed in a peaceful
conclusionoftheAustroSerbianconvict,buthopedforthefinal
settlement.

I,too,wasoneofthesemillions.
Hardly had the news of the assassination become known in
Munichthanatoncetwothoughtsquiveredthroughmybrain:
first,thatatlastwarwouldbeinevitable;and,furthermore,that
nowtheHabsburgstatewouldbecompelledtokeepitspact;for
whatIhadalwaysmostfearedwasthepossibilitythatGermany
herself would some day, perhaps in consequence of this very
alliance,findherselfinaconflictnotdirectlycausedbyAustria,
sothattheAustrianstateforreasonsofdomesticpolicywould
notmustertheforceofdecisiontostandbehindherally.The
Slavic majority of the Empire would at once have begun to
sabotageanysuchintentiononthepartofthestate,andwould
alwayshavepreferredtosmashtheentirestatetosmithereens
thangrantitsallythehelpitdemanded.Thisdangerwasnow
eliminated.Theoldstatehadtofightwhetheritwantedtoornot.
Myownpositionontheconflictwaslikewiseverysimpleand
clear; for me it was not that Austria was fighting for some
Serbian satisfaction, but that Germany was fighting for her
existence, the German nation for life or death, freedom and
future.ThetimehadcomeforBismarck'sworktofight;whatthe
fathershadoncewoninthebattlesfromWeissenburgtoSedan
andParis,youngGermanynowhadtoearnoncemore.Ifthe
strugglewerecarriedthroughtovictory,ournationwouldenter
thecircleofgreatnationsfromthestandpointofexternalpower,
and only then could the German Reich maintain itself as a
mightyhavenofpeacewithouthaving,forthesakeofpeace,to
cutdownonthedailybreadofherchildren.
AsaboyandyoungmanIhadsooftenfeltthedesiretoproveat
least once by deeds that for me national enthusiasm was no
emptywhim.Itoftenseemedtomealmostasintoshouthurrah
perhapswithouthavingtheinnerrighttodoso;forwhohadthe
righttousethiswordwithouthavingproveditintheplacewhere
allplayingisatanendandtheinexorablehandoftheGoddessof
Destinybeginstoweighpeoplesandmenaccordingtothetruth
andsteadfastnessoftheirconvictions?Thusmyheart,likethatof
amillionothers,overflowedwithproudjoythatatlastIwould
beabletoredeemmyselffromthisparalyzingfeeling.Ihadso

oftensung'DeutschlanduberAloes'andshoutedNeil'atthetop
ofmylungs,thatitseemedtomealmostabelatedactofgraceto
beallowedtostandasawitnessinthedivinecourtoftheeternal
judgeandproclaimthesincerityofthisconviction.Forfromthe
firsthourrwasconvincedthatincaseofawarwhichseemedto
meinevitableinonewayoranotherIwouldatonceleavemy
books.LikewiseIknewthatmyplacewouldthenbewheremy
innervoicedirectedme.
IhadleftAustriaprimarilyforpoliticalreasons;whatwasmore
natural thanthat,nowthestrugglehadbegun,Ishouldreally
begintotakeaccountofthisconviction.Ididnotwanttofight
fortheHabsburgstate,butwasreadyatanytimetodieformy
people and for the Reich which embodied it On the third of
August, I submitted a personal petition to His Majesty, lying
LudwigIII,witharequestforpermission toenteraBavarian
regiment.Thecabinetofficecertainlyhadplentytodointhose
days;somuchthegreaterwasmyjoytoreceiveananswertomy
requesttheverynextday.WithtremblinghandsIopenedthe
document;myrequesthadbeenapprovedandIwassummoned
toreporttoaBavarianregiment.Myjoyandgratitudeknewno
bounds.AfewdayslaterIwaswearingthetunicwhichIwasnot
todoffuntilnearlysixyearslater.
Forme,asforeveryGerman,therenowbeganthegreatestand
mostunforgettabletimeofmyearthlyexistence.Comparedto
theeventsofthisgiganticstruggle,everythingpastrecededto
shallow nothingness. Precisely in these days, with the tenth
anniversaryofthemightyeventapproaching,Ithinkbackwith
proud sadness on those first weeks of our people's heroic
struggle,inwhichFategraciouslyallowedmetotakepart.
Asthoughitwereyesterday,imageafterimagepassesbeforemy
eyes.Iseemyselfdonningtheuniforminthecircleofmydear
comrades,turningoutforthefirsttime,drilling,etc.,untilthe
daycameforustomarchoff.
Asingleworrytormentedmeatthattime,me,assomanyothers:
wouldwenotreachthefronttoolate?Timeandtimeagainthis
alonebanishedallmycalm.Thus,ineverycauseforrejoicingat

anew,heroicvictory,aslightdropofbitternesswashidden,for
everynewvictoryseemedtoincreasethedangerofourcoming
toolate.
At last the day came when we left Munich to begin the
fulfillmentofourduty.ForthefirsttimeIsawtheRhineaswe
rodewestwardalongitsquietwaterstodefendit,theGerman
stream of streams, from the greed of the old enemy. When
throughthetenderveiloftheearlymorningmisttheNiederwald
Monumentgleameddownuponusinthegentlefirstraysofthe
sun, the old Watch on the Rhine roared out of the endless
transporttrainintothemorningsky,andIfeltasthoughmyheart
wouldburst.
Andthencameadamp,coldnightinFlanders,throughwhichwe
marchedinsilence,andwhenthedaybegantoemergefromthe
mists,suddenlyanirongreetingcamewhizzingatusoverour
heads, and with a sharp report sent the little pellets flying
betweenourranks,rippingupthewetground;butevenbefore
thelittlecloudhadpassed,fromtwohundredthroatsthefirst
hurrahrosetomeetthefirstmessengerofdeath.Thenacrackling
andaroaring,asingingandahowlingbegan,andwithfeverish
eyeseachoneofuswasdrawnforward,fasterandfaster,until
suddenlypastturnipfieldsandhedgesthefightbegan,thefight
ofmanagainstman.Andfromthedistancethestrainsofasong
reached our ears, coming closer and closer, leaping from
companytocompany,andjustasDeathplungedabusyhandinto
our ranks, the song reached us too and we passed it along:
'Deutschland,DeutschlanduberAlles,uberAllesinderWelt!'
Four days later we came back. Even our step had changed.
Seventeenyearoldboysnowlookedlikemen.
Thevolunteersof theListRegimentmaynothavelearnedto
fightproperly,buttheyknewhowtodielikeoldsoldiersThis
wasthebeginning.
Thusitwentonyearafteryear;buttheromanceofbattlehad
beenreplacedbyhorror.Theenthusiasmgraduallycooledand
theexuberantjoywasstifledbymortalfear.Thetimecamewhen
every man had to struggle between the instinct of self

preservationandtheadmonitionsofduty.I,too,wasnotspared
bythisstruggle.AlwayswhenDeathwasonthehunt,avague
somethingtriedtorevolt,strovetorepresentitselftotheweak
body as reason, yet it was only cowardice, which in such
disguises triedtoensnaretheindividual.Agravetuggingand
warning set in, and often it was only the last remnant of
conscience which decided the issue. Yet the more this voice
admonished one to caution, the louder and more insistent its
lures,thesharperresistancegrewuntilatlast,afteralonginner
struggle, consciousness of duty emerged victorious. By the
winterof191516thisstrugglehadformebeendecided.Atlast
mywillwasundisputedmaster.IfinthefirstdaysIwentover
the top with rejoicing and laughter, I was now calm and
determined.Andthiswasenduring.NowFatecouldbringonthe
ultimatetestswithoutmynervesshatteringormyreasonfailing.
Theyoungvolunteerhadbecomeanoldsoldier.
Andthistransformationhadoccurredinthewholearmy.Ithad
issuedoldandhardfromtheeternalbattles,andasforthosewho
couldnotstandupunderthestormwell,theywerebroken.
Nowwasthetimetojudgethisarmy.Now,aftertwoorthree
years,duringwhichitwashurledfromonebattleintoanother,
forever fighting against superiority in numbers and weapons,
sufferinghungerandbearingprivations,nowwasthetimetotest
thequalityofthisuniquearmy.
Thousandsofyearsmaypass,butneverwillitbepossibleto
speakofheroismwithoutmentioningtheGermanarmyandthe
WorldWar.Thenfromtheveilofthepasttheironfrontofthe
graysteelhelmetwillemerge,unwaveringandunflinching,an
immortalmonument.AslongasthereareGermansalive,they
willrememberthatthesemenweresonsoftheirnation.
Iwasasoldierthen,andIdidn'twanttotalkaboutpolitics.And
really it was not the time for it. Even today I harbor the
conviction that the humblest wagondriver performed more
valuableservicesforthefatherlandthantheforemostamong,let
us say, 'parliamentarians.' I had never hated these bigmouths
morethannowwheneveryredbloodedmanwithsomethingto

sayyelleditintotheenemy'sfaceorappropriatelylefthistongue
athomeandsilentlydidhisdutysomewhere.Yes,inthosedaysI
hated all those politicians. And if it had been up to me, a
parliamentarypickandshovelbattalionwouldhavebeenformed
at once; then they could have chewed the fat to their hearts'
content without annoying, let alone harming, honest, decent
people.
Thus,atthattimeIwantedtohearnothingofpolitics,butIcould
nothelptakingapositiononcertainmanifestationswhichafter
all did affect the whole nations and particularly concerned us
soldiers.
Thereweretwothingswhichthenprofoundlyangeredmeand
whichIregardedasharmful.
After theveryfirst news of victories, acertainsection of the
press, slowly, and in a way which at first was perhaps
unrecognizable to many, began to pour a few drops of
wormwoodintothegeneralenthusiasm.Thiswasdonebeneath
themaskofacertainbenevolenceandwellmeaning,evenofa
certain solicitude. They had misgivings about an excess of
exuberanceinthecelebrationofthevictories.Theyfearedthatin
this form it was unworthy of so great a nation and hence
inappropriate. The bravery and heroic courage of the German
soldierweresomethingselfevident,theysaid,andpeopleshould
notbecarriedawaytoomuchbythoughtlessoutburstsofjoy,if
only for the sake of foreign countries to whom a silent and
dignifiedformofjoyappealedmorethanunbridledexultation,
etc.Finally,weGermansevennowshouldnotforgetthatthewar
was none of our intention and therefore we should not be
ashamedtoconfessinanopenandmanlyfashionthatatanytime
wewouldcontributeourparttoareconciliationofmankind.For
thatreasonitwouldnotbeprudenttobesmirchthepurityofour
army'sdeedsbytoomuchshouting,sincetherestoftheworld
would have little understanding for such behavior. The world
admirednothingmorethanthemodestywithwhichatruehero
silentlyandcalmlyforgetshisdeeds,forthiswasthegistofthe
wholeargument.

Insteadoftakingoneofthesecreaturesbyhislongears,tying
him to a long pole and pulling him up on a long cord, thus
making it impossible for the cheering nation to insult the
aestheticsentimentofthisknightoftheinkpot,theauthorities
actually began to issue remonstrances against ' unseemly '
rejoicingovervictories.
Itdidn'toccurtothemintheleastthatenthusiasmoncescotched
cannotbereawakenedatneed.Itisanintoxicationandmustbe
preserved in this state. And how, without this power of
enthusiasm,shouldacountrywithstandastrugglewhichinall
likelihood would make the most enormous demands on the
spiritualqualitiesofthenation?
Iknewthepsycheofthebroadmassestoowellnottobeaware
thatahigh'aesthetic' tonewouldnotstirupthefirethatwas
necessarytokeeptheironhot.Inmyeyesitwasmadnessonthe
part of the authorities to be doing nothing to intensify the
glowingheatofpassion;andwhentheycurtailedwhatpassion
wasfortunatelypresent,thatwasabsolutelybeyondme.
Thesecondthingthatangeredmewastheattitudewhichthey
thoughtfittotaketowardMarxism.Inmyeyes,thisonlyproved
that they hadn't so much as the faintest idea concerning this
pestilence.Inallseriousnesstheyseemedtobelievethat,bythe
assurance that parties were no longer recognized, they had
broughtMarxismtounderstandingandrestraint.
Theyfailedtounderstandthatherenopartywasinvolved,buta
doctrine that must lead to the destruction of all humanity,
especially since this cannot be learned in the Jewified
universitiesand,besides,somany,particularlyamongourhigher
officials,duetotheidioticconceitthatiscultivatedinthem,don't
thinkitworththetroubletopickupabookandlearnsomething
whichwasnotintheiruniversitycurriculum.Themostgigantic
upheaval passes these 'minds' by without leaving the slightest
trace,whichiswhystateinstitutionsforthemostpartlagbehind
privateones.Itistothem,byGod,thatthepopularproverbbest
applies:'Whatthepeasantdoesn'tknow,hewon'teat.'Here,too,
afewexceptionsonlyconfirmtherule.

It was an unequaled absurdity to identify the German worker


withMarxisminthedaysofAugust,1914.Inthosehoursthe
Germanworkerhadmadehimselffreefromtheembraceofthis
venomousplague,forotherwisehewouldneverhavebeenable
to enter the struggle. The authorities, however, were stupid
enough to believe that Marxism had now become national; a
flashofgeniuswhichonlyshowsthatintheselongyearsnoneof
theseofficialguidesofthestatehadeventakenthetroubleto
study the essence of this doctrine, for if they had, such an
absurditycouldscarcelyhavecreptin.
Marxism,whosegoalisandremainsthedestructionofallnon
Jewishnationalstates,wasforcedtolookoninhorroras,inthe
Julydaysof1914,theGermanworkingclassithadensnared,
awakenedandfromhourtohourbegantoentertheserviceofthe
fatherlandwitheverincreasingrapidity.Inafewdaysthewhole
mist and swindle of this infamous betrayal of the people had
scatteredaway,andsuddenlythegangofJewishleadersstood
therelonelyandforsaken,asthoughnotatraceremainedofthe
nonsense and madness which for sixty years they had been
funnelingintothemasses.Itwasabadmomentforthebetrayers
of the German working class, but as soon as the leaders
recognizedthedangerwhichmenacedthem,theyrapidlypulled
thetarncap'ofliesovertheirears,andinsolentlymimickedthe
nationalawakening.
But now the time had come to take steps against the whole
treacherousbrotherhoodoftheyJewishpoisonersofthepeople.
Now was the time to deal with them summarily without the
slightestconsiderationforanyscreamsandcomplaintsthatmight
arise. In August, 1914, the whole Jewish jabber about
internationalsolidarityhadvanishedatonestrokefromtheheads
oftheGermanworkingclass,andinitsstead,onlyafewweeks
later,Americanshrapnelbegantopourdowntheblessings of
brotherhoodonthehelmetsofourmarchcolumns.Itwouldhave
been the duty of a serious government, now that the German
worker had found his way back to his nation, to exterminate
mercilesslytheagitatorswhoweremisleadingthenation.
Ifthebestmenweredyingatthefront,theleastwecoulddowas

towipeoutthevermin.
Insteadofthis,HisMajestytheRaiserhimselfstretchedouthis
handtotheoldcriminals,thussparingthetreacherousmurderers
ofthenationandgivingthemachancetoretrievethemselves.
Sonovathevipercouldcontinuehiswork,morecautiouslythan
before,butallthemoredangerously.Whilethehonestoneswere
dreamingofpeacewithintheirborders,ltheperjuringcriminals
wereorganizingtherevolution.
That such terrible halfmeasures should then be decided upon
madememoreandmoredissatisfiedatheart;butatthattimeI
wouldnothavethoughtitpossiblethattheendofitallwouldbe
sofrightful.
What,then,shouldhavebeendone?Theleadersofthewhole
movementshouldatoncehavebeenputbehindbars,broughtto
trial,andthustakenoffthenation'sneck.Alltheimplementsof
military power should have been ruthlessly used for the
exterminationof thispestilence. Thepartiesshouldhavebeen
dissolved,theReichstagbroughttoitssenses,withbayonetsif
necessary,but,bestofall,dissolvedatonce.JustastheRepublic
todaycandissolveparties,thismethodshouldhavebeenusedat
thattime,withmorereason.Forthelifeanddeathofawhole
nationwasatstake!
Onequestioncametothefore,however:canspiritualideasbe
exterminatedbythesword?Can'philosophies'becombatedby
theuseofbruteforce?
EvenatthattimeIponderedthisquestionmorethanonce:Ifwe
ponderanalogouscases,particularlyonareligiousbasis,which
can be found in history, the following fundamental principle
emerges:
Conceptions and ideas, as well as movements with a definite
spiritualfoundation,regardlesswhetherthelatterisfalseortrue,
can,afteracertainpointintheirdevelopment,onlybebroken
withtechnicalinstrumentsofpowerifthesephysicalweapons
areatthesametimethesupportofanewkindlingthought,idea,
orphilosophy.

Theapplicationofforcealone,withouttheimpetusofabasic
spiritualideaasastartingpoint,canneverleadtothedestruction
ofanideaanditsdissemination,exceptintheformofacomplete
exterminationofeventheverylastexponentoftheideaandthe
destructionofthelasttradition.This,however,usuallymeansthe
disappearance of such a state from the sphere of political
importance,oftenforanindefinitetimeandsometimesforever;
forexperienceshowsthatsuchabloodsacrificestrikesthebest
partofthepeople,sinceeverypersecutionwhichoccurswithout
aspiritualbasisseemsmorallyunjustifiedandwhipsupprecisely
themorevaluablepartsofapeopleinprotest,whichresultsinan
adoption of the spiritual content of the unjustly persecuted
movement. In many this occurs simply through a feeling of
oppositionagainsttheattempttobludgeondownanideabybrute
force.
Asaresult,thenumberofinwardsupportersgrowsinproportion
as the persecution increases. Consequently, the complete
annihilationofthenewdoctrinecanbecarriedoutonlythrougha
processofexterminationsogreatandconstantlyincreasingthat
intheendallthetrulyvaluablebloodisdrawnoutofthepeople
orstateinquestion.Theconsequenceisthat,thoughasocalled
'inner'purgecannowtakeplace,itwillonlybeatthecostof
total impotence. Such a method will always prove vain in
advanceifthedoctrinetobecombatedhasoversteppedacertain
smallcircle.
Consequently, here, too, as in all growth, the first period of
childhood is most readily susceptible to the possibility of
extermination, while with the mounting years the power of
resistanceincreasesandonlywiththeweaknessofapproaching
oldagecedesagaintonewyouth,thoughinanotherformandfor
differentreasons.
Indeed, nearly all attempts to exterminate a doctrine and its
organizationalexpression,byforcewithoutspiritualfoundation,
are doomed to failure, and not seldom end with the exact
oppositeofthedesiredresultforthefollowingreason:
The very first requirement for a mode of struggle with the

weapons of naked force is and remains persistence. In other


words:onlythecontinuousandsteadyapplicationofthemethods
forrepressing adoctrine,etc.,makesitpossible for aplanto
succeed. But as soon as force wavers and alternates with
forbearance,notonlywillthedoctrinetoberepressedrecover
againandagain,butitwillalsobeinapositiontodrawnew
benefit from every persecution, since, after such a wave of
pressurehasebbedaway,indignationoverthesufferinginduced
leadsnewsupporterstotheolddoctrine,whiletheoldoneswill
clingtoitwithgreaterdefianceanddeeperhatredthanbefore,
andevenschismaticheretics,oncethedangerhassubsided,will
attempttoreturntotheiroldviewpoint.Onlyinthesteadyand
constantapplicationofforceliestheveryfirstprerequisitefor
success. This persistence, however,canalways andonlyarise
fromadefinitespiritualconviction.Anyviolencewhichdoesnot
spring from a firm, spiritual base, will be wavering and
uncertain.Itlacksthestabilitywhichcanonlyrestinafanatical
outlook. It emanates from the momentary energy and brutal
determination of an individual, and is therefore subject to the
changeofpersonalitiesandtotheirnatureandstrength.
Addedtothisthereissomethingelse:
Anyphilosophy,whetherofareligiousorpoliticalnatureand
sometimesthedividinglineishardtodeterminefightslessfor
thenegativedestructionoftheopposingideologythanforthe
positive promotion of its own. Hence its struggle is less
defensivethanoffensive.Itthereforehastheadvantageevenin
determiningthegoal,sincethisgoalrepresentsthevictoryofits
ownidea,while,conversely,itishardtodeterminewhenthe
negative aim of the destruction of a hostile doctrine may be
regarded as achieved and assured. For this reason alone, the
philosophy's offensive will be more systematic and also more
powerfulthanthedefensiveagainstaphilosophy,sincehere,too,
asalways,theattackandnotthedefensemakesthedecision.The
fightagainstaspiritualpowerwithmethodsofviolenceremains
defensive, however, until the sword becomes the support, the
heraldanddisseminator,ofanewspiritualdoctrine.
Thus,insummingup,wecanestablishthefollowing:

Anyattempttocombataphilosophywithmethodsofviolence
willfailintheend,unlessthefighttakestheformofattackfora
new spiritual attitude. Only in the struggle between two
philosophies can the weapon of brutal force, persistently and
ruthlesslyappliedleadtoadecisionforthesideitsupports.
Thisremainedthereasonforthefailureofthestruggleagainst
Marxism.
ThiswaswhyBismarck'sSocialistlegislationfinallyfailedand
hadtofail,inspiteofeverything.Lackingwastheplatformofa
newphilosophyforwhoserisethefightcouldhavebeenwaged.
Foronlytheproverbialwisdomofhighgovernmentofficialswill
succeedinbelievingthatdrivelaboutsocalled'stateauthority'or
'law and order' could form a suitable basis for the spiritual
impetusofalifeanddeathstruggle.
Since a real spiritual basis for this struggle was lacking,
BismarckhadtoentrusttheexecutionofhisSocialistlegislation
tothejudgmentanddesiresofthatinstitutionwhichitselfwasa
productofMarxistthinking.Byentrustingthefateofhiswaron
the Marxists to the wellwishing of bourgeois democracy, the
IronChancellorsetthewolftomindthesheep.
Allthiswasonlythenecessaryconsequenceoftheabsenceofa
basicnewantiMarxistphilosophyendowedwithastormywill
toconquer.
Hence the sole result of Bismarck's struggle was a grave
disillusionment.
Were conditions different during the World War or at its
beginning?Unfortunatelynot.
ThemoreIoccupiedmyselfwiththeideaofanecessarychange
in the government's attitude toward Social Democracy as the
momentaryembodimentofMarxism,themoreIrecognizedthe
lackofaserviceablesubstituteforthisdoctrine.Whatwouldbe
giventhemassesif,justsupposing,SocialDemocracyhadbeen
broken?Therewasnotonemovementinexistencewhichcould
have been expected to succeed in drawing into its sphere of
influence the great multitudes of workers grown more or less

leaderless.Itissenselessandmorethanstupidtobelievethatthe
internationalfanaticwhohadlefttheclasspartywouldnowat
once join a bourgeois party, in other words, a new class
organization. For, unpleasant as it may seem to various
organizations, it cannot be denied that bourgeois politicians
largelytakeclassdivisionquiteforgrantedaslongasitdoesnot
begintoworkouttotheirpoliticaldisadvantage.
Thedenialofthisfactonlyprovestheeffrontery,andalsothe
stupidity,oftheliars.
Altogether, care should be taken not to regard the masses as
stupiderthantheyare.Inpoliticalmattersfeelingoftendecides
more correctly than reason. The opinion that the stupid
international attitude of the masses is sufficient proof of the
unsoundness of the masses' sentiments can be thoroughly
confutedbythesimplereminderthatpacifistdemocracyisno
lessinsane,andthatitsexponentsoriginatealmostexclusivelyin
thebourgeoiscamp.Aslongasmillionsofthebourgeoisiestill
piouslyworshiptheirJewishdemocraticpresseverymorning,it
very ill becomes these gentlemen to make jokes about the
stupidityofthe'comrade'who,inthelastanalysis,onlyswallows
downthesamegarbage,thoughinadifferentform.Inbothcases
themanufacturerisoneandthesameJew.
Goodcareshouldbetakennottodenythingsthatjusthappento
be true. The fact that the class question is by no means
exclusivelyamatterofidealproblems,as,particularlybeforethe
elections,somepeoplewouldliketopretend,cannotbedenied.
Theclassarroganceofalargepartofourpeople,andtoaneven
greater extent, the underestimation of the manual worker, are
phenomenawhichdonotexistonlyintheimaginationofthe
moonstruck.
Quiteasidefromthis,however,itshowsthesmallcapacityfor
thoughtofoursocalled'intelligentsia'when,particularlyinthese
circles,itisnotunderstoodthatastateofaffairswhichcouldnot
preventthegrowthofaplague,suchasMarxismhappenstobe,
willcertainlynotbeabletorecoverwhathasbeenlost.
The'bourgeois'parties,astheydesignatethemselves,willnever

beabletoattachthe'proletarian'massestotheircamp,forhere
two worlds oppose each other, in part naturally and in part
artificiallydivided,whosemutualrelation1canonlybestruggle.
TheyoungerwillbevictoriousandthisisMarxism.
Indeed,astruggleagainstSocialDemocracyintheyear1914
was conceivable, but how long this condition would be
maintained,inviewoftheabsenceofanysubstitute,remained
doubtful.
Heretherewasagreatgap.
IwasofthisopinionlongbeforetheWar,andforthisreason
couldnotmakeupmymindtojoinoneoftheexistingparties.In
thecourseofeventsoftheWorldWar,Iwasreinforcedinthis
opinion by the obvious impossibility of taking up a ruthless
struggleagainstSocialDemocracy,owingtothisverylackofa
movement which would have had to be more than a
'parliamentary'party.
WithmyclosercomradesIoftenexpressedmyselfopenlyonthis
point.
Andnowthefirstideascametomeoflaterengaginginpolitical
activity.
Preciselythiswaswhatcausedmeoftentoassurethesmallcircle
of my friends that after the War, I meant to be a speaker in
additiontomyprofession.
IbelievethatIwasveryseriousaboutthis.

Chapter 6:

War Propaganda
EversinceIhavebeenscrutinizingpoliticalevents,Ihavetaken
a tremendous interest in propagandist activity. I saw that the
SocialistMarxist organizations mastered and applied this
instrument withastoundingskill.AndI soon realized thatthe
correct use of propaganda is a true art which has remained
practicallyunknowntothebourgeoisparties.OnlytheChristian
Socialmovement,especiallyinLueger'stime,achievedacertain
virtuosity on this instrument, to which it owed many of its
successes.
ButitwasnotuntiltheWarthatitbecameevidentwhatimmense
resultscouldbeobtainedbyacorrectapplicationofpropaganda.
Hereagain,unfortunately,allourstudyinghadtobedoneonthe
enemyside,fortheactivityonoursidewasmodest,tosaythe
least. The total miscarriage of the German 'enlightenment '
servicestaredeverysoldierintheface,andthisspurredmeto
take up the question of propaganda even more deeply than
before.
Therewasoftenmorethanenoughtimeforthinking,andthe
enemy offered practical instructionwhich, toour sorrow,was
onlytoogood.
Forwhatwefailedtodo,theenemydid,withamazingskilland
reallybrilliantcalculation.I,myself,learnedenormouslyfrom
thisenemywarpropaganda.Buttimepassedandleftnotracein
themindsofallthosewhoshouldhavebenefited;partlybecause
theyconsideredthemselvestooclevertofromtheenemy,partly
owingtolackofgoodwill.
Didwehaveanythingyoucouldcallpropaganda?
I regret that I must answer in the negative. Everything that

actuallywasdoneinthisfieldwassoinadequateandwronfrom
theverystartthatitcertainlydidnogoodandsometimesdid
actualharm.
The form was inadequate, the substance was psychologically
wrong:acarefulexaminationofGermanwarpropagandaca:lead
tonootherdiagnosis.
Thereseemstohavebeennoclarityontheveryfirstquestion:Is
propagandaameansoranend?
Itisameansandmustthereforebejudgedwithregardtoitsend.
Itmustconsequentlytakeaformcalculatedtosupporttheaim
which it serves. It is also obvious that its aim can vary in
importance from the standpoint of general need, and that the
innervalueofthepropagandawillvaryaccordingly.Theaimfor
which we were fighting the War was the loftiest, the most
overpowering,thatmancanconceive:itwasthefreedomand
independence of our nation, the security of our future food
supply, andour national honor; a thing which, despite all
contraryopinionsprevailingtoday,neverthelessexists,orrather
shouldexist,sincepeopleswithouthonorhavesoonerorlater
losttheirfreedomandindependence,whichinturnisonlythe
result of a higher justice, since generations of rabble without
honordeservenofreedom.Anymanwhowantstobeacowardly
slavecanhavenohonor)orhonoritselfwouldsoonfallinto
generalcontempt.
The German nation was engaged in a struggle for a human
existence,andthepurposeofwarpropagandashouldhavebeen
tosupportthisstruggle;itsaimtohelpbringaboutvictory.
When the nations on this planet fight for existencewhen the
questionofdestiny,'tobeornottobe,'criesoutforasolution
thenallconsiderationsofhumanitarianismoraestheticscrumble
intonothingness;foralltheseconceptsdonotfloataboutinthe
ether,theyarisefromman'simaginationandareboundupwith
man.Whenhedepartsfromthisworld,theseconceptsareagain
dissolvedintonothingness,forNaturedoesnotknowthem.And
evenamongmankind,theybelongonlytoafewnationsorrather
races,andthisinproportionastheyemanatefromthefeelingof

thenationorraceinquestion.Humanitarianismandaesthetics
wouldvanishevenfromaworldinhabitedbymanifthisworld
were to lose the races that have created and upheld these
concepts.
But all such concepts become secondary when a nation is
fightingforitsexistence;infact,theybecometotallyirrelevant
totheformsofthestruggleassoonasasituationariseswhere
they might paralyze a struggling nation's power of
selfpreservation. And that has always been their only visible
result.
Asforhumanitarianism,Moltkesaidyearsagothatinwaritlies
in the brevity of the operation, and that means that the most
aggressivefightingtechniqueisthemosthumane.
But when people try to approach these questions with drivel
aboutaesthetics,etc.,reallyonlyoneanswerispossible:where
thedestinyandexistenceofapeopleareatstake,allobligation
towardbeautyceases.Themostunbeautifulthingtherecanbein
human life is and remains the yoke of slavery. Or do these
Schwabing 2 decadents view the present lot of the German
peopleas'aesthetic'? Certainlywedon'thavetodiscuss these
matterswiththeJews,themostmoderninventorsofthiscultural
perfume.Theirwholeexistenceisanembodiedprotestagainst
theaestheticsoftheLord'simage.
Andsincethesecriteriaofhumanitarianismandbeautymustbe
eliminated from the struggle, they are also inapplicable to
propaganda.
PropagandaintheWarwasameanstoanend,andtheendwvas
the struggle for the existence of the German people;
consequently, propaganda could only be considered in
accordancewiththeprinciplesthatwerevalidforthisstruggle.In
thiscasethemostcruelweaponswerehumaneiftheybrought
aboutaquickervictory;andonlythosemethodswerebeautiful
whichhelpedthenationtosafeguardthedignityofitsfreedom.
Thiswastheonlypossibleattitudetowardwarpropagandaina
lifeanddeathstrugglelikeours.

If the socalled responsible authorities had been clear on this


point,theywouldneverhavefallenintosuchuncertaintyover
theformandapplicationofthisweapon:forevenpropagandais
nomorethanaweapon,thoughafrightfuloneinthehandofan
expert.
Thesecondreallydecisivequestionwasthis:Towhomshould
propaganda be addressed? To the scientifically trained
intelligentsiaortothelesseducatedmasses?
Itmustbeaddressedalwaysandexclusivelytothemasses.
Whattheintelligentsiaorthosewhotodayunfortunatelyoftengo
by that namewhat they need is not propaganda but scientific
instruction.Thecontentofpropagandaisnotscienceanymore
thantheobjectrepresentedinaposterisart.Theartoftheposter
liesinthedesigner'sabilitytoattracttheattentionofthecrowd
byformandcolor.Aposteradvertisinganartexhibitmustdirect
theattentionofthepublictotheartbeingexhibited;thebetterit
succeedsinthis,thegreateristheartoftheposteritself.The
postershouldgivethemassesanideaofthesignificanceofthe
exhibition,itshouldnotbeasubstitutefortheartondisplay.
Anyonewhowantstoconcernhimselfwiththeartitselfmustdo
morethanstudytheposter;anditwillnotbeenoughforhimjust
tosaunterthroughtheexhibition.Wemayexpecthimtoexamine
andimmersehimselfintheindividualworks,andthuslittleby
littleformafairopinion.
Asimilarsituationprevailswithwhatwetodaycallpropaganda.
Thefunctionofpropagandadoesnotlieinthescientifictraining
oftheindividual,butincallingthemasses'attentiontocertain
facts,processes,necessities,etc.,whosesignificanceisthusfor
thefirsttimeplacedwithintheirfieldofvision.
Thewholeartconsistsindoingthissoskillfullythateveryone
willbeconvincedthatthefactisreal,theprocessnecessary,the
necessitycorrect,etc.Butsincepropagandaisnotandcannotbe
thenecessityinitself,sinceitsfunction,liketheposter,consists
in attracting the attention of the crowd, and not in educating
those who are already educated or who are striving after
educationandknowledge,itseffectforthemostpartmustbe

aimedattheemotionsandonlytoaverylimiteddegreeattheso
calledintellect.
Allpropagandamustbepopularanditsintellectuallevelmustbe
adjusted to the most limited intelligence among those it is
addressedto.Consequently,thegreaterthemassitisintendedto
reach,theloweritspurelyintellectuallevelwillhavetobe.But
if,asinpropagandaforstickingoutawar,theaimistoinfluence
awholepeople,wemustavoidexcessiveintellectualdemandson
our public, and too much caution cannot be exerted in this
direction.
Themoremodestitsintellectualballast,themoreexclusivelyit
takesintoconsiderationtheemotionsofthemasses, themore
effectiveitwillbe.Andthisisthebestproofofthesoundnessor
unsoundness of a propaganda campaign, and not success in
pleasingafewscholarsoryoungaesthetes.
Theartofpropagandaliesinunderstandingtheemotionalideas
of the great masses and finding, through a psychologically
correctform,thewaytotheattentionandthencetotheheartof
thebroadmasses.Thefactthatourbrightboysdonotunderstand
thismerelyshowshowmentallylazyandconceitedtheyare.
Onceweunderstandhownecessaryitisforpropagandatobe
adjustedtothebroadmass,thefollowingruleresults:
Itisamistaketomakepropagandamanysided,likescientific
instruction,forinstance.
The receptivity of the great masses is very limited, their
intelligenceissmall,buttheirpowerofforgettingisenormous.
Inconsequenceofthesefacts,alleffectivepropagandamustbe
limitedtoaveryfewpointsandmustharpontheseinsloans
untilthelastmemberofthepublicunderstandswhatyouwant
himtounderstandbyyourslogan.Assoonasyousacrificethis
sloganandtrytobemanysided,theeffectwillpiddleaway,for
thecrowdcanneitherdigestnorretainthematerialoffered.In
thiswaytheresultisweakenedandintheendentirelycancelled
out.
Thus we see that propaganda must follow a simple line and

correspondinglythebasictacticsmustbepsychologicallysound.
For instance, it was absolutely wrong to make the enemy
ridiculous,astheAustrianandGermancomicpapersdid.Itwas
absolutelywrongbecauseactualcontactwithanenemysoldier
was bound to arouse an entirely different conviction, and the
resultsweredevastating;fornowtheGermansoldier,underthe
directimpressionoftheenemy'sresistance,felthimselfswindled
byhispropagandaservice.Hisdesiretofight,oreventostand
film, was not strengthened, but the opposite occurred. His
courageflagged.
Bycontrast,thewarpropagandaoftheEnglishandAmericans
waspsychologicallysound.ByrepresentingtheGermanstotheir
ownpeopleasbarbariansandHuns,theypreparedtheindividual
soldierfortheterrorsofwar,andthushelpedtopreservehim
fromdisappointments.Afterthis,themostterribleweaponthat
was used against him seemed only to confirm what his
propagandistshadtoldhim;itlikewisereinforcedhisfaithinthe
truthofhisgovernment'sassertions,whileontheotherhandit
increasedhisrageandhatredagainstthevileenemyForthecruel
effectsoftheweapon,whoseusebytheenemyhenowcameto
know,graduallycametoconfirmforhimthe'Hunnish'brutality
ofthebarbarousenemy,whichhehadheardallabout;andit
never dawned on him for a moment that his own weapons
possibly,ifnotprobably,mightbeevenmoreterribleintheir
effects.
AndsotheEnglishsoldier couldnever feelthathehad been
misinformedbyhisowncountrymen,asunhappilywassomuch
the case with the German soldier that in the end he rejected
everythingcomingfromthissourceas'swindles'and'bunk.'All
this resulted from the idea that any old simpleton (or even
somebody who was intelligent ' in other things ') could be
assignedtopropagandawork,andthefailuretorealizethatthe
mostbrilliantpsychologistswouldhavebeennonetoogood.
And so the German war propaganda offered an unparalleled
exampleofan'enlightenment'serviceworkinginreverse,since
anycorrectpsychologywastotallylacking.

Therewasnoendtowhatcouldbelearnedfromtheenemybya
manwhokepthiseyesopen,refusedtolethisperceptionsbe
ossified, and for four and a half years privately turned the
stormfloodofenemypropagandaoverinhisbrain.
Whatourauthoritiesleastofallunderstoodwastheveryfirst
axiomofallpropagandistactivity:towit,thebasicallysubjective
andonesidedattitudeitmusttaketowardeveryquestionitdeals
with.Inthisconnection,fromtheverybeginningoftheWarand
from top to bottom, such sins were committed that we were
entitled to doubt whether so much absurdity could really be
attributedtopurestupidityalone.
What, for example, would we say about a poster that was
supposedtoadvertiseanewsoapandthatdescribedothersoaps
as'good'?
Wewouldonlyshakeourheads.
Exactlythesameappliestopoliticaladvertising.
Thefunctionofpropagandais,forexample,nottoweighand
ponder the rights of different people, but exclusively to
emphasizetheonerightwhichithassetouttoarguefor.Itstask
isnottomakeanobjectivestudyofthetruth,insofarasitfavors
the enemy, and then set it before the masses with academic
fairness; its task is to serve our own right, always and
unflinchingly.
Itwasabsolutelywrongtodiscusswarguiltfromthestandpoint
that Germany alone could not be held responsible for the
outbreakofthecatastrophe;itwouldhavebeencorrecttoload
everybitoftheblameontheshouldersoftheenemy,evenifthis
hadnotreallycorrespondedtothetruefacts,asitactuallydid.
Andwhatwastheconsequenceofthishalfheartedness?
Thebroadmassofanationdoesnotconsistofdiplomats,oreven
professors of political law, or even individuals capable of
formingarationalopinion;itconsistsofplainmortals,wavering
and inclined to doubt and uncertainty. As soon as our own
propagandaadmitssomuchasaglimmerofrightontheother
side,thefoundationfordoubtinourownrighthasbeenlaid.The

masses are then in no position to distinguish where foreign


injusticeendsandourownbegins.Insuchacasetheybecome
uncertainandsuspicious,especiallyiftheenemyrefrainsfrom
goinginforthesamenonsense,butunloadseverybitofblame
onhisadversary.Isn'titperfectlyunderstandablethatthewhole
countryendsupbylendingmorecredencetoenemypropaganda,
which is more unified and coherent, than to its own? And
particularlyapeoplethatsuffersfromthemaniaofobjectivityas
muchastheGermans.For,afterallthis,everyonewilltakethe
greatestpainstoavoiddoingtheenemyanyinjustice,evenatthe
peril of seriously besmirching and even destroying his own
peopleandcountry.
Ofcourse,thiswasnottheintentoftheresponsibleauthorities,
butthepeopleneverrealizethat.
Thepeopleintheiroverwhelmingmajorityaresofeminineby
natureandattitudethatsoberreasoningdeterminestheirthoughts
andactionsfarlessthanemotionandfeeling.Andthissentiment
isnotcomplicated,butverysimpleandallofapiece.Itdoesnot
havemultipleshadings;ithasapositiveandanegative;loveor
hate,rightorwrong,truthorlieneverhalfthiswayandhalfthat
way,neverpartially,orthatkindofthing.
English propagandists understood all this most brilliantlyand
actedaccordingly.Theymadenohalfstatementsthatmighthave
givenrisetodoubts.
Their brilliant knowledge of the primitive sentiments of the
broadmassesisshownbytheiratrocitypropaganda,whichwas
adaptedtothiscondition.Asruthlessasitwasbrilliant,itcreated
thepreconditionsformoralsteadfastnessatthefront,eveninthe
face of the greatest actual defeats, and just as strikingly it
pilloried the German enemy as the sole guilty party for the
outbreakoftheWar:therabid,impudentbiasandpersistence
with which this lie was expressed took into account the
emotional,alwaysextreme,attitudeofthegreatmassesandfor
thisreasonwasbelieved.
How effective this type of propaganda was is most strikingly
shownbythefactthatafterfouryearsofwaritnotonlyenabled

theenemytosticktoitsguns,butevenbegantonibbleatour
ownpeople.
Itneednotsurpriseusthatourpropagandadidnotenjoythis
success. In its inner ambiguity alone, it bore the germ of
ineffectualness.Andfinallyitscontentwassuchthatitwasvery
vunlikelytomakethenecessaryimpressiononthemasses.Only
ourfeatherbrained'statesmen'couldhavedaredtohopethatthis
insipid pacifistic bilge could fire men's spirits till they were
willingtodie.
Asaresult,theirmiserablestuff1wasuseless,evenharmfulin
fact.
But the most brilliant propagandist technique will yield no
success unless one fundamental principle is borne in mind
constantlyandwithunfiaggingattention.Itmustconfineitselfto
afewpointsandrepeatthemoverandover.Here,assooftenin
this world, persistence is the first and most important
requirementforsuccess.
Particularly in the field of propaganda, we must never let
ourselvesbeledbyaesthetesorpeoplewhohavegrownblase:
not by the former, because the form and expression of our
propagandawouldsoon,insteadofbeingsuitableforthemasses,
havedrawingpoweronlyforliteraryteas;andofthesecondwe
mustbeware,because,lackinginanyfreshemotionoftheirown,
theyarealwaysonthelookoutfornewstimulation.Thesepeople
arequicktowearyofeverything;theywantvariety,andtheyare
neverabletofeelorunderstandtheneedsoftheirfellowmen
whoarenotyetsocallous.Theyarealwaysthefirsttocriticizea
propagandacampaign,orratheritscontent,whichseemstothem
toooldfashioned,toohackneyed,toooutofdate,etc.Theyare
alwaysafternovelty,insearchofachange,andthismakesthem
mortalenemiesofanyeffectivepoliticalpropaganda.Forassoon
astheorganizationandthecontentofpropagandabegintosuit
theirtastes,itlosesallcohesionandevaporatescompletely.
The purpose of propaganda is not to provide interesting
distractionforblaseyounggentlemen,buttoconvince,andwhat
I mean is to convince the masses. But the masses are

slowmoving,andtheyalwaysrequireacertaintimebeforethey
arereadyeventonoticeathing,andonlyafterthesimplestideas
arerepeatedthousandsoftimeswillthemassesfinallyremember
them.
Whenthereisachange,itmustnotalterthecontentofwhatthe
propagandaisdrivingat,butintheendmustalwayssaythesame
thing.Forinstance,asloganmustbepresentedfromdifferent
angles,buttheendofallremarksmustalwaysandimmutablybe
thesloganitself.Onlyinthiswaycanthepropagandahavea
unifiedandcompleteeffect.
Thisbroadnessofoutlinefromwhichwemustneverdepart,in
combinationwithsteady,consistentemphasis,allowsourfinal
success to mature. And then, to our amazement, weshall see
what tremendous results such perseverance leads toto results
thatarealmostbeyondourunderstanding.
All advertising, whether in the field of business or politics,
achievessuccessthroughthecontinuityandsustaineduniformity
ofitsapplication.
Here,too,theexampleofenemywarpropagandawastypical;
limited to a few points, devised exdusively for the masses,
carriedonwithindefatigablepersistence.Oncethebasicideas
andmethodsofexecutionwererecognizedascorrect,theywere
appliedthroughoutthewholeWarwithouttheslightestchange.
At first the claims of the propaganda were so impudent that
peoplethoughtitinsane;later,itgotonpeople'snerves;andin
theend,itwasbelieved.Afterfourandahalfyears,arevolution
brokeoutinGermany;anditsslogansoriginatedintheenemy's
warpropaganda.
And in England they understood one more thing: that this
spiritual weapon can succeed only if it is applied on a
tremendousscale,butthatsuccessamplycoversallcosts.
There,propagandawasregardedasaweaponofthefirstorder,
while in our country it was the last resort of unemployed
politiciansandacomfortablehavenforslackers.
And,aswastobeexpected,itsresultsallinallwerezero.

Chapter 7:

The Revolution
With the year 1915 enemy propaganda began in our country,
after1916itbecamemoreandmoreintensive,tillfinally,atthe
beginningoftheyear1918,itswelledtoapositiveflood.Now
the results of this seduction could be seen at every step. The
armygraduallylearnedtothinkastheenemywanteditto.
AndtheGermancounteractionwasacompletefailure.
Inthepersonofthemanwhoseintellectandwillmadehimits
leader,thearmyhadtheintentionanddeterminationtotakeup
thestruggleinthisfield,too,butitlackedtheinstrumentwhich
wouldhavebeennecessary.Andfromthepsychologicalpointof
view,itwaswrongtohavethisenlightenmentworkcarriedonby
thetroopsthemselves.Ifitwastobeeffective,ithadtocome
fromhome.Onlythenwasthereanyassuranceofsuccessamong
themenwho,afterall,hadbeenperformingimmortaldeedsof
heroismandprivationfornearlyfouryearsforthishomeland.
Butwhatcameoutofthehomecountry?
Wasthisfailurestupidityorcrime?
Inmidsummerof1918,aftertheevacuationofthesouthernbank
oftheMarne,theGermanpressaboveallconducteditselfwith
such miserable awkwardness, nay, criminal stupidity, that my
wrathmountedbytheday,andthequestionarosewithinme:Is
there really no one who can put an end to this spiritual
squanderingofthearmy'sheroism?
What happened in France in 1914 when we swept into the
countryinanunprecedentedstormofvictory?WhatdidItalydo
inthedaysafterherIsonzofronthadcollapsed?Andwhatagain
did France do in the spring of 1918 when the attack of the

Germandivisionsseemedtoliftherpositionsofftheirhingesand
thefarreachingarmoftheheavylongrangebatteriesbeganto
knockatthedoorsofParis?
Howtheywhippedthefeverheatofnationalpassionintothe
facesofthehastilyretreatingregimentsinthosecountries!What
propagandaandingeniousdemagogywereusedtohammerthe
faithinfinalvictorybackintotheheartsofthebrokenfronts!
Meanwhile,whathappenedinourcountry?
Nothing,orworsethannothing.
RageandindignationoftenroseupinmewhenIlookedatthe
latestnewspapers,andcamefacetofacewiththepsychological
massmurderthatwasbeingcommitted.
More than once I was tormented by the thought that if
Providencehadputmeintheplaceoftheincapableorcriminal
incompetentsorscoundrelsinourpropagandaservice,ourbattle
withDestinywouldhavetakenadifferentturn.
In these months I felt for the first time the whole malice of
Destinywhichkeptmeatthefrontinapositionwhereevery
negro might accidentally shoot me to bits, while elsewhere I
wouldhavebeenabletoperformquitedifferentservicesforthe
fatherland!
ForeventhenIwasrashenoughtobelievethatIwouldhave
succeededinthis.
ButIwasanamelesssoldier,oneamongeightmillion!
Andsoitwasbettertoholdmytongueanddomydutyinthe
trenchesasbestIcould.
In the summer of 1915, the first enemy leaflets fell into our
hands.
Aside from a few changes in the form of presentation, their
Contentwasalmostalwaysthesame,towit:thatthesuffering
wasgrowinggreaterandgreaterinGermany;thattheWarwas
goingtolastforeverwhilethehopeofwinningitwasgradually
vanishing;thatthepeopleathomewere,therefore,longingfor
peace,butthat'militarism'andthe'Kaiser'didnotallowit;that

the whole worldto whom this was very well known was,
therefore, not waging a war on the German people, but
exclusively against the sole guilty party, the Kaiser; that,
therefore, the War would not be over before this enemy of
peacefulhumanityshouldbeeliminated;thatwhentheWarwas
ended, the libertarian and democratic nations would take the
German people into the league of eternal world peace, which
wouldbeassuredfromthehourwhen'Prussianmilitarism'was
destroyed.
The better to illustrate these claims, 'letters from home' were
often reprinted whose contents seemed to confirm these
assertions.
Onthewhole,weonlylaughedinthosedaysatalltheseefforts.
Theleafletswereread,thensentbacktothehigherstaffs,andfor
themostpartforgottenuntilthewindagainsentaloadofthem
sailingdownintothetrenches;for,asarule,theleafletswere
broughtoverbyairplanes.
In this type of propaganda there was one point which soon
inevitablyattractedattention:ineverysectorofthefrontwhere
Bavarians were stationed, Prussia was attacked with
extraordinaryconsistency,withtheassurancethatnotonlywas
Prussiaontheonehandthereallyguiltyandresponsibleparty
forthewholewar,butthatontheotherhandtherewasnotthe
slightest hostilityagainstBavaria inparticular;however,there
wasnohelpingBavariaaslongassheservedPrussianmilitarism
andhelpedtopullitschestnutsoutofthefire.
Actuallythiskindofpropagandabegantoachievecertaineffects
in1915.ThefeelingagainstPrussiagrewquitevisiblyamongthe
troopsyetnotasinglestepwastakenagainstitfromabove.This
wasmorethanameresinofomission,andsoonerorlaterwe
wereboundtosuffermostcatastrophicallyforit;andnotjustthe
'Prussians,' but the whole German people, to which Bavaria
herselfisnotthelasttobelong.
In this direction enemy propaganda began to achieve
unquestionablesuccessesfrom1916on.
Likewisethecomplaininglettersdirectfromhomehadlongbeen

havingtheireffect.Itwasnolongernecessaryfortheenemyto
transmitthemtothefrontlinesoldiersbymeansofleaflets,etc.
And against this, aside from a few psychologically idiotic
'admonitions'onthepartofthe'government,'nothingwasdone.
Justasbefore,thefrontwasfloodedwiththispoisondishedup
bythoughtlesswomenathome,who,ofcourse,didnotsuspect
thatthiswasthewaytoraisetheenemy'sconfidenceinvictoryto
thehighestpitch,thusconsequentlytoprolongandsharpenthe
sufferings of their men at the fighting front. In the time that
followed,thesenselesslettersofGermanwomencosthundreds
ofthousandsofmentheirlives.
Thus,asearlyas1916,thereappearedvariousphenomenathat
wouldbetterhavebeenabsentsThemenatthefrontcomplained
and 'beefed'; they began to be dissatisfied in many ways and
sometimeswereevenrighteouslyindignant.Whiletheystarved
andsuffered,whiletheirpeopleathomelivedinmisery,there
wasabundanceandhighlivinginothercircles.Yes,evenatthe
fightingfrontallwasnotinorderinthisrespect.
Even then a slight crisis was emergingbut these were still
'internal' affairs. The same man, who at first had cursed and
grumbled,silentlydidhisdutyafewminuteslaterasthoughthis
wasamatterofcourse.Thesamecompany,whichatfirstwas
discontented, clung tothe piece of trench ithad todefend as
thoughGermany'sfatedependedonthesefewhundredyardsof
mudholes. It was still the front of the old, glorious army of
heroes!
Iwastolearnthedifferencebetweenitandthehomelandina
glaringcontrast.
At the end of September, 1916, my division moved into the
BattleoftheSomme.Forusitwasthefirstofthetremendous
battlesofmaterielwhichnowfollowed,andtheimpressionwas
hardtodescribeitwasmorelikehellthanwar.
Underawhirlwindofdrumfirethatlastedforweeks,theGerman
frontheldfast,sometimesforcedbackalittle,thenagainpushing
forward,butneverwavering.
OnOctober7,1916,Iwaswounded.

Iwasbroughtsafelytotherear,andfromtherewastoreturnto
Germanywithatransport.
TwoyearshadnowpassedsinceIhadseenthehomelandunder
suchconditionsanalmostendlesstime.Icouldscarcelyimagine
howGermanslookedwhowerenotinuniform.AsIlayinthe
field hospital at Hermies, I almost collapsed for fright when
suddenly the voice of a German woman serving as a nurse
addressedamanlyingbesideme.
Forthefirsttimeintwoyearstohearsuchasound!
Thecloserourtrainwhichwastobringushomeapproachedthe
border,themoreinwardlyrestlesseachofusbecame.Allthe
towns passed by, through which we had ridden two years
previousasyoungsoldiers:Brussels,Louvain,Liege,andatlast
wethoughtwerecognizedthefirstGermanhousebyitshigh
gableandbeautifulshutters.
Thefatherland!
InOctober,1914,wehadburnedwithstormyenthusiasmaswe
crossedtheborder;nowsilenceandemotionreigned.Eachofus
washappythatFateagainpermittedhimtoseewhathehadhad
to defend so hard with his life, and each man was wellnigh
ashamedtoletanotherlookhimintheeye.
ItwasalmostontheanniversaryofthedaywhenIleftforthe
frontthatIreachedthehospitalatBeelitznearBerlin.
Whatachange!FromthemudoftheBattleoftheSommeinto
thewhitebedsofthismiraculousbuilding!Inthebeginningwe
hardlydaredtolieinthemproperly.Onlygraduallycouldwe
reaccustomourselvestothisnewworld.
Unfortunately,thisworldwasnewinanotherrespectaswell.
Thespiritofthearmyatthefrontseemednolongertobeaguest
here.l Here for the first time I heard a thing that was still
unknownatthefront;menbraggingabouttheirowncowardice!
Forthecursingand'beefing'youcouldhearatthefrontwere
neveranincitementtoshirkdutyoraglorificationofthecoward.
No!Thecowardstillpassedasacowardandasnothingelse;and
alhecontemptwhichstruckhimwasstillgeneral,justlikethe

admiration that was given to the real hero. But here in the
hospitalitwaspartlyalmosttheopposite:themostunscrupulous
agitatorsdidthetalkingandattemptedwithallthemeansoftheir
contemptibleeloquencetomaketheconceptionsofthedecent
soldiers ridiculous and hold up the spineless coward as an
example.Afewwretchedscoundrelsinparticularsetthetone.
One boasted that he himself had pulled his hand through a
barbedwireentanglementinordertobesenttothehospital;in
spiteofthisabsurdwoundheseemedtohavebeenhereforan
endless time, and for that matter he had only gotten into the
transporttoGermanybyaswindle.Thispoisonousfellowwent
sofarinhisinsolenteffronteryastorepresenthisowncowardice
asanemanation2Ofhigherbraverythanthehero'sdeathofan
honestsoldier.Manylistenedinsilence,otherswentaway,buta
fewassented.
Disgust mounted to my throat, but the agitator was calmly
tolerated in the institution. What could be done? The
management couldn't help knowing, and actually did know,
exactlywhoandwhathewas.Butnothingwasdone.
WhenIcouldagainwalkproperly,Iobtainedpermissiontogoto
Berlin.
Clearly there was dire misery everywhere. The big city was
sufferingfromhunger.Discontentwasgreat.Invarioussoldiers'
homes the tone was like that in the hospital. It gave you the
impressionthatthesescoundrelswereintentionallyfrequenting
suchplacesinordertospreadtheirviews.
Butmuch,muchworsewereconditionsinMunichitself!
WhenIwasdischargedfromthehospitalascuredandtransferred
to the replacement battalion, I thought I could no longer
recognize the city. Anger, discontent, cursing, wherever you
went!Inthereplacementbattalionitselfthemoodwasbeneath
allcriticism.Hereacontributingfactorwastheimmeasurably
clumsy way in which the field soldiers were treated by old
trainingofficerswhohadn'tspentasinglehourinthefieldand
forthisreasonalonewereonlypartiallyabletocreateadecent
relationshipwiththeoldsoldiers.Forithadtobeadmittedthat

thelatterpossessedcertainqualitieswhichcouldbeexplainedby
their service at the front, but which remained totally
incomprehensible to the leaders of these replacement
detachmentswhiletheofficerwhohadcomefromthefrontwas
atleastabletoexplainthem.Thelatter,ofcourse,wasrespected
bythemenquitedifferentlythantherearcommander.Butaside
fromthis,thegeneralmoodwasmiserable:tobeaslackerpassed
almostasasignofhigherwisdom,whileloyalsteadfastnesswas
considered a symptom of inner weakness and narrow
mindedness. The offices were filled with Jews. Nearly every
clerkwasaJewandnearlyeveryJewwasaclerk.Iwasamazed
atthisplethoraofwarriorsofthechosenpeopleandcouldnot
helpbutcomparethemwiththeirrarerepresentativesatthefront.
As regards economic life, things were even worse Here the
Jewishpeoplehadbecomereally'indispensable.'Thespiderwas
slowly beginningto suck theblood outof the people's pores.
Throughthewarcorporations,theyhadfoundaninstrumentwith
which,littlebylittle,tofinishoffthenationalfreeeconomyThe
necessityofanunlimitedcentralizationwasemphasizedThus,in
theyear191S17nearlythewholeofproductionwasunderthe
controlofJewishfinance.
Butagainstwhomwasthehatredofthepeopledirected?
AtthistimeIsawwithhorroracatastropheapproachingwhich,
unlessavertedintime,wouldinevitablyleadtocollapse.
WhiletheJewrobbedthewholenationandpresseditbeneathhis
domination,anagitationwascarriedonagainstthe'Prussians.'At
home,asatthefront,nothingwasdoneagainstthispoisonous
propaganda. No one seemed to suspect that the collapse of
Prussiawouldnotbyalongshotbringwithitaresurgenceof
Bavaria; no, that on the contrary any fall of the one would
inevitablycarrytheotheralongwithitintotheabyss.
Ifeltverybadlyaboutthisbehavior.InitIcouldonlyseethe
craftiest trick of the Jew, calculated to distract the general
attentionfromhimselfandtoothers.WhiletheBavarianandthe
Prussian fought, he stole the existence of both of them from
undertheirnose;whiletheBavarianswerecursingthePrussians,

the Jew organized the revolution and smashed Prussia and


Bavariaatonce.
IcouldnotbearthisaccursedquarrelamongGermanpeoples,
andwasgladtoreturntothefront,forwhichIreportedatonce
aftermyarrivalinMunich.
AtthebeginningofMarch,1917,Iwasbackwithmyregiment.
TowardtheendofI911,thelowpointofthearmy'sdejection
seemed tohavepassed. Thewholearmytookfresh hopeand
freshcourageaftertheRussiancollapse.Theconvictionthatthe
WarwouldendwiththevictoryofGermany,afterall,beganto
seizethetroopsmoreandmore.Againsingingcouldbeheard
andtheCalamityLanesbecamerarer.Againpeoplebelievedin
thefutureofthefatherland.
EspeciallytheItaliancollapseofautumn,1917,hadhadthemost
wonderfuleffect;inthisvictorywesawaproofofthepossibility
of breaking through the front, even aside from the Russian
theaterofwar.Agloriousfaithflowedagainintotheheartsofthe
millions, enablingthemtoawaitspring,1918,withrelief and
confidence. The foe was visibly depressed. In this winter he
remainedquieterthanusual.Thiswasthelullbeforethestorm.
But, while those at the front were undertaking the last
preparationsforthefinalconclusionoftheeternalstruggle,while
endlesstransportsofmenandmaterielwererollingtowardthe
West Front, and the troops were being trained for the great
attackthebiggestpieceofchicaneryinthewholewarbrokeout
inGermany.
Germanymustnotbevictorious;inthelasthour,withvictory
alreadythreateningtobewiththeGermanbanners,ameanswas
chosenwhichseemedsuitedtostifletheGermanspringattackin
thegermwithoneblow,tomakevictoryimpossible:
ThemunitionsstrikewasorganizedIfitsucceeded,theGerman
frontwasboundtocollapse,andtheVorwarts'desirethatthis
time victory should not be with the German banners would
inevitablybefulfilled.Owingtothelackofmunitions,thefront
wouldinevitablybepiercedinafewweeks;thustheoffensive

wasthwarted,theEntentesavedinternationalcapitalwasmade
masterofGermany,andtheinneraimoftheMarxistswindleof
nationsachieved.
To smash the national economy and establish the rule of
internationalcapitalagoalwhichactuallywasachieved,thanks
tothestupidityandcredulityoftheonesideandthebottomless
cowardiceoftheother.
Tobesure,themunitionsstrikedidnothaveallthehopedfor
successwithregardtostarvingthefrontofarms;itcollapsedtoo
soonforthelackofmunitionsassuchastheplanhadbeento
doomthearmytodestruction.
Buthowmuchmoreterriblewasthemoraldamagethathadbeen
done!
Inthefirstplace:Whatwasthearmyfightingforifthehomeland
itself no longer wanted victory? For whom the immense
sacrifices and privations? The soldier is expected to fight for
victoryandthehomelandgoesonstrikeagainstit!
Andinthesecondplace:Whatwastheeffectontheenemy?
Inthewinterof1917to1918,darkcloudsappearedforthefirst
timeinthefirmamentoftheAlliedworld.Fornearlyfouryears
theyhadbeenassailingtheGermanwarriorandhadbeenunable
toencompasshisdownfall;andallthiswhiletheGermanhad
onlyhisshieldarmfreefordefense,whilehisswordwasobliged
tostrike,nowintheEast,nowintheSouth.Butnowatlastthe
giant's back was free. Streams of blood had flown before he
administeredfinaldefeattooneofhisfoes.NowintheWesthis
shield was going to be joined by his sword; up till then the
enemyhadbeenunabletobreakhisdefense,andnowhehimself
wasfacingattack.
Theenemyfearedhimandtrembledfortheirvictory.
InLondonandParisonedeliberationfollowedanother,butatthe
frontsleepysilenceprevailed.Suddenlytheirhighmightinesses
losttheireffrontery.Evenenemypropagandawashavingahard
timeofit;itwasnolongersoeasytoprovethehopelessnessof
Germanvictory.

ButthisalsoappliedtotheAlliedtroopsatthefronts.Aghastly
lightbegantodawnslowlyevenonthem.Theirinnerattitude
towardtheGermansoldierhadchanged.Untilthenhemayhave
seemedtothemafooldestinedtodefeat;butnowitwasthe
destroyer of the Russian ally that stood before them. The
limitationoftheGermanoffensivestotheEast,thoughbornof
necessity,nowseemedtothembrillianttactics.Forthreeyears
theseGermanshadstormedtheRussianfront,atfirstitseemed
withouttheslightestsuccess.TheAlliesalmostlaughedoverthis
aimlessundertaking;forintheendtheRussiangiantwithhis
overwhelming number of men was sure to remain the victor
while Germany would inevitably collapse from loss of blood.
Realityseemedtoconfirmthishope.
SincetheSeptemberdaysof1914,whenforthefirsttimethe
endless hordes of Russian prisoners from the Battle of
Tannenberg began moving into Germany over the roads and
railways, this stream was almost without endbut for every
defeatedanddestroyedarmyanewonearose.Inexhaustiblythe
giganticEmpiregavetheTsarmoreandmorenewsoldiersand
theWaritsnewvictims.HowlongcouldGermanykeepupthis
race? Would not the day inevitably come when the Germans
wouldwintheirlastvictoryandstilltheRussianarmieswould
notbemarchingtotheirlastbattle?Andthenwhat?Inallhuman
probabilitythevictoryofRussiacouldbepostponed,butitwas
boundtocome.
Nowallthesehopeswereatanend:theallywhohadlaidthe
greatestbloodsacrificesonthealtarofcommoninterestswasat
theendofhisstrength,andlayproneatthefeetoftheinexorable
assailant.Fearandhorrorcreptintotheheartsofthesoldierswho
hadhithertobelievedsoblindly.Theyfearedthecomingspring.
For if up until then they had not succeeded in defeating the
Germanwhenhewasabletoplaceonlypartofhisforcesonthe
WesternFront,howcouldtheycountonvictorynowthatthe
entire power of this incredible heroic state seemed to be
concentratingforanattackontheWest?
TheshadowsoftheSouthTyroleanMountainslayoppressiveon
thefantasy;asfarasthemistsofFlanders,thedefeatedarmiesof

Cadornaconjuredupgloomyfaces,andfaithinvictorycededto
fearofcomingdefeat.
Thenwhen out of the cool nights the Allied soldiers already
seemedtohearthedullrumbleoftheadvancingstormunitsof
theGermanarmy,andwitheyesfixedinfearandtrepidation
awaitedtheapproachingjudgment,suddenlyaflamingredlight
aroseinGermany,castingitsglowintothelastshellholeofthe
enemy front: at the very moment when the German divisions
were receiving their last instructions for the great attack, the
generalstrikebrokeoutinGermany.
Atfirsttheworldwasspeechless.Butthenenemypropaganda
hurleditselfwithasighofreliefonthishelpthatcameinthe
eleventhhour.Atonestrokethemeanswasfoundtorestorethe
sinkingconfidenceoftheAlliedsoldiers,onceagaintorepresent
theprobabilityofvictoryascertain,landtransformdreadanxiety
inthefaceofcomingeventsintodeterminedconfidence.Now
theregimentsawaitingtheGermanattackcouldbesentintothe
greatest battle of all time with the conviction that, not the
boldnessoftheGermanassaultwoulddecidetheendofthiswar
buttheperseveranceofthedefense.LettheGermansachieveas
many victories as they pleased; at home the revolution was
beforethedoor,andnotthevictoriousarmy..
English,French,andAmericannewspapersbegantoimplantthis
faith in the hearts of their readers while an infinitely shrewd
propagandaraisedthespiritsofthetroopsatthefront.
'Germany facing revolution! Victory of the Allies inevitable!
This was the best medicine to help the wavering poilu and
Tommybackontheirfeet.Nowriflesandmachinegunscould
againbemadetofire,andaheadlongflightinpanicfearwas
replacedbyhopefulresistance.
Thiswastheresultofthemunitionsstrike.Itstrengthenedthe
enemy peoples' belief in victory and relieved the paralyzing
despairoftheAlliedfrontinthetimethatfollowed,thousandsof
German soldiers had to pay for this with their blood. The
instigators of this vilest of all scoundrelly tricks were the
aspirantstothehigheststatepositionsofrevolutionaryGermany.

OntheGermanside,itistrue,thevisiblereactiontothiscrime
couldatfirstapparentlybehandled;ontheenemyside,however,
theconsequencesdidnotfailtoappear.Theresistancehadlost
theaimlessnessofanarmygivingupallaslost,andtookonthe
bitternessofastruggleforvictory.
Fornow,inallhumanprobability,victorywasinevitableifthe
WesternFrontcouldstandupunderaGermanattackforonlya
few months. The parliaments of the Entente, however,
recognized the possibilities for the future and approved
unprecedented expenditures for continuing the propaganda to
disruptGermany.
Ihadthegoodfortunetofightinthefirsttwooffensivesandin
thelast.
These became the most tremendous impressions of my life;
tremendousbecausenowforthelasttime,asin1914,thefight
lostthecharacterofdefenseandassumedthatofattack.Asighof
reliefpassedthroughthetrenchesandthedugoutsoftheGerman
armywhenatlength,aftermorethanthreeyears'endurancein
the enemy hell, the day of retribution came. Once again the
victorious battalions cheered and hung the last wreaths of
immortal laurelontheir bannersrentbythestormof victory.
Once again the songs of the fatherland roared to the heavens
alongtheendlessmarchingcolumns,andforthelasttimethe
Lord'sgracesmiledonHisungratefulchildren.
Inmidsummerof1918,oppressivesultrinesslayoverthefront.
At home there was fighting. For what? In the different
detachmentsofthefieldarmyallsortsofthingswerebeingsaid:
thatthewarwasnowhopelessandonlyfoolscouldbelievein
victoryThatnotthepeoplebutonlycapitalandthemonarchy
hadaninterestinholdingoutanylongerallthiscamefromthe
homelandandwasdiscussedevenatthefront.
At first the front reacted very little. What did we care about
universalsuffrage?Hadwefoughtfouryearsforthat?Itwasvile
banditrytostealthewaraimofthedeadheroesfromtheirvery
graves. The young regiments had not gone to their death in
Flanders crying: 'Long dive universal suffrage and the secret

ballot,'butcrying:'DeutschlanduberAllesinderWelt.'Asmall
yetnotentirelyinsignificant,difference.Butmostofthosewho
criedoutforsuffragehadn'teverbeenintheplacewherethey
nowwantedtofightforit.Thefrontwasunknowntothewhole
politicalpartyrabble.OnlyasmallfractionoftheParliamentary
ian gentlemen could be seen where all decent Germans with
soundlimbsleftweresojourningatthattime.
Andsotheoldpersonnelatthefrontwasnotveryreceptiveto
this new war aims of Messrs. Ebert, Scheidemann, Barth,
Liebnitz,etc.Theycouldn'tforthelifeofthemseewhysuddenly
the slackers should have the right to arrogate to themselves
controlofthestateovertheheadsofthearmy.
Mypersonalattitudewasestablishedfromtheverystart.Ihated
thewholegangofmiserablepartyscoundrelsandbetrayersof
thepeopleintheextreme.Ithadlongbeencleartomethatthis
whole gang was not really concerned with the welfare of the
nation,butwithfillingemptypockets.Forthistheywereready
tosacrificethewholenation,andifnecessarytoletGermanybe
destroyed;andinmyeyesthismadethemripeforhanging.To
takeconsiderationoftheirwisheswastosacrificetheinterestsof
theworkingpeopleforthebenefitofafewpickpockets;these
wishescouldonlybefulfilledbygivingupGermany.
Andthegreatmajorityoftheembattledarmystillthoughtthe
same.Onlythereinforcementscomingfromhomerapidlygrew
worseandworse,sothattheirarrivalmeant,notareinforcement
butaweakeningofourfightingstrength.Especiallytheyoung
reinforcements were mostly worthless. It was often hard to
believethattheseweresonsofthesamenationwhichhadonce
sentitsyouthouttothebattleforYpres.
In August and September, the symptoms of disorganization
increased more and more rapidly, although the effect of the
enemy attack was not to be compared with the terror of our
former defensive battles. The past Battle of Flanders and the
BattleoftheSommehadbeenawesomebycomparison.
AttheendofSeptember,mydivisionarrivedforthethirdtimeat
thepositionswhichasyoungvolunteerregimentswehadonce

stormed.
Whatamemory!
InOctoberandNovemberofI914,wehadtherereceivedour
baptismoffire.Fatherlandloveinourheartandsongsonour
lips,ouryoungregimentshadgoneintothebattleastoadance
Themostpreciousbloodtheresacrificeditselfjoyfully,inthe
faiththatitwaspreservingtheindependenceandfreedomofthe
fatherland.
InJuly,I917,wesetfootforthesecondtimeonthegroundthat
wassacredtoallofus.Forinitthebestcomradesslumberedstill
almostchildren,whohadruntotheirdeathwithgleamingeyes
fortheonetruefatherland.
Weoldsoldiers,whohadthenmarchedoutwiththeregiment
stood in respectful emotion at this shrine of 'loyalty and
obediencetothedeath.'
Nowinaharddefensivebattletheregimentwastodefendthis
soilwhichithadstormedthreeyearsearlier.
WiththreeweeksofdrumfiretheEnglishmanpreparedthegreat
Flandersoffensive.Thespiritsofthedeadseemedtoquicken;
the regiment clawed its way into the filthy mud, bit into the
variousholesandcraters,andneithergavegroundnorwavered.
Asoncebeforeinthisplace,itgrewsteadilysmallerandthinner,
untiltheBritishattackfinallybrokelooseonJuly13,1917.
InthefirstdaysofAugustwewererelieved.
Theregimenthadturnedintoafewcompanies:crustedwithmud
theytotteredback,morelikeghoststhanmen.Butasidefroma
fewhundredmetersof shellholes,theEnglishmanhadfound
nothingbutdeath.
Now,inthefallof1918,westoodforthethirdtimeonthestorm
siteof1914.ThelittlecityofComineswherewethenrestedhad
nowbecomeourbattlefield.Yet,thoughthebattlefieldwasthe
same,themenhadchanged:fornow'politicaldiscussionswent
on even among the troops. As everywhere, the poison of the
hinterland began, here too, to be effective. And the younger
recruitfelldowncompletelyforhecamefromhome.

InthenightofOctober13,theEnglishgasattackonthesouthern
front before Ypres burst loose; they used yellowcross gas,
whose effects were still unknown to us as far as personal
experiencewasconcerned.InthissamenightImyselfwasto
becomeacquaintedwithit.OnahillsouthofWervick,wecame
ontheeveningofOctober13intoseveralhoursofdrumfirewith
gasshellswhichcontinuedallnightmoreorlessviolently.As
early as midnight, a number of us passed out, a few of our
comradesforever.TowardmorningI,too,wasseizedwithpain
whichgrewworsewitheveryquarterhour,andatseveninthe
morningIstumbledandtotteredbackwithburningeyes;taking
withmemylastreportoftheWar.
Afewhourslater,myeyeshadturnedintoglowingcoals;ithad
growndarkaroundme.
ThusIcametothehospitalatPasewalkinPomerania,andthereI
wasfatedtoexperiencethegreatestvillainyofthecentury.
Foralongtimetherehadbeensomethingindefinitebutrepulsive
intheair.Peopleweretellingeachotherthatinthenextfew
weeksitwould'startin'butIwasunabletoimaginewhatwas
meantbythis.FirstIthoughtofastrikelikethatofthespring.
Unfavorable rumors were constantly coming from the navy,
whichwassaidtobeinastateofferment.Butthis,too,seemed
to me more the product of the imagination of individual
scoundrels than an affair involving real masses. Even in the
hospital,peoplewerediscussingtheendoftheWarwhichthey
hoped would come soon, but no one counted on anything
immediate.Iwasunabletoreadthepapers.
InNovemberthegeneraltensionincreased.
And then one day, suddenly and unexpectedly, the calamity
descended. Sailors arrived in trucks and proclaimed the
revolution;afewJewishyouthswerethe'leaders'inthisstruggle
forthe'freedom,beauty,anddignity'ofournationalexistence.
None of them had been at the front. By way of a socalled
'gonorrhoea hospital,' the three Orientals had been sent back
homefromtheirsecondlinebase.Nowtheyraisedtheredragin
thehomeland.

InthelastfewdaysIhadbeengettingalongbetter.Thepiercing
paininmyeyesocketswasdiminishing;slowlyIsucceededin
distinguishingthebroadoutlinesofthethingsaboutme.Iwas
givengroundsforhopingthatIshouldrecovermyeyesightat
leastwellenoughtobeabletopursuesomeprofessionlater.To
besure,IcouldnolongerhopethatIwouldeverbeabletodraw
again.Inanycase,Iwasontheroadtoimprovementwhenthe
monstrousthinghappened.
Myfirsthopewasstillthatthishightreasonmightstillbeamore
orlesslocalaffair.Ialsotriedtobolsterupafewcomradesin
thisview.ParticularlymyBavarianfriendsinthehospitalwere
morethanaccessibletothis.Themoodtherewasanythingbut
'revolutionary.'Icouldnotimaginethatthemadnesswouldbreak
out in Munich, too. Loyalty to the venerable House of
Wittelsbachseemedtomestronger,afterall,thanthewillofa
fewJews.ThusIcouldnothelpbutbelievethatthiswasmerely
aPutschonthepartofthenavyandwouldbecrushedinthenext
fewdays.
Thenextfewdayscameandwiththemthemostterriblecertainty
ofmylife.Therumorsbecamemoreandmoreoppressive.What
I had taken for a local affair was now said to be a general
revolution. To this was added the disgraceful news from the
front. They wanted to capitulate. Was such a thing really
possible?
On November 10, the pastor came to the hospital for a short
address:nowwelearnedeverything.
Inextremeagitation,I,too,waspresentattheshortspeech.The
dignifiedoldgentlemanseemedallatrembleasheinformedus
that the House of Hollenzollern should no longer bear the
German imperial crown; that the fatherland had become a '
republic';thatwemustpraytotheAlmightynottorefuseHis
blessing to this change and not to abandon our people in the
timestocome.Hecouldnothelphimself,hehadtospeakafew
words in memory of the royal house. He began to praise its
servicesinPomerania,inPrussia,nay,totheGermanfatherland,
andherehebegantosobgentlytohimselfinthelittlehallthe

deepestdejectionsettledonallhearts,andIbelievethatnotan
eyewasabletorestrainitstears.Butwhentheoldgentleman
triedtogoon,andbegantotellusthatwemustnowendthelong
War, yes, that now that it was lost and we were throwing
ourselvesuponthemercyofthevictors,ourfatherlandwouldfor
the future be exposed to dire oppression, that the armistice
shouldbeacceptedwithconfidenceinthemagnanimityofour
previous enemiesI could stand it no longer. It became
impossibleformetositstilloneminutemore.Againeverything
wentblackbeforemyeyes;Itotteredandgropedmywaybackto
thedormitory,threwmyselfonmybunk,anddugmyburning
headintomyblanketandpillow.
SincethedaywhenIhadstoodatmymother'sgrave,Ihadnot
wept.WheninmyyouthFateseizedmewithmercilesshardness,
my defiance mounted. When in the long war years Death
snatchedsomanyadearcomradeandfriendfromourranks,it
wouldhaveseemedtomealmostasintocomplainafterall,
were they not dying for Germany? And when at length the
creepinggasinthelastdaysofthedreadfulstruggleattacked
me,too,andbegantognawatmyeyes,andbeneaththefearof
goingblindforever,Inearlylostheartforamoment,thevoiceof
myconsciencethunderedatme:Miserablewretch,areyougoing
tocrywhenthousandsareahundredtimesworseoffthanyou!
AndsoIboremylotindullsilence.ButnowIcouldnothelpit.
Only now did I see how all personal suffering vanishes in
comparisonwiththemisfortuneofthefatherland.
And so it had all been in vain. In vain all the sacrifices and
privations;invainthehungerandthirstofmonthswhichwere
often endless; in vain the hours in which, with mortal fear
clutchingatourhearts,weneverthelessdidourduty;andinvain
thedeathoftwomillionswhodied.Wouldnotthegravesofall
thehundredsofthousandsopen,thegravesofthosewhowith
faithinthefatherlandhadmarchedforthnevertoreturn?Would
theynotopenandsendthesilentmudandbloodcoveredheroes
backasspiritsofvengeancetothehomelandwhichhadcheated
themwithsuchmockeryofthehighestsacrificewhichamancan
make to his people in this world? Had they died for is, the

soldiersofAugustandSeptember,1914?Wasitforthisthatin
theautumnofthesameyearthevolunteerregimentsmarched
after their old comrades? Was it for this that these boys of
seventeensankintotheearthofFlanders?Wasthisthemeaning
ofthesacrificewhichtheGermanmothermadetothefatherland
whenwithsoreheartsheletherbestlovedboysmarchoff,never
toseethemagain?Didallthishappenonlysothatagangof
wretchedcriminalscouldlayhandsonthefatherland?
WasitforthisthattheGermansoldierhadstoodhostinthesun's
heatand in snowstorms, hungry, thirsty, and freezing, weary
fromsleeplessnightsandendlessmarches?Wasitforthisthathe
hadlaininthehellofthedrumfireandinthefeverofgasattacks
withoutwavering,alwaysthoughtfulofhisonedutytopreserve
thefatherlandfromtheenemyperil?
Verilytheseheroesdeservedaheadstone:'ThouWandererwho
comesttoGermany,tellthoseathomethatweliehere,trueto
thefatherlandandobedienttoduty.'
Andwhataboutthoseathome?
Andyet,wasitonlyourownsacrificethatwehadtoweighin
thebalance?WastheGermanyofthepastlessprecious?Was
therenoobligationtowardourownhistory?Werewestillworthy
torelatethegloryofthepasttoourselves?Andhowcouldthis
deedbejustifiedtofuturegenerations?
Miserableanddegeneratecriminals!
ThemoreItriedtoachieveclarityonthemonstrouseventinthis
hour,themoretheshameofindignationanddisgraceburnedmy
brow.Whatwasallthepaininmyeyescomparedtothismisery?
TherefollowedterribledaysandevenworsenightsIknewthat
allwaslost.Onlyfools,liars,andcriminalscouldhopeinthe
mercyoftheenemy.Inthesenightshatredgrewinme,hatredfor
thoseresponsibleforthisdeed.
Inthedaysthatfollowed,myownfatebecameknowntome.
Icouldnothelpbutlaughatthethoughtofmyownfuturewhich
onlyashorttimebeforehadgivenmesuchbitterconcern.Wasit
notridiculoustoexpecttobuildhousesonsuchground?Atlastit

becamecleartomethatwhathadhappenedwaswhatIhadso
often feared but had never been able to believe with my
emotions.
KaiserWilliamIIwasthefirstGermanEmperortoholdouta
conciliatoryhandtotheleadersofMarxism,withoutsuspecting
thatscoundrelshavenohonor.Whiletheystillheldtheimperial
handintheirs,theirotherhandwasreachingforthedagger.
ThereisnomakingpactswithJews;therecanonlybethehard:
eitheror.
I,formypart,decidedtogointopolitics.

Chapter 8:

The Beginning of My Political


Activity
AttheendofNovember,1918,IreturnedtoMunich.AgainI
wenttothereplacementbattalionofmyregiment,whichwasin
the hands of 'soldiers' councils.' Their whole activity was so
repellenttomethatIdecidedatoncetoleaveagainassoonas
possible.WithSchmiedtErnst,afaithfulwarcomrade,Iwentto
Traunsteinandremainedtheretillthecampwasbrokenup.
InMarch,1919,wewentbacktoMunich.
The situation was untenable and moved inevitably toward a
further continuation of the revolution. Eisner's death only
hastenedthedevelopmentandfinallyledtoadictatorshipofthe
Councils,or,betterexpressed,toapassingruleoftheJews,as
had been the original aim of the instigators of the whole
revolution.
Atthistimeendlessplanschasedoneanotherthroughmyhead.
FordaysIwonderedwhatcouldbedone,buttheendofevery
meditationwasthesoberrealizationthatI,namelessasIwas,did
notpossesstheleast basisforanyusefulaction.Ishallcome
backtospeakofthereasonswhythen,asbefore,Icouldnot
decidetojoinanyoftheexistingparties.
InthecourseofthenewrevolutionoftheCouncilsIforthefirst
time acted in such a way as to arouse the disapproval of the
CentralCouncil.EarlyinthemorningofApril27,1919,Iwasto
be arrested, but, faced with my leveled carbine, the three
scoundrelslackedthenecessarycourageandmarchedoffasthey
hadcome.
AfewdaysaftertheliberationofMunich,Iwasorderedtoreport

to the examining commission concerned with revolutionary


occurrencesintheSecondInfantryRegiment.
Thiswasmyfirstmoreorlesspurelypoliticalactivity.
OnlyafewweeksafterwardIreceivedorderstoattenda'course
'thatwasheldformembersofthearmedforces.Initthesoldier
wassupposedtolearncertainfundamentalsofcivicthinking.For
me the value of the whole affair was that I now obtained an
opportunityoffleetingafewlikemindedcomradeswithwhomI
couldthoroughlydiscussthesituationofthemoment.Allofus
were more or less firmly convinced that Germany could no
longerbesavedfromtheimpendingcollapsebythepartiesofthe
Novembercrime,theCenterandtheSocialDemocracy,andthat
thesocalled'bourgeoisnational'formations,evenwiththebest
ofintentions,couldneverrepairwhathadhappened.Awhole
seriesofpreconditionswerelacking,withoutwhichsuchatask
simplycouldnotsucceed.Thefollowingperiodconfirmedthe
opinionwethenheld.Thus,inourowncirclewediscussedthe
foundationofanewparty.Thebasicideaswhichwehadinmind
werethesameasthoselaterrealizedinthe'GermanWorkers'
Party.'Thenameofthemovementtobefoundedwouldfromthe
verybeginninghavetoofferthepossibilityofapproachingthe
broad masses; for without this quality the whole task seemed
aimlessandsuperfluous.Thuswearrivedatthenameof'Social
RevolutionaryParty';thisbecausethesocialviewsofthenew
organizationdidindeedmeanarevolution.
But the deeper ground for this lay in the following: however
much I had concerned myself with economic questions at an
earlier day, my efforts had remained more or less within the
limits resulting from the contemplation of social questions as
such.Onlylaterdidthisframeworkbroadenthroughexamination
oftheGermanalliancepolicy.Thisinverygreatpartwasthe
outcomeofafalseestimationofeconomicsaswellasunclarity
concerningthepossiblebasisforsustainingtheGermanpeople
inthefuture.Butalltheseideaswerebasedontheopinionthat
capitalinanycasewassolelytheresultoflaborand,therefore,
likeitselfwassubjecttothecorrectionofallthosefactorswhich
can either advance or thwarthuman activity;and the national

importanceofcapitalwasthatitdependedsocompletelyonthe
greatness,freedom,andpowerofthestate,henceofthenation,
thatthisbondinitselfwouldinevitablycausecapitaltofurther
the state and the nation owing to its simple instinct of self
preservationorofreproduction.Thisdependenceofcapitalon
theindependentfreestatewould,therefore,forcecapitalinturn
tochampionthisfreedom,power,strength,etc.,ofthenation.
Thus, the task of the state toward capital was comparatively
simpleandclear:itonlyhadtomakecertainthatcapitalremain
thehandmaidenofthestateandnotfancyitselfthemistressof
thenation.Thispointofviewcouldthenbedefinedbetweentwo
restrictive limits: preservation of a solvent, national, and
independenteconomyontheonehand,assuranceofthesocial
rightsoftheworkersontheother.
PreviouslyIhadbeenunabletorecognizewiththedesiredclarity
the difference between this pure capital as the end result of
productivelaborandacapitalwhoseexistenceandessencerests
exclusively on speculation. For this I lacked the initial
inspiration,whichhadsimplynotcomemyway.
Butnowthiswasprovidedmostamplybyoneofthevarious
gentlemen lecturing in the abovementioned course: Gottfried
Feder.
ForthefirsttimeinmylifeIheardaprincipleddiscussionof
internationalstockexchangeandloancapital.
Right after listening to Feder's first lecture, the thought ran
throughmyheadthatIhadnowfoundthewaytooneofthemost
essentialpremisesforthefoundationofanewparty.
Inmyeyes Feder'smeritconsisted inhavingestablished with
ruthlessbrutalitythespeculativeandeconomiccharacterofstock
exchangeandloancapital,andinhavingexposeditseternaland
ageoldpresuppositionwhichisinterest.Hisargumentswereso
soundinallfundamentalquestionsthattheircriticsfromthestart
questionedthetheoreticalcorrectnessoftheidealessthanthey
doubtedthepracticalpossibilityofitsexecution.Butwhatinthe
eyesofotherswasaweaknessofFeder'sarguments,inmyeyes
constitutedtheirstrength.

It is not the task of a theoretician to determine the varying


degreesinwhichacausecanberealized,buttoestablishthe
causeassuch:thatistosay:hemustconcernhimselflesswith
the road than with the goal. In this, however, the basic
correctness of anidea isdecisive andnotthedifficultyof its
execution.Assoonasthetheoreticianattemptstotakeaccountof
socalled'utility'and'reality'instead of the absolutetruth,his
work will cease to be a polar star of seeking humanity and
instead will become a prescription for everyday life. The
theoreticianofamovementmustlaydownitsgoal,thepolitician
striveforitsfulfillment.Thethinkingoftheone,therefore,will
bedeterminedbyeternaltruth,theactionsoftheothermoreby
thepracticalrealityofthemoment.Thegreatnessoftheonelies
intheabsoluteabstractsoundnessofhisidea,thatoftheotherin
hiscorrectattitudetowardthegivenfactsandtheiradvantageous
application;andinthisthetheoretician'saimmustserveashis
guidingstar.Whilethetouchstoneforthestatureofapolitician
mayberegardedasthesuccessofhisplansandactsinother
words,thedegreetowhichtheybecomerealitytherealizationof
thetheoretician'sultimatepurposecanneverberealized,since,
thoughhumanthoughtcanapprehendtruthsandsetupcrystal
clear aims, complete fulfillment will fail due to the general
imperfectionandinadequacyofman.Themoreabstractlycorrect
and hence powerful the idea will be, the more impossible
remainsitscompletefulfillmentaslongasitcontinuestodepend
onhumanbeings.Therefore,thestatureofthetheoreticianmust
not be measured by the fulfillment of his aims, but by their
soundnessandtheinfluencetheyhavehadonthedevelopmentof
humanity.Ifthiswerenotso,thefoundersofreligioncouldnot
be counted among the greatest men of this earth, since the
fulfillment of their ethical purposes will never be even
approximately complete. In its workings, even the religion of
loveisonlytheweakreflectionofthewillofitsexaltedfounder;
itssignificance,however,liesinthedirectionwhichitattempted
togivetoauniversalhumandevelopmentofculture,ethics,and
morality.
Theenormousdifferencebetweenthetasksofthetheoretician

andthepoliticianisalsothereasonwhyaunionofbothinone
personisalmostneverfound.Thisisespeciallytrueoftheso
called'successful'politicianofsmallformat,whoseactivityfor
themostpartisonlyan'artofthepossible,'asBismarckrather
modestly characterized politics in general. The freer such a
'politician'keepshimselffromgreatideas,theeasierandoften
themorevisible,butalwaysthemorerapid,hissuccesseswill
be.Tobesure,theyarededicatedtoearthlytransitorinessand
sometimesdonotsurvivethedeathoftheirfathers.Theworkof
suchpoliticians,byandlarge,isunimportantnorposterity,since
theirsuccessesinthepresentarebasedsolelyonkeepingata
distanceallreallygreatandprofoundproblemsandideas,which
assuchwouldonlyhavebeenofvalueforlatergenerations.
Theexecutionofsuchaims,whichhavevalueandsignificance
forthemostdistanttimes,usuallybringslittlerewardtotheman
whochampionsthemandrarelyfindsunderstandingamongthe
greatmasses,whoforthemomenthavemoreunderstandingfor
beerandmilkregulationsthanforfarsightedplansforthefuture,
whoserealizationcanonlyoccurfarhence,andwhosebenefits
willbereapedonlybyposterity.
Thus, from a certain vanity, which is always a cousin of
stupidity, the great mass of politicians will keep far removed
fromallreallyweightyplansforthefuture,inordernottolose
the momentary sympathy of the great mob. The success and
significance of such a politician lie then exclusively in the
present,anddonotexistforposterity.Butsmallmindsarelittle
troubledbythis;theyarecontent.
With the theoretician conditions are different. His importance
liesalmostalwayssolelyinthefuture,fornotseldomheiswhat
isdescribedbytheworldas'unworldly.'Foriftheartofthe
politicianisreallytheartofthepossible,thetheoreticianisone
ofthoseofwhomitcanbesaidthattheyarepleasingtothegods
onlyif theydemandandwanttheimpossible.Hewillalmost
alwayshavetorenouncetherecognitionofthepresent,butin
return,providedhisideasareimmortal,willharvestthefameof
posterity.

In long periods of humanity, it may happen once that the


politicianisweddedtothetheoretician.Themoreprofoundthis
fusion,however,thegreateraretheobstaclesopposingthework
ofthepolitician.Henolongerworksfornecessitieswhichwill
beunderstoodbythefirstbestshopkeeper,butforaimswhich
onlythefewestcomprehend.Therefore,hislifeistornbylove
andhate.Theprotestofthepresentwhichdoesnotunderstand
theman,struggleswiththerecognitionofposterityforwhichhe
works.
Forthegreateraman'sworksforthefuture,thelessthepresent
cancomprehendthem;theharderhisfight,andtherarersuccess.
If, however, once in centuries success does come to a man,
perhapsinhislatterdaysafaintbeamofhiscomingglorymay
shine upon him. To be sure, these great men are only the
Marathon runners of history; the laurel wreath of the present
touchesonlythebrowofthedyinghero.
Amongthemmustbecountedthegreatwarriorsinthisworld
who, though not understood by the present, are nevertheless
preparedtocarrythefightfortheirideasandidealstotheirend.
Theyarethemenwhosomedaywillbeclosesttotheheartofthe
people;italmostseemsasthougheveryindividualfeelstheduty
ofcompensatinginthepastforthesinswhichthepresentonce
committedagainstthegreat.Theirlifeandworkarefollowed
withadmiringgratitudeandemotion,andespeciallyindaysof
gloom they have the power to raise up broken hearts and
despairingsouls.
Tothembelong,notonlythetrulygreatstatesmen,butallother
greatreformersaswell.BesideFredericktheGreatstandsMartin
LutheraswellasRichardWagner.
AsIlistenedtoGottfriedFeder'sfirstlectureaboutthe'breaking
ofinterestslavery,'Iknewatoncethatthiswasatheoreticaltruth
whichwouldinevitablybeofimmenseimportanceforthefuture
oftheGermanpeople.Thesharpseparationofstockexchange
capital from the national economy offered the possibility of
opposing the internationalization of the German economy
without at the same time menacing the foundations of an

independentnationalselfmaintenancebyastruggleagainstall
capital.ThedevelopmentofGermanywasmuchtooclearinmy
eyesformenottoknowthatthehardestbattlewouldhavetobe
fought, not against hostile nations, but against international
capital. In Feder's lecture I sensed a powerful slogan for this
comingstruggle.
And here again later developments proved how correct our
sentimentofthosedayswas.Todaytheknowitallsamongour
bourgeoispoliticiansnolongerlaughatus:todayeventhey,inso
farastheyarenotconsciousliars,seethatinternationalstock
exchangecapitalwasnotonlythegreatestagitatorfortheWar,
butthatespecially,nowthatthefightisover,itsparesnoeffort
toturnthepeaceintoahell.
Thefightagainstinternationalfinanceandloancapitalbecame
themostimportantpointintheprogramoftheGermannation's
struggleforitseconomicindependenceandfreedom.
Asregardstheobjectionsofsocalledpracticalmen,theycanbe
answeredasfollows:Allfearsregardingtheterribleeconomic
consequences of the ' breaking of interest slavery ' are
superfluous; for, in the first place, the previous economic
prescriptionshaveturnedoutverybadlyfortheGermanpeople,
andyourpositionsontheproblemsofnationalselfmaintenance
remindusstronglyofthereportsofsimilar expertsinformer
times,forexample,thoseoftheBavarianmedicalboardonthe
questionofintroducingtherailroad.Itiswellknownthatnoneof
the fears of this exalted corporation were later realized: the
travelersinthetrainsofthenew'steamhorse'didnotgetdizzy,
theonlookersdidnotgetsick,andtheboardfencestohidethe
newinventionfromsightweregivenuponlytheboardfences
around the brains of all socalled 'experts' were preserved for
posterity.
Inthesecondplace,thefollowingshouldbenoted:everyidea,
eventhebest,becomesadangerifitparadesasapurposein
itself,beinginrealityonlyameanstoone.Formeandalltrue
National Socialists there is but one doctrine: people and
fatherland.

What we must fight for is to safeguard the existence and


reproductionofourraceandourpeople,thesustenanceofour
children and the purity of our blood, the freedom and
independenceofthefatherland,sothatourpeoplemaymature
forthefulfillmentofthemissionallotteditbythecreatorofthe
universe.
Everythoughtandeveryidea,everydoctrineandallknowledge,
mustservethispurpose.Andeverythingmustbeexaminedfrom
thispointofviewandusedorrejectedaccordingtoitsutility.
Thennotheorywillstiffenintoadeaddoctrine,sinceitislife
alonethatallthingsmustserve.
Thus,itwastheconclusionsofGottfriedFederthatcausedmeto
delve into the fundamentals of this field with which I had
previouslynotbeenveryfamiliar.
Ibegantostudyagain,andnowforthefirsttimereallyachieved
anunderstandingofthecontentoftheJewKarlMarx'slifeeffort.
OnlynowdidhisCapitalbecomereallyintelligibletome,and
alsothestruggleoftheSocialDemocracyagainstthenational
economy, which aims only to prepare the ground for the
domination of truly international finance and stock exchange
capital.
But alsoinanotherrespectthese courses wereof thegreatest
consequencetome.
OnedayIaskedforthefloor.Oneoftheparticipantsfeltobliged
tobreakalancefortheJewsandbegantodefendtheminlengthy
arguments. This aroused meto an answer. The overwhelming
majorityofthestudentspresenttookmystandpointTheresult
wasthatafewdayslaterIwassentintoaMunichregimentasa
socalled'educationalofficer.'
Disciplineamongthemenwasstillcomparativelyweakatthat
time.Itsufferedfromtheaftereffectsoftheperiodofsoldiers'
councils. Only very slowly and cautiously was it possible to
replacevoluntaryobediencetheprettynamethatwasgivento
thepigstyunderKurtEisnerbytheoldmilitarydisciplineand
subordination.Accordingly,themenwerenowexpectedtolearn
tofeelandthinkinanationalandpatrioticway.Inthesetwo

directionslaythefieldofmynewactivity.
Istartedoutwiththegreatestenthusiasm andlove.Forallat
onceIwasofferedanopportunityofspeakingbeforealarger
audience;andthethingthatIhadalwayspresumedfrompure
feelingwithoutknowingitwasnowcorroborated:Icould'speak.'
My voice, too, had grown so much better that I could be
sufficientlyunderstoodatleastineverycornerofthesmallsquad
rooms.
Notaskcouldmakemehappierthanthis,fornowbeforebeing
dischargedIwasabletoperformusefulservicestotheinstitution
whichhadbeensoclosetomyheart:thearmy.
AndIcouldboastofsomesuccess:inthecourseofmylecturesI
ledmanyhundreds,indeedthousands,ofcomradesbacktotheir
peopleandfatherland.I'nationalized'thetroopsandwasthus
alsoabletohelpstrengthenthegeneraldiscipline.
HereagainIbecameacquaintedwithanumberoflikeminded
comrades, who later began to form the nucleus of the new
movement.

Chapter 9:

The "German Workers' Party"


OnedayIreceivedordersfrommyheadquarterstofindoutwhat
was behind an apparently political organization which was
planningtoholdameetingwithinthnextfewdaysunderthe
nameof'GermanWorkers'Party'withGottfriedFederasoneof
thespeakers.Iwastoldtogoandtakealookattheorganization
andthenmakeareport.
Thecuriosityofthearmytowardpoliticalpartiesinthosedays
was more than understandable. The revolution had given the
soldierstherightofpoliticalactivity,anditwasjustthemost
inexperiencedamongthemwhomadethemostampleuseofit.
NotuntilthemomentwhentheCenterandtheSocialDemocracy
wereforcedtorecognize,totheirowngrief,thatthesympathies
of the soldiers were beginning to turn away from the
revolutionary parties toward the national movement and
reawakening,didtheyseefittodeprivethetroopsofsuffrage
againandprohibittheirpoliticalactivity.
ItwasilluminatingthattheCenterandtheMarxistsshouldhave
taken this measure, for if they had not undertaken this
curtailment of ' civil rights 'as the political equality of the
soldiersaftertherevolutionwascalledwithinafewyearsthere
would have been no revolution, and hence no more national
dishonoranddisgrace.Thetroopswerethenwellontheirway
towardriddingthenationofitsleechesandthestoogesofthe
Ententewithinourwalls.Thefactthatthesocalled'national'
partiesvotedenthusiasticallyforthecorrectionoftheprevious
viewsoftheNovembercriminals,andthushelpedtobluntthe
instrumentofanationalrising,againshowedwhattheeternally
doctrinaireideasoftheseinnocentsamonginnocentscanleadto.

Thisbourgeoisiewasreallysufferingfrommentalsenility;inall
seriousnesstheyharboredtheopinionthatthearmywouldagain
becomewhatithadbeen,towit,astrongholdofGermanmilitary
power;whiletheCenterandMarxismplannedonlytotearoutits
dangerous national poison fang, without which, however, an
armyremainsforeverapoliceforce,butisnotatroopcapableof
fighting an enemyas has been amply proved in the time that
followed.
Ordidour'nationalpoliticians'believethatthedevelopmentof
thearmycouldhavebeenotherthannational?Thatwouldhave
beenconfoundedlylikethegentlemenandiswhatcomesofnot
being a soldier in war but a bigmouth; in other words, a
parliamentarianwithnonotionofwhatgoesonintheheartsof
menwhoareremindedbythemostcolossalpastthattheywere
oncethebestsoldiersintheworld.
AndsoIdecidedtoattendtheabovementionedmeetingofthis
partywhichuptillthenhadbeenentirelyunknowntometoo.
IntheeveningwhenIenteredthe'LeiberRoom'oftheformer
SterneckerbrauinMunich,Ifoundsometwentytotwentyfive
peoplepresent,chieflyfromthelowerclassesofthepopulation.
Feder'slecturewasknowntomefromthecourses,soIwasable
todevotemyselftoaninspectionoftheorganizationitself.
Myimpressionwasneithergoodnorbad;aneworganizationlike
somanyothers.Thiswasatimeinwhichanyonewhowasnot
satisfiedwithdevelopmentsandnolongerhadanyconfidencein
the existing parties felt called upon to found a new party.
Everywheretheseorganizationssprangoutoftheground,onlyto
vanishsilentlyafteratime.Thefoundersforthemostparthadno
ideawhatitmeanstomakeapartyletaloneamovementoutofa
club. And so these organizations nearly always stifle
automaticallyintheirabsurdphilistinism.
Ijudgedthe'GermanWorkers'Party'nodifferently.WhenFeder
finally stopped talking, I was happy. I had seen enough and
wantedtoleavewhenthefreediscussionperiod,whichwasnow
announced, moved me to remain, after all. But here, too
everythingseemedtorunalonginsignificantlyuntilsuddenlya

'professor'tookthefloor;hefirstquestionedthesoundnessof
Feder's arguments and thenafter Feder replied very well
suddenlyappealedto'thefacts,'butnotwithoutrecommending
most urgently that the youngpartytake up the'separation' of
Bavariafrom'Prussia'asaparticularlyimportantprogrammatic
point.Withboldeffronterythemanmaintainedthatinthiscase
GermanAustriawouldatoncejoinBavaria,thatthepeacewould
thenbecome much better,and more similar nonsense. At this
pointIcouldnothelpdemandingthefloorandgivingthelearned
gentleman my opinion on this pointwith the result that the
previousspeaker,evenbeforeIwasfinished,leftthehalllikea
wetpoodle.AsIspoke,theaudiencehadlistenedwithastonished
faces, and only as I was beginning to say good night to the
assemblage and go away did a man come leaping after me,
introduce himself (I had not quite understood his name), and
press a little booklet into my hand, apparently a political
pamphlet,withtheurgentrequestthatIreadit.
Thiswasveryagreeabletome,fornowIhadreasontohopethat
I might become acquainted with this dull organization in a
simplerway,withouthavingtoattendanymoresuchinteresting
meetings. Incidentally this apparent worker had made a good
impressiononme.AndwiththisIleftthehall.
At that time I was still living in the barracks of the Second
InfantryRegimentinalittleroomthatstillverydistinctlybore
thetracesoftherevolution.DuringthedayIwasout,mostly
withtheFortyFirstRifleRegiment,oratmeetings,orlecturesin
some other army unit, etc. Only at night did I sleep in my
quarters. Since I regularly wokeup before five o'clock inthe
morning,Ihadgotteninthehabitofputtingafewleftoversor
crusts of bread on the floor for the mice which amused
themselvesinmylittleroom,andwatchingthedrolllittlebeasts
chasingaroundafterthesechoicemorsels.Ihadknownsomuch
povertyinmylifethatIwaswellabletoimaginethehunger,and
hencealsothepleasure,ofthelittlecreatures.
Ataboutfiveo'clockinthemorningafterthismeeting,Ithuslay
awakeinmycot,watchingthechaseandbustle.SinceIcouldno
longerfallasleep,Isuddenlyrememberedthepasteveningand

mymindfellonthebookletwhichtheworkerhadgivenme.I
begantoread.Itwasalittlepamphletinwhichtheauthor,this
sameworker,describedhowhehadreturnedtonationalthinking
out of the Babel of Marxist and tradeunionist phrases; hence
alsothetitle:MyPoliticalAwakening.lOnceIhadbegun,Iread
thelittlebookthroughwithinterest;for itreflectedaprocess
similartotheonewhichImyselfhadgonethroughtwelveyears
before.InvoluntarilyIsawmyowndevelopmentcometolife
beforemyeyes.InthecourseofthedayIreflectedafewtimes
onthematterandwasfinallyabouttoputitasidewhen,lessthan
aweeklater,muchtomysurprise,Ireceivedapostcardsaying
thatIhadbeenacceptedintheGermanWorkers'Party;Iwas
requestedtoexpressmyselfonthesubjectandforthispurposeto
attend a committee meeting of this party on the following
Wednesday.
I must admit that I was astonished at this way of 'winning'
membersandIdidn'tknowwhethertobeangryortolaugh.Ihad
nointentionofjoiningareadymadeparty,butwantedtofound
oneofmyown.Whattheyaskedofmewaspresumptuousand
outofthequestion.
Iwasabouttosendthegentlemenmyanswerinwritingwhen
curiositywonoutandIdecidedtoappearontheappointeddayto
explainmyreasonsbywordofmouth.
Wednesdaycame.Thetaverninwhichthesaidmeetingwasto
takeplacewasthe'AitesRosenbad'intheHerrenstrasse,avery
rundownplacethatnooneseemedtostrayintomorethanonce
inabluemoon.Nowonder,intheyear1919whenthemenuof
eventhelargerrestaurantscouldofferonlythescantiestandmost
modestallurements.Uptothistimethistavernhadbeentotally
unknowntome.
Iwentthroughtheilllitdiningroominwhichnotasoulwas
sitting,openedthedoortothebackroom,andthe'session'was
before me. In the dim light of a brokendown gas lamp four
youngpeoplesatatatable,amongthemtheauthorofthelittle
pamphlet,whoatoncegreetedmemostjoyfullyandbademe
welcomeasanewmemberoftheGermanWorkers'PartyReally,

Iwassomewhattakenaback.AsIwasnowinformedthatthe
actual'nationalchairman'hadnotyetarrived,Idecidedtowait
withmydeclaration.Thisgentlemanfinallyappeared.Itwasthe
samewhohadpresidedatthemeetingintheSterneckerbrauon
theoccasionofFeder'slectureMeanwhile,Ihadagainbecome
verycurious,andwaitedexpectantlyforwhatwastocome.Now
atleastIcametoknowthenamesoftheindividualgentlemen.
Thechairmanofthe'nationalorganization'wasaHerrHarrer,
thatoftheMunichDistrict,AntonDrexler.
Theminutesofthelastmeetingwerereadandthesecretarywas
givenavoteofconfidence.Nextcamethetreasuryreportallin
all the association possessed seven marks and fifty pfennigs
&shyp; for which the treasurer received a vote of general
confidence.This,too,wasenteredintheminutes.Thenthefirst
chairman read the answers to a letter from Kiel, one from
Dusseldorf, and one from Berlin, and everyone expressed
approval.Nextareportwasgivenontheincomingmail:aletter
from Berlin, one from Dusseldorf and one from Kiel, whose
arrival seemed to be received with great satisfaction. This
growing correspondence was interpreted as the best and most
visiblesignofthespreadingimportanceoftheGermanWorkers'
Party,andthenthentherewasalongdeliberationwithregardto
theanswerstobemade.
Terrible,terrible!Thiswasclublifeoftheworstmannerandsort.
WasItojointhisorganization?
Next, new memberships were discussed; in other words, my
capturewastakenup.
Inowbegantoaskquestionsbut,asidefromafewdirectives,
therewasnothing,noprogram,noleaflet,noprintedmatterat
all,nomembershipcards,notevenamiserablerubber stamp,
onlyobviousgoodfaithandgoodintentions.
Ihadstoppedsmiling,forwhatwasthisifnotatypicalsignof
thecompletehelplessnessandtotaldespairofallexistingparties,
theirprograms,theirpurposes,andtheiractivity?Thethingthat
drovethesefewyoungpeopletoactivitythatwasoutwardlyso
absurdwasonlytheemanationoftheirinnervoice,whichmore

instinctivelythanconsciouslyshowedthemthatallpartiesuptill
thenweresuitedneitherforraisinguptheGermannationnorfor
curingitsinnerwounds.Iquicklyreadthetyped'directives'and
inthemIsawmoreseekingthanknowledge.Muchwasvagueor
unclear,muchwasmissing,butnothingwaspresentwhichcould
nothavepassedasasignofastrugglingrealization.
I knew what these men felt: it was the longing for a new
movementwhichshouldbemorethanapartyintheprevious
senseofthewold.
ThateveningwhenIreturnedtothebarracksIhadformedmy
judgmentofthisassociation.
Iwasfacingthehardestquestionofmylife:shouldIjoinor
shouldIdecline?
Reasoncouldadvisemeonlytodecline,butmyfeelingleftme
norest,andasoftenasItriedtoremembertheabsurdityofthis
wholeclub,myfeelingarguedforit.
Iwasrestlessinthedaysthatfollowed.
Ibegantoponderbackandforth.Ihadlongbeenresolvedto
engageinpoliticalactivity;thatthiscouldbedoneonlyinanew
movementwaslikewisecleartome,onlytheimpetustoacthad
hithertobeenlacking.Iamnotoneofthosepeoplewhobegin
somethingtodayandlayitdowntomorrow,ifpossibletakingup
somethingelseagain.Thisveryconvictionamongotherswasthe
mainreasonwhyitwassohardformetomakeupmymindto
join such a new organization. I knew that for me a decision
would be for good, with no turning back. For me it was no
passinggamebutgrimearnest.EventhenIhadaninstinctive
revulsion toward men who start everything and never carry
anythingoutThesejacksofalltradeswereloathsometome.I
regardedtheactivityofsuchpeopleasworsethandoingnothing.
Andthiswayofthinkingconstitutedoneofthemainreasons
whyIcouldnotmakeupmymindaseasilyassomeothersdoto
found a cause which either had to become everything or else
woulddobetternottoexistatall.
Fateitselfnowseemedtogivemeahint.Ishouldneverhave

goneintooneoftheexistinglargeparties,andlateronIshallgo
into the reasons for this more closely. This absurd little
organizationwithitsfewmembersseemedtometopossessthe
oneadvantagethatithadnotfrozenintoan'organization,'butleft
theindividualanopportunityforrealpersonalactivity.Hereit
wasstillpossibletowork,andthesmallerthemovement,the
more readily it could be put into the proper form. Here the
content,thegoal,andtheroadcouldstillbedetermined,whichin
theexistinggreatpartieswasimpossiblefromtheoutset.
ThelongerItriedtothinkitover,themoretheconvictiongrew
inmethatthroughjustsuchalittlemovementtheriseofthe
nation could some day be organized, but never through the
politicalparliamentarypartieswhichclungfartoogreatlytothe
oldconceptionsorevensharedintheprofitsofthenewregime.
Foritwasanewphilosophyandnotanewelectionsloganthat
hadtobeproclaimed.
Trulyaverygravedecisiontobegintransformingthisintention
intoreality!
WhatprerequisitesdidImyselfbringtothistask?
That I was poor and without means seemed to me the most
bearablepartofit,butitwasharderthatIwasnumberedamong
the nameless, that I was one of the millions whom chance
permitstoliveorsummonsoutofexistencewithouteventheir
closest neighbors condescending to take any notice of it. In
addition,therewasthedifficultywhichinevitablyarosefrommy
lackofschooling.
The so called 'intelligentsia' always looks down with a really
limitless condescension on anyone who has not been dragged
throughtheobligatoryschoolsandhadthenecessaryknowledge
pumpedintohim.Thequestionhasnever been:Whatarethe
man'sabilities?but:Whathashelearned?Tothese'educated'
people the biggest emptyhead, if he is wrapped in enough
diplomas,isworthmorethanthebrightestboywhohappensto
lackthesecostlyenvelopes.Andsoitwaseasyformetoimagine
howthis'educated'worldwouldconfrontme,andinthisIerred
onlyinsofaraseventhenIstillregardedpeopleasbetterthanin

coldrealitytheyforthemostpartunfortunatelyare.Astheyare,
tobesure,theexceptions,aseverywhereelse,shineallthemore
brightly. Thereby, however, I learned always to distinguish
betweentheeternalstudentsandthemenofrealability.
Aftertwodaysofagonizedponderingandreflection,Ifinally
cametotheconvictionthatIhadtotakethisstep.
Itwasthemostdecisiveresolveofmylife.Fromheretherewas
andcouldbenoturningback.
AndsoIregisteredasamemberoftheGermanWorkers'Party
andreceivedaprovisionalmembershipcardwiththenumber7.

Chapter 10:

Causes of the Collapse


The extent of the fall of a body is always measured by the
distancebetweenitsmomentarypositionandtheoneitoriginally
occupied. The same is true of nations and states. A decisive
significancemustbeascribedtotheirpreviouspositionorrather
elevation.Onlywhatisaccustomedtoriseabovethecommon
limitcanfallandcrashtoamanifestlowThisiswhatmakesthe
collapseoftheReichsohardandterribleforeverythinkingand
feelingman,sinceitbroughtacrashfromheightswhichtoday,
inviewofthedepthsofourpresentdegradation,arescarcely
conceivable.
TheveryfoundingoftheReichseemedgildedbythemagicofan
event which uplifted the entire nation. After a series of
incomparable victories, a Reich was born for the sons and
grandsonsarewardforimmortalheroism.Whetherconsciously
orunconsciously,itmattersnot,theGermansallhadthefeeling
thatthisReich,whichdidnotoweitsexistencetothetrickeryof
parliamentary fractions, towered above the measure of other
statesbytheveryexaltedmannerofitsfounding;fornotinthe
cacklingofaparliamentarybattleofwords,butinthethunder
andrumblingofthefrontsurroundingPariswasthesolemnact
performed: a proclamation of our will, declaring that the
Germans, princes and people, were resolved in the future to
constituteaReichandonceagaintoraisetheimperialcrownto
symbolicheights.Andthiswasnotdonebycowardlymurder;no
deserters and slackers were the founders of the Bismarckian
state,buttheregimentsatthefront.
Thisuniquebirthandbaptismoffireinthemselvessurrounded
theReichwithahaloofhistoricglorysuchasonlytheoldest

statesandtheybutseldomcouldboast.
Andwhatanascentnowbegan!
Freedomontheoutsideprovideddailybreadwithin.Thenation
became rich in numbers and earthly goods. The honor of the
state,andwithitthatofthewholepeople,wasprotectedand
shielded by an army which could point most visibly to the
differencefromtheformerGermanUnion.
SodeepisthedownfalloftheReichandtheGermanpeoplethat
everyone, as though seized by dizziness, seems to have lost
feeling and consciousness; people can scarcely remember the
formerheight,sodreamlikeandunrealdotheoldgreatnessand
glory seem compared to our presentday misery Thus it is
understandable that people are so blinded by the sublime that
theyforgettolookfortheomensofthegiganticcollapsewhich
mustafterallhavebeensomehowpresent.
Of course, thisapplies onlytothosefor whomGermanywas
more than a mere stopover for making and spending money,
since they alone can feel the present condition as a collapse,
while to the others it is the longdesired fulfillment of their
hithertounsatisfieddesires.
Theomenswerethenpresentandvisible,thoughbutveryfew
attemptedtodrawacertainlessonfromthem.
Yettodaythisismorenecessarythanever.
Thecureofasicknesscanonlybeachievedifitscauseisknown,
andthesameistrueofcuringpoliticalevils.Tobesure,the
outwardformofasickness,itssymptomwhichstrikestheeye,is
easiertoseeanddiscoverthantheinnercause.Andthisisthe
reasonwhysomanypeoplenevergobeyondtherecognitionof
external effects and even confuse them with the cause,
attempting,indeed,todenytheexistenceofthelatter.Thusmost
of us primarily see the German collapse only in the general
economicmiseryandtheconsequencesarisingtherefrom.Nearly
everyoneofusmustpersonallysuffertheseacogentgroundfor
everyindividualtounderstandthecatastrophe.Muchlessdoes
thegreatmassseethecollapseinitspolitical,cultural,ethical,

andmoralaspect.Inthisthefeelingandunderstandingofmany
failcompletely.
Thatthisshouldbesoamongthebroadmassesmaystillpass,
butforeventhecirclesoftheintelligentsiatoregardtheGerman
collapse as primarily an 'economic catastrophe,' which can
thereforebecuredbyeconomicmeans,isoneofthereasonswhy
a recovery has hitherto been impossible. Only when it is
understoodthathere,too,economicsisonlyofsecondorthird
rateimportance,andtheprimaryrolefallstofactorsofpolitics,
ethics,morality,andblood,willwearriveatanunderstandingof
thepresentcalamity,andthusalsobeabletofindthewaysand
meansforacure.
ThequestionofthecausesoftheGermancollapseis,therefore,
of decisive importance, particularly for a political movement
whoseverygoalissupposedtobetoquellthedefeat.
But,insuchresearchintothepast,wemustbeverycarefulnotto
confusethemoreconspicuouseffectswiththelessvisiblecauses.
The easiest and hence most widespread explanation of the
present misfortune is that it was brought about by the
consequencesofthelostWarandthatthereforetheWaristhe
causeofthepresentevil.
Theremaybemanywhowillseriouslybelievethisnonsensebut
therearestillmorefromwhosemouthsuchanexplanationcan
onlybealieandconsciousfalsehood.Thislastappliestoall
thosewhotodayfeedatthegovernment'scribs.Fordidn'tthe
prophets of the revolution again and again point out most
urgently to the people that it was a matter of complete
indifferencetothebroadmasseshowthisWarturnedout?Did
theynot,onthecontrary,gravelyassureusthatatmostthe'big
capitalist' could have an interest in a victorious end of the
gigantic struggle of nations, but never the German people as
such,letalonetheGermanworker?Indeed,didn'ttheseapostles
ofworldconciliationmaintaintheexactopposite:didn'ttheysay
thatbyaGermandefeat'militarism'wouldbedestroyed,butthat
the German nation would celebrate its most glorious
resurrection?Didn'tthesecirclesglorifythebenevolenceofthe

Entente,anddidn'ttheyshovetileblameforthewholebloody
struggleonGermany?Andcouldtheyhavedonethiswithout
declaring that even military defeat would be without special
consequences for the nation? Wasn't the whole revolution
embroideredwiththephrasethatitwouldpreventthevictoryof
theGermanflag,butthatthroughittheGermanpeoplewouldat
lastbeginadvancingtowardfreedomathomeandabroad?
Will you claim that this was not so, you wretched, lying
scoundrels?
IttakesatrulyJewisheffronterytoattributetheblameforthe
collapsesolelytothemilitarydefeatwhenthecentralorganofall
traitorstothenation,theBerlinVorwarts,wrotethatthistimethe
Germanpeoplemustnotbringitsbannerhomevictorious!
Andnowthisissupposedtobethecauseofourcollapse?
Ofcourse,itwouldbeperfectlyfutiletofightwithsuchforgetful
liars.Iwouldn'twastemywordsonthemifunfortunatelythis
nonsensewerenotparrotedbysomanythoughtlesspeople,who
do not seem inspired by malice or conscious insincerity.
Furthermore, these discussions are intended to give our
propagandafightersaninstrumentwhichisverymuchneededat
atimewhenthespokenwordisoftentwistedinourmouths.
Thuswehavethefollowingtosaytotheassertionthatthelost
WarisresponsiblefortheGermancollapse:
CertainlythelossoftheWarwasofterribleimportanceforthe
futureofourfatherland;however,itslossisnotacause,butitself
onlyaconsequenceofcauses.Itwasperfectlycleartoeveryone
withinsightandwithoutmalicethatanunfortunateendofthis
struggleforlifeanddeathwouldinevitablyleadtoextremely
devastating consequences. But unfortunately there were also
peoplewhoseemedtolackthisinsightattherighttimeorwho,
contrary to their better knowledge, contested and denied this
truth.Suchforthemostpartwerethosewho,afterthefulfillment
oftheirsecretwish,suddenlyandbelatedlybecameawareofthe
catastrophewhichhadbeenbroughtaboutbythemselvesamong
others. They are guilty of the collapsenot the lost War as it
suddenlypleasesthemtosayandbelieve.Foritslosswas,after

all,onlytheconsequenceoftheiractivityandnot,astheynow
trytosay,theresultof'bad'leadership.Thefoedidnotconsistof
cowardseither;he,too,knewhowtodie.Hisnumberfromthe
firstdaywasgreaterthanthatoftheGermanarmyforhecould
drawonthetechnicalarmamentandthearsenalsofthewhole
world;hencetheGermanvictories,wonforfouryearsagainsta
whole world, must regardless of all heroic courage and
'organization,'beattributedsolelytosuperiorleadership,andthis
iS a fact which cannot be denied out of existence. The
organization and leadership of the German army were the
mightiestthattheearthhadeverseen.Theirdeficiencieslayin
thelimitsofallhumanadequacyingeneral.
Thecollapseofthisarmywasnotthecauseofourpresentday
misfortune, but only the consequence of other crimes, a
consequencewhichitselfagain,itmustbeadmitted,usheredin
thebeginningofafurtherandthistimevisiblecollapse.
Thetruthofthiscanbeseenfromthefollowing:
Mustamilitarydefeatleadtosocompleteacollapseofanation
andastate?Sincewhenisthistheresultofanunfortunatewar?
Dopeoplesperishinconsequenceoflostwarsassuch?
The answer to this can be very brief: always, when military
defeat iS the payment meted out to peoples for their inner
rottenness,cowardice,lackofcharacter,inshort,unworthiness.
If this iS not the case, the military defeat will rather be the
inspirationofagreatfutureresurrectionthanthetombstoneofa
nationalexistence.
History offers innumerable examples for the truth of this
assertion.
Unfortunately,themilitarydefeatoftheGermanpeopleisnotan
undeservedcatastrophe,butthedeservedchastisementofeternal
retribution. We more than deserved this defeat. It is only the
greatestoutwardsymptomofdecayamidawholeseriesofinner
symptoms,whichperhapshadremainedhiddenandinvisibleto
theeyesofmostpeople,orwhichlikeostrichespeopledidnot
wanttosee.

Just consider the attendant circumstances amid which the


Germanpeopleacceptedthisdefeat.Didn'tmanycirclesexpress
themostshamelessjoyatthemisfortuneofthefatherland?And
whowoulddosuchathingifhedoesnotreallydeservesucha
punishment?Why,didn'ttheygoevenfurtherandbragofhaving
finallycausedthefronttowaver?Anditwasnottheenemythat
didthisno,no,itwasGermanswhopouredsuchdisgraceupon
theirheads!Canitbesaidthatmisfortunestruckthemunjustly?
Sincewhendopeoplestepforwardandtaketheguiltforawar
on themselves? And against better knowledge and better
judgment!
No, and again no. In the way in which the German people
receiveditsdefeat,wecanrecognizemostclearlythatthetrue
cause of our collapse must be sought in an entirely different
placefromthepurelymilitarylossofafewpositionsorinthe
failureofanoffensive;forifthefrontassuchhadreallyflagged
and if its downfall had really encompassed the doom of the
fatherland,theGermanpeoplewouldhavereceivedthedefeat
quite differently. Then they would have borne the ensuing
misfortune with gritted teeth or would have mourned it,
overpoweredbygrief;thenallheartswouldhavebeenfilledwith
rageandangertowardtheenemywhohadbecomevictorious
throughatrickofchanceorthewilloffate;then,liketheRoman
Senate, the nation would have received the defeated divisions
withthethanksofthefatherlandforthesacrificestheyhadmade
andbesoughtthemnottodespairoftheReich.Thecapitulation
wouldhavebeensignedonlywiththereason,whiletheheart
eventhenwouldhavebeatenfortheresurrectiontocome.
Thisishowadefeatforwhichonlyfatewasresponsiblewould
havebeenreceived.Thenpeoplewouldnothavelaughedand
danced,theywouldnothaveboastedofcowardiceandglorified
thedefeat,theywouldnothavescoffedattheembattledtroops
anddraggedtheirbannerandcockadeinthemud.Butaboveall:
thenweshouldneverhavehadtheterriblestateofaffairswhich
prompted a British officer, Colonel Repington, to make the
contemptuousstatement:'OftheGermans,everythirdmanisa
traitor.'No,thisplaguewouldneverhavebeenabletoriseinto

thestiflingfloodwhichforfiveyearsnowhasbeendrowningthe
verylastremnantofrespectforusonthepartoftherestofthe
world.
ThismostofallshowstheassertionthatthelostWarwasthe
cause of the German collapse to be a lie. No, this military
collapsewasitselfonlytheconsequenceofalargenumberof
symptomsofdiseaseandtheircauses,whicheveninpeacetime
werewiththeGermannation.Thiswasthefirstconsequence,
catastrophicandvisibletoall,ofanethicalandmoralpoisoning,
of a diminution in the instinct of selfpreservation and its
preconditions,whichformanyyearshadbeguntounderminethe
foundationsofthepeopleandtheReich.
ItrequiredthewholebottomlessfalsehoodoftheJewsandtheir
Marxistfightingorganizationtolaytheblameforthecollapseon
that very man who alone, with superhuman energy and will
power,triedtopreventthecatastropheheforesawandsavethe
nation from its time of deepest humiliation and disgrace By
brandingLudendorffasguiltyforthelossoftheWorldWarthey
tooktheweaponofmoralrightfromtheonedangerousaccuser
whocouldhaverisenagainstthetraitorstothefatherland.Inthis
theyproceededonthesoundprinciplethatthemagnitudeofalie
always contains a certain factor of credibility, since the great
massesofthepeopleintheverybottomoftheirheartstendtobe
corruptedratherthanconsciouslyandpurposelyevil,andthat,
therefore,inviewoftheprimitivesimplicityoftheirmindsthey
moreeasilyfallavictimtoabigliethantoalittleone,sincethey
themselveslieinlittlethings,butwouldbeashamedofliesthat
weretoobig.Suchafalsehoodwillneverentertheirheadsand
they will not be able to believe in the possibility of such
monstrouseffronteryandinfamousmisrepresentationinothers;
yes,evenwhenenlightenedonthesubject,theywilllongdoubt
andwaver,andcontinuetoacceptatleastoneofthesecausesas
true. Therefore, something of even the most insolent lie will
alwaysremainandstickafactwhichallthegreatlievirtuosiand
lyingclubsinthisworldknowonlytoowellandalsomakethe
mosttreacheroususeof.
Theforemostconnoisseursofthistruthregardingthepossibilities

intheuseoffalsehoodandslanderhavealwaysbeentheJews;
forafterall,theirwholeexistenceisbasedononesinglegreatlie,
towit,thattheyareareligiouscommunitywhileactuallythey
are a raceand what a race ! One of the greatest minds of
humanityhasnailedthemforeverassuchinaneternallycorrect
phraseoffundamentaltruth:hecalledthem'thegreatmastersof
thelie.'Andanyonewhodoesnotrecognizethisordoesnot
wanttobelieveitwillneverinthisworldbeabletohelpthetruth
tovictory.
FortheGermanpeopleitmustalmostbeconsideredagreatgood
fortune that its period of creeping sickness was suddenly cut
shortbysoterribleacatastrophe,forotherwisethenationwould
havegonetothedogsmoreslowlyperhaps,butallthemore
certainly.Thediseasewouldhavebecomechronic,whileinthe
acuteformofthecollapseitatleastbecameclearlyanddistinctly
recognizable to a considerable number of people. It was no
accident that man mastered the plague more easily than
tuberculosis.Theonecomesinterriblewavesofdeaththatshake
humanitytothefoundations,theotherslowlyandstealthily;the
oneleadstoterriblefear,theothertogradualindifference.The
consequence is that man opposed the one with all the
ruthlessnessofhisenergy,whilehetriestocontrolconsumption
with feeble means. Thus he mastered the plague, while
tuberculosismastershim.
Exactlythesameistrueofdiseasesofnationalbodies.Iftheydo
not take the form of catastrophe, man slowly begins to get
accustomedtothemandatlength,thoughitmaytakesometime,
perishes all the more certainly of them. And so it is a good
fortunethoughabitterone,tobesurewhenFateresolvestotake
ahandinthisslowprocessofputrefactionandwithasudden
blowmakesthevictimvisualizetheendofhisdisease.Formore
thanonce,thatiswhatsuchacatastropheamountstoThenitcan
easilybecomethecauseofarecoverybeginningwiththeutmost
determination.
Buteveninsuchacase,theprerequisiteisagaintherecognition
oftheinnergroundswhichcausethediseaseinquestion.

Here, too, the most important thing remains the distinction


betweenthecausesandtheconditionstheycallforth.Thiswill
be all the more difficult, the longer the toxins remain in the
national body and the more they become an ingredient of it
whichistakenforgranted.Foritiseasilypossiblethataftera
certaintimeunquestionablyharmfulpoisonsBillberegardedas
aningredientofone'sownnationoratbestwillbetoleratedasa
necessaryevil,sothatasearchforthealienvirusisnolonger
regardedasnecessary.
Thus,inthelongpeaceofthepreWaryears,certainharmful
featureshadappearedandbeenrecognizedassuch,thoughnext
to nothing was done against their virus, aside from a few
exceptions. And here again these exceptions were primarily
manifestationsofeconomiclife,whichstrucktheconsciousness
oftheindividualmorestronglythantheharmfulfeaturesina
numberofotherfields.
Thereweremanysymptomsofdecaywhichshouldhavearoused
seriousreflection.
Withrespecttoeconomics,thefollowingshouldbesaid:
ThroughtheamazingincreaseintheGermanpopulationbefore
the War, the question of providing the necessary daily bread
stepped more and more sharply into the foreground of all
politicalandeconomicthoughtandaction.Unfortunately,those
in power could not make up their minds to choose the only
correctsolution,butthoughttheycouldreachtheirgoalinan
easierway.Whentheyrenouncedtheacquisitionofnewsoiland
replaceditbythelunacyofworldeconomicconquest,theresult
was bound to be an industrialization as boundless as it was
harmful.
Thefirstconsequenceofgravestimportancewastheweakening
of the peasant class. Proportionately as the peasant class
diminished,themassofthebigcityproletariatincreasedmore
andmore,untilfinallythebalancewascompletelyupset.
Nowtheabruptalternationbetweenrichandpoorbecamereally
apparent.Abundanceandpovertylivedsoclosetogetherthatthe
saddestconsequencescouldandinevitablydidarise.Povertyand

frequentunemploymentbegantoplayhavocwithpeople,leaving
behind them a memory of discontent and embitterment. The
consequenceofthisseemedtobepoliticalclassdivision.Despite
alltheeconomicprosperity,dissatisfactionbecamegreaterand
deeper;infact,thingscametosuchapassthattheconvictionthat
'itcan'tgoonlikethismuchlonger'becamegeneral,yetwithout
peoplehavingorbeingabletohaveanydefiniteideaofwhat
oughttohavebeendone.
These were the typical symptoms of deep discontent which
soughttoexpressthemselvesinthisway.
But worse than this were other consequences induced by the
economizationofthenation.
Inproportionaseconomiclifegrewtobethedominantmistress
ofthestate,moneybecamethegodwhomallhadtoserveandto
whomeachmanhadtobowdown.Moreandmore,thegodsof
heavenwereputintothecornerasobsoleteandoutmoded,andin
their stead incense was burned to the idol Mammon. A truly
malignantdegenerationsetin;whatmadeitmostmalignantwas
that it began at a time when the nation, in a presumably
menacingandcriticalhour,neededthehighestheroicattitude.
Germanyhadtoaccustomherselftotheideathatsomedayher
attempttosecureherdailybreadbymeansof'peacefuleconomic
labor'wouldhavetobedefendedbythesword.
Unfortunately,thedominationofmoneywassanctionedevenby
thatauthoritywhichshouldhavemostopposedit:HisMajesty
theKaiseractedmostunfortunatelybydrawingthearistocracy
intotheorbitofthenewfinancecapital.Itmustbesaidtohis
credit,however, that unfortunately even Bismarck himself did
notrecognizethemenacingdangerinthisrespect.Therebythe
ideal virtues for all practical purposes had taken a position
second to the value of money, for it was clear that once a
beginninghadbeenmadeinthisdirection,thearistocracyofthe
swordwouldinashorttimeinevitablybeovershadowedbythe
financial aristocracy. Financialoperations succeed more easily
than battles. It was no longer inviting for the real hero or
statesmantobebroughtintorelationswithsomeoldbankJew:

themanof truement couldnolonger haveaninterest inthe


bestowalofcheapdecorations;hedeclinedthemwiththanks.But
regarded purely from the standpoint of blood, such a
development was profoundly unfortunate: more and more, the
nobility lost the racial basis for its existence, and in large
measure the designation of 'ignobility' would have been more
suitableforit.
A grave economic symptom of decay was the slow
disappearanceoftherightofprivateproperty,andthegradual
transference of the entire economy to the ownership of stock
companies.
Nowforthefirsttimelaborhadsunktothelevelofanobjectof
speculationforunscrupulousJewishbusinessmen;thealienation
ofpropertyfromthewageworkerwasincreasedadinfinitum.
Thestockexchangebegantotriumphandpreparedslowlybut
surely to take the life of the nation into its guardianship and
control.
TheinternationalizationoftheGermaneconomiclifehadbeen
begunevenbeforetheWarthroughthemediumofstockissues
To be sure, a part of German industry still attempted with
resolutiontowardoffthisfate.Atlength,however,it,too,fella
victim to the united attack of greedy finance capital which
carriedonthisfight,withthespecialhelpofitsmostfaithful
comrade,theMarxistmovement.
ThelastingwaragainstGerman'heavyindustry'wasthevisible
beginningoftheinternationalizationofGermaneconomytoward
whichMarxismwasstriving,thoughthiscouldnotbecarriedto
itsultimateenduntilthevictoryofMarxismandtherevolution.
WhileIamwritingthesewords,thegeneralattackagainstthe
Germanstaterailwayshasfinallysucceeded,andtheyarenow
beinghandedovertointernationalfinancecapitals'International'
SocialDemocracyhasthusrealizedoneofitshighestgoals.
How far this 'economization' of the German people had
succeededismostvisibleinthefactthataftertheWaroneofthe
leadingheadsofGermanindustry,andaboveallofcommerce,
wasfinallyabletoexpresstheopinionthateconomiceffortas

such was alone in a position to reestablish Germany. This


nonsense was poured forth at a moment when France was
primarily bringing back the curriculum of her schools to
humanistic foundations in order to combat the error that the
nationandthestateowedtheirsurvivaltoeconomicsandnotto
eternal ideal values. These words pronounced by a Stinnes
createdthemostincredibleconfusion;theywerepickedupat
once,andwithamazingrapiditybecametheleitmotifofallthe
quacks and bigmouths that since the revolution Fate has let
looseonGermanyinthecapacityof'statesmen.'
OneoftheworstsymptomsofdecayinGermanyofthepreWar
erawasthesteadilyincreasinghabitofdoingthingsbyhalves.
Thisisalwaysaconsequenceofuncertaintyonsomematterand
of the cowardice resulting from this and other grounds. This
diseasewasfurtherpromotedbyeducation.
German education before the War was afflicted with an
extraordinarynumberofweaknesses.Itwasextremelyonesided
andadaptedtobreedingpure'knowledge,'withlessattentionto
'ability.'Evenlessemphasiswaslaidonthedevelopmentofthe
character of the individualin so far as this is possible;
exceedinglylittleonthesenseofjoyinresponsibility,andnone
atallonthetrainingofwillandforceofdecision.Itsresults,you
may be sure, were not strong men, but compliant ' walking
encyclopedias,'asweGermansweregenerallylookeduponand
accordinglyestimatedbeforetheWar.PeoplelikedtheGerman
becausehewaseasytomakeuseof,butrespectedhimlittle,
preciselybecauseofhisweaknessofwill.Itwasnotfornothing
thatmorethanalmostanyotherpeoplehewaspronetolosehis
nationalityandfatherland.Thelovelyproverb,'withhatinhand,
hetravelsallabouttheland,'tellsthewholestory.
This compliance became really disastrous, however, when it
determined the sole form in which the monarch could be
approached; that is, never to contradict him, but agree to
anything and everything that His Majesty condescends to do.
Preciselyinthisplacewasfree,manlydignitymostnecessary;
otherwisethemonarchicinstitutionwasonedayboundtoperish
fromallthiscrawling;forcrawlingitwasandnothingelse!And

onlymiserablecrawlersandsneaksinshort,allthedecadents
whohavealwaysfeltmoreateasearoundthehighestthrones
thansincere,decent,honorablesoulscanregardthisasthesole
properformofintercoursewiththebearersofthecrown!These
'most humble' creatures, to be sure, despite all their humility
before their master and source of livelihood, have always
demonstratedthegreatestarrogancetowardtherestofhumanity,
andworstofallwhentheypassthemselvesoffwithshameful
effronteryontheirsinfulfellowmenastheonly'monarchists';
thisisrealgallsuchasonlytheseennobledorevenunennobled
tapewormsarecapableof!Forinrealitythesepeopleremained
the gravediggers of the monarchy and particularly the
monarchistic idea. Nothing else is conceivable: a manwho is
preparedtostandupforacausewillneverandcanneverbea
sneakandaspinelesslickspittle.Anyonewhoisreallyserious
aboutthepreservationandfurtheranceofaninstitutionwillcling
to it with the last fiber of his heart and will not be able to
abandonitifevilsofsomesortappearinthisinstitution.Tobe
sure, he will not cry this out to the whole public as the
democratic'friends'ofthemonarchydidintheexactsamelying
way;hewillmostearnestlywarnandattempttoinfluenceHis
Majesty,thebearerofthecrownhimself.Hewillnotandmust
not adopt the attitude that His Majesty remains free to act
accordingtohisownwillanyway,evenifthisobviouslymust
andwillleadtoacatastrophe,butinsuchacasehewillhaveto
protectthemonarchyagainstthemonarch,andthisdespiteall
perils.Ifthevalueofthisinstitutionlayinthemomentaryperson
of the monarch, it would be the worst institution that can be
imagined;formonarchsonlyintherarestcasesarethecreamof
wisdomandreasonorevenofcharacter,assomepeopleliketo
claim. This is believed only by professional lickspittles and
sneaks,butallstraightforwardmenandtheseremainthemost
valuable men in the state despite everything will only feel
repelledbytheideaofarguingsuchnonsense.Forthemhistory
remainshistoryandthetruththetruthevenwheremonarchsare
concerned.No,thegoodfortunetopossessagreatmonarchwho
isalsoagreatmanfallstopeoplessoseldomthattheymustbe
content if the malice of Fate abstains at least from the worst

possiblemistakes.
Consequently,thevalueandimportanceofthemonarchicidea
cannot reside in the person of the monarch himself except if
Heavendecidestolaythecrownonthebrowofaheroicgenius
likeFredericktheGreatorawisecharacterlikeWilliamI.This
happensonceincenturiesandhardlymoreoften.Otherwisethe
ideatakesprecedenceoverthepersonandthemeaningofthis
institutionmustlieexclusivelyintheinstitutionitself.Withthis
themonarchhimselffallsintothesphereofservice.Thenhe,too,
becomesamerecoginthiswork,towhichheisobligatedas
such.Thenhe,too,mustcomplywithahigherpurpose,andthe'
monarchist' isthennolonger themanwhoinsilence letsthe
bearerofthecrownprofaneit,butthemanwhopreventsthis.
Otherwise,itwouldnotbepermissibletodeposeanobviously
insaneprince,ifthesenseoftheinstitutionlaynotintheidea,
butinthe'sanctified'personatanyprice.
Todayitisreallynecessarytoputthisdown,forinrecenttimes
moreandmoreofthesecreatures,towhosewretchedattitudethe
collapseofthemonarchymustnotleastofallbeattributedare
risingoutofobscurity.Withacertainnaivegall,thesepeople
havestartedinagaintospeakofnothingbut'theirKing'whom
onlyafewyearsagotheyleftinthelurchinthecriticalhourand
in the most despicable fashionand are beginning to represent
everypersonwhoisnotwillingtoagreetotheirlyingtiradesasa
badGerman.Andinrealitytheyaretheverysamepoltroonswho
in1919scatteredandranfromeveryredarmband,abandoned
theirKing,inatwinklingexchangedthehalberdforthewalking
stick,putonnoncommittalneckties,andvanishedwithouttrace
aspeaceful'citizens.'Atonestroketheyweregone,theseroyal
champions,andonlyaftertherevolutionarystorm,thankstothe
activityofothers,hadsubsidedenoughsothatamancouldagain
roarhis'Hail,hailtotheKing'intothebreezes,these'servants
andcounselors'ofthecrownbeganagaincautiouslytoemerge.
Andnowtheyareallhereagain,lookingbacklonginglytothe
fieshpotsofEgypt;theycanhardlyrestrainthemselvesintheir
loyaltytotheKingandtheirurgetodogreatthings,untiltheday
whenagainthefirst redarmbandwillappear,andthewhole

gangofghostsprofitingfromtheoldmonarchywillagainvanish
likemiceatthesightofacat!
Ifthemonarchswerenotthemselvestoblameforthesethings,
they could be most heartily pitied because of their present
defenders.Inanycase,theymightaswellknowthatwithsuch
knightsacrowncanbelost,butnocrownsgained.
Thisservility,however,wasaflawinourwholeeducation,for
whichwesufferedmostterriblyinthisconnection.For,asits
consequence, these wretched creatures were able to maintain
themselves at all the courts and gradually undermine the
foundations of the monarchy. And when the structure finally
began to totter, they evaporated. Naturally: cringers and
lickspittles do not let themselves be knocked dead for their
master.Thatmonarchsneverknowthisandfailtolearnitalmost
onprinciplehasfromtimeimmemorialbeentheirundoing.
One of the worst symptoms of decay was Mate increasing
cowardiceinthefaceofresponsibility,aswellastheresultant
halfheartednessinallthings.
Tobesure,thestartingpointofthisplagueinourcountryliesin
large part in the parliamentary institution in which
irresponsibilityofthepurestbreediscultivated.Unfortunately,
this plague slowly spread to all other domains of life, most
stronglytostatelife.Everywhereresponsibilitywasevadedand
inadequatehalfmeasureswerepreferredasaresult;forinthe
useofsuchmeasurespersonalresponsibilityseemsreducedto
thesmallestdimensions.
Justexaminetheattitudeofthevariousgovernmentstowarda
numberoftrulyinjuriousmanifestationsofourpubliclife,and
youwilleasilyrecognizetheterriblesignificanceofthisgeneral
halfheartednessandcowardiceinthefaceofresponsibility.
Ishalltakeonlyafewcasesfromthemassofexistingexamples:
Journalisticcirclesinparticularliketodescribethepressasa
'great power' in the state. As a matter of fact, its importance
reallyisimmense.Itcannotbeoverestimated,forthepressreally
continueseducationinadulthood.

Itsreaders,byandlarge,canbedividedintothreegroups:
First,intothosewhobelieveeverythingtheyread;second,into
thosewhohaveceasedtobelieveanything;third,intotheminds
whichcriticallyexaminewhattheyread,andjudgeaccordingly.
Numerically,thefirstgroupisbyfarthelargest.Itconsistsofthe
great mass of the people and consequently represents the
simplestmindedpartofthenation.Itcannotbelistedintermsof
professions,butatmostingeneraldegreesofintelligence.Toit
belongallthosewhohaveneitherbeenbornnortrainedtothink
independently,andwhopartlyfromincapacityandpartlyfrom
incompetencebelieveeverythingthatissetbeforetheminblack
andwhite.Tothemalsobelongsthetypeoflazyboneswhocould
perfectly well think, but from sheer mental laziness seizes
gratefullyoneverythingthatsomeoneelsehasthought,withthe
modest assumption that the someone else has exerted himself
considerably.Now,withallthesetypes,whoconstitutethegreat
masses,theinfluenceofthepresswillbeenormous.Theyarenot
ableorwillingthemselvestoexaminewhatissetbeforethem,
andasaresulttheirwholeattitudetowardalltheproblemsofthe
daycanbereducedalmostexclusivelytotheoutsideinfluenceof
others. This can be advantageous when their enlightenment is
providedbyaseriousandtruthlovingparty,butitiscatastrophic
whenscoundrelsandliarsprovideit.
The second group is much smaller in number. It is partly
composed of elements which previously belonged to the first
group,but afterlongandbitter disappointments shiftedtothe
oppositeandnolongerbelieveanythingthatcomesbeforetheir
eyesinprint.Theyhateeverynewspaper;eithertheydon'treadit
atall,orwithoutexceptionflyintoarageoverthecontents,since
intheiropiniontheyconsistonlyofliesandfalsehoods.These
peopleareveryhardtohandle,sincetheyaresuspiciousevenin
thefaceofthetruth.Consequently,theyarelostforallpositive,
politicalwork.
Thethirdgroup,finally,isbyfarthesmallest;itconsistsofthe
minds with real mental subtlety, whom natural gifts and
educationhavetaughttothinkindependently,whotrytoform

their ownjudgment onallthings,andwhosubjecteverything


theyreadtoathoroughexaminationandfurtherdevelopmentof
their own.They will notlook ata newspaper without always
collaboratingintheirminds,andthewriterhasnoeasytimeofit.
Journalistslovesuchreaderswiththegreatestreserve.
Forthemembersofthisthirdgroup,itmustbeadmitted,the
nonsense that newspaper scribblers can put down is not very
dangerousorevenveryimportant.Mostoftheminthecourseof
theirliveshavelearnedtoregardeveryjournalistasarascalon
principle, who tells the truth only once in a blue moon.
Unfortunately,however,theimportanceofthesesplendidpeople
lies only in their intelligence and not in their number a
misfortuneatatimewhenwisdomisnothingandthemajorityis
everything!Today,whentheballotofthemassesdecides,the
chiefweightlieswiththemostnumerousgroup,andthisisthe
first:themobofthesimpleorcredulous.
Itisofparamountinteresttothestateandthenationtoprevent
thesepeoplefromfallingintothehandsofbad,ignorant,oreven
viciouseducators.Thestate,therefore,hasthedutyofwatching
over their education and preventing any mischief. It must
particularlyexercisestrictcontroloverthepress;foritsinfluence
onthesepeopleisbyfarthestrongestandmostpenetrating,since
itisapplied,notonceinawhile,butoverandoveragain.Inthe
uniformity and constant repetition of this instruction lies its
tremendouspower.Ifanywhere,therefore,itisherethatthestate
mustnotforgetthatallmeansmustserveanend;itmustnotlet
itselfbeconfusedbythedrivelaboutsocalled'freedomofthe
press'andletitselfbetalkedintoneglectingitsdutyanddenying
thenationthefoodwhichitneedsandwhichisgoodforit;with
ruthlessdeterminationitmustmakesureofthisinstrumentof
populareducation,andplaceitintheserviceofthestateandthe
nation.
ButwhatfooddidtheGermanpressofthepreWarperioddish
outtothepeople?Wasitnottheworstpoisonthatcanevenbe
imagined?Wasn'ttheworstkindofpacifisminjectedintothe
heartofourpeopleatatimewhentherestoftheworldwas
preparing to throttle Germany, slowly but surely? Even in

peacetimedidn'tthepressinspirethemindsofthepeoplewith
doubtintherightoftheirownstate,thusfromtheoutsetlimiting
them in the choice of means for its defense? Was it not the
German press which knew how to make the absurdity of
'Western democracy' palatable to our people until finally,
ensnaredbyalltheenthusiastictirades,theythoughttheycould
entrusttheirfuturetoaLeagueofNations?Diditnothelpto
teach our people a miserable immorality? Did it not ridicule
moralityandethicsasbackwardandpettybourgeois,untilour
people finally became 'modern'? Did it not with its constant
attacksunderminethefoundationsofthestate'sauthorityuntila
singlethrust sufficedtomaketheedificecollapse?Diditnot
fightwithallpossiblemeansagainsteveryefforttogiveuntothe
statethatwhichisthestate's?Diditnotbelittlethearmywith
constantcriticism,sabotageuniversalconscription,demandthe
refusalofmilitarycredits,etc.,untiltheresultbecameinevitable?
Thesocalledliberalpresswasactivelyengagedindiggingthe
graveoftheGermanpeopleandtheGermanReich.Wecanpass
bythelyingMarxistsheetsinsilence;tothemlyingisjustas
vitallynecessaryascatchingmiceforacat;theirfunctionisonly
tobreakthepeople'snationalandpatrioticbackboneandmake
them ripe for the slave's yoke of international capital and its
masters,theJews.
Andwhat didthe state do against this mass poisoning of the
nation?Nothing,absolutelynothing.Afewridiculousdecrees,a
fewfinesforvillainythatwenttoofar,andthatwastheendofit.
Instead,theyhopedtocurryfavorwiththisplaguebyflattery,by
recognition of the 'value' of the press, its 'importance,' its
'educationalmission,'andmoresuchnonsenseasfortheJews,
theytookallthiswithacraftysmileandacknowledgeditwith
slythanks.
Thereason,however,forthisdisgracefulfailureonthepartof
thestatewasnotthatitdidnotrecognizethedanger,butratherin
a cowardice crying to high Heaven and the resultant
halfheartednessofalldecisionsandmeasures.Noonehadthe
couragetousethoroughgoingradicalmethods,butinthisasin
everything else they tinkered about with a lot of halfway

prescriptions,andinsteadofcarryingthethrusttotheheart,they
at most irritated the viperwith the result that not only did
everythingremainasbefore,butonthecontrarythepowerofthe
institutions which should have been combated increased from
yeartoyear.
ThedefensivestruggleoftheGermangovernmentatthattime
againstthepressmainlythatofJewishoriginwhichwasslowly
ruiningthenationwaswithoutanystraightline,irresoluteand
aboveallwithoutanyvisiblegoal.Theintelligenceoftheprivy
councilors failed completely when it came to estimating the
importanceofthisstruggle,tochoosingmeansordrawingupa
clearplan.Planlesslytheyfiddledabout;sometimes,afterbeing
bittentoobadly,theylockeduponeofthejournalisticvipersfor
afewweeksormonths,buttheyleftthesnakes'nestassuch
perfectlyunmolested.
Truethisresultedpartlyfromtheinfinitelywilytacticsofthe
Jews,ontheonehand,andfromastupidityandinnocencesuch
asonlyprivycouncilorsarecapableof,ontheother.TheJew
was much too clever to allow his entire press to be attacked
uniformly.No,onepartofitexistedinordertocovertheother.
While the Marxist papers assailed in the most dastardly way
everything that can be holy to man; while they infamously
attacked the state and the government and stirred up large
sections of the people against one another, the bourgeois
democratic papers knew how to give an appearance of their
famousobjectivity,painstakinglyavoidedallstrongwords,well
knowingthatemptyheadscanjudgeonlybyexternalsandnever
havethefacultyofpenetratingtheinnercore,sothatforthemthe
valueofathingismeasuredbythisexteriorinsteadofbythe
content;ahumanweaknesstowhichtheyowewhatesteemthey
themselvesenjoy.
ForthesepeopletheFrankfurterZeitungwastheembodimentof
respectability.Foritneverusescoarseexpressions,itrejectsall
physical brutality and keeps appealing for struggle with
'intellectual' weapons, a conception, strange to say, to which
especiallytheleastintelligentpeoplearemostattached.Thisisa
result of our halfeducation which removes people from the

instinctofNatureandpumpsacertainamountofknowledgeinto
them,butcannotcreatefullunderstanding,sinceforthisindustry
andgoodwillalonearenouse;thenecessaryintelligencemust
bepresent,andwhatismore,itmustbeinborn.Theultimate
wisdomisalwaystheunderstandingoftheinstinct'thatis:a
manmustneverfallintothelunacyofbelievingthathehasreally
risentobelordandmasterofNaturewhichissoeasilyinduced
by the conceit of halfeducation; he must understand the
fundamentalnecessityofNature'srule,andrealizehowmuchhis
existenceissubjectedtotheselawsofeternalfightandupward
struggle. Then he will feel that in a universe where planets
revolvearoundsuns,andmoonsturnaboutplanets,whereforce
aloneforevermastersweakness,compellingittobeanobedient
slaveorelsecrushingit,therecanbenospeciallawsforman.
Forhim,too,theeternalprinciplesofthisultimatewisdomhold
sway.Hecantrytocomprehendthem;butescapethem,never.
AnditispreciselyforourintellectualdemimondethattheJew
writeshissocalledintellectualpress.ForthemtheFrankfurter
ZeitungandtheBerlinerTageblattaremade;forthemtheirtone
ischosen,andonthemtheyexercisetheirinfluence.Seemingly
theyallmostsedulouslyavoidanyoutwardlycrudeforms,and
meanwhilefromothervesselstheyneverthelesspourtheirpoison
intotheheartsoftheirreaders.AmidaGezeires2Offinesounds
andphrasestheylulltheirreadersintobelievingthatpurescience
orevenmoralityisreallythemotiveoftheiracts,whileinreality
itisnothingbutawily,ingenioustrickforstealingtheenemy's
weaponagainstthepressfromunderhisnose.Theonevariety
oozesrespectability,soallsoftheadsarereadytobelievethem
whentheysaythatthefaultsofothersareonlytrivialabuses
whichshouldneverleadtoaninfringementofthe'freedomofthe
press'theirtermforpoisoningandlyingtothepeople.Andso
the authorities shy away from taking measures against these
bandits,fortheyfearthat,iftheydid,theywouldatoncehave
the'respectable'pressagainstthem,afearwhichisonlytoo
justified.Forassoonastheyattempttoproceedagainstoneof
theseshamefulrags,alltheotherswillatoncetakeitspart,but
bynomeanstosanctionitsmodeofstruggle,Godforbidbut

onlytodefendtheprincipleoffreedomofthepressandfreedom
ofpublicopinion;thesealonemustbedefended.Butintheface
ofallthisshouting,thestrongestmengrowweak,fordoesitnot
issuefromthemouthsof'respectable'papers?
Thispoisonwasabletopenetratethebloodstreamofourpeople
unhinderedanddoitswork,andthestatedidnotpossess the
power to master the disease. In the laughable halfmeasures
which it used against the poison, the menacing decay of the
Reich was manifest. For an institution which is no longer
resolved to defend itself with all weapons has for practical
purposesabdicated.Everyhalfmeasureisavisiblesignofinner
decay which must and will be followed sooner or later by
outwardcollapse.
I believe that the present generation, properly led, will more
easilymasterthisdanger.Ithasexperiencedvariousthingswhich
hadthepowersomewhattostrengthenthenervesofthosewho
didnotlosethementirely.InfuturedaystheJewwillcertainly
continuetoraiseamightyuproarinhisnewspapersifahandis
everlaidonhisfavoritenest,ifanendisputtothemischiefof
thepressandthisinstrumentofeducationisputintotheservice
ofthestateandnolongerleftinthehandsofaliensandenemies
ofthepeople.ButIbelievethatthiswillbotherusyoungermen
lessthanourfathers.Athirtycentimetershellhasalwayshissed
more loudly than a thousand Jewish newspaper vipersso let
themhiss!
Afurtherexampleofthehalfheartednessandweaknessofthe
leadersofpreWarGermanyinmeetingthemostimportantvital
questionsofthenationisthefollowing:runningparalleltothe
political,ethical,andmoralcontaminationofthepeople,there
hadbeenformanyyearsanolessterriblepoisoningofthehealth
ofthenationalbody.Especiallyinthebigcities,syphiliswas
beginningtospreadmoreandmore,whiletuberculosissteadily
reapeditsharvestofdeaththroughoutnearlythewholecountry.
Though in both cases the consequences were terrible for the
nation,theauthoritiescouldnotsummonuptheenergytotake
decisivemeasures.

Particularlywithregardtosyphilis,theattitudeoftheleadership
of the nation and the state can only be designated as total
capitulation.Tofightitseriously,theywouldhavehadtotake
somewhat broader measures than was actually the case. The
invention of a remedy of questionable character and its
commercial exploitation canno longer help muchagainst this
plague. Here again it was only the fight against causes that
mattered and not the eliminationof the symptoms. Thecause
lies,primarily,inourprostitutionoflove.Evenifitsresultwere
not this frightful plague, it would nevertheless be profoundly
injurioustoman,sincethemoraldevastationswhichaccompany
this degeneracy suffice to destroy a people slowly but surely.
ThisJewificationofourspirituallifeandmammonizationofour
matinginstinctwillsoonerorlaterdestroyourentireoffspring,
forthepowerfulchildrenofanaturalemotionwillbereplacedby
the miserable creatures of financial expediency which is
becomingmoreandmorethebasisandsoleprerequisiteofour
marriages.Lovefindsitsoutletelsewhere.
Here,too,ofcourse,Naturecanbescornedforacertaintime,but
her vengeance will not fail to appear, only it takes a time to
manifestitself,orrather:itisoftenrecognizedtoolatebyman.
Butthedevastatingconsequencesofalastingdisregardofthe
natural requirementsformarriagecanbeseeninournobility.
Herewehavebeforeustheresultsofprocreationbasedpartlyon
purelysocial compulsionandpartlyonfinancialgrounds.The
oneleadstoageneralweakening,theothertoapoisoningofthe
blood,sinceeverydepartmentstoreJewessisconsideredfitto
augmenttheoffspringofHisHighnessand,indeed,theoffspring
lookit.Inbothcasescompletedegenerationistheconsequence.
Todayourbourgeoisiestrivetogothesameroad,andtheywill
endupatthesamegoal.
Hastilyandindifferently,peopletriedtopassbytheunpleasant
truths,asthoughbysuchanattitudeeventscouldbeundone.No,
thefactthatourbigcitypopulationisgrowingmoreandmore
prostitutedinitslovelifecannotjustbedeniedoutofexistence;
it simply is so. The most visible results of this mass

contamination can, on the one hand, be found in the insane


asylums,andontheother,unfortunately,inourchildren.Theyin
particular are the sad product of the irresistibly spreading
contamination of our sexual life; the vices of the parents are
revealedinthesicknessesofthechildren.
Therearedifferentwaysofreconcilingoneselftothisunpleasant,
yes,terriblefact:theonesseenothingatallorratherwanttosee
nothing; this, of course, is by far the simplest and easiest
'position.' The others wrap themselves in a saint's cloak of
prudishness as absurd as it is hypocritical; they speak of this
wholefieldasifitwereagreatsin,andaboveallexpresstheir
profoundindignationagainsteverysinnercaughtintheact,then
closetheireyesinpioushorrortothisgodlessplagueandpray
God to let sulphur and brimstonepreferably after their own
deathraindownonthiswholeSodomandGomorrah,thusonce
againmakinganinstructiveexampleofthisshamelesshumanity.
The third, finally, are perfectly well aware of the terrible
consequenceswhichthisplaguemustandwillsomedayinduce,
but only shrugtheir shoulders, convinced that nothingcan be
doneagainstthemenace,sotheonlythingtodoistoletthings
slide.
Allthis,tobesure,iscomfortableandsimple,butitmustnotbe
forgottenthatanationwillfallvictimtosuchcomfortableness.
Theexcusethatotherpeoplesarenobetteroff,itgoeswithout
saying,canscarcelyaffectthefactofourownruin,exceptthat
thefeelingofseeingothersstrickenbythesamecalamitymight
formanybringamitigationoftheirownpains.Butthenmore
thaneverthequestionbecomes:Whichpeoplewillbethefirst
andonlyonetomasterthisplaguebyitsownstrength,andwhich
nationswillperishfromit?Andthisisthecruxofthewhole
matter.Hereagainwehaveatouchstoneofarace'svaluethe
race which cannot stand the test will simply die out, making
placeforhealthierortougherandmoreresistingraces.Forsince
thisquestionprimarilyregardstheoffspring,itisoneofthose
concerningwhichitissaidwithsuchterriblejusticethatthesins
ofthefathersareavengeddowntothetenthgeneration.Butthis
appliesonlytoprofanationofthebloodandtherace.

Bloodsinanddesecrationoftheracearetheoriginalsininthis
worldandtheendofahumanitywhichsurrenderstoit.
HowtrulywretchedwastheattitudeofpreWarGermanyonthis
oneveryquestion!Whatwasdonetocheckthecontaminationof
ouryouthinthebigcities?Whatwasdonetoattacktheinfection
andmammonizationofourlovelife?Whatwasdonetocombat
theresultingsyphilizationofourpeople?
Thiscanbeansweredmosteasilybystatingwhatshouldhave
beendone.
First of all, it was not permissible to take this question
frivolously;ithadtobeunderstoodthatthefortuneormisfortune
ofgenerationswoulddependonitssolution;yes,thatitcould,if
nothadtobe,decisivefortheentirefutureofourpeople.Sucha
realization, however, obligated us to ruthless measures and
surgical operations.What weneededmost wastheconviction
that first of all the whole attention of the nation had to be
concentrated upon this terrible danger, so that every single
individualcouldbecomeinwardlyconsciousoftheimportanceof
this struggle. Truly incisive and sometimes almost unbearable
obligationsandburdenscanonlybemadegenerallyeffectiveif,
in addition to compulsion, the realization of necessity is
transmitted to the individual. But this requires a tremendous
enlightenment excluding all other problems of the day which
mighthaveadistractingeffect.
In all cases where the fulfillment of apparently impossible
demand.sortasksisinvolved,thewholeattentionofapeople
mustbefocusedandconcentratedonthisonequestion,asthough
lifeanddeathactuallydependedonitssolution.Onlyinthisway
willapeoplebemadewillingandabletoperformgreattasksand
exertions.
Thisprincipleappliesalsototheindividualmaninsofarashe
wantstoachievegreatgoals.He,too,willbeabletodothisonly
insteplikesections,andhe,too,willalwayshavetounitehis
entireenergiesontheachievementofadefinitelydelimitedtask,
untilthistaskseemsfulfilledandanewsectioncanbemarked
out.Anyonewhodoesnotsodividetheroadtobeconquered

intoseparatestagesanddoesnottrytoconquertheseonebyone,
systematicallywiththesharpestconcentrationofallhisforces,
willneverbeabletoreachtheultimategoal,butwillbeleftlying
somewherealongtheroad,orperhapsevenoffit.Thisgradual
workinguptoagoalisanart,andtoconquertheroadstepby
stepinthiswayyoumustthrowinyourlastounceofenergy.
Theveryfirstprerequisiteneededforattackingsuchadifficult
stretch of the human road is for the leadership to succeed in
representingtothemassesofthepeoplethepartialgoalwhich
nowhastobeachieved,orratherconquered,astheonewhichis
solely and alone worthy of attention, on whose conquest
everythingdepends.Thegreatmassofthepeoplecannotseethe
wholeroadaheadofthemwithoutgrowingwearyanddespairing
ofthetask.Acertainnumberofthemwillkeepthegoalinmind,
butwillonlybeabletoseetheroadinsmall,partialstretches,
likethewanderer,wholikewiseknowsandrecognizestheendof
hisjourney,butisbetterabletoconquertheendlesshighwayif
hedividesitintosectionsandboldlyattackseachoneasthough
itrepresentedthedesiredgoalitself.Onlyinthiswaydoeshe
advancewithoutlosingheart.
Thus, by the use of all propagandist means, the question of
combatingsyphilisshouldhavebeenmadetoappearasthetask
ofthenation.Notjustonemoretask.Tothisend,itsinjurious
effectsshouldhavebeenthoroughlyhammeredintopeopleasthe
most terrible misfortune, and this by the use of all available
means, until the entire nation arrived at the conviction that
everythingfuture or ruindepended upon the solution of this
question.
Onlyaftersuchapreparation,ifnecessaryoveraperiodofyears,
will the attention, and consequently the determination, of the
entire nation be aroused to such an extent that we can take
exceedingly hard measures exacting the greatest sacrifices
withoutrunningtheriskofnotbeingunderstoodorofsuddenly
beingleftinthelurchbythewillofthemasses.
For, seriously toattack this plague, tremendous sacrifices and
equallygreatlaborsarenecessary.

Thefight against syphilisdemands afightagainstprostitution


against prejudices, old habits, against previous conceptions,
generalviewsamongthemnotleastthefalsepruderyofcertain
circles.
Thefirstprerequisiteforeventhemoralrighttocombatthese
things is the facilitation of earlier marriage for the coming
generation.Inlatemarriagealoneliesthecompulsiontoretainan
institutionwhich,twistandturnasyoulike,isandremainsa
disgracetohumanity,aninstitutionwhichisdamnedillsuitedto
abeingwhowithhisusualmodestylikestoregardhimselfasthe
'image'ofGod.
Prostitutionisadisgracetohumanity,butitcannotbeeliminated
bymorallectures,piousintentions,etc.;itslimitationandfinal
abolition presuppose the elimination of innumerable
preconditions. The first is and remains the creation of an
opportunityforearlymarriageascompatiblewithhumannature
particularlyfortheman,asthewomaninanycaseisonlythe
passivepart.
Howlost,howincomprehensibleapartofhumanityhasbecome
todaycanbeseenfromthefactthatmothersinsocalled'good'
societycannotseldombeheardtosaythattheyaregladtohave
foundtheir childahusband whohas sownhis wildoats, etc.
Sincethereishardlyanylackofthese,butratherthecontrary,
the poor girl will be happy to find one of these wornout
Siegfrieds, and the children will be the visible result of this
'sensible' marriage. If we bear in mind that, aside from this,
propagationassuchislimitedasmuchaspossible,sothatNature
is prevented from making any choice, since naturally every
creature,regardlesshowmiserable,mustbepreserved,theonly
questionthatremainsiswhysuchaninstitutionexistsatallany
moreandwhatpurposeitissupposedtoserve?Isn'titexactlythe
sameasprostitutionitself?Hasn'tdutytowardposteritypassed
completelyoutofthepicture?Ordopeoplefailtorealizewhata
curseonthepartoftheirchildrenandchildren'schildrentheyare
heapingonthemselvesbysuchcriminalfrivolityinobservingthe
ultimatenaturallawaswellasourultimatenaturalobligation?

Thus,thecivilizedpeoplesdegenerateandgraduallyperish.
Andmarriagecannotbeanendinitself,butmustservetheone
highergoal,theincreaseandpreservationofthespeciesandthe
race.Thisaloneisitsmeaninganditstask.
Undertheseconditionsitssoundnesscanonlybejudgedbythe
way in which it fulfills this task. For this reason alone early
marriageissound,foritgivestheyoungmarriagethatstrength
fromwhichaloneahealthyandresistantoffspringcanarise.To
besure,itcanbemadepossibleonlybyquiteanumberofsocial
conditionswithoutwhichearlymarriageisnoteventhinkable.
Therefore,asolutionofthisquestion,smallasitis,cannotoccur
without incisive measures of a social sort. The importance of
theseshouldbemostunderstandableatatimewhenthe'social'
republic, if only by its incompetence in the solution of the
housingquestion,simplypreventsnumerousmarriagesandthus
encouragesprostitution.
Our absurd way of regulating salaries, which concerns itself
muchtoolittlewiththequestionofthefamilyanditssustenance,
is one more reason that makes many an early marriage
impossible.
Thus,arealfightagainstprostitutioncanonlybeundertakenifa
basic change in social conditions makes possible an earlier
marriagethanatpresentcangenerallytakeplace.Thisisthevery
firstpremiseforasolutionofthisquestion.
In the second place, education and training must eradicate a
numberofevilsaboutwhichtodaynoonebothersatall.Above
all,inourpresenteducationabalancemustbecreatedbetween
mentalinstructionandphysicaltraining.Theinstitutionthatis
calledaGymnasiumtodayisamockeryoftheGreekmodel.In
oureducationalsystemithasbeenutterlyforgottenthatinthe
long run a healthy mind can dwell only in a healthy body.
Especiallyifwebearinmindthemassofthepeople,asidefrom
afewexceptions,thisstatementbecomesabsolutelyvalid.
In preWar Germany there was a period in which no one
concernedhimselfintheleastaboutthistruth.Theysimplywent
onsinningagainst thebodyandthoughtthatintheonesided

training of the 'mind,' they possessed a sure guaranty for the


greatnessofthenation.Amistakewhoseconsequencesbeganto
be felt sooner than was expected. It is no accident that th
Bolshevistic wave never found better soil than in places
inhabitedbyapopulationdegeneratedbyhungerandconstant
undernourishment:inCentralGermany,Saxony,andtheRuhr.
But in all these districts the socalled intelligentsia no longer
offersanyseriousresistancetothisJewishdisease,forthesimple
reason that this intelligentsia is itself completely degenerate
physically,thoughlessforreasonsofpovertythanforreasonsof
education.Intimeswhennotthemindbutthefistdecides,the
purelyintellectualemphasisofoureducationintheupperclasses
makes them incapable of defending themselves, let alone
enforcingtheirwill.Notinfrequentlythefirstreasonforpersonal
cowardiceliesinphysicalweaknesses.
Theexcessiveemphasisonpurelyintellectualinstructionandthe
neglect of physical training also encourage the emergence of
sexualideasatamuchtooearlyage.Theyouthwhoachievesthe
hardnessofironbysportsandgymnasticssuccumbstotheneed
ofsexualsatisfactionlessthanthestayathomefedexclusively
on intellectual fare. And a sensible system of education must
bearthisinmind.Itmust,moreover,notfailtoconsiderthatthe
healthyyoungmanwillexpectdifferentthingsfromthewoman
thanaprematurelycorruptedweakling.
Thus,thewholesystemofeducationmustbesoorganizedasto
usetheboy'sfreetimefortheusefultrainingofhisbody.Hehas
norighttohangaboutinidlenessduringtheseyears,tomakethe
streetsandmoviehousesunsafe;afterhisday'sworkheshould
steelandhardenhisyoungbody,sothatlaterlifewillnotfind
himtoosoft.Tobeginthisandalsocarryitout,todirectand
guideit,isthetaskofeducation,andnotjustthepumpingofso
calledwisdom.Wemustalsodoawaywiththeconceptionthat
thetreatmentofthebodyistheaffairofeveryindividual.There
isnofreedomtosinatthecostofposterityandhenceoftherace.
Parallel to the training of the body, a struggle against the
poisoningofthesoulmustbegin.Ourwholepubliclifetodayis
likeahothouseforsexualideasandstimulations.Justlookatthe

billoffareservedupinourmovies,vaudevilleandtheaters,and
youwillhardlybeabletodenythatthisisnottherightkindof
food,particularlyfortheyouth.Inshopwindowsandbillboards
thevilestmeansareusedtoattracttheattentionofthecrowd.
Anyonewhohasnotlosttheabilitytothinkhimselfintotheir
soulmustrealizethatthismustcausegreatdamageintheyouth.
Thissensual,sultryatmosphereleadstoideasandstimulationsat
a time when the boy should have no understanding of such
things. The result of this kind of education can be studied in
presentdayyouth,anditisnotexactlygratifying.Theymature
too early and consequently grow old before their time.
Sometimesthepubliclearnsofcourtproceedingswhichpermit
shatteringinsightsintotheemotionallifeofourfourteenand
fifteenyearolds.Whowillbesurprisedthatevenintheseage
groups syphilis begins to seek its victims? And is it not
deplorable to see a good number of these physically weak,
spirituallycorruptedyoungmenobtainingtheirintroductionto
marriagethroughbigcitywhores?
No,anyonewhowantstoattackprostitutionmustfirstofallhelp
toeliminateitsspiritualbasis.Hemustclearawaythefilthofthe
moral plague of bigcity ' civilization ' and he must do this
ruthlesslyandwithoutwaveringinthefaceofalltheshouting
andscreamingthatwillnaturallybeletloose.Ifwedonotliftthe
youthoutofthemorassoftheirpresentdayenvironment,they
willdrowninit.Anyonewhorefusestoseethesethingssupports
them, and thereby makes himself an accomplice in the slow
prostitutionofourfuturewhich,whetherwelikeitornot,liesin
the coming generation. This cleansing of our culture must be
extended to nearly all fields. Theater, art, literature, cinema,
press, posters, and window displays must be cleansed of all
manifestationsofourrottingworldandplacedintheserviceofa
moralpolitical,andculturalidea.Publiclifemustbefreedfrom
thestiflingperfumeofourmoderneroticism,justasitmustbe
freedfromallunmanly,prudishhypocrisy.Inallthesethingsthe
goal and the road must be determined by concern for the
preservationofthehealthofourpeopleinbodyandsoul.The
rightofpersonalfreedomrecedesbeforethedutytopreservethe

race.
Only after these measures are carried out can the medical
struggle against the plague itself be carried through with any
prospect of success. But here, too, there must be no half
measures;thegravestandmostruthlessdecisionswillhavetobe
made.Itisahalfmeasuretoletincurablysickpeoplesteadily
contaminatetheremaininghealthyones.Thisisinkeepingwith
thehumanitarianismwhich,toavoidhurtingoneindividual,lets
ahundredothersperish.Thedemandthatdefectivepeoplebe
prevented from propagating equally defective offspring is a
demand of the clearest reason and if systematically executed
representsthemosthumaneactofmankind.Itwillsparemillions
of unfortunates undeserved sufferings, and consequently will
lead to a rising improvement of health as a whole. The
determinationtoproceedinthisdirectionwillopposeadamto
the further spread of venereal diseases. For, if necessary, the
incurablysickwillbepitilesslysegregatedabarbaricmeasure
fortheunfortunatewhoisstruckbyit,butablessingfor his
fellowmenandposterity.Thepassingpainofacenturycanand
willredeemmillenniumsfromsufferings.
Thestruggleagainstsyphilisandtheprostitutionwhichprepares
the way for it is one of the most gigantic tasks of humanity,
gigantic because we are facing, not the solution of a single
question,buttheeliminationofalargenumberofevilswhich
bringaboutthisplagueasaresultantmanifestation.Forinthis
case the sickening of the body is only the consequence of a
sickeningofthemoral,social,andracialinstincts.
But if out of smugness, or even cowardice, this battle is not
foughttoitsend,thentakealookatthepeoplesfivehundred
yearsfromnow.IthinkyouwillfindbutfewimagesofGod,
unlessyouwanttoprofanetheAlmighty.
ButhowdidtheytrytodealwiththisplagueinoldGermany?
Viewed calmly, the answer is really dismal. Assuredly,
government circles well recognized the terrible evils, though
perhapstheywerenotquiteabletopondertheconsequences;but
in the struggle against it they failed totally, and instead of

thoroughgoingreformspreferredtotakepitifulmeasures.They
tinkered withthe disease andleftthecauses untouched. They
submitted the individual prostitute to a medical examination,
supervisedherasbesttheycould,and,incasetheyestablished
disease,putherinsomehospitalfromwhichafterasuperficial
curetheyagainletherlooseontherestofhumanity.
To be sure, they had introduced a 'protective paragraph'
accordingtowhichanyonewhowasnotentirelyhealthyorcured
mustavoidsexualintercourseunderpenaltyofthelaw.Surely
thismeasureissoundinitself,butinitspracticalapplicationit
wasalmostatotalfailure.Inthefirstplace,thewoman,incase
sheissmittenbymisfortuneifonlyduetoour,orratherher,
educationwillinmostcasesrefusetobedraggedintocourtasa
witnessagainstthewretchedthiefofherhealthoftenunderthe
most embarrassing attendant circumstances. She, in particular,
haslittletogainfromit;inmostcasesshewillbetheoneto
suffermostforshewillbestruckmuchharderbythecontempt
ofherlovelessfellowcreaturesthanwouldbethecasewitha
man.Finally,imaginethesituationiftheconveyorofthedisease
isherownhusband.Shouldsheaccusehim?Orwhatelseshould
shedo?
In the case of the man, there is the additional fact that
unfortunatelyheoftenrunsacrossthepathofthisplagueafter
ampleconsumptionofalcohol,sinceinthisconditionheisleast
abletojudgethequalitiesofhis'fairone,'afactwhichisonly
toowellknowntothediseasedprostitute,andalwayscausesher
toangleaftermeninthisidealcondition.Andtheupshotofitall
isthatthemanwhogetsanunpleasantsurpriselatercan,evenby
thoroughly racking his brains, not remember his kind
benefactress,whichshouldnotbesurprisinginacitylikeBerlin
orevenMunich.Inaddition,itmustbeconsideredthatoftenwe
havetodealwithvisitorsfromtheprovinceswhoarecompletely
befuddledbyallthemagicofthebigcity.
Finally,however:whocanknowwhetherheissickorhealthy?
Aretherenotnumerouscasesinwhichapatientapparentlycured
relapsesandcausesfrightfulmischiefwithouthimselfsuspecting
itatfirst?

Thus,thepracticaleffectofthisprotectionbylegalpunishment
ofaguiltyinfectionisinrealitypracticallynil.Exactlythesame
is true of the supervision of prostitutes; and finally, the cure
itself,eventoday,isdubious.Onlyonethingiscertain:despite
allmeasurestheplaguespreadmoreandmore,givingstriking
confirmationoftheirineffectualness.
The fight against the prostitution of the people's soul was a
failureall alongtheline,orrather,thatis,nothingatallwas
done.
Letanyonewhoisinclinedtotakethislightlyjuststudythebasic
statisticalfactsonthedisseminationofthisplague,compareits
growthinthelast hundredyears,andthenimagineitsfurther
developmentandhewouldreallyneedthesimplicityofanassto
keepanunpleasantshudderfromrunningdownhisback.
Theweaknessandhalfheartednessofthepositiontakeninold
Germanytowardsoterribleaphenomenonmaybeevaluatedasa
visiblesignofapeople'sdecay.Ifthepowertofightforone's
ownhealthisnolongerpresent,therighttoliveinthisworldof
struggleends. Thisworldbelongsonlytotheforceful'whole'
manandnottotheweak'half'man.
OneofthemostobviousmanifestationsofdecayintheoldReich
wastheslowdeclineoftheculturallevel,andbycultureIdonot
meanwhattodayisdesignatedbytheword'civilization.'The
latter, on the contrary, rather seems hostile to a truly high
standardofthinkingandliving.
Evenbeforetheturnofthecenturyanelementbegantointrude
intoourartwhichuptothattimecouldberegardedasentirely
foreign and unknown. To be sure, even in earlier times there
wereoccasionalaberrationsoftaste,butsuchcaseswererather
artisticderailments,towhichposteritycouldattributeatleasta
certain historical value, than products no longer of an artistic
degeneration,butofaspiritualdegenerationthathadreachedthe
point of destroying the spirit. In them the political collapse,
whichlaterbecamemorevisible,wasculturallyindicated.
ArtBolshevismistheonlypossibleculturalformandspiritual
expressionofBolshevismasawhole.

Anyonetowhomthisseemsstrangeneedonlysubjecttheartof
the happily Bolshevized states to an examination, and, to his
horror, he will be confronted by the morbid excrescences of
insane and degenerate men, with which, since the turn of the
century,wehavebecomefamiliarunderthecollectiveconcepts
ofcubismanddadaism,astheofficialandrecognizedartofthose
states. Even in the short period of the Bavarian Republic of
Councils,thisphenomenonappeared.Evenhereitcouldbeseen
that all the official posters, propagandist drawings in the
newspapers,etc.,boretheimprint,notonlyofpoliticalbutof
culturaldecay.
Nomorethanapoliticalcollapseofthepresentmagnitudewould
havebeenconceivablesixtyyearsagowasaculturalcollapse
suchasbegantomanifestitselfinfuturistandcubistworkssince
1900 thinkable. Sixty years ago an exhibition of socalled
dadaistic'experiences'wouldhaveseemedsimplyimpossibleand
itsorganizerswouldhaveendedupinthemadhouse,whiletoday
theyevenpresideoverartassociations. Thisplaguecouldnot
appearatthattime,becauseneitherwouldpublicopinionhave
tolerateditnorthestatecalmlylookedon.Foritisthebusiness
ofthestate,inotherwords,ofitsleaders,topreventapeople
frombeingdrivenintothearmsofspiritualmadness.Andthisis
wheresuchadevelopmentwouldsomedayinevitablyend.For
on the day when this type of art really corresponded to the
general view of things, one of the gravest transformations of
humanitywouldhaveoccurred:theregressivedevelopmentof
the human mind would have begun and the end would be
scarcelyconceivable.
Oncewepass thedevelopmentof our culturallifeinthelast
twentyfive years in review from this standpoint, we shall be
horrified to see how far we are already engaged in this
regression.Everywhereweencounterseedswhichrepresentthe
beginningsofparasiticgrowthswhichmustsoonerorlaterbethe
ruinofourculture.Inthem,too,wecanrecognizethesymptoms
ofdecayofaslowlyrottingworld.Woetothepeopleswhocan
nolongermasterthisdisease!
SuchdiseasescouldbeseeninGermanyinnearlyeveryfieldof

artandculture.Everythingseemedtohavepassedthehighpoint
andtobehasteningtowardtheabyss.Thetheaterwassinking
manifestly lower and even then would have disappeared
completelyasaculturalfactoriftheCourtTheatersatleasthad
notturnedagainsttheprostitutionofart.Ifwedisregardthem
andafewotherpraiseworthyexamples,theofferingsofthestage
wereofsuchanaturethatitwouldhavebeenmoreprofitablefor
thenationtokeepawayfromthementirely.Itwasasadsignof
innerdecaythattheyouthcouldnolongerbesentintomostof
thesesocalled'abodesofart'afactwhichwasadmittedwith
shameless frankness by a general display of the pennyarcade
warning:'Youngpeoplearenotadmitted!'
Bearinmindthatsuchprecautionarymeasureshadtobetakenin
theplaceswhichshouldhaveexistedprimarilyfortheeducation
oftheyouthandnotforthedelectationofoldandjadedsections
ofthepopulation.Whatwouldthegreatdramatistsofalltimes
have said to such a regulation, and what, above all, to the
circumstanceswhichcausedit?HowSchillerwouldhaveflared
up,howGoethewouldhaveturnedawayinindignation!
Butafterall,whatareSchiller,Goethe,orShakespearecompared
to the heroes of the newer German poetic art? Old, outworn,
outmoded, nay, obsolete. For that was the characteristic thing
aboutthatperiod:notthattheperioditselfproducednothingbut
filth,butthatinthebargainitbefouledeverythingthatwasreally
great in the past. This, to be sure, is a phenomenon that can
always be observed at such times. The baser and more
contemptibletheproductsofthetimeanditspeople,theLoreit
hatesthewitnessestothegreaternobilityanddignityofaformer
day. In such times the people would best like to efface the
memory of mankind's past completely, so that by excluding
everypossibilityofcomparisontheycouldpass off their own
trashas'art.'Henceeverynewinstitution,themorewretchedand
miserableitis,willtryallthehardertoextinguishthelasttraces
ofthepasttime,whereaseverytruerenascenceofhumanitycan
start with an easy mind from the good achievements of past
generations;infact,canoftenmakethemtrulyappreciatedfor
thefirsttime.Itdoesnothavetofearthatitwillpalebeforethe

past;no,ofitselfitcontributessovaluableanadditiontothe
generalstoreofhumanculturethatoften,inordertomakethis
culturefullyappreciated,itstrivestokeepalivethememoryof
formerachievements,thusmakingsurethatthepresentwillfully
understand the new gift. Only those who can give nothing
valuabletotheworld,buttrytoactasiftheyweregoingtogive
it God knows what, will hate everything that was previously
givesandwouldbestliketonegateorevendestroyit.
Thetruthofthisisbynomeanslimitedtothefieldofgeneral
culture, but applies to politics as well. Revolutionary new
movementswillhatetheoldformsinproportiontotheirown
inferiority.Here,too,wecanseehoweagernesstomaketheir
own trash appear to be something noteworthy leads to blind
hatred against the superior good of the past. As long, for
example,asthehistoricalmemoryofFredericktheGreatisnot
dead,FriedrichEbertcanarousenothingbutlimitedamazement.
TheheroofSansSouciistotheformerBremensaloonkeeper
approximatelyasthesuntothemoon;onlywhentheraysofthe
sundiecanthemoonshine.Consequently,thehatredofallnew
moons of humanity for the fixed stars is only too
comprehensible. In political life, such nonentities, if Fate
temporarily casts power in their lap, not only besmirch and
befoulthepastwithuntiringzeal,butalsoremovethemselves
fromgeneralcriticismbythemostextrememethods.Thenew
GermanReich'slegislationforthedefenseoftheRepublicmay
passasanexampleofthis.
Therefore,ifanynewidea,adoctrine,anewphilosophy,oreven
apoliticaloreconomicmovementtriestodenytheentirepast,
triestomakeitbadorworthless,forthisreasonalonewemustbe
extremelycautiousandsuspicious.Asarulethereasonforsuch
hatrediseitheritsowninferiorityorevenanevilintentionas
such. A really beneficial renascence of humanity will always
havetocontinuebuildingwherethelastgoodfoundationstops.It
willnothavetobeashamedofusingalreadyexistingtruths.For
thewholeofhumanculture,aswellasmanhimselfisonlythe
resultofasinglelongdevelopmentinwhicheverygeneration
contributedandfittedinitsstone.Thusthemeaningandpurpose

of revolutions is not to tear down the whole building but to


removewhatisbadorunsuitableandtocontinuebuildingonthe
soundspotthathasbeenlaidbare.
Thus alone can we and may we speak of the progress of
humanity.Otherwisetheworldwouldneverberedeemedfrom
chaos,sinceeverygenerationwouldbeentitledtorejectthepast
andhencedestroytheworksofthepastasthepresuppositionfor
itsownwork.
Thus,thesaddestthingaboutthestateofourwholecultureofthe
preWarperiodwasnotonlythetotalimpotenceofartisticand
culturalcreativepoweringeneral,butthehatredwithwhichthe
memory of the greater past was besmirched and effaced. In
nearlyallfieldsofart,especiallyinthetheaterandliterature,we
beganaroundtheturnofthecenturytoproducelessthatwasnew
andsignificant,buttodisparagethebestoftheoldworkand
representitasinferiorandsurpassed;asthoughthisepochofthe
mosthumiliatinginferioritycouldsurpassanythingatall.And
fromthisefforttoremovethepastfromtheeyesofthepresent,
the evil intent of the apostles of the future could clearly and
distinctlybeseen.Bythisitshouldhavebeenrecognizedthat
these were no new, even if false, cultural conceptions, but a
process of destroying all culture, paving the way for a
stultificationofhealthyartisticfeeling:thespiritualpreparation
of political Bolshevism. For if the age of Pericles seems
embodiedintheParthenon,theBolshevisticpresentisembodied
inacubistmonstrosity.
Inthisconnectionwemustalsopointtothecowardicewhich
hereagainwasmanifestinthesectionofourpeoplewhichonthe
basisofitseducationandpositionshouldhavebeenobligatedto
resist this cultural disgrace. But frompure fear of theclamor
raisedbytheapostlesofBolshevisticart,whofuriouslyattacked
anyonewhodidn'twanttorecognizethecrownofcreationin
themandpilloriedhimasabackwardphilistine,theyrenounced
allseriousresistanceandreconciledthemselvestowhatseemed
afterallinevitable.Theywerepositivelyscaredstiffthatthese
halfwits or scoundrels would accuse them of lack of
understanding;asthoughitwereadisgracenottounderstandthe

products of spiritual degenerates or slimy swindlers. These


culturaldisciples,itistrue,possessedaverysimplemeansof
passing off their nonsense as something God knows how
important: they passed off all sorts of incomprehensible and
obviouslycrazystuffontheiramazedfellowmenasasocalled
innerexperience,acheapwayoftakinganywordofopposition
outofthemouthsofmostpeopleinadvance.Forbeyondadoubt
thiscouldbeaninnerexperience;thedoubtfulpartwaswhether
it is permissible to dish up the hallucinations of lunatics or
criminals to the healthy world. The works of a Moritz von
Schwind,orofaBocklin,werealsoaninnerexperience,butof
artistsgracedbyGodandnotofclowns.
Herewasagoodoccasiontostudythepitifulcowardiceofour
socalledintelligentsia,whichdodgedanyseriousresistanceto
thispoisoningofthehealthyinstinctofourpeopleandleftitto
the people themselves to deal with this insolent nonsense. In
order not to be considered lacking in artistic understanding,
peoplestoodforeverymockeryofartandendedupbybecoming
reallyuncertaininthejudgmentofgoodandbad.
Allinall,theseweretokensoftimesthatweregettingverybad.
Asanotherdisquietingattribute,thefollowingmustyetbestated:
Inthenineteenthcenturyourcitiesbeganmoreandmoretolose
thecharacterofculturalsitesandtodescendtothelevelofmere
humansettlements.Thesmallattachmentofourpresentbigcity
proletariatforthetowntheyliveinistheconsequenceofthefact
thatitisonlytheindividual'saccidentallocalstoppingplace,and
nothingmore.Thisispartlyconnectedwiththefrequentchange
ofresidencecausedbysocialconditions,whichdonotgivea
mantimetoformacloserbondwiththecity,andanothercause
istobefoundinthegeneralculturalinsignificanceandpoverty
ofourpresentdaycitiesperse.
AtthetimeofthewarsofliberationstheGermancitieswerenot
onlysmallinnumber,butalsomodestastosize.Thefewreally
bigcitiesweremostlyprincelyresidences,andassuchnearly
alwayspossessedacertainculturalvalueandforthemostpart
alsoacertainartisticpicture.Thefewplaceswithmorethanfifty

thousandinhabitantswere,comparedtopresentdaycitieswith
thesamepopulation,richinscientificandartistictreasuresWhen
Munichnumberedsixtythousandsouls,itwasalreadyonitsway
tobecomingoneofthefirstGermanartcenters;todaynearly
everyfactorytownhasreachedthisnumber,ifnotmanytimes
surpassed it, yet some cannot lay claim to the slightest real
values.Massesofapartmentsandtenements,andnothingmore
How, in view of such emptiness, any special bond could be
expectedtoarisewithsuchatownmustremainamystery.No
onewillbeparticularlyattachedtoacitywhichhasnothingmore
toofferthaneveryother,whichlackseveryindividualnoteand
in which everything has been carefully avoided which might
evenlooklikeartoranythingofthesort.
But,asifthiswerenotenough,eventhereallybigcitiesgrow
relativelypoorerinrealarttreasureswiththemountingincrease
inthepopulation.Theyseemmoreandmorestandardizedand
giveentirelythesamepictureasthepoorlittlefactorytowns,
thoughinlargerdimensions.Whatrecenttimeshaveaddedtothe
culturalcontentofourbigcitiesistotallyinadequate.Allour
cities are living on the fame and treasures of the past. For
instance, take from presentday Munich everything that was
createdunderLudwigI,landyouwillnotewithhorrorhowpoor
theadditionofsignificantartisticcreationshasbeensincethat
time.ThesameistrueofBerlinandmostotherbigcities.
Theessentialpoint,however,isthefollowing:ourbigcitiesof
todaypossessnomonumentsdominatingthecitypicture,which
mightsomehowberegardedasthesymbolsofthewholeepoch.
Thiswastrueinthecitiesofantiquity,sincenearlyeveryone
possessed a special monument in which it took pride. The
characteristic aspect of the ancient city did not lie in private
buildings, but in the community monuments which seemed
made,notforthemoment,butforeternity,becausetheywere
intendedtoreflect,notthewealthofanindividualowner,butthe
greatnessandwealthofthecommunity.Thusarosemonuments
whichwereverywellsuitedtounitetheindividualinhabitant
with his city in a way which today sometimes seems almost
incomprehensibletous.Forwhattheancienthadbeforehiseyes

was less the humble houses of private owners than the


magnificentedificesofthewholecommunity.Comparedtothem
thedwellinghousereallysanktothelevelofaninsignificant
objectofsecondaryimportance.
Onlyifwecomparethedimensionsoftheancientstatestructures
with contemporary dwelling houses can we understand the
overpoweringsweepandforceofthisemphasisontheprinciple
of giving first place to public works. The few still towering
colossuseswhichweadmireintheruinsandwreckageofthe
ancientworldarenotformerbusinesspalaces,buttemplesand
state structures; in other words, works whose owner was the
community.EveninthesplendoroflateRomethefirstplacewas
nottakenbythevillasandpalacesofIndividualcitizens,butby
the temples and baths, the stadiums, circuses, aqueducts,
basilicas,etc.,ofthestate,henceofthewholepeople.
Even the Germanic Middle Ages upheld the same guiding
principle,thoughamidtotallydifferentconceptionsofart.What
inantiquityfounditsexpressionintheAcropolisorthePantheon
nowcloakeditselfintheformsoftheGothicCathedral.Like
giantsthesemonumentalstructurestoweredovertheswarming
frameswooden,andbrickbuildingsof themedievalcity,and
thus became symbols which even today, with the tenements
climbinghigherandhigherbesidethem,determinethecharacter
andpictureofthesetowns.Cathedrals,townhalls,grainmarkets,
andbattlementsarethevisiblesignsofaInceptionwhichinthe
lastanalysiswasthesameasthatofantiquity.
Yethowtrulydeplorabletherelationbetweenstatebuildingsand
privatebuildingshasbecometoday!IfthefateofRomeshould
strike Berlin, future generations would some day admire the
departmentstoresofafewJewsasthemightiestworksofourera
and the hotels of a few corporations as the characteristic
expression of the culture of our times. Just compare the
miserable discrepancy prevailing in a city like even Berlin
between the structures of the Reich and those of finance and
commerceEventhesumofmoneyspentonstatebuildingsis
usually laughable and inadequate. Works are not built for
eternity,butatmostfortheneedofthemoment.Andinthem

thereisnodominanthigheridea.Atthetimeofitsconstruction,
theBerlinSchlosswasaworkofdifferentstaturethanthenew
library,forinstance,inthesettingofthepresenttime.Whilea
single battleship represented a value of approximately sixty
millions, hardly half of this sum was approved for the first
magnificentbuildingoftheReich,intendedtostandforeternity,
the Reichstag Building. Indeed, when the question of interior
furnishingscameupfordecision,theexaltedhousevotedagainst
theuseofstoneandorderedthewallstrimmedwithplaster;this
time,Imustadmit,theparliamentariansdidrightforachange:
stonewallsarenoplaceforplasterheads.
Thus,ourcitiesofthepresentlacktheoutstandingsymbolof
nationalcommunitywhich,wemustthereforenotbesurprisedto
find,seesnosymbolofitselfinthecities.Theinevitableresultis
adesolationwhosepracticaleffectisthetotalindifferenceofthe
bigcitydwellertothedestinyofhiscity.
This, too, is a sign of our declining culture and our general
collapse. The epoch is stifling in the pettiest utilitarianism or
betterexpressedintheserviceofmoney.Andwehavenocallfor
surpriseifundersuchadeitylittlesenseofheroismremains.The
present time is only harvesting what the immediate past has
sown.
Allthesesymptomsofdecayareinthelastanalysisonlythe
consequences of the absence of a definite, uniformly
acknowledgedphilosophyandsheresultantgeneraluncertainty
inthejudgmentandattitudetowardthevariousgreatproblemsof
thetime.Thatiswhy,beginningineducation,everyoneishalf
heartedandvacillating,shunningresponsibilityandthusending
incowardlytoleranceofevenrecognizedabuses.Humanitarian
bilgebecomes stylishand, byweaklyyieldingtocankersand
sparingindividuals,thefutureofmillionsissacrificed.
Howwidespreadthegeneraldisunitywasgrowingisshownby
anexaminationofreligiousconditionsbeforetheWar.Here,too,
aunifiedandeffectivephilosophicalconvictionhadlongsince
been lost in largesections of the nation.Inthis the members
officiallybreakingawayfromthechurchesplayalessimportant

role than those who are completely indifferent. While both


denominationsmaintainmissionsinAsiaandAfricainorderto
winnewfollowersfortheirdoctrineanactivitywhichcanboast
but very modest success compared to the advance of the
MohammedanfaithinparticularrighthereinEuropetheylose
millionsandmillionsofinwardadherentswhoeitherarealiento
allreligiouslifeorsimplygotheirownways.Theconsequences,
particularlyfromthemoralpointofview,arenotfavorable.
Alsonoteworthyistheincreasinglyviolentstruggleagainstthe
dogmaticfoundationsofthevariouschurcheswithoutwhichin
thishumanworldthepracticalexistenceofareligiousfaithisnot
conceivable. The great masses of people do not consist of
philosophers; precisely for the masses, faith is often the sole
foundationofamoralattitude.Thevarioussubstituteshavenot
proved so successful from the standpoint of results that they
couldberegardedasausefulreplacementforpreviousreligious
creeds.Butifreligiousdoctrineandfaitharereallytoembrace
thebroadmasses,theunconditionalauthorityofthecontentof
this faith is the foundation of all efficacy. What the current
mores,withoutwhichassuredlyhundredsofthousandsofwell
bredpeoplewouldlivesensiblyandreasonablybutmillionsof
otherswouldnot,areforgeneralliving,stateprinciplesarefor
thestate,anddogmasforthecurrentreligion.Onlythroughthem
is the wavering and infinitely interpretable, purely intellectual
ideadelimitedandbroughtintoaformwithoutwhichitcould
neverbecomefaith.Otherwisetheideawouldneverpassbeyond
ametaphysicalconception;inshort,aphilosophicalopinion.The
attackagainstdogmasassuch,therefore,stronglyresemblesthe
struggleagainstthegenerallegalfoundationsofastate,and,as
thelatterwouldendinatotalanarchyofthestate,theformer
wouldendinaworthlessreligiousnihilism.
Forthepoliticalman,thevalueofareligionmustbeestimated
less by its deficiencies than by the virtue of a visibly better
substitute.Aslongasthisappearstobelacking,whatispresent
canbedemolishedonlybyfoolsorcriminals.
Not the smallest blame for the none too delectable religious
conditionsmustbebornebythosewhoencumberthereligious

ideawithtoomanythingsofapurelyearthlynatureandthus
oftenbringitintoatotallyunnecessaryconflictwithsocalled
exactscience.Inthisvictorywillalmostalwaysfalltothelatter,
though perhaps after a hard struggle, and religion will suffer
seriousdamageintheeyesofallthosewhoareunabletoraise
themselvesaboveapurelysuperficialknowledge.
Worstofall,however,isthedevastationwroughtbythemisuse
of religious conviction for political ends. In truth, we cannot
sharplyenoughattackthosewretchedcrookswhowouldliketo
make religion an implement to perform political or rather
business services for them. These insolent liars, it is true,
proclaimtheircreedinastentorianvoicetothewholeworldfor
othersinnerstohear;buttheirintentionisnot,ifnecessary,todie
forit,buttolivebetter.Forasinglepoliticalswindle,providedit
bringsinenough,theyarewillingtoselltheheartofawhole
religion; for ten parliamentary mandates they would ally
themselveswiththeMarxisticmortalenemiesofallreligionsand
foraminister'schairtheywouldevenenterintomarriagewith
thedevil,unlessthedevilweredeterredbyaremnantofdecency.
If in Germany before the War religious life for many had an
unpleasant aftertaste, this could be attributed to the abuse of
Christianityonthepartofasocalled'Christian'partyandthe
shamelesswayinwhichtheyattemptedtoidentifytheCatholic
faithwithapoliticalparty.
Thisfalseassociationwasacalamitywhichmayhavebrought
parliamentary mandates to a number of goodfornothings but
injurytotheChurch.
Theconsequence,however,hadtobebornebythewholenation,
since the outcome of the resultant slackening of religious life
occurredatatimewheneveryonewasbeginningtowaverand
vacillateanyway,andthetraditionalfoundationsofethicsand
moralitywerethreateningtocollapse.
This, too, created cracks and rifts in our nation which might
presentnodangeraslongasnospecialstrainarose,butwhich
inevitablybecamecatastrophicwhenbytheforceofgreatevents
thequestionoftheinnersolidityofthenationachieveddecisive

importance.
Likewiseinthefieldofpoliticstheobservanteyecoulddiscern
evilswhich,ifnotremediedoralteredwithinareasonabletime,
couldbeandhadtoberegardedassignsoftheReich'scoming
decay.TheaimlessnessofGermandomesticandforeignpolicy
was apparent to everyone who was not purposely blind. The
regime of compromise seemed to be most in keeping with
Bismarck'sconceptionthat'politicsisanartofthepossible.'But
betweenBismarckandthelaterGermanchancellorstherewasa
slightdifferencewhichmadeitpermissiblefortheformertolet
fallsuchanutteranceonthenatureofpoliticswhilethesame
viewfromthemouthsofhissuccessorscouldnotbuttakeonan
entirelydifferentmeaning.ForBismarckwiththisphraseonly
wantedtosaythatfortheachievementofadefinitepoliticalgoal
all possibilities should be utilized, or,in other words, that all
possibilities should be taken into account; in the view of his
successors,however,thisutterancesolemnlyreleasedthemfrom
the necessity of having any political ideas or goals whatever.
AndtheleadershipoftheReichatthistimereallyhadnomore
political goals; for the necessary foundation of a definite
philosophywaslacking,aswellasthenecessaryclarityonthe
innerlawsgoverningthedevelopmentofallpoliticallife.
Therewerenotafewwhosawthingsblacklyinthisrespectand
flayedtheplanlessnessandheedlessnessoftheReich'spolicies,
and well recognized their inner weakness and hollowness but
thesewereonlyoutsidersinpoliticallife;theofficialgovernment
authorities passed by the observations of a Houston Stewart
Chamberlain with the same indifference as still occurs today.
Thesepeoplearetoostupidtothinkanythingforthemselvesand
tooconceitedtolearnwhatisnecessaryfromothersanageold
truth which caused Oxenstierna to cry out: 'The world is
governed by a mere fraction of wisdom';l and indeed nearly
every ministerial secretary embodies only an atom of this
fraction. Only since Germany has become a republic, this no
longerapplies.ThatiswhyithasbeenforbiddenbytheLawfor
theDefenseoftheRepublic2tobelieve,letalonediscuss,any
suchthought.Oxenstiernawasluckytolivewhenhedid,andnot

inthiswiserepublicofours.
EveninthepreWarperiodthatinstitutionwhichwassupposed
toembodythestrengthoftheReichwasrecognizedbymanyas
its greatest weakness: the parliament or Reichstag. Cowardice
andirresponsibilitywereherecompletelywedded.
Oneofthefoolishremarkswhichtodaywenotinfrequentlyhear
isthatparliamentarisminGermanyhas'gonewrongsincethe
revolution.' This too easily gives the impression that it was
different before the revolution. In reality the effect of this
institutioncanbenothingelsethandevastatingandthiswastrue
even in those days when most people wore blinders and saw
nothingandwantedtoseenothing.ForifGermanywascrushed,
itwasowingnotleasttothisinstitution;nothanksareowingto
theReichstagthatthecatastrophedidnotoccurearlier;thismust
beattributedtotheresistancetotheactivityofthisgravedigger
oftheGermannationandtheGermanReich,whichpersistedin
theyearsofpeace.
Out of the vast number of devastating evils for which this
institutionwasdirectlyorindirectlyresponsible,Ishallpickonly
asingleonewhichismostinkeepingwiththeinneressenceof
this most irresponsible institution of all times: the terrible
halfheartedness and weakness of the political leaders of the
Reichbothathomeandabroad,which,primarilyattributableto
theactivitiesoftheReichstag,developedintooneofthechief
reasonsforthepoliticalcollapse.
Halfheartedwaseverythingthatwassubjectinanywaytothe
influenceofthisparliament,regardlesswhichwayyoulook.
HalfheartedandweakwasthealliancepolicyoftheReichinits
foreignrelations.Bytryingtopreservepeaceitsteeredinevitably
towardwar.
Halfhearted was the Polish policy. It consisted in irritating
withouteverseriouslygoingthroughwithanything.Theresult
was neither a victory for the Germans nor conciliation of the
Poles,buthostilitywithRussiainstead.
HalfheartedwasthesolutionoftheAlsaceLorrainequestion.

InsteadofcrushingtheheadoftheFrenchhydraonceandforall
withabrutal fist,andthengrantingtheAlsatianequalrights,
neitherofthetwowasdone.Norcoulditbe,forintheranksof
the biggest parties sat the biggest traitorsin the Center, for
example,HerrWetterle.
All this, however, would have been bearable if the general
halfheartednesshadnottakenpossessionofthatpoweronwhose
existence the survival of the Reich ultimately depended: the
army.
Thesinsofthesocalled'GermanReichstag'wouldalonesuffice
tocoveritforalltimeswiththecurseoftheGermannation.For
themostmiserablereasons,theseparliamentaryrabblestoleand
struck from the hand of the nation its weapon of self
preservation, the only defense of our people's freedom and
independence.IftodaythegravesofFlandersfieldweretoopen,
from them would arise the bloody accusers, hundreds of
thousands of the best young Germans who, due to the
unscrupulousness of these parliamentarian criminals, were
driven,poorlytrainedandhalftrained,intothearmsofdeath;the
fatherlandlostthemandmillionsofcrippledanddead,solelyand
alone so that a few hundred misleaders of the people could
perpetratetheirpoliticalswindlesandblackmail,ormerelyrattle
offtheirdoctrinairetheories.
WhiletheJewsintheirMarxistanddemocraticpressproclaimed
tothewholeworldthelieabout'Germanmilitarism'andsought
to incriminate Germany by all means, the Marxist and
democraticpartieswereobstructinganycomprehensivetraining
of the German national manpower. The enormous crime that
wasthuscommittedcouldnothelpbutbecleartoeveryonewho
justconsideredthat,incaseofacomingwar,theentirenation
would have to take up arms, and that, therefore, through the
rascalityofthesesavoryrepresentativesoftheirownsocalled
'popularrepresentation,'millionsofGermansweredriventoface
the enemy halftrained and badly trained. But even if the
consequences resulting from the brutal and savage
unscrupulousnessoftheseparliamentarypimpswereleftentirely
outofconsideration:thislackoftrainedsoldiersatthebeginning

oftheWarcouldeasilyleadtoitsloss,andthiswasmostterribly
confirmedinthegreatWorldWar.
Thelossofthefightforthefreedomandindependenceofthe
Germannationistheresultofthehalfheartednessandweakness
manifested even in peacetime as regards drafting the entire
nationalmanpowerforthedefenseofthefatherland.
If too few recruits were trained on the land, the same
halfheartednesswasatworkonthesea,makingtheweaponof
nationalselfpreservationmoreorlessworthless.Unfortunately
the navy leadership was itself infected with the spirit of
halfheartedness.Thetendencytobuildallshipsalittlesmaller
thantheEnglishshipswhichwerebeinglaunchedatthesame
timewashardlyfarsighted,muchlessbrilliant.Especiallyafleet
whichfromthebeginningcaninpointofpurenumbersnotbe
broughttothesamelevelasitspresumableadversarymustseek
tocompensateforthelackofnumbersbythesuperiorfighting
powerofitsindividualships.Itisthesuperiorfightingpower
which matters and not any legendary superiority in 'quality.'
Actuallymoderntechnologyissofaradvancedandhasachieved
somuchuniformityinthevariouscivilizedcountriesthatitmust
beheldimpossibletogivetheshipsofonepoweranappreciably
larger combat value thantheships of liketonnage of another
state.And it is evenless conceivable toachievea superiority
withsmallerdeplacementascomparedtolarger.
In actual fact, the smaller tonnage of the German ships was
possibleonlyatthecostofspeedandarmament.Thephrasewith
whichpeopleattemptedtojustifythisfactshowedaveryserious
lackoflogicinthedepartmentresponsibleforthisinpeacetime.
Theydeclared,forinstance,thatthematerialoftheGermanguns
was so obviously superior to the British that the German 28
centimetergunwasnotbehindtheBritish30.5centimetergunin
performance!!
Butforthisveryreasonitwouldhavebeenourdutytochange
overtothe30.5centimetergun,forthegoalshouldhavebeen
the achievement, not of equal but of superior fighting power.
Otherwiseitwouldhavebeensuperfluousforthearmytoorder

the42centimetermortar,sincetheGerman21centimetermortar
wasinitselfsuperiortoanythenexistinghightrajectoryFrench
cannon,andthefortresseswouldhavelikewisefallentothe30.5
centimeter mortar. The leadership of the land army, however,
thoughtsoundly,whilethatofthenavyunfortunatelydidnot.
Theneglectofsuperiorartillerypowerandsuperiorspeedlay
entirelyin.theabsolutelyerroneoussocalled'ideaofrisk.'The
navyleadershipbytheveryforminwhichitexpandedthefleet
renouncedattackandthusfromtheoutsetinevitablyassumedthe
defensive.Butinthistheyalsorenouncedtheultimatesuccess
whichisandcanonlybeforeverinattack.
Ashipofsmallerspeedandweakerarmamentwillasarulebe
senttothebottombyaspeedierandmoreheavilyarmedenemy
atthefiringdistancefavorableforthelatter.Anumberofour
cruisers were to find this out to their bitter grief. The utter
mistakenness of the peacetime opinion of the navy staff was
shown by the War, which forced the introduction, whenever
possible,ofmodifiedarmamentinoldshipsandbetterarmament
innewerones.IfinthebattleofSkagerraktheGermanshipshad
hadthetonnage,thearmament,thesamespeedastheEnglish
ships,theBritishnavywouldhavefoundawaterygravebeneath
thehurricaneofthemoreaccurateandmoreeffectiveGerman
38centimetershells.
Japancarriedonadifferentnavalpolicyinthosedays.There,on
principle,the entireemphasis was laidongivingeverysingle
newshipsuperiorfightingpoweroverthepresumableadversary.
Theresultwasagreaterpossibilityofoffensiveutilizationofthe
navy.
Whilethestaffofthelandarmystillkeptfreeofsuchbasically
falsetrainsofthought,thenavy,whichunfortunatelyhadbetter
'parliamentary' representation, succumbed to the spirit of
parliament.Itwasorganizedonthebasisofhalfbakedideasand
waslaterusedinasimilarway.Whatimmortalfamethenavy
neverthelessachievedcouldonlybesettotheaccountoftheskill
of the German armaments worker and the ability and
incomparableheroismoftheindividualofficersandcrews.Ifthe

previous naval high command had shown corresponding


intelligence,thesesacrificeswouldnothavebeeninvain.
Thus perhaps it was precisely the superior parliamentary
dexterity of the navy's peacetime head that resulted in its
misfortune,since,eveninitsbuilding,parliamentaryinsteadof
purelymilitarycriteriaunfortunatelybegantoplaythedecisive
role.Thehalfheartednessandweaknessaswellasthemeager
logicinthinking,characteristicoftheparliamentaryinstitution,
begantocolortheleadershipofthenavy.
Thelandarmy,asalreadyemphasized,stillrefrainedfromsuch
basicallyfalsetrainsofthought.Particularlythecolonelinthe
great General Staff of that time, Ludendorff, carried on a
desperate struggle against the criminal halfheartedness and
weakness with which the Reichstag approached the vital
problemsofthenation,andforthemostpartnegatedthem.Ifthe
strugglewhichthisofficerthencarriedonwasneverthelessin
vain,theblamewasbornehalfbyparliamentandhalfbythe
attitudeandweaknessevenmoremiserable,ifpossibleofReich
ChancellorBethmannHollweg.Yettodaythisdoesnotinthe
leastpreventthosewhowereresponsiblefortheGermancollapse
fromputtingtheblamepreciselyonhimwhoalonecombated
this neglect of national interestsone swindle more or less is
nothingtotheseborncrooks.
Anyonewhocontemplatesallthesacrificeswhichwereheaped
onthenationbythecriminalfrivolityofthesemostirresponsible
among irresponsibles, who passes in review all the uselessly
sacrificeddeadandmaimed,aswellastheboundlessshameand
disgrace,theimmeasurablemiserywhichhasnowstruckus,and
knowsthatallthishappenedonlytoclearthepathtoministers'
chairs for a gang of unscrupulous climbers and jobhunters
anyone who contemplates all this will understand that these
creaturescan,believeme,bedescribedonlybywordssuchas'
scoundrel,''villain,''scum,'and'criminal,'otherwisethe
meaning and purpose of having these expressions in our
linguistic usage would be incomprehensible. For compared to
thesetraitorstothenation,everypimpisamanofhonor.

Strangely enough, all the really seamy sides of old Germany


attractedattentiononlywhentheinnersolidarityofthenation
wouldinevitablysufferthereby.Yes,indeed,insuchcasesthe
unpleasanttruthswerepositivelybellowedtothebroadmasses,
whileotherwisethesamepeoplepreferredmodestlytoconceal
manythingsandinpartsimplytodenythem.Thiswasthecase
whentheopendiscussion of a questionmighthaveledtoan
improvement. At the same time, the government offices in
charge knew next to nothing of the value and nature of
propaganda. The fact that by clever and persevering use of
propagandaevenheavencanberepresentedashelltothepeople,
andconverselythemostwretchedlifeasparadise,wasknown
onlytotheJew,whoactedaccordingly;theGerman,orratherhis
government,hadn'tthefaintestideaofthis.
DuringtheWarweweretosuffermostgravelyforallthis.
Along with all the evils of German life before the War here
indicated,andmanymore,therewerealsomanyadvantages.Ina
fair examination, we must even recognize that most of our
weaknesseswerelargelysharedbyothercountriesandpeoples,
andinsome,indeed,wewereputcompletelyintheshade,while
theydidnotpossessmanyofourownactualadvantages.
Attheheadoftheseadvantageswecan,amongotherthings,set
thefactthat,ofnearlyallEuropeanpeoples,theGermanpeople
stillmadethegreatestattempttopreservethenationalcharacter
ofitseconomyanddespitecertainevilomenswasleastsubject
tointernationalfinancialcontrol.Adangerousadvantage,tobe
sure, which later became the greatest instigator of the World
War.Butasidefromthisandmanyotherthings,wemust,from
the vast number of healthy sources of national strength, pick
threeinstitutionswhichintheirkindwereexemplaryandinpart
unequaled.
First,thestateformassuchandthespecialstampwhichithad
receivedinmodernGermany.
Herewemayreallydisregardtheindividualmonarchswhoas
men are subject to all the weaknesses which are customarily
visiteduponthisearthanditschildren;ifwewerenotlenientin

this,wewouldhavetodespairofthepresentaltogether,forare
not the representatives of the present regime, considered as
personalities, intellectually and morally of the most modest
proportionsthatwecanconceiveofevenrackingourbrainsfora
long time? Anyone who measures the 'value' of the German
revolutionbythevalueandstatureofthepersonalitieswhichit
hasgiventheGermanpeoplesinceNovember,1919,willhaveto
hide his head for shame before the judgment of future
generations,whosetongueitwillnolongerbepossibletostopby
protectivelaws,etc.,andwhichthereforewillsaywhattodayall
ofusknowtobetrue,towit,thatbrainsandvirtueinourmodern
Germanleadersareinverselyproportionatetotheirvicesandthe
sizeoftheirmouths.
Tobesure,themonarchyhadgrownalientomany,tothebroad
massesaboveall.Thiswastheconsequenceofthefactthatthe
monarchswerenotalwayssurroundedbythebrightesttoputit
mildlyandaboveallnotbythesincerestminds.Unfortunately,a
number of them liked fiatterers better than straightforward
natures,andconsequentlyitwasthefiattererswho'instructed'
them.Averygraveevilatatimewhenmanyoftheworld'sold
opinionshadundergoneagreatchange,spreadingnaturallyto
theestimationinwhichmanyoldestablished traditionsof the
courtswereheld.
Thus,attheturnofthecenturythecommonmaninthestreet
couldnolongerfindanyspecialadmirationfortheprincesswho
rodealongthefrontinuniform.Apparentlythoseinauthority
wereincapableofcorrectlyjudgingtheeffectofsuchaparadein
the eyes of the people, for if they had, such unfortunate
performanceswoulddoubtlessnothaveoccurred.Moreover,the
humanitarianbilgenotalwaysentirelysincerethatthesecircles
went in for repelled more than it attracted. If, for example,
PrincessXcondescendedtotasteasampleoffoodinapeople's
kitchen,informerdaysitmighthavelookedwell,butnowthe
resultwastheopposite.WemaybejustifiedinassumingthatHer
Highnessreallyhadnoideathatthefoodonthedayshesampled
itwasalittledifferentfromwhatitusuallywas;butitwasquite
enoughthatthepeopleknewit.

Thus,whatmaypossiblyhavebeenthebestintentionbecame
ridiculous,ifnotactuallyirritating.
Storiesaboutthemonarch'sproverbialfrugality,hismuchtoo
earlyrisingandhisslavingawayuntillateintothenight,amid
the permanent peril of threatening undernourishment, aroused
verydubiouscomments.Peopledidnotasktoknowwhatfood
andhowmuchofitthemonarchdeignedtoconsume;theydid
notbegrudgehima'square'meal;norweretheyouttodeprive
himofthesleepheneeded;theyweresatisfiedifinotherthings,
asamanandcharacter,hewasanhonortothenameofhishouse
andtothenation,andifhefulfilledhisdutiesasaruler.Telling
fairytaleshelpedlittle,butdidallthemoreharm.
Thisandmanysimilarthingsweremeretrifles,however.What
had a worse effect on sections of the nation, that were
unfortunately very large, was the mounting conviction that
peoplewereruledfromthetopnomatterwhathappened,and
that, therefore, the individual had no need to bother about
anything.Aslongasthegovernmentwasreallygood,oratleast
hadthebestintentions,thiswasbearable.Butwoebetideifthe
old government whose intentions were after all good were
replacedbyanewonewhichwasnotsodecent;thenspineless
compliance and childlike faith were the gravest calamity that
couldbeconceivedof.
But along with these and many other weaknesses, there were
unquestionableassets.
Foronething,thestabilityoftheentirestateleadership,brought
about by the monarchic form of state and the removal of the
higheststatepostsfromthewelterofspeculationbyambitious
politicians.Furthermore,thedignityoftheinstitutionassuchand
theauthoritywhichthisalonecreated:likewisetheraisingofthe
civilserviceandparticularlythearmyabovethelevelofparty
obligations.Onemoreadvantagewasthepersonalembodiment
ofthestate'ssummitinthemonarchasaperson,andtheexample
ofresponsibilitywhichisboundtobestrongerinamonarchthan
in the accidental rabble of a parliamentary majoritythe
proverbial incorruptibility of the German administration could

primarilybeattributedtothis.Finally,theculturalvalueofthe
monarchyfortheGermanpeoplewashighandcouldverywell
compensateforotherdrawbacks.TheGermancourtcitieswere
stilltherefugeofanartisticstateofmind,whichisincreasingly
threatening to die out in our materialistic times. What the
German princes did for art and science, particularly in the
nineteenth century, was exemplary. The present period inany
casecannotbecomparedwithit.
Asthegreatestcreditfactor,however,inthisperiodofincipient
andslowlyspreadingdecompositionofournation,wemustnote
thearmy.ItwasthemightiestschooloftheGermannation,and
notfornothingwasthehatredofallourenemiesdirectedagainst
this buttress of national freedom and independence. No more
gloriousmonument canbededicatedtothisuniqueinstitution
than a statement of the truth that it was slandered, hated,
combated,andalsofearedbyallinferiorpeoples.Thefactthat
therageoftheinternationalexploitersofourpeopleinVersailles
wasdirectedprimarilyagainsttheoldGermanarmypermitsusto
recognizeitasthebastionofournationalfreedomagainstthe
powerofthestockexchange.Withoutthiswarningpower,the
intentionsofVersailleswouldlongsincehavebeencarriedout
againstourpeople.WhattheGermanpeopleowestothearmy
canbebrieflysummedupinasingleword,towit:everything.
Thearmytrainedmenforunconditionalresponsibilityatatime
whenthisqualityhadgrownrareandevasionofitwasbecoming
more and more the order of the day, starting with the model
prototypeofallirresponsibility,theparliament;ittrainedmenin
personalcourageinanagewhencowardicethreatenedtobecome
aragingdiseaseandthespiritofsacrifice,thewillingnesstogive
oneself for the general welfare, was looked on almost as
stupidity,andtheonlymanregardedasintelligentwastheone
whobestknewhowtoindulgeandadvancehisownego.itwas
theschoolthatstilltaughttheindividualGermannottoseekthe
salvation of the nationinlying phrases about aninternational
brotherhoodbetweenNegroes,Germans,Chinese,French,etc.,
butintheforceandsolidarityofourownnation.
The army trained men in resolution while elsewhere in life

indecisionanddoubtwerebeginningtodeterminetheactionsof
men.Inanagewheneverywheretheknowitallsweresetting
thetone,itmeantsomethingtoupholdtheprinciplethatsome
commandisalwaysbetterthannone.Inthissoleprinciplethere
wasstillanunspoiledrobusthealthwhichwouldlongsincehave
disappearedfromtherestofourlifeifthearmyanditstraining
hadnotprovidedacontinuousrenewalofthisprimalforce.We
need only see the terrible indecision of the Reich's present
leaders,whocansummonuptheenergyfornoactionunlessitis
theforcedsigningofanewdecreeforplunderingthepeople;in
thiscase,tobesure,theyrejectallresponsibilityandwiththe
agilityofacourtstenographersigneverythingthatanyonemay
seefittoputbeforethem.Inthiscasethedecisioniseasytotake;
foritisdictated.
Thearmytrainedmeninidealismanddevotiontothefatherland
anditsgreatnesswhileeverywhereelsegreedandmaterialism
hadspreadabroad.Iteducatedasinglepeopleincontrasttothe
divisionintoclassesandinthisperhapsitssolemistakewasthe
institutionofvoluntaryoneyearenlistment.Amistake,because
through it the principle of unconditional equality was broken,
andthemanwithhighereducationwasremovedfromthesetting
ofhisgeneralenvironment,whilepreciselytheexactopposite
would have been advantageous. In view of the great
unworldlinessofourupperclassesandtheirconstantlymounting
estrangement from their own people, the army could have
exertedaparticularlybeneficialeffectifinitsownranks,atleast,
it had avoided any segregation of the socalled intelligentsia.
Thatthiswasnotdonewasamistake;butwhatinstitutioninthis
worldmakesnomistakes?Inthisone,atanyrate,thegoodwas
so predominant that the few weaknesses lay far beneath the
averagedegreeofhumanimperfection.
ItmustbeattributedtothearmyoftheoldReichasitshighest
merit that at a time when heads were generally counted by
majorities,itplacedheadsabovethemajority.Confrontedwith
theJewishdemocraticideaofablindworshipofnumbers,the
armysustainedbeliefinpersonality.Andthusittrainedwhatthe
new epoch most urgently needed: men. In the morass of a

universally spreading softening and effeminization, each year


three hundred and fifty thousand vigorous young men sprang
fromtheranksofthearmy,menwhointheirtwoyears'training
hadlostthesoftnessofyouthandachievedbodieshardassteel.
Theyoungmanwhopracticedobedienceduringthistimecould
thenlearntocommand.Byhisverystepyoucouldrecognizethe
soldierwhohaddonehisservice.
ThiswasthehighestschooloftheGermannation,anditwas
notfornothingthatthebitteresthatredofthosewhofromenvy
andgreedneededanddesiredtheimpotenceoftheReichandthe
defenselessnessofitscitizenswasconcentratedonitWhatmany
Germansintheirblindnessorillwilldidnotwanttoseewas
recognizedby the foreign world: the German army was the
mightiestweaponservingthefreedomoftheGermannationand
thesustenanceofitschildren.
Thethirdintheleague,alongwiththestateformandthearmy,
wastheincomparablecivilserviceoftheoldReich.
Germanywasthebestorganizedandbestadministeredcountry
in the world. The German government official might well be
accusedofbureaucraticredtape,butintheothercountriesthings
werenobetterinthisrespect;theywereworse.Butwhatthe
othercountriesdidnotpossesswasthewonderfulsolidityofthis
apparatusandtheincorruptiblehonestyofitsmembers.Itwas
better to be a little oldfashioned, but honest and loyal, than
enlightenedandmodern,butofinferiorcharacterand,asisoften
seentoday,ignorantandincompetent.Foriftodaypeopleliketo
pretendthattheGermanadministrationofthepreWarperiod,
thoughbureaucraticallysound,wasbadfromabusinesspointof
view,onlythefollowinganswercanbegiven:whatcountryin
theworldhadaninstitutionbetterdirectedandbetterorganized
in a business sense than Germany's state railways? It was
reserved to the revolution to go on wrecking this exemplary
apparatusuntilatlastitseemedripeforbeingtakenoutofthe
handsofthenationandsocializedaccordingtothelightsofthis
Republic'sfounders;inotherwords,madetoserveinternational
stockexchangecapital,thepowerbehindtheGermanrevolution.

What especially distinguished the German civil service and


administrative apparatus was their independence from the
individualgovernmentswhosepassingpoliticalviewscouldhave
no effect on the job of German civil servant. Since the
revolution, it must be admitted, this has completely changed.
Abilityandcompetencewerereplacedbypartytiesandaself
reliant,independentcharacterbecamemoreofahindrancethana
help.
Thestateform,thearmy.andthecivilserviceformedthebasis
fortheoldReich'swonderfulpowerandstrength.Thesefirstand
foremostwerethereasonsforaqualitywhichistotallylackingin
thepresentdaystate:state'sauthority!Forthisisnotbasedon
bullsessionsinparliamentsorprovincialdiets,oronlawsforits
protection,or courtsentences tofrightenthosewhoinsolently
denyit,etc.,butonthegeneralconfidencewhichmayandcanbe
placedintheleadershipandadministrationofacommonwealth.
Thisconfidence,inturn,resultsonlyfromanunshakableinner
faith in the selflessness and honesty of the government and
administrationofacountryandfromanagreementbetweenthe
spiritofthelawsandthegeneralethicalview.Forinthelongrun
government systems are not maintained by the pressure of
violence,butbyfaithintheirsoundnessandinthe.truthfulness
withwhichtheyrepresentandadvancetheinterestsofapeople.
Gravely as certain evils of the preWar period corroded and
threatenedtounderminetheinnerstrengthofthenation,itmust
not be forgotten that other states suffered even more than
Germanyfrommostoftheseailmentsandyetinthecriticalhour
ofdangerdidnotnagandperish.Butifweconsiderthatthe
GermanweaknessesbeforetheWarwerebalancedbyequally
greatstrengths,theultimatecauseofthecollapsecanandmust
lieinadifferentfield;andthisisactuallythecase.
ThedeepestandultimatereasonforthedeclineoftheoldReich
lay in its failure to recognize the racial problem and its
importanceforthehistoricaldevelopmentofpeoples.Forevents
in the lives of peoples are not expressions of chance, but
processesrelatedtotheselfpreservationandpropagationofthe
speciesandtheraceandsubjecttothelawsofNature,evenif

peoplearenotconsciousoftheinnerreasonfortheiractions.

Chapter 11:

Nation and Race


Therearesometruthswhicharesoobviousthatforthisvery
reasontheyarenotseenoratleastnotrecognizedbyordinary
people.Theysometimespassbysuchtruismsasthoughblind
andaremostastonishedwhensomeonesuddenlydiscoverswhat
everyonereallyoughttoknow.Columbus'seggsliearoundby
thehundreds of thousands, butColumbuses are metwithless
frequently.
Thus men without exception wander about in the garden of
Nature;theyimaginethattheyknowpracticallyeverythingand
yetwithfewexceptionspassblindlybyoneofthemostpatent
principlesofNature'srule:theinnersegregationofthespeciesof
alllivingbeingsonthisearth.
Even the most superficial observation shows that Nature's
restricted form of propagation and increase is an almost rigid
basiclawofalltheinnumerableformsofexpressionofhervital
urge. Every animal mates only with a member of the same
species.Thetitmouseseeksthetitmouse,thefinchthefinch,the
storkthestork,thefieldmousethefieldmouse,thedormousethe
dormouse,thewolftheshewolf,etc.
Only unusual circumstances can change this, primarily the
compulsion of captivity or any other cause that makes it
impossible to mate within the same species. But then Nature
beginstoresistthiswithallpossiblemeans,andhermostvisible
protestconsistseitherinrefusingfurthercapacityforpropagation
tobastardsorinlimitingthefertilityoflateroffspring;inmost
cases,however,shetakesawaythepowerofresistancetodisease
orhostileattacks.

Thisisonlytoonatural.
Any crossing of two beings not at exactly the same level
producesamediumbetweenthelevelofthetwoparents.This
means:theoffspringwillprobablystandhigherthantheracially
lowerparent,butnotashighasthehigherone.Consequently,it
willlatersuccumbinthestruggleagainstthehigherlevel.Such
matingiscontrarytothewillofNatureforahigherbreedingof
all life. The precondition for this does not lie in associating
superiorandinferior,butinthetotalvictoryoftheformer.The
stronger must dominate and not blend with the weaker, thus
sacrificinghisowngreatness.Onlythebornweaklingcanview
thisascruel,butheafterallisonlyaweakandlimitedman;for
ifthislawdidnotprevail,anyconceivablehigherdevelopment
oforganiclivingbeingswouldbeunthinkable.
Theconsequenceofthisracialpurity,universallyvalidinNature,
isnotonlythesharpoutwarddelimitationofthevariousraces,
buttheiruniformcharacterinthemselves.Thefoxisalwaysa
fox,thegooseagoose,thetigeratiger,etc.,andthedifference
can lie at most in the varying measure of force, strength,
intelligence, dexterity, endurance, etc., of the individual
specimens.Butyouwillneverfindafoxwhoinhisinnerattitude
might,forexample,showhumanitariantendenciestowardgeese,
as similarly there is no cat with a friendly inclination toward
mice.
Therefore,here,too,thestruggleamongthemselvesarisesless
frominneraversionthanfromhungerandlove.Inbothcases,
Naturelooksoncalmly,withsatisfaction,infact.Inthestruggle
for daily bread all those who are weak and sickly or less
determined succumb, while the struggle of the males for the
femalegrantstherightoropportunitytopropagateonlytothe
healthiest. And struggle is always a means for improving a
species'healthandpowerofresistanceand,therefore,acauseof
itshigherdevelopment.
Iftheprocessweredifferent,allfurtherandhigherdevelopment
wouldceaseandtheoppositewouldoccur.For,sincetheinferior
alwayspredominatesnumericallyoverthebest,ifbothhadthe

samepossibilityofpreservinglifeandpropagating,theinferior
wouldmultiplysomuchmorerapidlythatintheendthebest
would inevitably be driven into the background, unless a
correctionofthisstateofaffairswereundertaken.Naturedoes
just this by subjecting the weaker part to such severe living
conditionsthatbythemalonethenumberislimited,andbynot
permittingtheremaindertoincreasepromiscuously,butmaking
anewandruthlesschoiceaccordingtostrengthandhealth.
NomorethanNaturedesiresthematingofweakerwithstronger
individuals,evenlessdoesshedesiretheblendingofahigher
withalowerrace,since,ifshedid,herwholeworkofhigher
breeding,overperhapshundredsofthousandsofyears,nightbe
ruinedwithoneblow.
Historical experience offers countless proofs of this. It shows
withterrifyingclaritythatineveryminglingofAryanbloodwith
that of lower peoples the result was the end of the cultured
people.NorthAmerica,whosepopulationconsistsinbyfarthe
largestpartofGermanicelementswhomixedbutlittlewiththe
lowercoloredpeoples,showsadifferenthumanityandculture
fromCentralandSouthAmerica,wherethepredominantlyLatin
immigrantsoftenmixedwiththeaboriginesonalargescale.By
this one example, we can clearly and distinctly recognize the
effect of racial mixture. The Germanic inhabitant of the
American continent, who has remained racially pure and
unmixed,rosetobemasterofthecontinent;hewillremainthe
masteraslongashedoesnotfallavictimtodefilementofthe
blood.
Theresultofallracialcrossingisthereforeinbriefalwaysthe
following:
*Loweringofthelevelofthehigherrace;*Physical
andintellectualregressionandhencethebeginningof
aslowlybutsurelyprogressingsickness.
Tobringaboutsuchadevelopmentis,then,nothingelsebutto
sinagainstthewilloftheeternalcreator.
Andasasinthisactisrewarded.

WhenmanattemptstorebelagainsttheironlogicofNature,he
comesintostrugglewiththeprinciplestowhichhehimselfowes
hisexistenceasaman.AndthisattackImustleadtohisown
doom.
Here, of course, we encounter the objection of the modern
pacifist,astrulyJewishinitseffronteryasitisstupid!'Man's
roleistoovercomeNature!'
MillionsthoughtlesslyparrotthisJewishnonsenseandendupby
really imagining that they themselves represent a kind of
conqueror of Nature; though in this they dispose of no other
weaponthananidea,andatthatsuchamiserableone,thatifit
weretruenoworldatallwouldbeconceivable.
Butquiteasidefromthefactthatmanhasneveryetconquered
Natureinanything,butatmosthascaughtholdofandtriedtolift
oneor another corner of herimmensegiganticveilofeternal
riddlesandsecrets,thatinrealityheinventsnothingbutonly
discoverseverything,thathedoesnotdominateNature,buthas
onlyrisenonthebasis of hisknowledgeofvariouslawsand
secretsofNaturetobelordoverthoseotherlivingcreatureswho
lack this knowledgequite aside from all this, an idea cannot
overcomethe preconditions for the development andbeing of
humanity,sincetheideaitselfdepends onlyonman.Without
humanbeingsthereisnohumanideainthisworld,thereforethe
ideaas suchis always conditionedbythepresence of human
beingsandhenceofallthelawswhichcreatedtheprecondition
fortheirexistence.
Andnotonlythat!Certainideasareeventiedupwithcertain
men. This applies most of all to those ideas whose content
originates,notinanexactscientifictruth,butintheworldof
emotion,or,asitissobeautifullyandclearlyexpressedtoday,
reflectsan'innerexperience.'Alltheseideas,whichhavenothing
todowithcoldlogicassuch,butrepresentonlypureexpressions
offeeling,ethicalconceptions,etc.,arechainedtotheexistence
of men, to whose intellectual imagination and creative power
theyowetheirexistence.Preciselyinthiscasethepreservation
of these definite races and men is the precondition for the

existenceoftheseideas.Anyone,forexample,whoreallydesired
thevictoryofthepacifisticideainthisworldwithallhisheart
wouldhavetofightwithallthemeansathisdisposalforthe
conquestoftheworldbytheGermans;for,iftheoppositeshould
occur,thelastpacifistwoulddieoutwiththelastGerman,since
the rest of the world has never fallen so deeply as our own
people,unfortunately,hasforthisnonsensesocontrarytoNature
andreason.Then,ifwewereserious,whetherwelikeditornot,
wewouldhavetowagewarsinordertoarriveatpacifism.This
andnothingelsewaswhatWilson,theAmericanworldsavior,
intended, or so at least our German visionaries believedand
therebyhispurposewasfulfilled.
In actual fact the pacifistichumane idea is perfectly all right
perhapswhenthehighesttypeofmanhaspreviouslyconquered
andsubjectedtheworldtoanextentthatmakeshimthesoleruler
ofthisearth.Thenthisidealacksthepowerofproducingevil
effectsinexactproportionasitspracticalapplicationbecomes
rareandfinallyimpossible.Therefore,firststruggleandthenwe
shallseewhatcanbedone.lOtherwisemankindhaspassedthe
highpointofitsdevelopmentandtheendisnotthedomination
ofanyethicalideabutbarbarismandconsequentlychaos.Atthis
pointsomeoneorothermaylaugh,butthisplanetoncemoved
throughtheetherformillionsofyearswithouthumanbeingsand
itcandosoagainsomedayifmenforgetthattheyowetheir
higherexistence,nottotheideasofafewcrazyideologists,but
totheknowledgeandruthlessapplicationofNature'ssternand
rigidlaws.
Everything we admire on this earth todayscience and art,
technologyandinventionsisonlythecreativeproductofafew
peoplesandoriginallyperhapsofonerace.Onthemdependsthe
existenceofthiswholeculture.Iftheyperish,thebeautyofthis
earthwillsinkintothegravewiththem.
However much the soil, for example, can influence men, the
resultoftheinfluencewillalwaysbedifferentdependingonthe
racesinquestion.Thelowfertilityofalivingspacemayspurthe
oneracetothehighestachievements;inothersitwillonlybethe
causeofbitterestpovertyandfinalundernourishmentwithallits

consequences.Theinnernatureofpeoplesisalwaysdetermining
for themanner inwhichoutwardinfluences willbeeffective.
Whatleadstheonetostarvationtrainstheothertohardwork.
Allgreatculturesofthepastperishedonlybecausetheoriginally
creativeracediedoutfrombloodpoisoning.
Theultimatecauseofsuchadeclinewastheirforgettingthatall
culture depends on men and not conversely; hence that to
preserve a certain culture the man who creates it must be
preserved.Thispreservationisboundupwiththerigidlawof
necessityandtherighttovictoryofthebestandstrongerinthis
world.
Thosewhowanttolive,letthemfight,andthosewhodonot
wanttofightinthisworldofeternalstruggledonotdeserveto
live.
Evenifthiswerehardthatishowitis!Assuredly,howeverby
fartheharderfateisthatwhichstrikesthemanwhothinkshe
canovercomeNature,butinthelastanalysisonlymocksher.
Distress,misfortune,anddiseasesareheranswer.
Themanwhomisjudgesanddisregardstheraciallawsactually
forfeitsthehappinessthatseemsdestinedtobehis.Hethwarts
the triumphal march of the best race and hence also the
precondition for all human progress, and remains, in
consequence burdened with all the sensibility of man, in the
animalrealmofhelplessmisery.
It is idle to argue which race or races were the original
representativeofhumancultureandhencetherealfoundersofall
thatwesumupundertheword'humanity.'Itissimplertoraise
thisquestionwithregardtothepresent,andhereaneasy,clear
answer results. All the human culture, all the results of art,
science,andtechnologythatweseebeforeustoday,arealmost
exclusively the creative product of the Aryan. This very fact
admits of the not unfounded inference that he alone was the
founder of all higher humanity, therefore representing the
prototypeofallthatweunderstandbytheword'man.'Heisthe
Prometheusofmankindfromwhosebrightforeheadthedivine
sparkofgeniushassprungatalltimes,foreverkindlinganew

that fire of knowledge which illumined the night of silent


mysteriesandthuscausedmantoclimbthepathtomasteryover
theotherbeingsofthisearth.Excludehimandperhapsaftera
few thousand years darkness will again descend on the earth,
humanculturewillpass,andtheworldturntoadesert.
Ifweweretodividemankindintothreegroups,thefoundersof
culture,thebearersofculture,thedestroyersofculture,onlythe
Aryan could be considered as the representative of the first
group. From him originate the foundations and walls of all
human creation, and only the outward form and color are
determined by the changing traits of character of the various
peoples.Heprovidesthemightiestbuildingstonesandplansfor
allhumanprogress andonlytheexecutioncorrespondstothe
nature of the varying men and races. In a few decades, for
example, the entire east of Asia will possess a culture whose
ultimate foundation will be Hellenic spirit and Germanic
technology,justasmuchasinEurope.Onlytheoutwardformin
partatleastwillbearthefeaturesofAsiaticcharacter.Itisnot
true,assomepeoplethink,thatJapanaddsEuropeantechnology
toitsculture;no,Europeanscienceandtechnologyaretrimmed
withJapanesecharacteristics.Thefoundationofactuallifeisno
longerthespecialJapaneseculture,althoughitdeterminesthe
color of lifebecause outwardly, in consequence of its inner
difference, it is more conspicuous to the Europeanbut the
gigantic scientifictechnical achievements of Europe and
America;thatis,ofAryanpeoples.Onlyonthebasisofthese
achievements can the Orient follow general human progress.
They furnish the basis of the struggle for daily bread, create
weaponsandimplementsforit,andonlytheoutwardformis
graduallyadaptedtoJapanesecharacter.
IfbeginningtodayallfurtherAryaninfluenceonJapanshould
stop,assumingthatEuropeandAmericashouldperish,Japan's
presentriseinscienceandtechnologymightcontinueforashort
time;buteveninafewyearsthewellwoulddryup,theJapanese
specialcharacterwouldgain,butthepresentculturewouldfreeze
and sink back into the slumber from which it was awakened
sevendecadesagobythewaveofAryanculture.Therefore,just

as the present Japanese development owes its life to Aryan


origin,longagointhegraypastforeigninfluenceandforeign
spiritawakenedtheJapanesecultureofthattime.Thebestproof
ofthisisfurnishedbythefactofitssubsequentsclerosisand
total petrifaction. This can occur in a people only when the
originalcreativeracialnucleushasbeenlost,oriftheexternal
influencewhichfurnishedtheimpetusandthematerialforthe
firstdevelopmentintheculturalfieldwaslaterlacking.Butifit
iS established that a people receives the most essential basic
materialsofitsculturefromforeignraces,thatitassimilatesand
adapts them, and that then, if further external influence is
lacking, it rigidifies again and again, such a race may be
designatedasculturebearing,'butneveras'culturecreating.'An
examinationofthevariouspeoplesfromthisstandpointpointsto
the fact that practically none of them were originally culture
founding,butalmostalwaysculturebearing.
Approximately the following picture of their development
alwaysresults:
Aryan racesoften absurdly small numericallysubject foreign
peoples,andthen,stimulatedbythespeciallivingconditionsof
thenewterritory(fertility,climaticconditions,etc.)andassisted
bythemultitudeoflowertypebeingsstandingattheirdisposal
ashelpers,developtheintellectualandorganizationalcapacities
dormant within them. Often in a few millenniums or even
centuriestheycreatecultureswhichoriginallybearalltheinner
characteristics of their nature, adapted to the aboveindicated
special qualities of the soil and subjected beings. In the end,
however,theconquerorstransgressagainsttheprincipleofblood
purity,towhichtheyhadfirstadhered;theybegintomixwith
thesubjugatedinhabitantsandthusendtheirownexistence;for
the fall of man in paradise has always been followed by his
expulsion.
After athousand years and more, the last visible trace of the
formermasterpeopleisoftenseeninthelighterskincolorwhich
itsbloodleftbehindinthesubjugatedrace,andinapetrified
culturewhichithadoriginallycreated.For,oncetheactualand
spiritual conqueror lost himself in the blood of the subjected

people,thefuelforthetorchofhumanprogresswaslost!Justas,
throughthebloodoftheformermasters,thecolorpreserveda
feeblegleamintheirmemory,likewisethenightofculturallife
is gently illumined by the remaining creations of the former
lightbringers.Theyshinethroughallthereturnedbarbarismand
tooofteninspirethethoughtlessobserverofthemomentwiththe
opinionthathebeholdsthepictureofthepresentpeoplebefore
him,whereasheisonlygazingintothemirrorofthepast.
Itisthenpossiblethatsuchapeoplewillasecondtime,oreven
moreofteninthecourseofitshistory,comeintocontactwiththe
raceofthosewhooncebroughtitculture,andthememoryof
formerencounterswillnotnecessarilybepresent.Unconsciously
theremnantoftheformermasterbloodwillturntoward.thenew
arrival,andwhatwasfirstpossibleonlybycompulsioncannow
succeed through the people's own will. A new cultural wave
makesitsentranceandcontinuesuntilthosewhohavebroughtit
areagainsubmergedinthebloodofforeignpeoples.
Itwillbethetaskofafutureculturalandworldhistorytocarry
onresearchesinthislightandnottostifleintherenditionof
external facts, as is so often,unfortunately, the case with our
presenthistoricalscience.
Thismeresketchofthedevelopmentof'culturebearing'nations
givesapictureofthegrowth,oftheactivity,andthedeclineof
thetrueculturefoundersofthisearth,theAryansthemselves.
As in daily life the socalled genius requires a special cause,
indeed,oftenapositiveimpetus,tomakehimshine,likewisethe
geniusraceinthelifeofpeoples.Inthemonotonyofeveryday
lifeevensignificantmenoftenseeminsignificant,hardlyrising
above theaverage of their environment;as soon, however, as
theyareapproachedbyasituationinwhichotherslosehopeor
go astray, the genius rises manifestly from the inconspicuous
averagechild,notseldomtotheamazementofallthosewhohad
hithertoseenhiminthepettinessofbourgeoislifeandthatis
why the prophet seldom has any honor in his own country.
Nowherehavewebetteroccasiontoobservethisthaninwar.
From apparently harmless children, in difficult hours when

otherslosehope,suddenlyheroesshootupwithdeathdefying
determinationandanicycoolpresenceofmindsIfthishourof
trialhadnotcome,hardlyanyonewouldeverhaveguessedthata
youngherowashiddeninthisbeardlessboy.Itnearlyalways
takes some stimulus to bring the genius on the scene. The
hammerstroke of Fate which throws one man to the ground
suddenlystrikessteelinanother,andwhentheshellofeveryday
lifeisbroken,thepreviouslyhiddenkernelliesopenbeforethe
eyesoftheastonishedworld.Theworldthenresistsanddoesnot
wanttobelievethatthetypewhichisapparentlyidenticalwithit
issuddenlyaverydifferentbeing;aprocesswhichisrepeated
witheveryeminentsonofman.
Thoughaninventor,forexample,establisheshisfameonlyon
thedayofhisinvention,itisamistaketothinkthatgeniusas
suchenteredintothemanonlyatthishourthesparkofgenius
existsinthebrainofthetrulycreativemanfromthehourofhis
birth.Truegeniusisalwaysinbornandnevercultivated,letalone
learned.
Asalreadyemphasized,thisappliesnotonlytotheindividual
manbutalsototherace.Creativelyactivepeoplesalwayshavea
fundamentalcreativegift,evenifitshouldnotberecognizableto
theeyesofsuperficialobservers.Here,too,outwardrecognition
ispossibleonlyinconsequenceofaccomplisheddeeds,sincethe
restoftheworldisnotcapableofrecognizinggeniusinitself,
butseesonlyitsvisiblemanifestationsintheformofinventions,
discoveries,buildings,pictures,etc.;hereagainitoftentakesa
long time before the world can fight its way through to this
knowledge. Just as in the life of the outstanding individual,
genius or extraordinary ability strives for practical realization
onlywhenspurredonbyspecialoccasions,likewiseinthelifeof
nationsthecreativeforcesandcapacitieswhicharepresentcan
oftenbeexploitedonlywhendefinitepreconditionsinvite.
Weseethismostdistinctlyinconnectionwiththeracewhichhas
been and is the bearer of human cultural developmentthe
Aryans.AssoonasFateleadsthemtowardspecialconditions,
theirlatentabilitiesbegintodevelopinamoreandmorerapid
sequence and to mold themselves into tangible forms. The

cultures which they found in such cases are nearly always


decisively determined by the existing soil, the given climate,
andthesubjectedpeople.Thislastitem,tobesure,isalmostthe
mostdecisive.Themoreprimitivethetechnicalfoundationsfora
culturalactivity,themorenecessaryisthepresenceofhuman
helpers who, organizationally assembled and employed, must
replacetheforceofthemachine.Withoutthispossibilityofusing
lowerhumanbeings,theAryanwouldneverhavebeenableto
takehisfirststepstowardhisfutureculture;justaswithoutthe
helpofvarioussuitablebeastswhichheknewhowtotame,he
wouldnothavearrivedatatechnologywhichisnowgradually
permittinghimtodowithoutthesebeasts.Thesaying,'TheMoor
hasworkedoffhisdebt,theMoorcango,'unfortunatelyhasonly
too deep a meaning. For thousands of years the horse had to
servemanandhelphimlaythefoundationsofadevelopment
whichnow,inconsequenceofthemotorcar,ismakingthehorse
superfluous. In a few years his activity trill have ceased, but
withouthispreviouscollaborationmanmighthavehadahard
timegettingwhereheistoday.
Thus,fortheformationofhigherculturestheexistenceoflower
humantypeswasoneofthemostessentialpreconditions,since
theyalonewereabletocompensateforthelackoftechnicalaids
without which a higher development is not conceivable. It is
certainthatthefirstcultureofhumanitywasbasedlessonthe
tamedanimalthanontheuseoflowerhumanbeings.
Onlyaftertheenslavementofsubjectedracesdidthesamefate
strike beasts, and not the other way around, as some people
would like to think. For first the conquered warrior drew the
plowand only after him the horse. Only pacifistic fools can
regardthisasasignofhumandepravity,failingtorealizethat
thisdevelopmenthadtotakeplaceinordertoreachthepoint
where today these skypilots could force their drivel on the
world.
Theprogressofhumanityislikeclimbinganendlessladder;itis
impossibletoclimbhigherwithoutfirsttakingthelowersteps.
Thus,theAryanhadtotaketheroadtowhichrealitydirected
himandnottheonethatwouldappealtotheimaginationofa

modernpacifist.Theroadofrealityishardanddifficult,butin
theenditleadswhereourfriendwouldliketobringhumanityby
dreaming, but unfortunately removes more than bringing it
Hence it is no accident that the first cultures arose in places
where the Aryan, in his encounters with lower peoples,
subjugatedthemandbentthemtohiswill.Theythenbecamethe
firsttechnicalinstrumentintheserviceofadevelopingculture.
Thus,theroadwhichtheAryanhadtotakewasclearlymarked
outAsaconquerorhesubjectedthelowerbeingsandregulated
theirpracticalactivityunderhiscommand,accordingtohiswill
and for his aims. But in directing them to a useful, though
arduousactivity,henotonlysparedthelifeofthosehesubjected;
perhapshegavethemafatethatwasbetterthantheirprevious
socalled'freedom.'Aslongasheruthlesslyupheldthemaster
attitude, not only did he really remain master, but also the
preserver and increaser of culture. For culture was based
exclusivelyonhisabilitiesandhenceonhisactualsurvival.As
soonasthesubjectedpeoplebegantoraisethemselvesupand
probably approached the conqueror in language, the sharp
dividingwallbetweenmasterandservantfell.TheAryangave
upthepurityofhisbloodand,therefore,losthissojourninthe
paradisewhichhehadmadeforhimself.Hebecamesubmerged
in the racial mixture, and gradually, more and more, lost his
cultural capacity, until at last, not only mentally but also
physically,hebegantoresemblethesubjectedaboriginesmore
thanhisownancestors.Foratimehecouldliveontheexisting
culturalbenefits,butthenpetrifactionsetinandhefellapreyto
oblivion.
Thus cultures and empires collapsed to make place for new
formations.
Bloodmixtureandtheresultantdropintheraciallevelisthesole
causeofthedyingoutofoldcultures;formendonotperishasa
result of lost wars, but bythe loss of that force of resistance
whichiscontainedonlyinpureblood.
Allwhoarenotofgoodraceinthisworldarechaff.
Andalloccurrencesinworldhistoryareonlytheexpressionof

theraces'instinctofselfpreservation,inthegoodorbadsense.
ThequestionoftheinnercausesoftheAryan'simportancecan
beansweredtotheeffectthattheyaretobesoughtlessina
naturalinstinctofselfpreservationthaninthespecialtypeofits
expression.Thewilltolive,subjectivelyviewed,iseverywhere
equalanddifferentonlyintheformofitsactualexpression.In
the most primitive living creatures the instinct of self
preservation does not go beyond concern for their own ego.
Egoism, as we designate this urge, goes so far that it even
embraces time; the moment itself claims everything, granting
nothingtothecominghours.Inthisconditiontheanimallives
only for himself, seeks food only for his present hunger, and
fights only for his own life. As long as the instinct of self
preservationexpressesitselfinthisway,everybasisislacking
fortheformationofagroup,eventhemostprimitiveformof
family. Even a community between male and female beyond
pure mating, demands an extension of the instinct of self
preservation, since concern and struggle for the ego are now
directedtowardthesecondparty;themalesometimesseeksfood
forthefemale,too,butforthemostpartbothseeknourishment
fortheyoung.Nearlyalwaysonecomestothedefenseofthe
other, and thus the first, though infinitely simple, forms of a
senseofsacrificeresult.Assoonasthissenseextendsbeyondthe
narrowlimitsofthefamily,thebasisfortheformationoflarger
organismsandfinallyformalstatesiscreated.
Inthelowestpeoplesoftheearththisqualityispresentonlytoa
very slight extent, so that often they do not go beyond the
formationofthefamily.Thegreaterthereadinesstosubordinate
purelypersonalinterests,thehigherrisestheabilitytoestablish
comprehensivecommunities.
This selfsacrificing will to give one's personal labor and if
necessaryone'sownlifeforothersismoststronglydevelopedin
theAryan.TheAryanisnotgreatestinhismentalqualitiesas
such,butintheextentofhiswillingnesstoputallhisabilitiesin
the service of the community. In him the instinct of self
preservation has reached the noblest form, since he willingly
subordinateshisownegotothelifeofthecommunityand,ifthe

hourdemands,evensacrificesit.
NotinhisintellectualgiftsliesthesourceoftheAryan'scapacity
forcreatingandbuildingculture.Ifhehadjustthisalone,he
couldonlyactdestructively,innocasecouldheorganize;forthe
innermostessenceofallorganizationrequiresthattheindividual
renounceputtingforwardhispersonalopinionandinterestsand
sacrifice both in favor of a larger group. Only byway of this
generalcommunitydoesheagainrecoverhisshare.Now,for
example,henolongerworksdirectlyforhimself,butwithhis
activityarticulateshimselfwiththecommunity,notonlyforhis
ownadvantage,butfortheadvantageofall.Themostwonderful
elucidationof thisattitudeisprovidedbyhisword'work,'by
whichhedoesnotmeananactivityformaintaininglifeinitself,
butexclusivelyacreativeeffortthatdoesnotconflictwiththe
interests of the community. Otherwise he designates human
activity, in so far as it serves the instinct of selfpreservation
without consideration for his fellow men, as theft, usury,
robbery,burglary,etc.
Thisstateofmind,whichsubordinatestheinterestsoftheegoto
theconservationofthecommunity,isreallythefirstpremisefor
everytrulyhumanculture.Fromitalonecanariseallthegreat
worksofmankind,whichbringthefounderlittlereward,butthe
richest blessings to posterity. Yes from it alone can we
understandhowsomanyareabletobearupfaithfullyundera
scanty life which imposes on them nothing but poverty and
frugality, but gives the community the foundations of its
existence.Everyworker,everypeasant,everyinventor,official,
etc.,whoworkswithouteverbeingabletoachieveanyhappiness
orprosperityforhimself,isarepresentativeofthisloftyidea,
evenifthedeepermeaningofhisactivityremainshiddeninhim.
Whatappliestoworkasthefoundationofhumansustenanceand
all human progress is true to an even greater degree for the
defenseofmanandhisculture.Ingivingone'sownlifeforthe
existence of the community lies the crown of all sense of
sacrifice.Itisthisalonethatpreventswhathumanhandshave
builtfrombeingoverthrownbyhumanhandsordestroyedbat
Nature.

Our own German language possesses a word which


magnificently designates this kind of activity: Pflichterfullung
(fulfillment of duty); it means not to be selfsufficient but to
servethecommunity.
The basic attitude from which such activity arises, we callto
distinguishitfromegoismandselfishnessidealism.Bythiswe
understandonlytheindividual'scapacitytomakesacrificesfor
thecommunity,forhisfellowmen.
How necessary it is to keep realizing that idealism does not
representasuperfluousexpressionofemotion,butthatintruthit
hasbeen,is,andwillbe,thepremiseforwhatwedesignateas
humanculture,yes,thatitalonecreatedtheconceptof'man'Itis
to this inner attitude that the Aryan owes his position in this
world,andtoittheworldowesman;foritaloneformedfrom
purespiritthecreativeforcewhich,byauniquepairingofthe
brutalfistandtheintellectualgenius,createdthemonumentsof
humanculture.
Without his idealistic attitude all, even the most dazzling
faculties of the intellect, would remain mere intellect as such
outward appearance without inner value, and never creative
force.
But,sincetrueidealismisnothingbutthesubordinationofthe
interestsandlifeoftheindividualtothecommunity,andthisin
turnisthepreconditionforthecreationoforganizationalforms
ofallkinds,itcorrespondsinitsinnermostdepthstotheultimate
willofNature.Italoneleadsmentovoluntaryrecognitionofthe
privilegeofforceandstrength,andthusmakesthemintoadust
particleofthatorderwhichshapesandformsthewholeuniverse.
Thepurestidealismisunconsciouslyequivalenttothedeepest
knowledge.
Howcorrectthisis,andhowlittletrueidealismhastodowith
playfulflightsoftheimagination,canbeseenatonceifwelet
theunspoiledchild,ahealthyboy,forexample,judge.Thesame
boywhofeelslikethrowingupIwhenhehearsthetiradesofa
pacifist'idealist'isreadytogivehisyounglifefortheidealofhis
nationality.

Heretheinstinctofknowledgeunconsciouslyobeysthedeeper
necessityofthepreservationofthespecies,ifnecessaryatthe
cost of the individual, and protests against the visions of the
pacifistwindbagwhoinrealityisnothingbutacowardly,though
camouflaged,egoist,transgressingthelawsofdevelopment;for
developmentrequireswillingnessonthepartoftheindividualto
sacrifice himself for the community, and not the sickly
imaginingsofcowardlyknowitallsandcriticsofNature.
Especially,therefore,attimeswhentheidealattitudethreatensto
disappear,wecanatoncerecognizeadiminutionofthatforce
which forms the community and thus creates the premises of
culture.Assoonasegoismbecomestherulerofapeople,the
bands of order are loosened and in the chase after their own
happinessmenfallfromheavenintoarealhell.
Yes,evenposterityforgetsthemenwhohaveonlyservedtheir
ownadvantageandpraisestheheroeswhohaverenouncedtheir
ownhappiness.
ThemightiestcounterparttotheAryanisrepresentedbytheJew.
In hardly any people in the world is the instinct of self
preservation developed more strongly than in the socalled
'chosen.'Ofthis,themerefactofthesurvivalofthisracemaybe
consideredthebestproof.Whereisthepeoplewhichinthelast
two thousand years has been exposed to so slight changes of
inner disposition, character, etc., as the Jewish people? What
people,finally,hasgonethroughgreaterupheavalsthanthisone
and nevertheless issued from the mightiest catastrophes of
mankindunchanged?Whataninfinitelytoughwilltoliveand
preservethespeciesspeaksfromthesefacts!
ThementalqualitiesoftheJewhavebeenschooledinthecourse
of many centuries. Today he passes as 'smart,' and this in a
certainsensehehasbeenatalltimes.Buthisintelligenceisnot
the result of his own development, but of visual instruction
throughforeigners.Forthehumanmindcannotclimbtothetop
withoutsteps;foreverystepupwardheneedsthefoundationof
thepast,andthisinthecomprehensivesenseinwhichitcanbe
revealedonlyingeneralculture.Allthinkingisbasedonlyin

small part on man's own knowledge, and mostly on the


experienceofthetimethathaspreceded.Thegeneralcultural
levelprovidestheindividualman,withouthisnoticingitasa
rule,withsuchaprofusionofpreliminaryknowledgethat,thus
armed,hecanmoreeasilytakefurtherstepsofhisown.Theboy
oftoday,forexample,growsupamongatrulyvastnumberof
technicalacquisitionsofthelastcenturies,sothathetakesfor
granted and no longer pays attention to much that a hundred
yearsagowasariddletoeventhegreatestminds,althoughfor
followingandunderstandingourprogressinthefieldinquestion
itisofdecisiveimportancetohim.Ifaverygeniusfromthe
twenties of the past century should suddenly leave his grave
today,itwouldbeharderforhimevenintellectuallytofindhis
wayinthepresenterathanforanaverageboyoffifteentoday.
Forhewouldlackalltheinfinitepreliminaryeducationwhich
ourpresentcontemporaryunconsciously,sotospeak,assimilates
while growing up amidst the manifestations of our present
generalcivilization.
SincetheJewforreasonswhichwillatoncebecomeapparent
wasneverinpossessionofacultureofhisown,thefoundations
of his intellectual work were always provided by others. His
intellect at all times developed through the cultural world
surroundinghim.
Thereverseprocessnevertookplace.
For if the Jewish people's instinct of selfpreservation is not
smallerbutlargerthanthatofotherpeoples,ifhisintellectual
facultiescaneasilyarousetheimpressionthattheyareequalto
theintellectualgiftsofotherraces,helackscompletelythemost
essentialrequirementforaculturedpeople,theidealisticattitude.
IntheJewishpeoplethewilltoselfsacrificedoesnotgobeyond
the individual's naked instinct of selfpreservation. Their
apparentlygreatsenseofsolidarityisbasedontheveryprimitive
herdinstinctthatisseeninmanyotherlivingcreaturesinthis
world. It is a noteworthy fact that the herd instinct leads to
mutual support only as long as a common danger makes this
seemusefulorinevitable.Thesamepackofwolveswhichhas

justfallenonitspreytogetherdisintegrateswhenhungerabates
intoitsindividualbeasts.Thesameistrueofhorseswhichtryto
defend themselves against an assailant in a body, but scatter
againassoonasthedangerispast.
ItissimilarwiththeJew.Hissenseofsacrificeisonlyapparent.
Itexistsonlyaslongastheexistenceoftheindividualmakesit
absolutelynecessary.However,assoonasthecommonenemyis
conquered, the danger threatening all averted and the booty
hidden, the apparent harmony of the Jews among themselves
ceases,againmakingwayfortheiroldcausaltendencies.The
Jewisonlyunitedwhenacommondangerforceshimtobeora
commonbootyenticeshim;ifthesetwogroundsarelacking,the
qualitiesofthecrassestegoismcomeintotheirown,andinthe
twinklingofaneyetheunitedpeopleturnsintoahordeofrats,
fightingbloodilyamongthemselves.
IftheJewswerealoneinthisworld,theywouldstifleinfilthand
offal;theywouldtrytogetaheadofoneanotherinhatefilled
struggleandexterminateoneanother,insofarastheabsolute
absenceofallsenseof selfsacrifice,expressing itself intheir
cowardice,didnotturnbattleintocomedyheretoo.
Soitisabsolutelywrongtoinferanyidealsenseofsacrificein
theJewsfromthefactthattheystandtogetherinstruggle,or,
betterexpressed,intheplunderingoftheirfellowmen.
HereagaintheJewisledbynothingbutthenakedegoismofthe
individual.
ThatiswhytheJewishstatewhichshouldbethelivingorganism
forpreservingandincreasingaraceiscompletelyunlimitedasto
territory.Forastateformationtohaveadefinitespatialsetting
alwayspresupposesanidealisticattitudeonthepartofthestate
race, and especially a correct interpretation of the concept of
work.Intheexactmeasureinwhichthisattitudeislacking,any
attemptatforming,evenofpreserving,aspatiallydelimitedstate
fails. And thus the basis on which alone culture can arise is
lacking.
Hence the Jewish people, despite all apparent intellectual
qualities,iswithoutanytrueculture,andespeciallywithoutany

culture of its own. For what sham culture the Jew today
possessesisthepropertyofotherpeoples,andforthemostpartit
isruinedinhishands.
InjudgingtheJewishpeople'sattitudeonthequestionofhuman
culture,themostessentialcharacteristicwemustalwaysbearin
mindisthattherehasneverbeenaJewishartandaccordingly
thereisnonetodayeither;thataboveallthetwoqueensofallthe
arts,architectureandmusic,owenothingoriginaltotheJews.
Whattheydoaccomplishinthefieldofartiseitherpatchworkor
intellectual theft. Thus, the Jew lacks those qualities which
distinguish the races that are creative and hence culturally
blessed.
TowhatanextenttheJewtakesoverforeignculture,imitatingor
ratherruiningit,canbeseenfromthefactthatheismostlyfound
intheartwhichseemstorequireleastoriginalinvention,theart
of acting.Butevenhere,inreality,heisonlya'juggler,'or
ratheranape;forevenherehelacksthelasttouchthatisrequired
forrealgreatness;evenhereheisnotthecreativegenius,buta
superficialimitator,andallthetwistsandtricksthatheusesare
powerlesstoconcealtheinnerlifelessnessofhiscreativegift.
HeretheJewishpressmostlovinglyhelpshimalongbyraising
sucharoarofhosannahsabouteventhemostmediocrebungler,
justsolongasheisaJew,thattherestoftheworldactuallyends
upbythinkingthattheyhaveanartistbeforethem,whileintruth
itisonlyapitifulcomedian.
No,theJewpossessesnoculturecreatingforceofanysort,since
theidealism,withoutwhichthereisnotruehigherdevelopment
ofman,isnotpresentinhimandneverwaspresent.Hencehis
intellect will never have a constructive effect, but will be
destructive, and in very rare cases perhaps will at most be
stimulating,butthenastheprototypeofthe'forcewhichalways
wantsevilandneverthelesscreatesgood.'Notthroughhimdoes
anyprogressofmankindoccur,butinspiteofhim.
Since the Jew never possessed a state with definite territorial
limits and therefore never called a culture his own, the
conception arose that this was a people which should be

reckonedamongtheranksofthenomads.Thisisafallacyas
great asit is dangerous. The nomaddoespossess adefinitely
limitedlivingspace,onlyhedoesnotcultivateitlikeasedentary
peasant, but lives from the yield of his herds with which he
wandersaboutinhisterritory.Theoutwardreasonforthisisto
befoundinthesmallfertilityofasoilwhichsimplydoesnot
permit of settlement. The deeper cause, however, lies in the
disparitybetweenthetechnicalcultureofanageorpeopleand
the natural poverty of a living space. There are territories in
which even the Aryan is enabled only by his technology,
developedinthecourseofmorethanathousandyears,tolivein
regularsettlements,tomasterbroadstretchesofsoilandobtain
from it the requirements of life. If he did not possess this
technology, either he would have to avoid these territories or
likewise have to struggle along as a nomad in perpetual
wandering, provided that his thousandyearold education and
habit of settled residence did not make this seem simply
unbearabletohim.Wemustbearinmindthatinthetimewhen
theAmericancontinentwasbeingopenedup,numerousAryans
foughtfortheirlivelihoodastrappers,hunters,etc.,andoftenin
largertroopswithwifeandchildren,alwaysonthemove,sothat
theirexistencewascompletelylikethatofthenomads.Butas
soonastheirincreasingnumberandbetterimplementspermitted
themtoclearthewildsoilandmakeastandagainstthenatives,
moreandmoresettlementssprangupintheland.
ProbablytheAryanwasalsofirstanomad,settlinginthecourse
oftime,butforthatveryreasonhewasneveraJew!No,theJew
isnonomad;forthenomadhadalsoadefiniteattitudetoward
theconceptofworkwhichcouldserveasabasisforhislater
developmentinsofarasthenecessaryintellectualpremiseswere
present.Inhimthebasicidealisticviewispresent,evenifin
infinitedilution,henceinhiswholebeinghemayseemstrange
totheAryanpeoples,butnotunattractive.IntheJew,however,
thisattitudeisnotatallpresent;forthatreasonhewasnevera
nomad, but only and always a parasite in the body of other
peoples. That he sometimes lefthis previous livingspace has
nothingtodowithhisownpurpose,butresultsfromthefactthat

fromtimetotimehewasthrownoutbythehostnationshehad
misused.Hisspreadingisatypicalphenomenonforallparasites;
healwaysseeksanewfeedinggroundforhisrace.
This,however,hasnothingtodowithnomadism,forthereason
thataJewneverthinksofleavingaterritoryhathehasoccupied,
butremainswhereheis,andhesitssofastthatevenbyforceitis
veryhardtodrivehimout.Hisextensiontoevernewcountries
occursonlyinthemomentinwhichcertainconditionsforhis
existencearetherepresent,withoutwhichunlikethenomadhe
wouldnotchangehisresidence.Heisandremainsthetypical
parasite,aspongerwholikeanoxiousbacilluskeepsspreading
assoonasafavorablemediuminviteshim.Andtheeffectofhis
existenceisalsolikethatofspongers:whereverheappears,the
hostpeoplediesoutafterashorterorlongerperiod.
Thus,theJewofalltimeshaslivedinthestatesofotherpeoples,
and there formed his own state, which, to be sure, habitually
sailed under the disguise of 'religious community' as long as
outwardcircumstancesmadeacompleterevelationofhisnature
seem inadvisable.But assoonashefeltstrongenoughtodo
without the protective cloak, he always dropped the veil and
suddenlybecamewhatsomanyoftheotherspreviouslydidnot
wanttobelieveandsee:theJew.
TheJew'slifeasaparasiteinthebodyofothernationsandstates
explainsacharacteristicwhichoncecausedSchopenhauer,ashas
alreadybeenmentioned,tocallhimthe'greatmasterinlying.'
ExistenceimpelstheJewtoliesandtolieperpetually,justasit
compelstheinhabitantsofthenortherncountriestowearwarm
clothing.
Hislifewithinotherpeoplescanonlyendureforanylengthof
timeifhesucceedsinarousingtheopinionthatheisnota.people
buta'religiouscommunity,'thoughofaspecialsort.
Andthisisthefirstgreatlie.
Inordertocarryonhisexistenceasaparasiteonotherpeoples,
heisforcedtodenyhisinnernature.Themoreintelligentthe
individualJewis,themorehewillsucceed inthisdeception.
Indeed,thingscangosofarthatlargepartsofthehostpeople

willendbyseriouslybelievingthattheJewisreallyaFrenchman
oranEnglishman,aGermanoranItalian,thoughofaspecial
religiousfaith.Especiallystateauthorities,whichalwaysseem
animatedbythehistoricalfractionofwisdom,mosteasilyfalla
victimtothisinfinitedeception.Independentthinkingsometimes
seemstothesecirclesatruesinagainstholyadvancement,so
that we may not be surprised if even today a Bavarian state
ministry,forexample,stillhasnotthefaintestideathattheJews
aremembersofapeopleandnotofa'religion'thoughaglance
at the Jew's own newspapers should indicate this even to the
mostmodestmind.TheJewishEchoisnotyetanofficialorgan,
of course, and consequently is unauthoritative as far as the
intelligenceofoneofthesegovernmentpotentatesisconcerned.
The Jew has always been a people with definite racial
characteristicsandneverareligion;onlyinordertogetaheadhe
early sought for a means which could distract unpleasant
attention from his person. And what would have been more
expedient and at the same time more innocent than the
'embezzled' concept of a religious community? For here, too,
everythingisborrowedorratherstolen.Duetohisownoriginal
specialnature,theJewcannotpossessareligiousinstitution,if
fornootherreasonbecausehelacksidealisminanyform,and
hencebeliefinahereafterisabsolutelyforeigntohim.Anda
religionintheAryansensecannotbeimaginedwhichlacksthe
conviction of survival after death in some form. Indeed, the
Talmudisnotabooktoprepareamanforthehereafter,butonly
forapracticalandprofitablelifeinthisworld.
TheJewishreligiousdoctrineconsistsprimarilyinprescriptions
for keeping the blood of Jewry pure and for regulating the
relationofJewsamongthemselves,butevenmorewiththerest
oftheworld;inotherwords,withnonJews.Butevenhereitis
bynomeansethicalproblemsthatareinvolved,butextremely
modesteconomicones.ConcerningthemoralvalueofJewish
religiousinstruction,therearetodayandhavebeenatalltimes
rather exhaustive studies (notbyJews; thedrivelof theJews
themselvesonthesubjectis,ofcourse,adaptedtoitspurpose)
which make this kind of religion seem positively monstrous

according to Aryan conceptions. The best characterization is


provided by the product of this religious education, the Jew
himself.Hislifeisonlyofthisworld,andhisspiritisinwardlyas
alien to true Christianity as his nature two thousand years
previouswastothegreatfounderofthenewdoctrine.Ofcourse,
thelattermadenosecretofhisattitudetowardtheJewishpeople,
andwhennecessaryheeventooktothewhiptodrivefromthe
templeoftheLordthisadversaryofallhumanity,whothenas
alwayssawinreligionnothingbutaninstrumentforhisbusiness
existence. Inreturn,Christ was nailed tothe cross, while our
presentdayparty Christians debase themselves to beggingfor
Jewish votes at elections and later try to arrange political
swindleswithatheisticJewishpartiesandthisagainsttheirown
nation.
Onthisfirstandgreatestlie,thattheJewsarenotaracebuta
religion,moreandmoreliesarebasedinnecessaryconsequence.
AmongthemistheliewithregardtothelanguageoftheJew.
Forhimitisnotameansforexpressinghisthoughts,butameans
forconcealingthem.WhenhespeaksFrench,hethinksJewish,
and while he turns out German verses, in his life he only
expressesthenatureofhisnationality.AslongastheJewhasnot
become the master of the other peoples, he must speak their
languageswhetherhelikesitornot,butassoonastheybecame
his slaves, they would all have to learn a universal language
(Esperanto,forinstance!),sothatbythisadditionalmeansthe
Jewscouldmoreeasilydominatethem!
Towhatanextentthewholeexistenceofthispeopleisbasedon
acontinuouslieisshownincomparablybytheProtocolsofthe
Wise Men of Zion, so infinitely hated by the Jews. They are
basedonaforgery,theFrankfurterZeitungmoansandscreams
onceeveryweek:thebestproofthattheyareauthentic.What
manyJewsmaydounconsciouslyishereconsciouslyexposed.
Andthatiswhatmatters.Itiscompletelyindifferentfromwhat
Jewishbrainthesedisclosuresoriginate;theimportantthingis
thatwithpositivelyterrifyingcertaintytheyrevealthenatureand
activityoftheJewishpeopleandexposetheirinnercontextsas
wellastheirultimatefinalaims.Thebestcriticismappliedto

them,however,isreality.Anyonewhoexaminesthehistorical
developmentofthelasthundredyearsfromthestandpointofthis
bookwillatonceunderstandthescreamingoftheJewishpress.
Foroncethisbookhasbecomethecommonpropertyofapeople,
theJewishmenacemaybeconsideredasbroken.
ThebestwaytoknowtheJewistostudytheroadwhichhehas
taken within the body of other peoples in the course of the
centuries.Itsufficestofollowthisupinonlyoneexample,to
arrive at the necessary realizations. As his development has
alwaysandatalltimesbeenthesame,justasthatofthepeoples
corrodedbyhimhasalsobeenthesame,itisadvisableinsuchan
examination to divide his development into definite sections
which in this case for the sake of simplicity I designate
alphabetically.ThefirstJewscametoancientGermanyinthe
courseoftheadvanceoftheRomans,andasalwaystheycameas
merchants.Inthestormsofthemigrations,however,theyseem
to have disappeared again, and thus the time of the first
Germanicstateformationmaybeviewedasthebeginningofa
newandthistimelastingJewificationofCentralandNorthern
Europe.Adevelopmentsetinwhichhasalwaysbeenthesameor
similarwherevertheJewsencounteredAryanpeoples.(a)With
theappearanceofthefirstfixedsettlement,theJewissuddenly
'at hand.' He comes as a merchant and at first attaches little
importancetotheconcealmentofhisnationality.Heisstilla
Jew, partlyperhaps amongother reasons because theoutward
racialdifferencebetweenhimselfandthehostpeopleistoogreat,
hislinguisticknowledgestilltoosmall,andthecohesionofthe
hostpeopletoosharpforhimtodaretotrytoappearasanything
else than a foreign merchant. With his dexterity and the
inexperienceofhishostpeople,theretentionofhischaracterasa
Jewrepresentsnodisadvantageforhim,butratheranadvantage;
thestrangerisgivenafriendlyreception.
(b)Graduallyhebeginsslowlytobecomeactiveineconomic
life,notasaproducer,butexclusivelyasamiddleman.Withhis
thousandyearoldmercantiledexterityheisfarsuperiortothe
stillhelpless,andaboveallboundlesslyhonest,Aryans,sothatin
ashorttimecommercethreatenstobecomehismonopoly.He

beginstolendmoneyandasalwaysatusuriousinterest.Asa
matteroffact,hetherebyintroducesinterest.Thedangerofthis
new institution is not recognized at first, but because of its
momentaryadvantagesisevenwelcomed.
(c)TheJewhasnowbecomeasteadyresident;thatis,hesettles
special sections of the cities and villages and more and more
constitutesastatewithinastate.Heregardscommerceaswellas
allfinancialtransactionsashisownspecialprivilegewhichhe
ruthlesslyexploits.
(d)Financeandcommercehavebecomehiscompletemonopoly.
Hisusuriousratesofinterestfinallyarouseresistance,therestof
hisincreasingeffronteryindignation,hiswealthenvy.Thecupis
fulltooverflowingwhenhedrawsthesoilintothesphereofhis
commercialobjectsanddegradesittothelevelofacommodity
tobesoldorrathertraded.Sincehehimselfnevercultivatesthe
soil,butregardsitonlyasapropertytobeexploitedonwhichthe
peasant can well remain, though amid the most miserable
extortionsonthepartofhisnewmaster,theaversionagainsthim
gradually increases to open hatred. His bloodsucking tyranny
becomessogreatthatexcessesagainsthimoccur.Peoplebegin
tolookattheforeignermoreandmorecloselyanddiscovermore
andmorerepulsivetraitsandcharacteristicsinhimuntilthecleft
becomesunbridgeable.
Attimesofthebitterestdistress,furyagainsthimfinallybreaks
out, and the plundered and ruined masses begin to defend
themselvesagainstthescourgeofGod.Inthecourseofafew
centuriestheyhavecometoknowhim,andnowtheyfeelthat
themerefactofhisexistenceisasbadastheplague.
(e) Now the Jew begins to reveal his true qualities. With
repulsiveflatteryheapproachesthegovernments,putshismoney
towork,andinthiswayalwaysmanagestosecurenewlicenseto
plunder his victims. Even though the rage of the people
sometimesflareshighagainsttheeternalbloodsucker,itdoes
notintheleastpreventhimfromreappearinginafewyearsin
theplacehehadhardlyleftandbeginningtheoldlifeallover
again. No persecution can deter him from his type of human

exploitation,nonecandrivehimaway;aftereverypersecutionhe
isbackagaininashorttime,andjustthesameasbefore.
Topreventtheveryworst,atleast,thepeoplebegintowithdraw
thesoilfromhisusurioushandsbymakingitlegallyimpossible
forhimtoacquiresoil.
(f)Proportionatelyasthepoweroftheprincesbeginstomount,
hepushescloserandclosertothem.Hebegsfor'patents'and
'privileges,'whichthelords,alwaysinfinancialstraits,areglad
togivehimforsuitablepayment.Howevermuchthismaycost
him,herecoversthemoneyhehasspentinafewyearsthrough
interestandcompoundinterest.Atruebloodsuckerthatattaches
himselftothebodyoftheunhappypeopleandcannotbepicked
offuntiltheprincesthemselvesagainneedmoneyandwiththeir
ownexaltedhandtapoffthebloodhehassuckedfromthem.
Thisgameisrepeatedagainandagain,andinittheroleofthe
socalled'Germanprinces'isjustasmiserableasthatoftheJews
themselves.TheselordswerereallyGod'spunishmentfortheir
beloved peoples and find their parallels only in the various
ministersofthepresenttime.
ItisthankstotheGermanprincesthattheGermannationwas
unabletoredeemitselfforgoodfromtheJewishmenace.Inthis,
too, unfortunately, nothing changed as time went on; all they
obtainedfromtheJewwasthethousandfoldrewardforthesins
theyhadoncecommittedagainsttheirpeoples.Theymadeapact
withthedevilandlandedinhell.
(g)Andso,hisensnarementoftheprincesleadstotheirruin.
Slowly but surely their relation to the peoples loosens in the
measureinwhichtheyceasetoservethepeople'sinterestsand
insteadbecomemereexploitersoftheirsubjects.TheJewwell
knowswhattheirendwillbeandtriestohastenitasmuchas
possible.Hehimselfaddstotheirfinancialstraitsbyalienating
themmoreandmorefromtheirtruetasks,bycrawlingaround
themwiththevilestflattery,byencouragingtheminvices,and
thusmakinghimselfmoreandmoreindispensabletothem.With
hisdeftness,orratherunscrupulousness,inallmoneymattershe
isabletosqueeze,yes,togrind,moreandmoremoneyoutofthe

plunderedsubjects,whoinshorterandshorterintervalsgothe
way of all flesh. Thus every court has its 'court Jew'as the
monstersarecalledwhotormentthe'belovedpeople'todespair
andprepareeternalpleasuresfortheprinces.Whothencanbe
surprisedthattheseornamentsofthehumanraceendedupby
beingornamented,orratherdecorated,intheliteralsense,and
rose to the hereditary nobility, helping not only to make this
institutionridiculous,buteventopoisonit?
Now, it goes without saying, he can really make use of his
positionforhisownadvancement.
Finallyheneedsonlytohavehimselfbaptizedtopossesshimself
ofallthepossibilitiesandrightsofthenativesofthecountry.
Notseldomheconcludesthisdealtothejoyofthechurchesover
thesontheyhavewonandofIsraeloverthesuccessfulswindle.
(h)WithinJewryachangenowbeginstotakeplace.Uptillnow
they have been Jews; that is, they attach no importance to
appearingtobesomethingelse,whichtheywereunabletodo,
anyway,becauseoftheverydistinctracialcharacteristicsonboth
sides.AtthetimeofFredericktheGreatitstillenterednoone's
headtoregardtheJewasanythingelsebuta'foreign'people,and
Goethewasstillhorrifiedatthethoughtthatinfuturemarriage
betweenChristiansandJewswouldnolongerbeforbiddenby
law.AndGoethe,byGod,wasnoreactionary,letaloneahelot;I
whatspokeoutofhimwasonlythevoiceofthebloodandof
reason.Thusdespitealltheshamefulactionsofthecourtsthe
peopleinstinctivelysawintheJewaforeignelementandtooka
correspondingattitudetowardhim.
Butnowallthiswastochange.Inthecourseofmorethana
thousandyearshehaslearnedthelanguageofthehostpeopleto
suchanextentthathenowthinkshecanventureinfutureto
emphasizehisJudaismlessandplacehis'Germanism'morein
theforeground; for ridiculous, nay, insane, as itmay seem at
first,heneverthelesshastheeffronterytoturn'Germanic,'inthis
case a 'German.' With this begins one of the most infamous
deceptionsthatanyonecouldconceiveof.SinceofGermanism
hepossessesreallynothingbuttheartofstammeringitslanguage

and in the most frightful waybut apart from this has never
mixed with the Germans, his whole Germanism rests on the
languagealone.Race,however,doesnotlieinthelanguage,but
exclusively inthe blood,which nooneknowsbetter thanthe
Jew,whoattachesverylittleimportancetothepreservationof
hislanguage,butallimportancetokeepinghisbloodpure.A
mancanchangehislanguagewithoutanytroublethatis,hecan
useanotherlanguage;butinhisnewlanguagehewillexpressthe
oldideas;hisinnernatureisnotchanged.Thisisbestshownby
theJewwhocanspeakathousandlanguagesandnevertheless
remainsaJew.Histraitsofcharacterhaveremainedthesame,
whether two thousand years ago as a grain dealer in Ostia,
speaking Roman, or whether as a flour profiteer of today,
jabberingGermanwithaJewishaccent.Itisalwaysthesame
Jew.That thisobviousfactisnotunderstoodbyaministerial
secretaryorhigherpoliceofficialisalsoselfevident,forthereis
scarcelyanycreaturewithlessinstinctandintelligencerunning
around in the world today than these servants of our present
modelstateauthority.
ThereasonwhytheJewdecidessuddenlytobecomea'German'
is obvious. He feels that the power of the princes is slowly
totteringandthereforetriesatanearlytimetogetaplatform
beneath his feet. Furthermore, his financial domination of the
wholeeconomyhasadvancedsofarthatwithoutpossessionof
all'civil'rightshecannolongersupportthegiganticedifice,orat
anyrate,nofurtherincreaseofhisinfluenceispossible.Andhe
desiresbothofthese;forthehigherheclimbs,themorealluring
hisoldgoalthatwasoncepromisedhimrisesfromtheveilofthe
past,andwithfeverishavidityhiskeenestmindsseethedreamof
worlddominationtangiblyapproaching.Andsohissoleeffortis
directedtowardobtainingfullpossessionof'civil'rights.
Thisisthereasonforhisemancipationfromtheghetto.
(i)SofromthecourtJewtheregraduallydevelopsthepeople's
Jew,whichmeans,ofcourse:theJewremainsasbeforeinthe
entourageofthehighlords;infact,hetriestopushhiswayeven
moreintotheircircle;butatthesametimeanotherpartofhis
racemakesfriendswiththe'belovedpeople.'Ifweconsider

howgreatlyhehassinnedagainstthemassesinthecourseofthe
centuries,howhehassqueezedandsuckedtheirbloodagainand
again; if furthermore, we consider how the people gradually
learned to hate him for this, and ended up by regarding his
existenceasnothingbutapunishmentofHeavenfortheother
peoples,wecanunderstandhowhardthisshiftmustbeforthe
Jew.Yes,itisanarduoustasksuddenlytopresenthimselftohis
flayedvictimsasa'friendofmankind.'
First,therefore,hegoes.aboutmakinguptothepeopleforhis
previous sins against them. He begins his career as the
'benefactor' of mankind. Since his new benevolence has a
practical foundation, he cannot very well adhere to the old
Biblical recommendation, that the left hand should not know
whattherighthandgiveth;no,whetherhelikesitornot,hemust
reconcilehimselftolettingasmanypeopleaspossibleknowhow
deeplyhefeelsthesufferingsofthemassesandallthesacrifices
thathehimselfismakingtocombatthem.Withthis'modesty'
whichisinborninhim,heblaresouthismeritstotherestofthe
worlduntilpeoplereallybegintobelieveinthem.Anyonewho
doesnotbelieveinthemisdoinghimabitterinjustice.Inashort
timehebeginstotwistthingsaroundtomakeitlookasifallthe
injusticeintheworldhadalwaysbeendonetohimandnotthe
otherwayaround.Theverystupidbelievethisandthentheyjust
can'thelpbutpitythepoor'unfortunate.'
Inaddition,itshouldberemarkedherethattheJew,despiteall
his love of sacrifice, naturally never becomes personally
impoverished.Heknowshowtomanage;sometimes,indeed,his
charityisreallycomparabletofertilizer,whichisnotstrewnon
thefieldforloveofthefield,butwithaviewtothefarmer'sown
futurebenefit.Inanycase,everyoneknowsinacomparatively
shorttimethattheJewhasbecomea'benefactorandfriendof
mankind.'Whatastrangetransformation!
Butwhatismoreorlesstakenforgrantedinothersarousesthe
greatest astonishment andinmanydistinctadmirationforthis
veryreason. Soit happens thathe gets much more creditfor
everysuchactionthantherestofmankind,inwhomitistaken
forgranted.

But even more: all at once the Jew also becomes liberal and
beginstoraveaboutthenecessaryprogressofmankind.
Slowlyhemakeshimselfthespokesmanofanewera.
Also, of course, he destroys more and more thoroughly the
foundationsofanyeconomythatwillreallybenefitthepeople.
Bywayof stockshareshepusheshiswayintothecircuitof
nationalproductionwhichheturnsintoapurchasableorrather
tradableobject,thusrobbingtheenterprisesofthefoundationsof
a personal ownership. Between employer and employee there
arisesthatinnerestrangementwhichlaterleadstopoliticalclass
division.
Finally, the Jewish influence on economic affairs grows with
terrifying speed through the stock exchange. He becomes the
owner,oratleastthecontroller,ofthenationallaborforce.
To strengthen his political position he tries to tear down the
racialandcivilbarrierswhichforatimecontinuetorestrainhim
ateverystep.Tothisendhefightswithallthetenacityinnatein
him for religious toleranceand in Freemasonry, which has
succumbed to him completely, he has an excellent instrument
with which to fight for his aims and put them across. The
governing circles and the higher strata of the political and
economicbourgeoisiearebroughtintohisnetsbythestringsof
Freemasonry,andneverneedtosuspectwhatishappeningOnly
thedeeperandbroaderstrataofthepeopleassuch,orratherthat
classwhichisbeginningtowakeupandfightforitsrightsand
freedom,cannotyetbesufficientlytakeninbythesemethods.
Butthisismorenecessarythananythingelse;fortheJewfeels
thatthepossibilityofhisrisingtoadominantroleexistsonlyif
thereissomeoneaheadofhimtodeartheway;andthissomeone
hethinkshecanrecognizeinthebourgeoisie,intheirbroadest
strata in fact. The glovemakers and linen weavers, however,
cannotbecaughtinthefinenetofFreemasonry;no,forthem
coarser but no less drastic means must be employed. Thus
Freemasonryisjoinedbyasecondweaponintheserviceofthe
Jews:thepress.Withallhisperseveranceanddexterityheseizes
possessionofit.Withitheslowlybeginstogripandensnare,to

guideandtopushallpubliclife,sinceheisinapositiontocreate
anddirectthatpowerwhich,underthenameof'publicopinion,'
ISbetterknowntodaythanafewdecadesago.
In this he always represents himself personally as having an
infinitethirstforknowledge,praisesallprogress,mostly,tobe
sure,theprogressthatleadstotheruinofothers;forhejudgesall
knowledgeandalldevelopmentonlyaccordingtoitspossibilities
for advancing his nation, and where this is lacking, he is the
inexorablemortalenemyofalllight,ahaterofalltrueculture.
Heusesalltheknowledgeheacquiresintheschoolsofother
peoples,exclusivelyforthebenefitofhisrace.
Andthisnationalityheguardsasneverbefore.Whileheseemsto
overflowwith'enlightenment,''progress,' 'freedom,' 'humanity,'
etc.,hehimselfpracticestheseverestsegregationofhisrace.To
be sure, he sometimes palms off his women on influential
Christians,butasamatterofprinciplehealwayskeepshismale
linepure.Hepoisonsthebloodofothers,butpreserveshisown.
The Jew almost never marries a Christian woman; it is the
Christian who marries a Jewess. The bastards, however, take
after the Jewish side. Especially a part of the high nobility
degeneratescompletely.TheJewisperfectlyawareofthis,and
thereforesystematicallycarriesonthismodeof'disarming'the
intellectualleaderclassofhisracialadversaries.Inordertomask
hisactivityandlullhisvictims,however,hetalksmoreandmore
oftheequalityofallmenwithoutregardtoraceandcolor.The
foolsbegintobelievehim.
Since,however,hiswholebeingstillhastoostrongasmellofthe
foreignforthebroadmassesofthepeopleinparticulartofall
readilyintohisnets,hehashispressgiveapictureofhimwhich
is as little in keeping with reality as conversely it serves his
desiredpurpose.Hiscomicpapersespeciallystrivetorepresent
theJewsasaharmlesslittlepeople,withtheirownpeculiarities,
ofcourselikeotherpeoplesaswellbutevenintheirgestures,
whichseemalittlestrange,perhaps,givingsignsofapossibly
ludicrous, but always thoroughly honest and benevolent, soul.
And the constant effort is to make him seem almost more
'insignificant'thandangerous.

Hisultimategoalinthisstageisthevictoryof'democracy,'or,
asheunderstandsit:theruleofparliamentarianism.Itismost
compatiblewithhisrequirements;foritexcludesthepersonality
and puts in its place the majority characterized by stupidity,
incompetence,andlastbutnotleast,cowardice.
Thefinalresultwillbetheoverthrowofthemonarchy,whichis
nowsoonerorlaterboundtooccur.
(j)Thetremendouseconomicdevelopmentleadstoachangein
thesocialstratificationofthepeople.Thesmallcraftsmanslowly
diesout,andasaresulttheworker'spossibilityofachievingan
independentexistencebecomesrarerandrarer;inconsequence
the worker becomes visibly proletarianized. There arises the
industrial'factoryworker'whosemostessentialcharacteristicis
tobesoughtinthefactthathehardlyeverisinapositionto
foundanexistenceofhisowninlaterlife.Heispropertylessin
thetruestsenseoftheword.Hisoldageisatormentandcan
scarcelybedesignatedasliving.
Once before, a similar situation was created, which pressed
urgently for a solution and also found one. The peasants and
artisans had slowly been joined by the officials and salaried
workersparticularlyofthestateasanewclass.They,too,were
propertyless in the truest sense of the word. The state finally
foundawayoutofthisunhealthyconditionbyassumingthecare
ofthestateemployeewhocouldnothimselfprovideforhisold
age; it introduced the pension. Slowly, more and more
enterprisesfollowedthisexample,sothatnearlyeveryregularly
employedbrainworkerdrawsapensioninlaterlife,providedthe
concernheworksinhasachievedorsurpassed acertainsize.
Onlybysafeguardingthestateofficialinhisoldagecouldhebe
taughttheselflessdevotiontodutywhichinthepreWarperiod
wasthemosteminentqualityofGermanofficialdom.
Inthiswayawholeclassthathadremainedpropertylesswas
wiselysnatchedawayfromsocialmiseryandarticulatedwiththe
bodyofthepeople.
Nowthisquestionagain,andthistimeonamuchlargerscale,
facedthestateandthenation.Moreandmoremassesofpeople,

numberingmillions,movedfrompeasantvillagestothelarger
cities to earn their bread as factory workers in the newly
establishedindustries.Theworkingandlivingconditionsofthe
newclassweremorethandismal.Ifnothingelse,themoreor
lessmechanicaltransferenceoftheoldartisan'sorevenpeasant's
workingmethodstothenewformwasbynomeanssuitable.The
work done by these men could not be compared with the
exertionswhichtheindustrialfactoryworkerhastoperform.In
theoldhandicraft,thismaynothavebeenveryimportant,butin
thenewworkingmethodsitwasallthemoreso.Theformal
transferenceoftheoldworkinghourstotheindustriallargescale
enterprisewaspositivelycatastrophic,fortheactualworkdone
before was but little in view of the absence of our present
intensive working methods. Thus, though previously the
fourteenorevenfifteenhourworkingdayhadbeenbearable,it
certainlyceasedtobebearableatatimewheneveryminutewas
exploitedtothefullest.Theresultofthissenselesstransference
oftheoldworkinghourstothenewindustrialactivitywasreally
unfortunateintworespects:theworker'shealthwasundermined
andhisfaithinahigherjusticedestroyed.Tothisfinallywas
addedthemiserablewagesontheonehandandtheemployer's
correspondinglyandobviouslysovastlysuperiorpositiononthe
other.
Inthecountrytherecouldbenosocialquestion,sincemasterand
hiredhanddidthesameworkandaboveallateoutofthesame
bowls.Butthis,too,changed.
Theseparationofworkerandemployernowseemscompletein
allfieldsoflife.HowfartheinnerJudaizationofourpeoplehas
progressedcanbeseenfromthesmallrespect,ifnotcontempt,
thatisaccordedtomanuallabor.ThisisnotGerman.Ittookthe
foreignizationofourlife,whichwasintruthaJewification,to
transform the old respect for manual work into a certain
contemptforallphysicallabor.
Thus,thereactuallycomesintobeinganewclassenjoyingvery
littlerespect,andonedaythequestionmustarisewhetherthe
nationwouldpossessthestrengthtoarticulatethenewclassinto
generalsociety,orwhetherthesocialdifferencewouldbroaden

intoaclasslikecleavage.
Butonethingiscertain:thenewclassdidnotcounttheworst
elements in its ranks, but on the contrary definitely the most
energeticelements.Theoverrefinementsofsocalledculturehad
notyetexertedtheirdisintegratinganddestructiveeffects.The
broadmassofthenewclasswasnotyetinfectedwiththepoison
ofpacifistweakness;itwasrobustandifnecessaryevenbrutal.
While the bourgeoisie is not at all concerned about this all
important question, but indifferently lets things slide, the Jew
seizestheunlimitedopportunityitoffersforthefuture;whileon
the one hand he organizes capitalistic methods of human
exploitation to their ultimate consequence, he approaches the
veryvictims of his spiritand his activityand ina short time
becomes the leader of their struggle against himself. 'Against
himself'isonlyfigurativelyspeaking;forthegreatmasteroflies
understandsasalwayshowtomakehimselfappeartobethepure
oneandtoloadtheblameonothers.Sincehehasthgalltolead
themasses,itneverevenenterstheirheadsthatthismightbethe
mostinfamousbetrayalofalltimes.
Andyetitwas.
Scarcelyhasthenewclassgrownoutofthegeneraleconomic
shiftthantheJew,clearlyanddistinctly,realizesthatitcanopen
the way for his own further advancement. First, he used the
bourgeoisieasabatteringramagainstthefeudalworld,thenthe
workeragainstthebourgeoisworld.Ifformerlyheknewhowto
swindlehiswaytocivilrightsintheshadowofthebourgeoisie,
now he hopes to find the road to his own domination in the
worker'sstruggleforexistence.
Fromnowontheworkerhasnoothertaskbuttofightforthe
futureoftheJewishpeople.Unconsciouslyheisharnessedtothe
service of the power which he thinks he is combating. He is
seeminglyallowedtoattackcapital,andthisistheeasiestwayof
making him fight for it. In this the Jew keeps up an outcry
againstinternationalcapitalandintruthhemeansthenational
economy which must be demolished in order that the
internationalstockexchangecantriumphoveritsdeadbody.

HeretheJew'sprocedureisasfollows:
Heapproachestheworker,simulatespitywithhisfate,oreven
indignation at his lot of misery and poverty, thus gaining his
confidence. He takes pains to study all the various real or
imaginaryhardshipsofhislifeandtoarousehislongingfora
changeinsuchanexistence.Withinfiniteshrewdnesshefansthe
need for social justice, somehow slumbering in every Aryan
man,intohatredagainstthosewhohavebeenbetterfavoredby
fortune,andthusgivesthestrugglefortheeliminationofsocial
evils a very definite philosophical stamp. He establishes the
Marxistdoctrine.
By presenting it as inseparably bound up with a number of
sociallyjustdemands,hepromotesitsspreadandconverselythe
aversionofdecentpeopletofulfilldemandswhich,advancedin
such form and company, seem from the outset unjust and
impossibletofulfill.Forunderthiscloakofpurelysocialideas
truly diabolic purposes are hidden, yes, they are publicly
proclaimed with the most insolent frankness. This theory
representsaninseparablemixtureofreasonandhumanmadness,
butalwaysinsuchawaythatonlythelunacycanbecomereality
and never the reason. By the categorical rejection of the
personality and hence of the nation and its racial content, it
destroystheelementaryfoundationsofallhumanculturewhich
isdependentonjustthesefactors.Thisisthetrueinnerkernelof
theMarxistphilosophyinsofarasthisfigmentofacriminal
braincanbedesignatedasa'philosophy.'Withtheshatteringof
thepersonalityandtherace,theessentialobstacleisremovedto
thedominationoftheinferiorbeingandthisistheJew.
Preciselyinpoliticalandeconomicmadnessliesthesenseofthis
doctrine. For this prevents all truly intelligent people from
enteringitsservice,whilethosewhoareintellectuallylessactive
andpoorlyeducatedineconomicshastentoitwithflyingcolors.
The intellectuals for this movementfor even this movement
needsintellectualsforitsexistenceare'sacrificed'bytheJew
fromhisownranks.
Thustherearisesapuremovemententirelyofmanualworkers

under Jewish leadership, apparently aiming to improve the


situationoftheworker,butintruthplanningtheenslavementand
withitthedestructionofallnonJewishpeoples.
The general pacifistic paralysis of the national instinct of
selfpreservationbegunbyFreemasonryinthecirclesoftheso
calledintelligentsiaistransmittedtothebroadmassesandabove
all to the bourgeoisie by the activity of the big papers which
today are always Jewish. Added to these two weapons of
disintegration comes a third and by far the most terrible, the
organizationofbruteforce.Asashockandstormtroop,Marxism
isintendedtofinishoffwhatthepreparatorysofteningupwith
thefirsttwoweaponshasmaderipeforcollapse.
Herewehaveteamworkthatispositivelybrilliantandweneed
reallynotbesurprisedifinconfrontingitthoseveryinstitutions
whichalwaysliketorepresentthemselvesasthepillarsofamore
orlesslegendarystateauthorityholdupleast.Itisinourhigh
andhigheststateofficialdomthattheJewhasatalltimes(aside
fromafewexceptions)foundthemostcompliantabettorofhis
workofdisintegration.Cringingsubmissivenesstosuperiorsand
highhandedarrogancetoinferiorsdistinguishthisclasstothe
same degree as a narrowmindedness that often cries to high
Heavenandisonlyexceededbyaselfconceitthatissometimes
positivelyamazing.
AndthesearequalitiesthattheJewneedsinourauthoritiesand
lovesaccordingly.
The practical struggle which now begins, sketched in broad
outlines,takesthefollowingcourse:
InkeepingwiththeultimateaimsoftheJewishstruggle,which
arenotexhaustedinthemereeconomicconquestoftheworld,
but also demand its political subjugation, the Jew divides the
organizationofhisMarxistworlddoctrineintotwohalveswhich,
apparently separate from one another, in truth form an
inseparablewhole:thepoliticalandthetradeunionmovement.
The tradeunion movement does the recruiting. In the hard
struggleforexistencewhichtheworkermustcarryon,thanksto
thegreedandshortsightednessofmanyemployers,itoffershim

aid and protection, and thus the possibility of winning better


living conditions. If, at a time when the organized national
community,thestate,concernsitselfwithhimlittleornotatall,
theworkerdoesnotwanttohandoverthedefenseofhisvital
humanrightstotheblindcapriceofpeoplewhoinparthavelittle
senseofresponsibilityandareoftenheartlesstoboot,hemust
taketheirdefenseintohisownhands.Inexactproportionasthe
socallednationalbourgeoisie,blindedbyfinancialinterests,sets
theheaviestobstaclesinthepathofthisstruggleforexistence
andnotonlyresistsallattemptsatshorteningtheinhumanlylong
workingday,abolishingchildlabor,safeguardingandprotecting
thewoman,improvingsanitaryconditionsintheworkshopsand
homes,butoftenactuallysabotagesthem,theshrewderJewtakes
theoppressedpeopleunderhiswing.Graduallyhebecomesthe
leaderofthetradeunionmovement,allthemoreeasilyasheis
notinterestedinreallyeliminatingsocialevilsinanhonestsense,
butonlyintraininganeconomicstormtroop,blindlydevotedto
him,withwhichtodestroythenationaleconomicindependence.
Forwhiletheconductofahealthysocialpolicywillconsistently
movebetweentheaimsofpreservingthenationalhealthonthe
onehandandsafeguardinganindependentnationaleconomyon
theother,fortheJewinhisstrugglethesetwocriterianotonly
ceasetoexist,buttheirelimination,amongotherthings,ishis
life goal. He desires, not the preservation of an independent
nationaleconomy,butitsdestruction.Consequently,nopangsof
conscience can prevent him as a leader of the tradeunion
movementfromraisingdemandswhichnotonlyovershootthe
goal, but whose fulfillment is either impossible for practical
purposesormeanstheruinofthenationaleconomy.Moreover,
hedoesnotwanttohaveahealthy,sturdyracebeforehim,buta
rickety herd capable of being subjugated. This desire again
permitshimtoraisedemandsofthemostsenselesskindwhose
practical fulfillment he himself knows to be impossible and
which,therefore,couldnotleadtoanychangeinthings,butat
mosttoawildincitementofthemasses.Andthatiswhatheis
interestedinandnotatrueandhonestimprovementofsocial
conditions.

Hence the Jewish leadership in tradeunion affairs remains


uncontesteduntilanenormousworkofenlightenmentinfluences
thebroadmassesandsetsthemrightabouttheirneverending
misery,orelsethestatedisposesoftheJewandhiswork.Foras
longastheinsightofthemassesremainsasslightasnowandthe
stateasindifferentastoday,thesemasseswillalwaysbefirstto
follow the man who in economic matters offers the most
shamelesspromises.AndinthistheJewisamaster.Forinhis
entireactivityheisrestrainedbynomoralscruples!
Andsoheinevitablydriveseverycompetitorinthisspherefrom
thefieldinashorttime.Inkeepingwithallhisinnerrapacious
brutality,heatonceteachesthetradeunionmovementthemost
brutaluseofviolence.Ifanyonebyhisintelligenceresiststhe
Jewishlures,hisdefianceandunderstandingarebrokenbyterror.
Thesuccessofsuchanactivityisenormous.
ActuallytheJewbymeansofthetradeunion,whichcouldbea
blessingforthenation,shattersthefoundationsofthenational
economy.
Parallelwiththis,thepoliticalorganizationadvances.
Itplayshandinglovewiththetradeunionmovement,forthe
latter prepares the masses for political organization, in fact,
lashesthemintoitwithviolenceandcoercion.Furthermore,itis
the permanent financial source from which the political
organization feeds its enormous apparatus. It is the organ
controllingthepoliticalactivityoftheindividualanddoesthe
panderinginallbigdemonstrationsofapoliticalnature.Inthe
enditnolongercomesoutforpoliticalinterestsatall,butplaces
itschiefinstrumentofstruggle,thecessationofworkintheform
ofamassandgeneralstrike,intheserviceofthepoliticalidea.
By the creation of a press whose content is adapted to the
intellectualhorizonoftheleasteducatedpeople,thepoliticaland
tradeunionorganizationfinallyobtainstheagitationalinstitution
bywhichtheloweststrataofthenationaremaderipeforthe
mostrecklessacts.Itsfunctionisnottoleadpeopleoutofthe
swampofabasementalitytoahigherstage,buttocatertotheir
lowestinstincts.Sincethemassesareasmentallylazyastheyare

sometimespresumptuous,thisisabusinessasspeculativeasitis
profitable.
Itisthispress,aboveall,whichwagesapositivelyfanaticaland
slanderous struggle, tearing down everything which can be
regarded as a support of national independence, cultural
elevation,andtheeconomicindependenceofthenation.
Aboveall,ithammersawayatthecharactersofallthosewho
willnotbowdowntotheJewishpresumptiontodominate,or
whoseabilityandgeniusinthemselvesseemadangertotheJew.
FortobehatedbytheJewitisnotnecessarytocombathim;no,
itsufficesifhesuspectsthatsomeonemightevenconceivethe
ideaofcombatinghimsometimeorthatonthestrengthofhis
superiorgeniusheisanaugmenterofthepowerandgreatnessof
anationalityhostiletotheJew.
Hisunfailinginstinctinsuchthingsscentstheoriginalsoullin
everyone,andhishostilityisassuredtoanyonewhoisnotspirit
ofhisspirit.SincetheJewisnottheattackedbuttheattacker,not
onlyanyonewhoattackspassesashisenemy,butalsoanyone
whoresistshim.Butthemeanswithwhichheseekstobreak
suchrecklessbutuprightsoulsisnothonestwarfare,butliesand
slander.
Here he stops at nothing, and in his vileness he becomes so
giganticthatnooneneedbesurprisedifamongourpeoplethe
personificationofthedevilasthesymbolofallevilassumesthe
livingshapeoftheJew.
Theignoranceofthebroadmassesabouttheinnernatureofthe
Jew, the lackof instinct andnarrowmindedness of our upper
classes,makethepeopleaneasyvictimforthisJewishcampaign
oflies.
Whilefrominnatecowardicetheupperclassesturnawayfroma
man whom the Jew attacks with lies and slander, the broad
massesfromstupidityorsimplicitybelieveeverything.Thestate
authorities either cloak themselves in silence or, what usually
happens,inordertoputanendtotheJewishpresscampaign,
theypersecutetheunjustlyattacked,which,intheeyesofsuch
anofficialass,passesasthepreservationofstateauthorityand

thesafeguardingoflawandorder.
Slowly fear of the Marxist weapon of Jewry descends like a
nightmareonthemindandsoulofdecentpeople.
Theybegintotremblebeforetheterribleenemyandthushave
becomehisfinalvictim.
TheJew'sdominationinthestateseemssoassuredthatnownot
onlycanhecallhimselfaJewagain,butheruthlesslyadmitshis
ultimate national and political designs. A section of his race
openlyownsitselftobeaforeignpeople,yetevenheretheylie.
ForwhiletheZioniststrytomaketherestoftheworldbelieve
thatthenationalconsciousnessoftheJewfindsitssatisfactionin
thecreationofaPalestinianstate,theJewsagainslylydupethe
dumb Goyim. It doesn't even enter their heads to build up a
JewishstateinPalestineforthepurposeoflivingthere;allthey
want is a central organization for their international world
swindle, endowed with its own sovereign rights and removed
from the intervention of other states: a haven for convicted
scoundrelsandauniversityforbuddingcrooks.
Itisasignoftheirrisingconfidenceandsenseofsecuritythatat
atimewhenonesectionisstillplayingtheGerman,Frenchman,
orEnglishman,theotherwithopeneffronterycomesoutasthe
Jewishrace.
How close they see approaching victory can be seen by the
hideousaspectwhichtheirrelationswiththemembersofother
peoplestakeson.
Withsatanicjoyinhisface,theblackhairedJewishyouthlurks
inwaitfortheunsuspectinggirlwhomhedefileswithhisblood,
thusstealingherfromherpeople.Witheverymeanshetriesto
destroy the racial foundations of the people he has set out to
subjugate. Just as he himself systematically ruins women and
girls, he does not shrink back from pulling down the blood
barriersforothers,evenonalargescale.ItwasanditisJews
whobringtheNegroesintotheRhineland,alwayswiththesame
secretthoughtandclearaimofruiningthehatedwhiteraceby
thenecessarilyresultingbastardization,throwingitdownfrom
its cultural and political height, and himself rising to be its

master.
Foraraciallypurepeoplewhichisconsciousofitsbloodcan
neverbeenslavedbytheJew.Inthisworldhewillforeverbe
masteroverbastardsandbastardsalone.
And so he tries systematically to lower the racial level by a
continuouspoisoningofindividuals.
Andinpoliticshebeginstoreplacetheideaofdemocracybythe
dictatorshipoftheproletariat.
In the organized mass of Marxism he has found the weapon
whichletshimdispensewithdemocracyandinitssteadallows
himtosubjugateandgovernthepeopleswithadictatorialand
brutalfist.
Heworkssystematicallyforrevolutionizationinatwofoldsense:
economicandpolitical.
Aroundpeopleswhooffertooviolentaresistancetoattackfrom
withinheweavesanetofenemies,thankstohisinternational
influence,incitesthemtowar,andfinally,ifnecessary,plantsthe
flagofrevolutionontheverybattlefields.
Ineconomicsheunderminesthestatesuntilthesocialenterprises
which have become unprofitable are taken from the state and
subjectedtohisfinancialcontrol.
In the political field he refuses the state the means for its
selfpreservation, destroys the foundations of all national self
maintenanceanddefense,destroysfaithintheleadership,scoffs
atitshistoryandpast,anddragseverythingthatistrulygreatinto
thegutter.
Culturally he contaminates art, literature, the theater, makes a
mockery of natural feeling, overthrows all concepts of beauty
andsublimity,ofthenobleandthegood,andinsteaddragsmen
downintothesphereofhisownbasenature.
Religion is ridiculed, ethics and morality represented as
outmoded, until the last props of a nation in its struggle for
existenceinthisworldhavefallen.
(e) Now begins the great last revolution. In gaining political

powertheJewcastsoffthefewcloaksthathestillwears.The
democraticpeople'sJewbecomesthebloodJewandtyrantover
peoples. In a few years he tries to exterminate the national
intelligentsia and by robbing the peoples of their natural
intellectual leadership makes them ripe for the slave's lot of
permanentsubjugation.
The most frightful example of this kind is offeredby Russia,
where he killed or starved about thirty million people with
positivelyfanaticalsavagery,inpartamidinhumantortures,in
ordertogiveagangofJewishjournalistsandstockexchange
banditsdominationoveragreatpeople.
The end is not only the end of the freedom of the peoples
oppressedbytheJew,butalsotheendofthisparasiteuponthe
nations.Afterthedeathofhisvictim,thevampiresoonerorlater
diestoo.
IfwepassallthecausesoftheGermancollapseinreview,the
ultimateandmostdecisiveremainsthefailuretorecognizethe
racialproblemandespeciallytheJewishmenace.
ThedefeatsonthebattlefieldinAugust,1918,wouldhavebeen
child'splaytobear.Theystoodinnoproportiontothevictories
ofourpeople.Itwasnottheythatcausedourdownfall;no,itwas
brought about by that power which prepared these defeats by
systematically over many decades robbing our people of the
politicalandmoralinstinctsandforceswhichalonemakenations
capableandhenceworthyofexistence.
Inheedlesslyignoringthequestionofthepreservationofthe
racialfoundationsofournation,theoldReichdisregardedthe
sole right which gives life in this world. Peoples which
bastardize themselves, or let themselves be bastardized, sin
against the will of eternal Providence, and when their ruin is
encompassedbyastrongerenemyitisnotaninjusticedoneto
them,butonlytherestorationofjustice.Ifapeoplenolonger
wantstorespect theNaturegivenqualitiesofitsbeingwhich
rootinitsblood,ithasnofurtherrighttocomplainovertheloss
ofitsearthlyexistence.
Everythingonthisearthiscapableofimprovement.Everydefeat

canbecomethefatherofasubsequentvictory,everylostwarthe
cause of a later resurgence, everyhardship thefertilizationof
humanenergy,andfromeveryoppressiontheforcesforanew
spiritualrebirthcancomesaslongasthebloodispreservedpure.
The lost purity of the blood alone destroys inner happiness
forever, plunges man into the abyss for all time, and the
consequencescannevermorebeeliminatedfrombodyandspirit.
Onlybyexaminingandcomparingallotherproblemsoflifein
thelightofthisonequestionshallweseehowabsurdlypetty
theyarebythisstandard.Theyarealllimitedintimebutthe
questionofpreservingornotpreservingthepurityoftheblood
willendureaslongastherearemen.
AllreallysignificantsymptomsofdecayofthepreWarperiod
caninthelastanalysisbereducedtoracialcauses.
Whetherweconsiderquestionsofgeneraljusticeorcankersof
economic life, symptoms of cultural decline or processes of
politicaldegeneration,questionsoffaultyschoolingorthebad
influenceexertedongrownupsbythepress,etc.,everywhere
andalwaysitisfundamentallythedisregardoftheracialneeds
ofourownpeopleorfailuretoseeaforeignracialmenace.
Andthatiswhyallattemptsatreform,allworksforsocialrelief
and political exertions, all economic expansion and every
apparentincreaseofintellectualknowledgewerefutileasfaras
theirresultswereconcerned.Thenation,andtheorganismwhich
enableslandpreservesitslifeonthisearth,thestate,didnot
grow inwardly healthier, but obviously languished more and
more.AlltheillusoryprosperityoftheoldReichcouldnothide
its inner weakness, and every attempt really to strengthen the
Reich failed again and again, due to disregarding the most
importantquestion.
Itwouldbeamistaketobelievethattheadherentsofthevarious
politicaltendencieswhichweretinkeringaroundontheGerman
nationalbodyyes,evenacertainsectionoftheleaderswerebad
ormalevolentmeninthemselves.Theiractivitywascondemned
tosterilityonlybecausethebestofthemsawatmosttheforms
of our general disease and tried to combat them, but blindly

ignored the virus. Anyone who systematically follows the old


Reich's line of political developmentis bound toarrive, upon
calmexamination,attherealizationthatevenatthetimeofthe
unification,hencetheriseoftheGermannation,theinnerdecay
wasalreadyinfullswing,andthatdespiteallapparentpolitical
successes anddespiteincreasingeconomicwealth,thegeneral
situationwasdeterioratingfromyeartoyear.Ifnothingelse,the
elections for the Reichstag announced, with their outward
swellingoftheMarxistvote,thesteadilyapproachinginwardand
hencealsooutwardcollapse.Allthesuccessesofthesocalled
bourgeoispartieswereworthless,notonlybecauseevenwithso
calledbourgeoiselectoralvictoriestheywereunabletohaltthe
numerical growth of the Marxist flood, but because they
themselves aboveall nowborethefermentsof decayintheir
ownbodies.Withoutsuspectingit,thebourgeoisworlditselfwas
inwardlyinfectedwiththedeadlypoisonofMarxistideasandits
resistance often sprang more from the competitor's envy of
ambitious leaders than from a fundamental rejection of
adversariesdeterminedtofighttotheutmost.Intheselongyears
therewasonlyonewhokeptupanimperturbable,unflagging
fight,andthiswastheJeanHisStarofDavidIrosehigherand
higher in proportion as our people's will for selfpreservation
vanished.
Therefore,inAugust,1914,itwasnotapeopleresolvedtoattack
whichrushedtothebattlefield;no,itwasonlythelastflickerof
the national instinct of selfpreservation in face of the
progressingpacifistMarxistparalysisofournationalbody.Since
eveninthesedaysofdestiny,ourpeopledidnotrecognizethe
innerenemy,alloutwardresistancewasinvainandProvidence
didnotbestowherrewardonthevictorioussword,butfollowed
thelawofeternalretribution.
Onthebasisofthisinnerrealization,theretookforminournew
movementtheleadingprinciplesaswellasthetendency,which
in our conviction were alone capable, not only of halting the
decline of the German people, but of creating the granite
foundation upon which some day a state will rest which
represents, not analienmechanismofeconomicconcernsand

interests,butanationalorganism:
AGermanStateoftheGermanNation

Chapter 12:

The First Period of


Development of the National
Socialist German Workers'
Party
If at the endof this volume I describe thefirst period in the
developmentofourmovementandbrieflydiscussanumberof
questionsitraises,myaimisnottogiveadissertationonthe
spiritualaimsofthemovement.Theaimsandtasksofthenew
movement are so gigantic that they can only be treated in a
specialvolume.Inasecondvolume,therefore,Ishalldiscussthe
programmaticfoundationsofthemovementindetailandattempt
todrawapictureofwhatweconceiveofundertheword'state.'
By'us'Imeanallthehundredsofthousandswhofundamentally
longforthesamethingwithoutasindividualsfindingthewords
to describe outwardly I what they inwardly visualize; for the
noteworthyfactaboutallreformsisthatatfirsttheypossessbut
asinglechampionyetmanymillionsupporters.Theiraimhas
often been for centuries the inner longing of hundreds of
thousands,untilonemanstandsuptoproclaimsuchageneral
will,andasastandardbearerguidestheoldlongingtovictoryin
theformofthenewidea.
Thefactthatmillionsbearintheirheartsthedesireforabasic
change in the conditions obtaining today proves the deep
discontent under which they suffer. It expresses itself in
thousandfold manifestations with one in despair and
hopelessness, with another in ill will, anger, and indignation;
with this man in indifference, and with that man in furious
excesses. As witnesses to this inner dissatisfaction we may

considerthosewhoarewearyofelectionsaswellasthemany
whotendtothemostfanaticalextremeoftheLeft.
Theyoungmovementwasintendedprimarilytoappealtothese
last.Itisnotmeanttoconstituteanorganizationofthecontented
andsatisfied,buttoembracethosetormentedbysuffering,those
withoutpeace,theunhappyandthediscontented,andaboveallit
mustnotswimonthesurfaceofanationalbody,butstrikeroots
deepwithinit.
Inpurelypoliticalterms,thefollowingpicturepresenteditselfin
1918:apeopletornintotwoparts.Theone,byfarthesmaller,
includesthestrataofthenationalintelligentsia,excludingallthe
physicallyactive.Itisoutwardlynational,yetunderthisword
can conceive of nothing but a very insipid and weakkneed
defenseofsocalledstateinterests,whichinturnseemidentical
withdynasticinterests.Theyattempttofightfortheirideasand
aimswithspiritualweaponswhichareasfragmentaryastheyare
superficial,andwhichfailcompletelyinthefaceoftheenemy's
brutality.Withasinglefrightfulblowthisclass,whichonlya
shorttimebeforewasstillgoverning,isstretchedontheground
andwithtremblingcowardicesufferseveryhumiliationatthe
handsoftheruthlessvictor.
Confrontingitisasecondclass,thebroadmassofthelaboring
population. It is organized in more or less radical Marxist
movements,determinedtobreakallspiritualresistancebythe
power of violence. It does not want to be national, but
consciouslyrejectsanypromotionofnationalinterests,justas,
conversely, it aids and abets all foreign oppression. It is
numerically the stronger and above all comprises all those
elementsofthenationwithoutwhichanationalresurrectionis
unthinkableandimpossible.
Forin1918thismuchwasclear:noresurrectionoftheGerman
peoplecanoccurexceptthroughtherecoveryofoutwardpower.
But the prerequisites for this are not arms, as our bourgeois
'statesmen'keepprattling,buttheforcesofthewill.TheGerman
peoplehadmorethanenougharmsbefore.Theywerenotableto
securefreedombecausetheenergiesofthenationalinstinctof

selfpreservation, the will for selfpreservation, were lacking.


Thebestweaponisdead,worthlessmaterialaslongasthespirit
is lacking which is ready, willing, and determined to use it.
Germany became defenseless, not because arms were lacking,
butbecausethewillwaslackingtoguardtheweaponfornational
survival.
IftodaymorethaneverourLeftpoliticiansareatpainstopoint
outthelackofarmsasthenecessarycauseoftheirspineless,
compliant,actuallytreasonouspolicy,wemustansweronlyone
thing: no, the reverse is true. Through your antinational,
criminalpolicyofabandoningnationalinterests,yousurrendered
ourarms.Nowyouattempttorepresentthelackofarmsasthe
underlyingcauseofyourmiserablevillainy.This,likeeverything
youdo,isleesandfalsification.
Butthisreproachappliesjustasmuchtothepoliticiansonthe
Right.For,thankstotheirmiserablecowardice,theJewishrabble
thathadcometopowerwasablein1918tostealthenation's
arms.They,too,haveconsequentlynogroundandnorightto
palmoffourpresentlackofarmsasthecompellinggroundfor
their wily caution (read ' cowardice '); on the contrary, our
defenselessnessistheconsequenceoftheircowardice.
Consequently the question of regainingGerman power is not:
Howshallwemanufacturearms?but:Howshallwemanufacture
the spirit which enables a people to bear arms? If this spirit
dominatesapeople,thewillfindsathousandways,everyoneof
whichendsinaweapon!Butgiveacowardtenpistolsandif
attackedhewillnotbeabletofireasingleshot.Andsoforhim
theyaremoreworthlessthanaknottedstickforacourageous
man.
The question of regaining our people's political power is
primarilyaquestionofrecoveringournationalinstinctofself
preservation, if for no other reason because experience shows
thatanypreparatoryforeignpolicy,aswellasanyevaluationofa
stateassuch,takesitscuelessfromtheexistingweaponsthan
from a nation's recognized or presumed moral capacity for
resistance. A nation1s ability to form alliances is determined

muchlessbydeadstoresofexistingarmsthanbythevisible
presence of an ardent national will for selfpreservation and
heroicdeathdefyingcourage.Foranallianceisnotconcluded
witharmsbutwithmen.Thus,theEnglishnationwillhavetobe
considered the most valuable ally in the world as long as its
leadership and the spirit of its byroad masses justify us in
expectingthatbrutalityandperseverancewhichisdeterminedto
fightabattleoncebegunt04victoriousend,witheverymeans
and without consideration of time and sacrifices; and what is
more,themilitaryarmamentexistingatanygivenmomentdoes
notneedtostandinanyproportiontothatofotherstates.
If we understand that the resurrection of the German nation
represents a question of regaining our political will for self
preservation,itisalsoclearthatthiscannotbedonebywinning
elementswhichinpointofwillatleastarealreadynational,but
only by the nationalization of the consciously antinational
masses.
A young movement which, therefore, sets itself the goal of
resurrectingaGermanstatewithitsownsovereigntywillhaveto
directitsfightentirelytowinningthebroadmasses.Wretchedas
oursocalled'nationalbourgeoisie'isonthewhole,inadequate
asitsnationalattitudeseems,certainlyfromthissidenoserious
resistance is to be expected against a powerful domestic and
foreignpolicyinthefuture.EveniftheGermanbourgeoisie,for
their wellknown narrowminded and shortsighted reasons,
should,astheyoncedidtowardBismarck,maintainanobstinate
attitudeofpassiveresistanceinthehourofcomingliberationan
active resistance, in view of their recognized and proverbial
cowardice,isnevertobefeared.
It is different with the masses of our internationally minded
comrades.Intheirnaturalprimitiveness,theyaresnoreinclined
totheideaofviolence,and,moreover,theirJewishleadershipis
more brutal and ruthless. They will crush any German
resurrectionJustastheyoncebrokethebackboneoftheGerman
army. But above all: in this state with its parliamentary
governmenttheywill,thankstotheirmajorityinnumbers,not
only obstruct any national foreign policy, but also make

impossibleanyhigherestimationoftheGermanstrength,thus
making us seem uradesirable as an ally. For not only are we
ourselvesawareoftheelementofweaknesslyinginourfifteen
million Marxists, detmocrats, pacifists, and Centrists; it is
recognizedevenmorebyforeigncountries,whichmeasurethe
valueofapossiblealliancewithusaccordingtotheweightof
this burden. No one allies himself with a state in which the
attitude of the active part of the population toward any
determinedforeignpolicyispassive,tosaytheleast.
Tothiswemustaddthefactthattheleadershipsoftheseparties
ofnationaltreasonmustandwillbehostiletoanyresurrection,
outofmereinstinctofselfpreservation.Historicallyitisjustnot
conceivable that the German people could recover its former
positionwithoutsettlingaccountswiththosewhowerethecause
and occasion of the unprecedented collapse which struck our
state.ForbeforethejudgmentseatofposterityNovember,1918,
willbeevaluated,notashightreason,butastreasonagainstthe
fatherland.
Thus,anypossibilityofregainingoutwardGermanindependence
isboundupfirst andforemostwiththerecoveryof theinner
unityofourpeople'swill.
Butregardedevenfromthepurelytechnicalpointofview,the
ideaofanoutwardGermanliberationseemssenselessaslongas
thebroadmassesarenotalsopreparedtoentertheserviceofthis
liberating idea. From the purely military angle, every officer
above all will realize after a moment's thought that a foreign
struggle cannot be carried on with student battalions, that in
additiontothebrainsofapeople,thefistsarealsoneeded.In
addition,wemustbearinmindthatanationaldefense,whichis
basedonlyonthecirclesofthesocalledintelligentsia,would
squander irreplaceable treasures. The absence of the young
German intelligentsia which found its death on the fields of
Flandersinthefallof1914wassorelyfeltlateron.Itwasthe
highesttreasurethattheGermannationpossessedandduringthe
War its loss could no longer be made good. Not only is it
impossible to carry on the struggle itself if the storming
battalionsdonotfindthemassesoftheworkersintheirranks;

the technical preparations are also impracticable without the


innerunityofournationalwill.Especiallyourpeople,doomedto
languish along unarmed beneath the thousand eyes of the
Versaillespeacetreaty,canonlymaketechnicalpreparationsfor
theachievementoffreedomandhumanindependenceifthearmy
of domestic stoolpigeons is decimated down to those whose
inborn lack of character permits them to betray anything and
everythingforthewellknownthirtypiecesofsilveryForwith
these we can deal. Unconquerable by comparison seem the
millions who oppose the national resurrection out of political
convictionunconquerable as long as the inner cause of their
opposition, the internationalMarxist philosophy of life,is not
combatedandtornoutoftheirheartsandbrains.
Regardless, therefore, from what standpoint we examine the
possibility of regaining our state and national independence,
whether frost the standpoint of preparations in the sphere of
foreignpolicy,fromthatoftechnicalarmamentorthatofbattle
itself,ineverycasethepresuppositionforeverythingremainsthe
previouswinningofthebroadmassesofourpeoplefortheidea
ofournationalindependence.
Without the recovery of our external freedom, however, any
internalreform,eveninthemostfavorablecase,meansonlythe
increase of our productivity as a colony. The surplus of all
socalled economic improvements falls to the benefit of our
internationalcontrolcommissions,andeverysocialimprovement
atbestraisestheproductivityofourworkforthem.Nocultural
advanceswillfalltotheshareoftheGermannation;theyaretoo
contingent on the political independence and dignity of our
nation.
Thus, if a favorable solution of the German future requires a
nationalattitudeonthepartofthebroadmassesofourpeople,
thismustbethehighest,mightiesttaskofamovementwhose
activityisnotintendedtoexhaustitselfinthesatisfactionofthe
moment, but which must examine all its commissions and
omissionssolelywithaviewtotheirpresumedconsequencesin
thefuture.

Thus,by1919weclearlyrealizedthat,asitshighestaim,the
newmovementmustfirstaccomplishthenationalizationofthe
masses.
Fromatacticalstandpointanumberofdemandsresultedfrom
this.
(1) To win the masses for a national resurrection, no social
sacrificeistoogreat.
Whatevereconomicconcessionsaremadetoourworkingclass
today,theystandinnoproportiontothegainfortheentirenation
iftheyhelptogivethebroadmassesbacktotheirnation.Only
pigheadedshortsightedness,suchasisoftenunfortunatelyfound
inouremployercircles,canfailtorecognizethatinthelongrun
there can be no economic upswing for them and hence no
economicprofit,unlesstheinnernationalsolidarityofourpeople
isrestored.
IfduringtheWartheGermanunionshadruthlesslyguardedthe
interestsoftheworkingclass,ifevenduringtheWartheyhad
struckathousandtimesoverandforcedapprovalofthedemands
of the workers they represented on the dividendhungry
employersofthosedays;butifinmattersofnationaldefense
theyhadavowedtheirGermanismwiththesamefanaticism;and
ifwithequalruthlessnesstheyhadgiventothefatherlandthat
whichisthefatherland's,theWarwouldnothavebeenlost.And
howtrifiingalleconomicconcessions,eventhegreatest,would
havebeen,comparedtotheimmenseimportanceofwinningthe
War!
ThusamovementwhichplanstogivetheGermanworkerback
totheGermanpeoplemustclearlyrealizethatinthisquestion
economicsacrificesareofnoimportancewhateveraslongasthe
preservationandindependenceofthenationaleconomyarenot
threatenedbythem.
(2)Thenationaleducationofthebroadmasses canonlytake
placeindirectlythroughasocialuplift,sincethusexclusivelycan
those general economic premises be created which permit the
individualtopartakeoftheculturalgoodsofthenation.

(3) The nationalization of the broad masses can never be


achieved by halfmeasures, by weakly emphasizing a socalled
objective standpoint, but only by a ruthless and fanatically
onesidedorientationtowardthegoaltobeachieved.Thatisto
say,apeoplecannotbemade'national'inthesenseunderstood
byourpresentdaybourgeoisie,meaningwithsoandsomany
limitations,butonlynationalisticwiththeentirevehemencethat
is inherent in the extreme. Poison is countered only by an
antidote, and only the shallowness of abourgeois mind can
regardthemiddlecourseastheroadtoheaven.
Thebroadmassesofapeopleconsistneitherofprofessorsnorof
diplomats.Thescantinessoftheabstractknowledgetheypossess
directs their sentiments more to the world of feeling. That is
wheretheirpositiveornegativeattitudelies.Itisreceptiveonly
toanexpressionofforceinoneofthesetwodirectionsandnever
to a halfmeasure hovering between the two. Their emotional
attitudeatthesametimeconditionstheirextraordinarystability.
Faithishardertoshakethanknowledge,lovesuccumbslessto
changethanrespect,hateismoreenduringthanaversion,andthe
impetustothemightiestupheavalsonthisearthhasatalltimes
consistedlessinascientificknowledgedominatingthemasses
than in a fanaticism which inspired them and sometimes in a
hysteriawhichdrovethemforward.Anyonewhowantstowin
thebroadmassesmustknowthekeythatopensthedoortotheir
heart.Itsnameisnotobjectivity(readweakness),butwilland
power.
(4)Thesoulofthepeoplecanonlybewonifalongwithcarrying
onapositivestruggleforourownaims,wedestroytheopponent
oftheseaims.
Thepeopleatalltimesseetheproofoftheirownrightinruthless
attackonafoe,andtothemrenouncingthedestructionofthe
adversaryseemslikeuncertaintywithregardtotheirownrightif
notasignoftheirownunriglxt.
ThebroadmassesareonlyapieceofNatureandtheirsentiment
doesnotunderstandthemutualhandshakeofpeoplewhodaim
thattheywanttheoppositethings.Whattheydesireisthevictory

of the stronger and the destruction of the weak or his


unconditionalsubjection.
Thenationalizationofourmasseswillsucceedonlywhen,aside
fromallthepositivestruggleforthesoulofourpeople,their
internationalpoisonersareexterminated.
(5)Allgreatquestionsofthedayarequestionsofthemoment
and represent only consequences of definite causes. Only one
amongall of them, however, possesses causal importance,land
thatisthequestionoftheracialpreservationofthenation.Inthe
bloodaloneresidesthestrengthaswellastheweaknessofman.
As long as peoples do not recognize and give heed to the
importance of their racial foundation, they are like men who
wouldliketoteachpoodlesthequalitiesofgreyhounds,failingto
realizethatthespeedofthegreyhoundlikethedocilityofthe
poodle are not learned, but are qualities inherent in the race.
Peoples which renounce the preservation of their racial purity
renouncewithittheunityoftheirsoulinallitsexpressions.The
dividedstateof their natureisthenaturalconsequence of the
dividedstateoftheirblood,andthechangeintheirintellectual
andcreativeforceisonlytheeffectofthechangeintheirracial
foundations.
Anyone who wants to free the German blood from the
manifestationsandvicesoftoday,whichwereoriginallyaliento
itsnature,willfirsthavetoredeemitfromtheforeignvirusof
thesemanifestations.
Withouttheclearestknowledgeoftheracialproblemandhence
oftheJewishproblemtherewillneverbearesurrectionofthe
Germannation.
Theracialquestiongivesthekeynotonlytoworldhistory,butto
allhumanculture.
(6)Organizingthebroadmassesofourpeoplewhicharetodayin
theinternationalcampintoanationalpeople'scommunitydoes
not mean renouncing the defense of justified class interests.
Divergentclass andprofessionalinterests arenotsynonymous
with class cleavages but are natural consequences of our
economiclife.Professionalgroupingisinnowayopposedtoa

truenationalcommunity,forthelatterconsistsintheunityofa
nationinallthosequestionswhichaffectthisnationassuch.
Theintegrationofanoccupationalgroupwhichhasbecomea
classwiththenationalcommunity,ormerelywiththestate,is
not accomplished by the lowering of higher dasses but by
uplifting the lower dasses. This process in turn can never be
upheldbythehigherclass,butonlybythelowerclassfighting
for its equal rights. The presentday bourgeoisie was not
organizedintothestatebymeasuresofthenobility,butbyits
ownenergyunderitsownleadership.
TheGermanworkerwillnotberaisedtotheframeworkofthe
Germannationalcommunityviafeeblescenesoffraternization,
butbyaconsciousraisingofhissocialandculturalsituationuntil
the most serious differences may be viewed as bridged. A
movementwhichsetsthisdevelopmentasitsgoalwillhaveto
takeitssupportersprimarilyfromthiscamp.'Itmayfallbackon
the intelligentsia only in so far as the latter has completely
understood the goal to be achieved. This process of
transformationandequalizationwillnotbecompletedintenor
twenty years; experience shows that it comprises many
generations.
Theseverestobstadetothepresentdayworker'sapproachtothe
nationalcommunityliesnotinthedefenseofhisclassinterests,
butinhisinternationalleadershipandattitudewhicharehostile
to the people and the fatherland. The same unions with a
fanatical national leadership in political and national matters
wouldmakemillionsofworkersintothemostvaluablemembers
oftheirnationregardlessofthevariousstrugglesthattookplace
overpurelyeconomicmatters.
AmovementwhichwantshonestlytogivetheGermanworker
back to his people and tear him away from the international
delusionmustsharplyattackaconceptiondominantaboveallin
employercircles,whichundernationalcommunityunderstands
the unresisting economic surrender of the employee to the
employer and which chooses to regard any attempt at
safeguarding even justified interests regarding the employee's

economicexistenceasanattackonthenationalcommunity.Such
anassertionisnotonlyuntrue,butaconsciouslie,becausethe
nationalcommunityimposesitsobligationsnotonlyononeside
butalsoontheother.
Justassurelyasaworkersinsagainstthespiritofarealnational
communitywhen,withoutregardforthecommonwelfareand
thesurvivalofanationaleconomy,heuseshispowertoraise
extortionatedemands,anemployerbreaksthiscommunitytothe
same extent when he conducts his business in an inhuman,
exploiting way, misuses the national labor force and makes
millions out of its sweat. He then has no right to designate
himselfasnational,norighttospeakofanationalcommunity;
no, he is a selfish scoundrel who induces social unrest and
provokesfutureconflictswhichwhateverhappensmustendin
harmingthenation.
Thus,thereservoirfromwhichtheyoungmovementmustgather
itssupporterswillprimarilybethemassesofourworkers.Its
workwillbetoteartheseawayfromtheinternationaldelusion,
tofreethemfromtheirsocialdistress,toraisethemoutoftheir
culturalmiseryandleadthemtothenationalcommunityasa
valuable,unitedfactor,nationalinfeelinganddesire.
If,inthecirclesofthenationalintelligentsia,therearefoundmen
withthewarmestheartsfortheirpeopleanditsfuture,imbued
withthedeepestknowledgeoftheimportanceofthisstrugglefor
the soul of these masses, they will be highly welcome in the
ranksofthismovement,asavaluablespiritualbackbone.But
winningoverthebourgeoisvotingcattlecanneverbetheaimof
this movement. If it were, it would burden itself with a dead
weightwhichbyitswholenaturewouldparalyzeourpowerto
recruitfromthebroadmasses.Forregardlessofthetheoretical
beautyoftheideaofleadingtogetherthebroadestmassesfrom
belowandfromabovewithintheframeworkofthemovement,
thereistheopposingfactthatbypsychologicalpropagandizing
ofbourgeoismassesingeneralmeetings,itmaybepossibleto
createmoodsandeventospreadinsight,butnottodoawaywith
qualities of character or, better expressed, vices whose
developmentandoriginembracecenturies.Thedifferencewith

regardtotheculturallevelonbothsidesandtheattitudeonboth
sidestowardquestionsraisedbyeconomicinterestsisatpresent
stillsogreatthat,assoonastheintoxicationofthemeetingshas
passed,itwouldatoncemanifestitselfasanobstacle.
Finally,thegoalisnottoundertakeareskatificationinthecamp
thatisnationaltobeginwith,buttowinovertheantinational
camp.
Andthispointofview,finally,isdeterminingforthetactical
attitudeofthewholemovement.
(7)Thisonesidedbuttherebyclearpositionmustexpressitself
inthepropagandaofthemovementandontheotherhandinturn
isrequiredonpropagandistgrounds.
Ifpropagandaistobeeffectiveforthemovement,itmustbe
addressedtoonlyonequarter,sinceotherwise,inviewofthe
difference in the intellectual training of the two camps in
question,eitheritwillnotbeunderstoodbytheonegroup,orby
the other it would be rejected as obvious and therefore
uninteresting Even the style and the tone of its individual
products cannot be equally effective for two such extreme
groups.Ifpropagandarenouncesprimitivenessofexpression,it
does not find its way to the feeling of the broad masses. If,
however,inwordandgesture,itusesthemasses'harshnessof
sentiment and expression, it will be rejected by the socalled
intelligentsiaascoarseandvulgar.Amongahundredsocalled
speakers there are hardly ten capable of speaking with equal
effect today before a public consisting of street.sweepers,
locksmiths,sewercleaners,etc.,andtomorrowholdingalecture
withnecessarilythesamethoughtcontentinanauditoriumfull
of university professors and students. But among a thousand
speakersthereisperhapsonlyasingleonewhocanmanageto
speaktolocksmithsanduniversityprofessorsatthesametime,in
a form which not only is suitable to the receptivity of both
parties, but also influences both parties with equal effect or
actually lashes them into a wild storm of applause. We must
always bear in mind that even the most beautiful idea of a
sublimetheoryinmostcasescanbedisseminatedonlythrough

thesmallandsmallestminds.Theimportantthingisnotwhatthe
geniuswhohascreatedanideahasinmind,butwhat,inwhat
form,andwithwhatsuccesstheprophetsofthisideatransmitit
tothebroadmasses.
ThestrongattractivepoweroftheSocialDemocracy,yes,ofthe
whole Marxist movement, rested in large part on the
homogeneityandhenceonesidednessofthepublicitaddressed.
Themoreseeminglylimited,indeed,thenarroweritsideaswere,
themoreeasilytheyweretakenupandassimilatedbyamass
whoseintellectuallevelcorrespondedtothematerialoffered.
Likewise for the new movement a simple and clear line thus
resulted.
Propagandamustbeadjustedtothebroadmassesincontentand
inform,anditssoundnessistobemeasuredexdusivelybyits
effectiveresult.
Inamassmeetingofallclassesitisnotthatspeakerwhois
mentallyclosesttotheintellectualspresentwhospeaksbest,but
theonewhoconquerstheheartofthemasses.
Amemberoftheintelligentsiapresentatsuchameeting,who
carpsattheintellectuallevelofthespeechdespitethespeaker's
obvious effect on the lower strata he has set out to conquer,
proves the complete incapacity of his thinking and the
worthlessnessofhispersonfortheyoungmovement.Itcanuse
onlythatintellectualwhocomprehendsthetaskandgoalofthe
movement to such an extent that he has learned to judge the
activityofpropagandaaccordingtoitssuccessandnotaccording
to the impressions which it leaves behind in himself. For
propagandaisnotintendedtoprovideentertainmentforpeople
whoarenationalmindedtobeginwith,buttowintheenemiesof
ournationality,insofarastheyareofourblood.
IngeneralthosetrendsofthoughtwhichIhavebrieflysummed
upundertheheadingofwarpropagandashouldbedetermining
anddecisiveforourmovementinthemannerandexecutionof
itsownenlightenmentwork.
Thatitwasrightwasdemonstratedbyitssuccess(8)Thegoalof

a political reform movement will never be reached by


enlightenmentworkorbyinfluencingrulingcircles,butonlyby
theachievementofpoliticalpower.Everyworldmovingideahas
notonlytheright,butalsotheduty,ofsecuring,thosemeans
whichmakepossibletheexecutionofitsideas.Successisthe
oneearthlyjudgeconcerningtherightorwrongofsuchaneffort,
andundersuccesswemustnotunderstand,asintheyear1918,
theachievementofpowerinitself,butanexerciseofthatpower
that will benefit the nation. Thus, a coup d'etat must not be
regarded as successful if, as senseless state's attorneys in
Germany think today, the revolutionaries have succeeded in
possessing themselves of the state power, but only if by the
realization of the purposes and aims underlying such a
revolutionary action, more benefit accrues to the nation than
under the past regime. Something which cannot very well be
claimedfortheGermanrevolution,asthegangsterjobofautumn
1918,callsitself.
Iftheachievementofpoliticalpowerconstitutestheprecondition
for the practical execution of reform purposes, the movement
withreformpurposesmustfromthefirstdayofitsexistencefeel
itselfamovementofthemassesandnotaliteraryteaclubora
shopkeepers'bowlingsociety.
(9)Theyoungmovementisinitsnatureandinnerorganization
antiparliamentarian;thatis,itrejects,ingeneralandinitsown
innerstructure,aprincipleofmajorityruleinwhichtheleaderis
degradedtothelevelofamereexecutantofotherpeople'swill
and opinion. In little as well as big things, the movement
advocatestheprincipleofaGermanicdemocracy:theleaderis
elected,butthenenjoysunconditionalauthority.
Thepracticalconsequencesofthisprincipleinthemovementare
thefollowing:
Thefirstchairmanofalocalgroupiselected,butthenheisthe
responsible leader of the local group. All committees are
subordinatetohimandnot,conversely,hetoacommittee.There
arenoelectoralcommittees,butonlycommitteesforwork.The
responsibleleader,thefirstchairman,organizesthework.The

first principle applies to the next higher organization, the


precinct,thedistrictorcounty.Theleaderisalwayselected,but
therebyheisvestedwithunlimitedpowersandauthority.And,
finally,thesameappliestotheleadershipofthewholeparty.The
chairman is elected, but he is the exclusive leader of the
movementsAllcommitteesaresubordinatetohimandnotheto
the committees. He makes the decisions and hence bears the
responsibilityonhisshoulders.Membersofthemovementare
freetocallhimtoaccountbeforetheforumofanewelection,to
divest him of his office in so far as he has infringed on the
principles of the movement or served its interests badly. His
placeisthentakenbyanabler,newman,enjoying,however}the
sameauthorityandthesameresponsibility.
It is one of the highest tasks of the movement to make this
principledetermining,notonlywithinitsownranks,butforthe
entirestate.
Anymanwhowantstobeleaderbears,alongwiththehighest
unlimitedauthority,alsotheultimateandheaviestresponsibility.
Anyonewhoisnotequaltothisoristoocowardlytobearthe
consequencesofhisactsisnotfittobeleader;onlytheherois
cutoutforthis.
Theprogressandcultureofhumanityarenotaproductofthe
majority,butrestexclusivelyonthegeniusandenergyofthe
personality.
Tocultivatethepersonalityandestablishitinitsrightsisoneof
theprerequisitesforrecoveringthegreatnessandpowerofour
nationality.
Hence the movement is antiparliamentarian, and even its
participation in a parliamentary institution can only imply
activityforitsdestruction,foreliminatinganinstitutioninwhich
wemustseeoneofthegravestsymptomsofmankind'sdecay.
(10)Themovementdecisivelyrejectsanypositiononquestions
whicheitherlieoutsidetheframeofitspoliticalworkor,being
notofbasic importance,areirrelevantfor it.Itstaskisnota
religious reformation, but a political reorganization of our

people.Inbothreligiousdenominationsitseesequallyvaluable
pillars for the existence of our people and therefore combats
thosepartieswhichwanttodegradethisfoundationofanethical,
moral,andreligiousconsolidationofour nationalbodytothe
levelofaninstrumentoftheirpartyinterests.
Themovementfinallyseesitstask,notintherestorationofa
definitestateformandinthestruggleagainstanother,butinthe
creation of those basic foundations without which neither
republic nor monarchy can endure for any length of time. Its
mission lies not in the foundation of a monarchy or in the
reinforcementofarepublic,butinthecreationofaGermanic
state.
Thequestionoftheoutwardshapingofthisstate,itscrowning,
sotospeak,isnotofbasicimportance,butisdeterminedonlyby
questionsofpracticalexpediency.
Forapeoplethathasonceunderstoodthegreatproblemsand
tasksofitsexistence,thequestionsofoutwardformalitieswillno
longerleadtoinnerstruggle.
(11)Thequestionofthemovement'sinnerorganizationisoneof
expediencyandnotofprinciple.
Thebestorganizationisnotthatwhichinsertsthegreatest,but
thatwhichinsertsthesmallest,intermediaryapparatusbetween
theleadershipofamovementanditsindividualadherents.For
thefunctionoforganizationisthetransmissionofadefiniteidea
whichalwaysfirstarisesfromthebrainofanindividualtoa
largerbodyofmenandthesupervisionofitsrealization.
Henceorganizationisinallthingsonlyanecessaryevil.Inthe
bestcaseitisameanstoanend,intheworstcaseanendin
itself.
Sincetheworldproducesmoremechanicalthanidealnatures,the
formsoforganizationareusuallycreatedmoreeasilythanideas
assuch.
Thepracticaldevelopmentofeveryideastrivingforrealization
inthisworld,particularlyofonepossessingareformcharacter,is
initsbroadoutlinesasfollows:

Someideaofgeniusarisesinthebrainofamanwhofeelscalled
upon to transmit his knowledge to the rest of humanity. He
preaches his view and gradually wins a certain circle of
adherents.Thisprocessofthedirectandpersonaltransmittance
ofaman'sideastotherestofhisfellowmenlisthemostideal
andnatural.Withtherisingincreaseintheadherentsofthenew
doctrine,itgraduallybecomesimpossiblefortheexponentofthe
idea to go on exerting a personal, direct influence on the
innumerablesupporters,toleadanddirectthem.Proportionately
as,inconsequenceofthegrowthofthecommunity,thedirect
and shortest communication is excluded, the necessity of a
connectingorganizationarises:thus,theidealconditionisended
andisreplacedbythenecessaryeviloforganization.Littlesub
groupsareformedwhichinthepoliticalmovement,forexample,
callthemselveslocalgroupsandconstitutethegermcellsofthe
futureorganization.
If the unity of the doctrine is not to be lost, however, this
subdivisionmustnottakeplaceuntiltheauthorityofthespiritual
founder and of the school trained by him can be regarded as
unconditional.Thegeopoliticalsignificanceofafocalcenterin
a movement cannot be overemphasized. Only the presence of
suchaplace,exertingthemagicspellofaMeccaoraRome,can
inthelongrungivethemovementaforcewhichisbasedon
inner unity and the recognition of a summit representing this
unity.
Thus, in forming the first organizational germcells we must
never lose sight of the necessity, not only of preserving the
importanceoftheoriginallocalsourceoftheidea,butofmaking
itparamount.Thisintensificationoftheideal,moral,andfactual
immensityofthemovement'spointoforiginanddirectionmust
take place in exact proportion as the movement's germcells,
whichhavenowbecomeinnumerable,demandnewlinksinthe
shapeoforganizationalforms.
For,astheincreasingnumberofindividualadherentsmakesit
impossibletocontinuedirectcommunicationwiththemforthe
formationofthelowestbodies,theultimateinnumerableincrease
oftheselowestorganizationalformscompelsinturncreationof

higherassociationswhichpoliticallycanbedesignatedroughly
ascountyordistrictgroups.
Easyasitstillmaybetomaintaintheauthorityoftheoriginal
centertowardthelowestlocalgroups,itwillbeequallydifficult
tomaintainthispositiontowardthehigherorganizationalforms
which now arise. But this is the precondition for the unified
existenceofthemovementandhenceforcarryingoutanidea.
If,finally,theselargerintermediarydivisionsarealsocombined
intoneworganizationalforms,thedifficultyisfurtherincreased
of safeguarding, even toward them, the unconditional leading
characteroftheoriginalfoundingsite,itsschool,etc.
Therefore,themechanicalformsofanorganizationmayonlybe
developedtothedegreeinwhichthespiritualidealauthorityofa
centerseemsunconditionallysecured.Inpoliticalformationsthis
guarantycanoftenseemprovidedonlybypracticalpower.
Fromthisthefollowingdirectivesfortheinnerstructureofthe
movementresulted:
(a)Concentrationforthetimebeingofallactivityinasingle
place: Munich. Training of a community of unconditionally
reliable supporters and development of a school for the
subsequent dissemination of the idea. Acquisition of the
necessaryauthorityforthefuturebythegreatestpossiblevisible
successesinthisoneplace.
Tomakethemovementanditsleadersknown,itwasnecessary,
notonlytoshakethebeliefintheinvincibilityoftheMarxist
doctrine in one place for all to see, but to demonstrate the
possibilityofanopposingmovement.
(b) Formation of local groups only when the authority of the
centralleadershipinMunichmayberegardedasunquestionably
recognized.
(c) Likewise the formation of district, county, or provincial
groups depends, not only on the need for them, but also on
certaintythatanunconditionalrecognitionofthecenterhasbeen
achieved.
Furthermore,thecreationoforganizationalformsisdependent

onthemenwhoareavailableandcanbeconsideredasleaders
Thismayoccurintwoways:
(a)Themovementdisposesofthenecessaryfinancialmeansfor
thetrainingandschoolingofmindscapableoffutureleadership.
It then distributes the material thus acquired systematically
accordingtocriteriaoftacticalandotherexpediency.
Thiswayistheeasierandquicker;however,itdemandsgreat
financialmeans,sincethisleadermaterialisonlyabletowork
forthemovementwhenpaid.
(b)Themovement,owingtothelackoffinancialmeans,isnotin
apositiontoappointofficialleaders,butforthepresentmust
dependonhonoraryofficers.
Thiswayistheslowerandmoredifficult.
Undercertaincircumstancestheleadershipofamovementmust
let large territories lie fallow, unless there emerges from the
adherentsamanableandwillingtoputhimselfatthedisposalof
the leadership, and organize and lead the movement in the
districtinquestion.
Itmayhappenthatinlargeterritoriestherewillbenoone,in
otherplaces,however,twooreventhreealmostequallycapable.
Thedifficultythatliesinsuchadevelopmentisgreatandcan
onlybeovercomeinthecourseofyears.
Theprerequisiteforthecreationofanorganizationalformisand
remainsthemannecessaryforitsleadership.
Asworthlessasanarmyinallitsorganizationalformsiswithout
officers,equallyworthlessisapoliticalorganizationwithoutthe
suitableleader.
Notfoundingalocalgroupismoreusefultothemovementwhen
a suitable leader personality is lacking than to have its
organizationmiscarryduetotheabsenceofaleadertodirectand
driveitforward.
Leadershipitselfrequiresnotonlywillbutalsoability,anda
greaterimportancemustbeattachedtowillandenergythanto
intelligenceassuch,andmostvaluableofallisacombinationof

ability,determination,andperseverance.
(12)Thefutureofamovementisconditionedbythefanaticism
yes,theintolerance,withwhichitsadherentsupholditasthesole
correctmovement,andpushitpastotherformationsofasimilar
sort.
Itisthegreatesterrortobelievethatthestrengthofamovement
increasesthroughaunionwithanotherofsimilarcharacter.Itis
truethateveryenlargementofthiskindatfirstmeansanincrease
inoutwarddimensions,whichtotheeyesofsuperficialobservers
meanspower;intruth,however,itonlytakesoverthegermsof
aninnerweakeningthatwilllaterbecomeeffective.
For whatever can be said about the like character of two
movements, in reality it is never present. For otherwise there
wouldactuallybenottwomovementsbutone.Andregardless
wherein the differences lieeven if they consisted only in the
varyingabilitiesoftheleadershiptheyexist.Butthenaturallaw
ofalldevelopmentdemands,notthecouplingoftwoformations
whicharesimplynotalike,butthevictoryofthestrongerandthe
cultivationofthevictor'sforceandstrengthmadepossiblealone
bytheresultantstruggle.
Through the union of two more or less equal political party
formationsmomentaryadvantagesmayarise,butinthelongrun
anysuccesswoninthiswayisthecauseofinnerweaknesses
whichappearlater.
Thegreatnessofamovementisexclusivelyguaranteedbythe
unrestricted development of its inner strength and its steady
growthuptothefinalvictoryoverallcompetitors.
Yes,wecansaythatitsstrengthandhencethejustificationofits
existenceincreasesonlysolongasitrecognizestheprincipleof
struggleasthepremiseofitsdevelopment,andthatithaspassed
the high point of its strength in the moment when complete
victoryinclinestoitsside.
Therefore,itisonlyprofitableforamovementtostriveforthis
victoryinaformwhichdoesnotleadtoanearlymomentary
success, but which in a long struggle occasioned by absolute

intolerancealsoprovideslonggrowth.
Movements which increase only by the socalled fusion of
similarformations,thusowingtheirstrengthtocompromises,are
likehothouseplants.Theyshootup,buttheylackthestrengthto
defythecenturiesandwithstandheavystorms.
Thegreatnessofeverymightyorganizationembodyinganidea
inthisworldliesinthereligiousfanaticismandintolerancewith
which, fanatically convinced of its own right, it intolerantly
imposesitswillagainstallothers.Ifanideainitselfissound
and, thus armed, takes up a struggle on this earth, it is
unconquerableandeverypersecutionwillonlyaddtoitsinner
strength.
ThegreatnessofChristianitydidnotlieinattemptednegotiations
forcompromisewithanysimilarphilosophicalopinionsinthe
ancientworld,butinitsinexorablefanaticisminpreachingand
fightingforitsowndoctrine.
Theapparentheadstartwhichmovementsachievebyfusionsis
amplycaughtupwithbythesteadyincreaseinthestrengthofa
doctrineandorganizationthatremainindependentandfighttheir
ownfight.
(13)Onprinciplethemovementmustsoeducateitsmembers
thattheydonotviewthestruggleassomethingidlycookedup,
butasthethingthattheythemselvesarestrivingfordTherefore,
theymustnotfearthehostilityoftheirenemies,butmustfeel
thatitisthepresuppositionfortheir ownrighttoexist.They
mustnotshunthehatredoftheenemiesofournationalityand
ourphilosophyanditsmanifestations;theymustlongforthem.
Andamongthemanifestationsofthishateareliesandslander.
Any man who is not attacked in the Jewish newspapers, not
slanderedandvilified,isnodecentGermanandnotrueNational
Socialist.Thebestyardstickforthevalueofhisattitude,forthe
sincerity of his conviction, and the force of his will is the
hostilityhereceivesfromthemortalenemyofourpeople.
Itmust,overandoveragain,bepointedouttotheadherentsof
themovementandinabroadersensetothewholepeoplethatthe

Jewandhisnewspapersalwayslieandthatevenanoccasional
Ruth is only intended to cover a bigger falsification and is
thereforeitselfinturnadeliberateuntruth.TheJewisthegreat
master in lying, and lies and deception are his weapons in
struggle.
EveryJewishslanderandeveryJewishlieisascarofhonoron
thebodyofourwarriors.
Themantheyhavemostreviledstandsclosesttousandtheman
theyhateworstisourbestfriend.
AnyonewhopicksupaJewishnewspaperinthemorningand
doesnotseehimselfslanderedinithasnotmadeprofitableuse
of the previous day; for if he had, he would be persecuted,
reviled, slandered, abused} befouled. And only the man who
combats this mortal enemy of our nation and of all Aryan
humanity and culture most effectively may expect to see the
slanders of this race and the struggle of this people directed
againsthim.
When these principles enter the flesh and blood of our
supporters, the movement will become unshakable and
invincible.
(14)Themovementmustpromoterespectforpersonalitybyall
means;itmustneverforgetthatinpersonalworthliestheworth
ofeverythinghuman;thateveryideaandeveryachievementis
theresultofoneman'screativeforceandthattheadmirationof
greatnessconstitutes,notonlyatributeofthankstothelatter,but
castsaunifyingbondaroundthegrateful.
Personalitycannotbereplaced;especiallywhenitembodiesnot
themechanicalbuttheculturalandcreativeelement.Nomore
thanafamousmastercanbereplacedandanothertakeoverthe
completionofthehalffinishedpaintinghehasleftbehindcan
the great poet and thinker, the great statesman and the great
soldier,bereplaced.Fortheiractivityliesalwaysintheprovince
ofart.Itisnotmechanicallytrained,butinbornbyGod'sgrace.
The greatest revolutionary changes and achievements of this
earthitsgreatestculturalaccomplishmentstheimmortaldeedsin

thefieldofstatesmanship,etc.,areforeverinseparablyboundup
with a name and are represented by it. To renounce doing
homagetoagreatspiritmeansthelossofanimmensestrength
whichemanatesfromthenamesofallgreatmenandwomen.
TheJewknowsthisbestofall.He,whosegreatmenareonly
greatinthedestructionofhumanityanditsculture,makessure
thattheyareidolatrouslyadmired.Heattemptsonlytorepresent
theadmirationofthenationsfortheirownspiritsasunworthy
andbrandsitasa'personalitycult.'
Assoonasapeoplebecomessocowardlythatitsuccumbstothis
Jewish arrogance and effrontery, it renounces the mightiest
powerthatitpossesses;forthisisbased,notonrespectforthe
masses, but on the veneration of genius and on uplift and
enlightenmentbyhisexample.
Whenhumanheartsbreakandhumansoulsdespair,thenfrom
thetwilightofthepastthegreatconquerorsofdistressandcare,
of disgrace and misery, of spiritual slavery and physical
compulsion,lookdownonthemandholdouttheireternalhands
tothedespairingmortals!
Woetothepeoplethatisashamedtotakethem!
Inthefirstperiodofourmovement'sdevelopmentwesuffered
from nothing so much as from the insignificance, the
unknownness of our names, which in themselves made our
successquestionable.Thehardestthinginthisfirstperiod,when
often only six, seven, or eight heads met together to use the
wordsofanopponent,wastoarouseandpreserveinthistiny
circlefaithinthemightyfutureofthemovement.
Considerthatsixorsevenmen,allnameless poordevils,had
joinedtogetherwiththeintentionofformingamovementhoping
tosucceedwherethepowerfulgreatmasspartieshadhitherto
failedinrestoringaGermanReichofgreaterpowerandglory.If
people had attacked us in those days, yes, even if they had
laughedatus,inbothcasesweshouldhavebeenhappy.Forthe
oppressivethingwasneithertheonenortheother;itwasthe
completelackofattentionwefoundinthosedays.

WhenIenteredthecircleofthesefewmen,therecouldbeno
questionofapartyoramovement.Ihavealreadydescribedmy
impressionsregardingmyfirstmeetingwiththislittleformation.
Intheweeksthatfollowed,Ihadtimeandoccasiontostudythis
socalled'party'whichatfirstlookedsoimpossible.And,byGod
thepicturewasdepressinganddiscouraging.Therewasnothing
here, really positively nothing. The name of a party whose
committeeconstitutedpracticallythewholemembership,which,
whetherwelikeditor not,was exactlywhatitwas tryingto
combat,aparliamentonasmallscale.Here,too,thevoteruled;
ifbigparliamentsyelledtheirthroatshoarseformonthsatatime,
itwasaboutimportantproblemsatleast,butinthislittlecircle
the answer to a safely arrived letter let loose an interminable
argument!
Thepublic,ofcourse,knewnothingatallaboutthis.Notasoul
in Munich knew the party even by name, except for its few
supportersandtheirfewfriends.
EveryWednesdayasocalledcommitteemeetingtookplaceina
Munich cafe, and once a week an evening lecture. Since the
wholemembershipofthe'movement'wasatfirstrepresentedin
thecommittee,thefacesofcoursewerealwaysthesame.Now
thetaskwasatlasttoburstthebondsofthesmallcircle,towin
newsupporters,butabovealltomakethenameofthemovement
knownatanyprice.
Inthisweusedthefollowingtechnique:
Every month, and later every two weeks, we tried to hold a
'meeting.'Theinvitationstoitwerewrittenonthetypewriteror
sometimesbyhandonslipsofpaperandthefirstfewtimeswere
distributed, or handed out, by us personally. Each one of us
turnedtothecircleofhisfriends,andtriedtoinducesomeoneor
othertoattendoneoftheseaffairs.
Theresultwasmiserable.
IstillrememberhowImyselfinthisfirstperiodoncedistributed
abouteightyoftheseslipsofpaper,andhowintheeveningwe
satwaitingforthemasseswhowereexpectedtoappear.

Anhourlate,the'chairman'finallyhadtoopenthe'meeting.'
Wewereagainsevenmen,theoldseven.
We changed over to having the invitation slips written on a
machineandmimeographedinaMunichstationerystore.The
resultatthenextmeetingwasafewmorelisteners.Thusthe
numberroseslowlyfromeleventothirteen,finallytoseventeen,
totwentythree,tothirtyfourlisteners.
Bylittlecollectionsamonguspoordevilsthefundswereraised
withwhichatlasttoadvertisethemeetingbynoticesinthethen
independent Munchener Beobachter in Munich. And this time
the success was positively amazing. We had organized the
meetingintheMunichHofbrauhauskeller (nottobeconfused
with the Munich HofbrauhausFestsaal), a little room with a
capacity of barely one hundred and thirty people. To me
personallytheroomseemedlikeabighallandeachofuswas
worriedwhetherwewouldsucceedinfillingthis'mighty'edifice
withpeople.
Atseveno'clockonehundredandelevenpeoplewerepresent
andthemeetingwasopened.
AMunichprofessormadethemainspeech,andI,forthefirst
time,inpublic,wastospeaksecond.
IntheeyesofHerrHarrer,thenfirstchairmanoftheparty,the
affair seemed a great adventure. This gentleman, who was
certainlyotherwisehonest,justhappenedtobeconvincedthatI
mightbecapableofdoingcertainthings,butnotofspeaking.
Andeveninthetimethatfollowedhecouldnotbedissuaded
fromthisopinion."Thingsturnedoutdifferently.Inthisfirst
meetingthatcouldbecalledpublicIhadbeengrantedtwenty
minutes'speakingtime.
I spoke for thirty minutes, and what before I had simply felt
withinme,withoutinanywayknowingit,wasnowprovedby
reality:IcouldspeakAfterthirtyminutesthepeopleinthesmall
roomwereelectrifiedandtheenthusiasmwasfirstexpressedby
thefactthatmyappealtotheselfsacrificeofthosepresentledto
thedonationofthreehundredmarks.Thisrelievedusofagreat
worry.Foratthistimethefinancialstringencywassogreatthat

wewerenoteveninapositiontohaveslogansprintedforthe
movement,orevendistributeleaflets.Nowthefoundationwas
laidforalittlefundfromwhichatleastourbarestneedsand
mosturgentnecessitiescouldbedefrayed.Butinanotherrespect
aswell,thesuccessofthisfirstlargermeetingwasconsiderable.
AtthattimeIhadbeguntobringanumberoffreshyoungforces
intothecommittee.DuringmymanyyearsinthearmyIhad
come to know a great number of faithful comrades who now
slowly, on the basis of my persuasion, began to enter the
movement.Theywereallenergeticyoungpeople,accustomedto
discipline, and from their period of service raised in the
principle:nothingatallisimpossible,everythingcanbedoneif
youonlywantit.
Hownecessarysuchatransfusionofnewbloodwas,Imyself
couldrecognizeafteronlyafewweeksofcollaboration.
Herr Harrer, then first chairman of the party, was really a
journalistandassuchhewascertainlywidelyeducated.Butfora
partyleaderhehadoneexceedinglyseriousdrawback:hewasno
speaker for the masses. As scrupulously conscientious and
preciseashisworkinitselfwas,itneverthelesslackedperhaps
because of this very lack of a great oratorical giftthe great
sweep.HerrDrexler,thenchairmanoftheMunichlocalgroup,
wasasimpleworker,likewisenotverysignificantasaspeaker,
andmoreoverhewasnosoldier.Hehadnotservedinthearmy,
evenduringtheWarhehadnotbeenasoldier,sothatfeebleand
uncertain as he was in his whole nature, he lacked the only
schooling which was capable of turning uncertain and soft
naturesintomen.Thusbothmenwerenotmadeofstuffwhich
wouldhaveenabledthemnotonlytobearintheirheartsfanatical
faithinthevictoryofamovement,butalsowithindomitable
energy and will, and if necessary with brutal ruthlessness, to
sweepasideanyobstacleswhichmightstandinthepathofthe
risingnewidea.Forthisonlybeingswerefittedinwhomspirit
andbodyhadacquiredthosemilitaryvirtueswhichcanperhaps
best be described as follows: swift as greyhounds, tough as
leather,andhardasKruppsteel.

AtthattimeImyselfwasstillasoldier.Myexteriorandinterior
hadbeenwhettedandhardenedforwellnighsixyears,sothatat
first I must have seemed strange in this circle. I, too, had
forgottenhowtosay:'that'simpossible,'or'itwon'twork';'we
can'triskthat,''thatistoodangerous,'etc.
Forofcoursethebusinesswasdangerous.Littleattentionasthe
Redspaidtooneofyourbourgeoisgossipclubswhose inner
innocence and hence harmlessness for themselves theyknew
betterthanitsownmembers,theyweredeterminedtouseevery
meanstogetridofamovementwhichdidseemdangerousto
them.Theirmosteffectivemethodinsuchcaseshasatalltimes
beenterrororviolence.
In the year 1920, in many regions of Germany, a national
meetingthatdaredtoaddressitsappealtothebroadmassesand
publicly invite attendance was simply impossible. The
participantsinsuchameetingweredispersedanddrivenaway
withbleedingheads.Suchanaccomplishment,tobesure,didnot
requiremuchskill:forafterallthebiggestsocalledbourgeois
massmeetingwouldscatteratthesightofadozenCommunists
likeharesrunningfromahound.
Most loathsome to the Marxist deceivers of the people was
inevitablyamovementwhoseexplicitaimwasthewinningof
thosemasseswhichhadhithertostoodexclusivelyintheservice
oftheinternationalMarxistJewishstockexchangeparties.The
verynameof'GermanWorkers'Party'hadtheeffectofgoading
them.Thusonecouldeasilyimaginethatonthefirstsuitable
occasiontheconflictwouldbeginwiththeMarxistinciterswho
werethenstilldrunkwithvictory.
Inthesmallcirclethatthemovementthenwasacertainfearof
suchafightprevailed.Thememberswantedtoappearinpublic
aslittleaspossible,forfearofbeingbeatenup.Intheirmind's
eyetheyalreadysawthefirstgreatmeetingsmashedandgothe
movementfinishedforgood.Ihadahardtimeputtingforward
myopinionthatwemustnotdodgethisstruggle,butpreparefor
it,andforthisreasonacquirethearmamentwhichaloneoffers
protectionagainstviolence.Terrorisnotbrokenbythemind,but

by terror. The success of the first meeting strengthened my


positioninthisrespect.Wegainedcourageforasecondmeeting
onasomewhatlargerscale.
AboutOctober,1919,thesecond,largermeetingtookplacein
the Eberlbraukeller. Topic: Brestlitovsk and Versailles. Four
gentlemenappearedasspeakers.Imyselfspokeforalmostan
hour and the success was greater than at the first rally. The
audience had risen to more than one hundred and thirty. An
attempted disturbance was at once nipped in the bud by my
comrades.Thediturbersflewdownthestairswithgashedheads.
Twoweekslateranothermeetingtookplaceinthesamehall.
Theattendancehadrisentooveronehundredandseventyand
the room was well filled. I had spoken again, and again the
successwasgreaterthanatthepreviousmeeting.
Ipressedforalargerhall.Atlengthwefoundoneattheother
endoftowninthe'DeutschesReich'onDachauerStrasse.The
first meetinginthenew hallwasnotso wellattendedas the
previous one: barely one hundred and forty persons. In the
committee,hopesbegantosinkandtheeternaldoubtersfeltthat
the excessive repetition of our 'demonstrations' had to be
consideredthecauseofthebadattendance.Therewereviolent
arguments in which I upheld the view that a city of seven
hundredthousandinhabitantscouldstandnotonemeetingevery
twoweeks,butteneveryweek,thatwemustnotletourselvesbe
misledbyfailures,thattheroadwehadtakenwastherightone,
andthatsoonerorlater,withsteadyperseverance,successwas
boundtocome.Allinall,thiswholeperiodofwinter191920
wasasinglestruggletostrengthenconfidenceinthevictorious
mightoftheyoungmovementandraiseittothatfanaticismof
faithwhichcanmovemountains.
Thenextmeetinginthesamehallshowedmetoberight.The
attendancehadrisentoovertwohundred;thepublicaswellas
financialsuccesswasbrilliant.
Iurgedimmediatepreparationsforanothermeeting.Ittookplace
barelytwoweekslaterandtheaudiencerosetoovertwohundred
andseventyheads.

Twoweekslater,fortheseventhtime,wecalledtogetherthe
supportersandfriendsofthenewmovementandthesamehall
could barely hold the people who had grown to over four
hundred.
Itwasatthistimethattheyoungmovementreceiveditsinner
form. In the small circle there were sometimes more or less
violent disputes. Various quartersthen as todaycarped at
designatingtheyoungmovementasaparty.Insuchaconception
Ihavealwaysseenproofofthecritics'practicalincompetence
andintellectualsmallness.Theywereandalwaysarethemen
whocannotdistinguishexternalsfromessentials,andwhotryto
estimate the value of a movement according to the most
bombasticsounding titles, most of which, sad to say, the
vocabularyofourforefathersmustprovide.
Itwashard,atthattime,tomakeitcleartopeoplethatevery
movement,aslongasithasnotachievedthevictoryofitsideas,
henceitsgoal,isapartyevenifitassumesathousanddifferent
names.
Ifanymanwantstoputintopracticaleffectaboldideawhose
realizationseemsusefulintheinterestsofhisfellowmen,hewill
firstofallhavetoseeksupporterswhoarereadytofightforhis
intentions.Andifthisintentionconsistsonlyindestroyingthe
existingparties,ofendingthefragmentation,theexponentsof
thisviewandpropagatorsofthisdeterminationarethemselvesa
party, as long as this goal has not been achieved. It is hair
splitting and shadowboxing when some antiquated folkish
theoretician, whose practical successes stand in inverse
proportiontohiswisdom,imaginesthathecanchangetheparty
characterwhicheveryyoungmovementpossessesbychanging
thisterm.
Onthecontrary.
Ifanythingisunfolkish,itisthistossingaroundofoldGermanic
expressionswhichneitherfitintothepresentperiodnorrepresent
anythingdefinite,butcaneasilyleadtoseeingthesignificanceof
amovement initsoutwardvocabulary.This isa realmenace
whichtodaycanbeobservedoncountlessoccasions.

Altogetherthen,andalsointheperiodthatfollowed,Ihadto
warnagainandagainagainstthosedeutschvolkischwandering
scholarswhosepositiveaccomplishmentisalwayspracticallynil,
but whose conceit can scarcely be excelled. The young
movementhadandstillhastoguarditselfagainstaninfluxof
peoplewhosesolerecommendationforthemostpartliesintheir
declarationthattheyhavefoughtforthirtyandevenfortyyears
forthesameidea.Anyonewhofightsforfortyyearsforaso
calledideawithoutbeingabletobringabouteventheslightest
success, in fact, without having prevented the victory of the
opposite,has,withfortyyearsofactivity,providedproofofhis
ownincapacity.Thedangeraboveallliesinthefactthatsuch
naturesdonotwanttofitintothemovementaslinks,butkeep
shootingofftheirmouthsaboutleadingcirclesinwhichalone,
onthestrengthoftheirageoldactivity,theycanseeasuitable
placeforfurtheractivity.Butwoebetideifayoungmovementis
surrendedtothemerciesofsuchpeople.Nomorethanabusiness
manwhoinfortyyearsofactivityhassteadilyrunabigbusiness
intothegroundisfittedtobethefounderofanewone,isa
folkishMethuselah,whoinexactlythesametimehasgummed
up and petrified a great idea, fit for the leadership of a new,
youngmovement!
Besides,onlyafragmentofallthesepeoplecomeintothenew
movementtoserveit,butinmostcases,underitsprotectionor
throughthepossibilitiesitoffers,towarmovertheiroldcabbage
Theydonotwanttobenefittheideaofthenewdoctrine,they
onlyexpectittogivethemachancetomakehumanitymiserable
withtheirownideas.Forwhatkindofideastheyoftenare,itis
hardtotell.
Thecharacteristicthingaboutthesepeopleisthattheyraveabout
oldGermanicheroism,aboutdimprehistory,stoneaxesspear
andshield,but inrealityarethegreatestcowardsthatcanbe
imagined.Forthesamepeoplewhobrandishscholarlyimitations
of old German tin swords, and wear a dressed bearskin with
bull's horns over their bearded heads, preach for the present
nothingbutstrugglewithspiritualweapons,andrunawayasfast
astheycanfromeveryCommunistblackjack.Posteritywillhave

littleoccasiontoglorifytheirownheroicexistenceinanewepic.
Icametoknowthesepeopletoowellnottofeeltheprofoundest
disgustattheirmiserableplayacting.Buttheymakearidiculous
impressiononthebroadmasses,andtheJewhaseveryreasonto
sparethesefolkishcomedians,eventopreferthemtothetrue
fightersforacomingGermanstate.Withallthis,thesepeople
are boundlessly conceited; despite all the proofs of their
completeincompetence,theydaimtoknoweverythingbetterand
becomearealplagueforallstraightforwardandhonestfighters
towhomheroismseemsworthhonoring,notonlyinthepast,but
whoalsoendeavor togiveposterityasimilar picturebytheir
ownactions.
Andoftenitcanbedistinguishedonlywithdifficultywhichof
these people act out of inner stupidity or incompetence and
whichonlypretendtoforcertainreasons.Especiallywiththeso
calledreligiousreformersonanoldGermanicbasis, Ialways
havethefeelingthattheyweresentbythosepowerswhichdo
notwanttheresurrectionofourpeople.Fortheirwholeactivity
leads the people away from the common struggle against the
common enemy, the Jew, and instead lets them waste their
strength on inner religious squabbles as senseless as they are
disastrous.Fortheseveryreasonstheestablishmentofastrong
central power implying the unconditional authority of a
Kadershipisnecessaryinthemovement.Byitalonecansuch
ruinouselementsbesquelched.Andforthisreasonthegreatest
enemiesofauniform,strictlyledandconductedmovementare
tobefoundinthecirclesofthesefolkishwanderingJews.Inthe
movementtheyhatethepowerthatcheckstheirmischief.
Not for nothing did the young movement establish a definite
programinwhichitdidnotusetheword'folkish.'Theconcept
folkish,inviewofitsconceptualboundlessness,isnopossible
basisforamovementandoffersnostandardformembershipin
one.Themoreindefinablethisconceptisinpractice,themore
andbroaderinterpretationsitpermits,thegreaterbecomesthe
possibility of invoking its authority. The insertion of such an
indefinableandvariouslyinterpretableconceptintothepolitical
struggleleadstothedestructionofanystrictfightingsolidarity,

since the latter does not permit leaving to the individual the
definitionofhisfaithandwill.
Anditisdisgracefultoseeallthepeoplewhorunaroundtoday
withtheword'folkish'ontheircapsandhowmanyhavetheir
owninterpretationofthisconcept.ABavarianprofessorbythe
nameofBayer,lafamousfighterwithspiritualweapons,richin
equally spiritual marches on Berlin, thinks that the concept
folkish consists only in a monarchistic attitude. This learned
mind,however,hasthusfarforgottentogiveacloserexplanation
of the identity of our German monarchs of the past with the
folkishopinionoftoday.AndIfearthatinthisthegentleman
wouldnoteasilysucceed.Foranythinglessfolkishthanmostof
the Germanic monarchic state formations can hardly be
imagined. If this were not so, they would never have
disappeared, or their disappearance would offer proof of the
unsoundnessofthefolkishoutlook.
Andsoeveryoneshootsoffhismouthaboutthisconceptashe
happenstounderstandit.Asabasisforamovementofpolitical
struggle,suchamultiplicityofopinionsisoutofthequestion.
IshallnotevenspeakoftheunworldlinessofthesefolkishSaint
Johnsofthetwentiethcenturyortheirignoranceofthepopular
soul.Itissuflicientlyillustratedbytheridiculewithwhichthey
aretreatedbytheLeft,whichletsthemtalkandiaughsatthem.
Anyoneinthisworldwhodoesnotsucceedinbeinghatedbyhis
adversariesdoesnotseemtometobeworthmuchasafriend.
Andthusthefriendshipofthesepeopleforouryoungmovement
wasnotonlyworthless,butsolelyandalwaysharmful,andit
wasalsothemainreasonwhy,firstofall,wechosethenameof
'party'we had grounds for hoping that by this alone a whole
swarmofthesefolkishsleepwalkerswouldbefrightenedaway
from usand why in the second place we termed ourselves
NationalSocialistGermanWorkers'Party.
Thefirstexpressionkeptawaytheantiquityenthusiasts,thebig
mouthsandsuperficialproverbmakersofthesocalledfolkish
idea,'andthesecondfreedusfromtheentirehostofknightsof
the'spiritualsword,'allthepoorwretcheswhowieldthe'spiritual

weapon'asaprotectingshieldtohidetheiractualcowardice.
It goes without saying that in the following period we were
attackedhardestespeciallybytheselast,notactively,ofcourse,
butonlywiththepen,justasyouwouldexpectfromsuchfolkish
goosequills.Forthemourprinciple,'Againstthosewhoattack
us with force we will defend ourselves with force,' had
somethingterrifyingaboutit.Theypersistentlyreproachedus,
notonlywithbrutalworshipoftheblackjack,butwithlackof
spiritassuch.ThefactthatinapublicmeetingaDemosthenes
canbebroughttosilenceifonlyfiftyidiots,supportedbytheir
voices and their fists, refuse to let him speak, makes no
impression whatever on such a quack. His inborn cowardice
never lets him get into such danger. For he does not work
'noisily'and'obtrusively,'butin'silence.'
Eventodayrcannotwarnouryoungmovementenoughagainst
fallingintothenetofthesesocalled'silentworkers.'Theyare
notonlycowards,buttheyarealsoalwaysincompetentsanddo
nothings.Amanwhoknowsathing,whoisawareofagiven
danger,andseesthepossibilityofaremedywithhisowneyes,
hasthedutyandobligation,byGod,nottowork'silently,'butto
standupbeforethewholepublicagainsttheevilandforitscure.
Ifhedoesnotdoso,heisadisloyal,miserableweaklingwho
failseitherfromcowardiceorfromlazinessandinability.Tobe
sure,thisdoesnotapplyatalltomostofthesepeople,forthey
knowabsolutelynothing,butbehaveasthoughtheyknewGod
knowswhat;theycandonothingbuttrytoswindlethewhole
worldwiththeirtricks;theyarelazy,butwiththe'silent'work
theyclaimtodo,theyarousetheimpressionofanenormousand
conscientious activity; in short, they are swindlers, political
crookswhohatethehonestworkofothers.Assoonasoneof
thesefolkishmothspraisesthedarkness1ofsilence,wecanbet
athousandtoonethatbyitheproducesnothing,butsteals,steals
fromthefruitsofotherpeople'swork.
Totopallthis,thereisthearroganceandconceitedeffrontery
withwhichthislazy,lightshunningrabblefallupontheworkof
others,tryingtocriticizeitfromabove,thusinrealityaidingthe
mortalenemiesofournationality.

Every last agitator who possesses the courage to stand on a


taverntableamonghisadversaries,todefendhisopinionswith
manlyforthrightness,doesmorethanathousandoftheselying,
treacheroussneaks.Hewillsurelybeabletoconvertonemanor
anotherandwinhimforthemovement.Itwillbepossibleto
examinehisachievementandestablishtheeffectofhisactivity
by its results. Only the cowardly swindlers who praise their
'silent'workandthuswrapthemselvesintheprotectivecloakof
adespicable anonymity,aregoodfor nothingandmayinthe
truestsenseofthewordbeconsidereddronesintheresurrection
ofourpeople.
##Atthebeginningof1920,Iurgedtheholdingofthefirst
greatmassmeeting.Differencesofopinionarose.Afewleading
party members regarded the affair as premature and hence
disastrousineffect.TheRedpresshadbeguntoconcernitself
withusandwewerefortunateenoughgraduallytoachieveits
hatred. We had begun to speak in the discussions at other
meetings.Ofcourse,eachofuswasatonceshouteddown.There
was, however, some success. People got to know us and
proportionatelyastheirknowledgeofusdeepened,theaversion
andrageagainstusgrew.Andthuswewereentitledtohopethat
inourfirstgreatmassmeetingwewouldbevisitedbyagood
manyofourfriendsfromtheRedcamp.
I,too,realizedthattherewasgreatprobabilityofthemeeting
beingbrokenup.Butthestrugglehadtobecarriedthrough,if
notnow,afewmonthslater.Itwasentirelyinourpowertomake
the movement eternal on the very first day by blindly and
ruthlesslyfightingforit.Iknewaboveallthementalityofthe
adherentsoftheRedsidefartoowell,nottoknowthatresistance
totheutmostnotonlymakesthebiggestimpression,butalso
winssupporters.Andsowejusthadtoberesolvedtoputupthis
resistance.
HerrHarrer,lthenfirstchairmanoftheparty,felthecouldnot
support my views with regard to the time chosen and
consequently,beinganhonest,uprightman,hewithdrewfrom
theleadershipoftheparty.HisplacewastakenbyHerrAnton
Drexler. I had reserved for myself the organization of

propagandaandbeganruthlesslytocarryitout.
Andso,thedateofFebruary4,19202wassetfortheholdingof
thisfirstgreatmassmeetingofthestillunknownmovement.
Ipersonallyconductedthepreparations.Theywereverybrief.
Altogetherthewholeapparatuswasadjustedtomakelightning
decisions.Itsaimwastoenableustotakeapositiononcurrent
questionsintheformofmassmeetingswithintwentyfourhours.
Theyweretobeannouncedbypostersandleafletswhosecontent
wasdeterminedaccordingtothoseguidingprincipleswhichin
roughoutlinesIhavesetdowninmytreatiseonpropaganda.
Effect on the broad masses, concentration on a few points,
constant repetition of the same, selfassured and selfreliant
framing of the text in the forms of an apodictic statement,
greatestperseveranceindistributionandpatienceinawaitingthe
effect.
Onprinciple,thecolorredwaschosen;itisthemostexciting;we
knewitwouldinfuriateandprovokeouradversariesthemostand
thusbringustotheirattentionandmemorywhethertheylikedit
ornot.
In the following period the inner fraternization in Bavaria
betweentheMarxistsandtheCenterasapoliticalpartywasmost
clearly shown in the concern with which the ruling Bavarian
People'sPartytriedtoweakentheeffectofourpostersonthe
Red working masses and later to prohibit them. If the police
foundnootherwaytoproceedagainstthem,'considerationsof
traffic'hadtodothetrick,tillfinally,topleasetheinner,silent
Red ally, these posters, which had given back hundreds of
thousandsofworkers,incitedandseducedbyinternationalism,to
their German nationality, were forbidden entirely with the
helpinghandofasocalledGermanNationalPeople'sParty.As
anappendixandexampletoouryoungmovement,Iamaddinga
number of these proclamations. They come from a period
embracingnearlythreeyears;theycanbestillustratethemighty
strugglewhichtheyoungmovementfoughtatthistime.They
willalsobearwitnesstoposterityofthewillandhonestyofour
convictions and the despotism of the socalled national

authoritiesinprohibiting,justbecausetheypersonallyfoundit
uncomfortable, a nationalization which would have won back
broadmassesofournationality.
Theywillalsohelptodestroytheopinionthattherehadbeena
nationalgovernmentassuchinBavariaandalsodocumentfor
posteritythefactthatthenationalBavariaof1919,1920,1921
1922,1923wasnotforsooththeresultofanationalgovernment,
butthatthegovernmentwasmerelyforcedtotakeconsideration
ofapeoplethatwasgraduallyfeelingnationalThegovernments
themselvesdideverythingtoeliminatethisprocessofrecovery
andtomakeitimpossible.
Hereonlytwomenmustbeexcluded:
ErnstPohner,thepolicepresidentatthattirne,andChiefDeputy
frickhisfaithfuladvisor,weretheonlyhigherstateofficialswho
eventhenhadthecouragetobefirstGermansandthenofficials.
ErnstPohnerwastheonlymaninaresponsiblepostwhodidnot
curryfavorwiththemasses,butfeltresponsibletohisnationality
andwasreadytoriskandsacrificeeverything,evenifnecessary
hispersonalexistence,fortheresurrectionoftheGermanpeople
whom he loved above all things. And for this reason he was
alwaysatroublesomethornintheeyesofthosevenalofficials
thelawofwhoseactionswasprescribed,notbytheinterestof
theirpeopleandthenecessaryuprisingforitsfreedom,butbythe
boss'sorders,withoutregardforthewelfareofthenationaltrust
confidedinthem.
Andaboveallhewasoneofthosenatureswho,contrastingwith
mostoftheguardiansofoursocalledstateauthority,donotfear
theenmityoftraitorstothepeopleandthenation,butlongforit
asforatreasurewhichadecentmanmusttakeforgranted.The
hatredofJewsandMarxists,theirwholecampaignofliesand
slander,wereforhimthesolehappinessamidthemiseryofour
people.
A man of granite honesty, of antique simplicity and German
straightforwardness, for whom the words 'Sooner dead than a
slave'werenophrasebuttheessenceofhiswholebeing.
Heandhiscollaborator,Dr.Frick,areinmyeyestheonlymen

inastatepositionwhopossesstherighttobecalledcocreatorsof
anationalBavaria.
Beforeweproceededtoholdourfirstmassmeeting,notonlydid
thenecessarypropagandamaterialhavetobemadeready,butthe
mainpointsoftheprogramalsohadtobeputintoprint.
In the second volume I shall thoroughly develop the guiding
principles which we had in mind, particularly in framing the
program.HereIshallonlystatethatitwasdone,notonlytogive
the young movement form and content, but to make its aims
understandabletothebroadmasses.
Circlesofthesocalledintelligentsiahavemockedandridiculed
thisandattemptedtocriticizeit.Butthesoundnessofourpoint
ofviewatthattimehasbeenshownbytheeffectivenessofthis
program.
IntheseyearsIhaveseendozensofnewmovementsariseand
thevhaveallvanishedandevaporatedwithouttrace.Asingle
oneremains:TheNationalSocialistGermanWorkers'Party.And
today more than ever I harbor the conviction that people can
combatit,thattheycanattempttoparalyzeit,thatpettyparty
ministers can forbid us to speak and write, but that they will
neverpreventthevictoryofourideas.
When not even memory will reveal the names of the entire
presentdaystateconceptionanditsadvocates,thefundamentals
oftheNationalSocialistprogramwillbethefoundationsofa
comingstate.
Ourfourmonths'activitiesatmeetingsuptoJanuary,1920,had
slowlyenabledustosaveupthesmallmeansthatweneededfor
printingourfirstleaflet,ourfirstposter,andourprogram.
If I take the movement's first large mass meeting as the
conclusionofthisvolume,itisbecausebyitthepartyburstthe
narrowbondsofasmallclubandforthefirsttimeexerteda
determininginfiuenceonthemightiestfactorofourtirne,public
opinion.
Imyselfatthattimehadbutoneconcern:Willthehallbefilled,
orwillwespeaktoayawninghall?1Ihadtheunshakablelinner

convictionthatifthepeoplecame,thedaywassuretobeagreat
success for the young movement. And so I anxiously looked
forwardtothatevening.
Themeetingwastobeopenedat7:30.At7:15Ienteredthe
Festsaal of the Hofbrauhaus onthePlatzlinMunich,andmy
heartnearlyburstforjoy.Thegigantichallforatthattimeitstill
seemedtomegiganticwasovercrowdedwithpeople,shoulderto
shoulder,amassnumberingalmosttwothousandpeople.And
aboveallthosepeopletowhomwewantedtoappealhadcome.
Far more than half the hall seemed to be occupied by
CommunistsandIndependents.Theyhadresolvedthatourfirst
demonstrationwouldcometoaspeedyend.
Butitturnedoutdifferently.Afterthefirstspeakerhadfinished,I
tookthefloor.Afewminuteslatertherewasahailofshouts,
there were violent dashes in the hall, a handful of the most
faithful war comrades and other supporters battled with the
disturbers,andonlylittlebylittlewereabletorestoreorder.
Iwasabletogoonspeaking.Afterhalfanhourtheapplause
slowlybegantodrownoutthescreamingandshouting.
Inowtookuptheprogramandbegantoexplainitforthefirst
time.
From minute to minute the interruptions were increasingly
drownedoutbyshoutsofapplause.AndwhenIfinallysubmitted
thetwentyfivetheses,pointforpoint,tothemassesandasked
them personally to pronounce judgment on them, one after
anotherwasacceptedwithsteadilymountingjoy,unanimously
andagainunanimously,andwhenthelastthesishadfoundits
waytotheheartofthemasses,therestoodbeforemeahallfull
ofpeopleunitedbyanewconviction,anewfaith,anewwill.
Whenafternearlyfourhoursthehallbegantoemptyandthe
crowd,shouldertoshoulder,begantomove,shove,presstoward
theexitlikeaslowstream,Iknewthatnowtheprinciplesofa
movementwhichcouldnolongerbeforgottenweremovingout
amongtheGermanpeople.
Afirewaskindledfromwhoseflameonedaytheswordmust

comewhichwouldregainfreedomfortheGermanicSiegfried
andlifefortheGermannation.
Andsidebysidewiththecomingresurrection,Isensedthatthe
goddess of inexorable vengeance for the perjured deed of
November9,1919,wasstridingforth.
Thusslowlythehallemptied.
Themovementtookitscourse.

Volume II:

The National
Socialist
Movement

Chapter 1:

Philosophy and Party


OnFebruary24th,1920,thefirstgreatmassmeetingunderthe
auspicesofthenewmovementtookplace.IntheBanquetHallof
the Hofbruhaus in Munich the twentyfive theses which
constitutedtheprogrammeofournewpartywereexpoundedto
anaudienceofnearlytwothousandpeopleandeachthesiswas
enthusiasticallyreceived.
Thus we brought to the knowledge of the public those first
principlesandlinesofactionalongwhichthenewstrugglewas
tobeconductedfortheabolitionofaconfusedmassofobsolete
ideas and opinions which had obscure and often pernicious
tendencies.Anewforcewastomakeitsappearanceamongthe
timid and feckless bourgeoisie. This force was destined to
impede the triumphant advance of the Marxists and bring the
ChariotofFatetoastandstilljustasitseemedabouttoreachits
goal.
It was evident that this new movement could gain the public
significance and support which are necessary prerequisites in
suchagiganticstruggleonlyifitsucceededfromtheveryoutset
in awakening a sacrosanct conviction in the hearts of its
followers, that here it was not a case of introducing a new
electoralsloganintothepoliticalfieldbutthatanentirelynew
world view, which was of a radical significance, had to be
promoted.
Onemusttrytorecallthemiserablejumbleofopinionsthatused
tobearrayedsidebysidetoformtheusualPartyProgramme,as
itwascalled,andonemustrememberhowtheseopinionsusedto
bebrushedupordressedinanewformfromtimetotime.Ifwe
wouldproperlyunderstandtheseprogrammaticmonstrositieswe

mustcarefullyinvestigatethemotiveswhichinspiredtheaverage
bourgeois'programmecommittee'.
Those people are always influenced by one and the same
preoccupation when they introduce something new into their
programmeormodifysomethingalreadycontainedinit.That
preoccupationisdirectedtowardstheresultsofthenextelection.
Themomenttheseartistsinparliamentarygovernmenthavethe
firstglimmeringofasuspicionthattheirdarlingpublicmaybe
readytokickupitsheelsandescapefromtheharnessoftheold
partywagontheybegintopainttheshaftswithnewcolours.On
suchoccasionsthepartyastrologistsandhoroscopereaders,the
socalled'experiencedmen'and'experts',comeforward.Forthe
most part they are old parliamentary hands whose political
schoolinghasfurnishedthemwithampleexperience.Theycan
rememberformeroccasionswhenthemassesshowedsignsof
losingpatienceandtheynowdiagnosethemenaceofasimilar
situationarising.Resortingtotheiroldprescription,theyforma
'committee'.Theygoaroundamongthedarlingpublicandlisten
towhatisbeingsaid.Theydiptheirnosesintothenewspapers
andgraduallybegintoscentwhatitisthattheirdarlings,the
broadmasses,arewishingfor,whattheyrejectandwhattheyare
hopingfor.Thegroupsthatbelongtoeachtradeorbusiness,and
evenofficeemployees,arecarefullystudiedandtheirinnermost
desiresareinvestigated.The'maliciousslogans'oftheopposition
fromwhichdangeristhreatenedarenowsuddenlylookedupon
as worthy of reconsideration, and it often happens that these
slogans,tothegreatastonishmentofthosewhooriginallycoined
andcirculatedthem,nowappeartobequiteharmlessandindeed
aretobefoundamongthedogmasoftheoldparties.
Sothecommitteesmeettorevisetheoldprogrammeanddraw
upanewone.
For these people change their convictions just as the soldier
changeshisshirtinwarwhentheoldoneisbugeaten.Inthe
newprogrammeeveryonegetseverythinghewants.Thefarmer
isassuredthattheinterestsofagriculturewillbesafeguarded.
Theindustrialistisassuredofprotectionforhisproducts.The
consumer is assuredthathis interests willbe protectedinthe

market prices. Teachers are given higher salaries and civil


servants will have better pensions. Widows and orphans will
receive generous assistance from the State. Trade will be
promoted.Thetariffwillbeloweredandeventhetaxes,though
theycannot beentirelyabolished,willbealmostabolished.It
sometimeshappensthatonesectionofthepublicisforgottenor
that one of the demands mooted among the public has not
reachedtheearsoftheparty.Thisisalsohurriedlypatchedonto
thewhole,shouldtherebeanyspaceavailableforit:untilfinally
itisfeltthattherearegoodgroundsforhopingthatthewhole
normalhostofphilistines,includingtheirwives,willhavetheir
anxietieslaidtorestandwillbeamwithsatisfactiononceagain.
Andso,internallyarmedwithfaithinthegoodnessofGodand
theimpenetrablestupidityoftheelectorate,thestruggleforwhat
iscalled'thereconstructionoftheReich'cannowbegin.
Whentheelectiondayisoverandtheparliamentarianshaveheld
theirlastpublicmeetingforthenextfiveyears,whentheycan
leavetheirjobofgettingthepopulacetotoethelineandcannow
devotethemselvestohigherandmorepleasingtasksthenthe
programme committee is dissolved and the struggle for the
progressivereorganizationofpublicaffairsbecomesonceagaina
business of earning one's daily bread, which for the
parliamentariansmeansmerelytheattendancethatisrequiredin
ordertobeabletodrawtheirdailyremunerations.Morningafter
morningthehonourabledeputywendshiswaytotheHouse,and
thoughhemaynotentertheChamberitselfhegetsatleastasfar
asthefronthall,wherehewillfindtheregisteronwhichthe
namesofthedeputiesinattendancehavetobeinscribed.Asa
partofhisonerousservicetohisconstituentsheentershisname,
andinreturnreceivesasmallindemnityasawellearnedreward
forhisunceasingandexhaustinglabours.
Whenfouryearshavepassed,orinthemeantimeifthereshould
be some critical weeks during which the parliamentary
corporationshavetofacethedangerofbeingdissolved,these
honourablegentlemenbecomesuddenlyseizedbyanirresistible
desiretoact.Justasthegrubwormcannothelpgrowingintoa
cockchafer,theseparliamentarianwormsleavethegreatHouse

of Puppets and flutter on new wings out among the beloved


public.Theyaddresstheelectorsonceagain,giveanaccountof
theenormouslabourstheyhaveaccomplishedandemphasizethe
maliciousobstinacyoftheiropponents.Theydonotalwaysmeet
withgratefulapplause;foroccasionallytheunintelligentmasses
throwrudeandunfriendlyremarksintheirfaces.Whenthisspirit
ofpublicingratitudereachesacertainpitchthereisonlyoneway
of saving the situation. The prestige of the party must be
burnished up again. The programme has to be amended. The
committeeiscalledintoexistenceonceagain.Andtheswindle
beginsanew.Onceweunderstandtheimpenetrablestupidityof
our public we cannot be surprised that such tactics turn out
successful. Led by the Press and blinded once again by the
alluringappearanceofthenewprogramme,thebourgeoisaswell
astheproletarianherdsofvotersfaithfullyreturntothecommon
stall and reelect their old deceivers. The 'people's man' and
labourcandidatenowchangebackagainintotheparliamentarian
grubandbecomefatandrotundastheybattenontheleavesthat
growonthetreeofpubliclifetoberetransformedintothe
glitteringbutterflyafteranotherfouryearshavepassed.
Scarcely anything else can be so depressing as to watch this
process in sober reality and to be the eyewitness of this
repeatedlyrecurringfraud.Onaspiritualtraininggroundofthat
kinditisnotpossibleforthebourgeoisforcestodevelopthe
strength which is necessary to carry on the fight against the
organizedmightofMarxism.Indeedtheyhaveneverseriously
thought of doing so. Though these parliamentary quacks who
representthewhiteracearegenerallyrecognizedaspersonsof
quiteinferiormentalcapacity,theyareshrewdenoughtoknow
thattheycouldnotseriouslyentertainthehopeofbeingableto
usetheweaponofWesternDemocracytofightadoctrineforthe
advanceofwhichWesternDemocracy,withallitsaccessories,is
employedasameanstoanend.Democracyisexploitedbythe
Marxists for the purpose of paralysing their opponents and
gainingforthemselvesafreehandtoputtheirownmethodsinto
action.WhencertaingroupsofMarxistsusealltheiringenuity
forthetimebeingtomakeitbebelievedthattheyareinseparably

attachedtotheprinciplesofdemocracy,itmaybewelltorecall
thefactthatwhencriticaloccasionsarosethesesamegentlemen
snapped their fingers at the principle of decision by majority
vote, as that principle is understood by Western Democracy.
Such was the case in those days when the bourgeois
parliamentarians,intheirmonumentalshortsightedness,believed
thatthesecurityoftheReichwasguaranteedbecauseithadan
overwhelmingnumericalmajorityinitsfavour,andtheMarxists
didnothesitatesuddenlytograspsupremepowerintheirown
hands, backed by a mob of loafers, deserters, political place
huntersandJewishdilettanti.Thatwasablowinthefaceforthat
democracy in which so many parliamentarians believed. Only
those credulous parliamentary wizards who represented
bourgeois democracy could have believed that the brutal
determinationofthosewhoseinterestitistospreadtheMarxist
worldpest,ofwhichtheyarethecarriers,couldforamoment,
noworinthefuture,beheldincheckbythemagicalformulasof
Western Parliamentarianism. Marxism will march shoulder to
shoulderwithdemocracyuntilitsucceedsindirectlyinsecuring
foritsowncriminalpurposeseventhesupportofthosewhose
minds are nationally orientated and whom Marxism strives to
exterminate.ButiftheMarxistsshouldonedaycometobelieve
thattherewasadangerthatfromthiswitch'scauldronofour
parliamentary democracy a majority vote might be concocted,
whichbyreasonofitsnumericalmajoritywouldbeempowered
toenactlegislationandmightusethatpowerseriouslytocombat
Marxism,thenthewholeparliamentarianhocuspocuswouldbe
atanend.Insteadofappealingtothedemocraticconscience,the
standard bearers of the Red International would immediately
sendforthafuriousrallyingcryamongtheproletarianmasses
and the ensuing fight would not take place in the sedate
atmosphere of Parliament but in the factories and the streets.
Thendemocracywouldbeannihilatedforthwith.Andwhatthe
intellectualprowessoftheapostleswhorepresentedthepeoplein
Parliamenthadfailedtoaccomplishwouldnowbesuccessfully
carried out by the crowbar and the sledgehammer of the
exasperatedproletarianmassesjustasintheautumnof1918.
Atablowtheywouldawakenthebourgeoisworldtoseethe

madness of thinking that the Jewish drive towards world


conquest can be effectually opposed by means of Western
Democracy.
AsIhavesaid,onlyaverycreduloussoulcouldthinkofbinding
himselftoobservetherulesofthegamewhenhehastofacea
playerforwhomthoserulesarenothingbutamerebluffora
meansofservinghisowninterests,whichmeanshewilldiscard
themwhentheyprovenolongerusefulforhispurpose.
Allthepartiesthatprofesssocalledbourgeoisprincipleslook
uponpoliticallifeasinrealityastruggleforseatsinParliament.
Themomenttheirprinciplesandconvictionsareofnofurtheruse
inthatstruggletheyarethrownoverboard,asiftheyweresand
ballast.Andtheprogrammesareconstructedinsuchawaythat
theycanbedealtwithinlikemanner.Butsuchpracticehasa
correspondingly weakening effect on the strength of those
parties.Theylackthegreatmagneticforcewhichaloneattracts
the broad masses; for these masses always respond to the
compellingforcewhichemanatesfromabsolutefaithintheideas
putforward,combinedwithanindomitablezesttofightforand
defendthem.
At a time in which the one side, armed with all the fighting
powerthatspringsfromasystematicconceptionoflifeeven
though it be criminal in a thousand ways makes an attack
againsttheestablishedordertheothersidewillbeabletoresist
whenitdrawsitsstrengthfromanewfaith,whichinourcaseis
a political faith. This faith must supersede the weak and
cowardly command to defend. In its stead we must raise the
battlecry of a courageous and ruthless attack. Our present
movement is accused, especially by the socalled national
bourgeoiscabinetministerstheBavarianrepresentativesofthe
Centre,forexampleofheadingtowardsarevolution.Wehave
oneanswertogivetothosepoliticalpigmies.Wesaytothem:
Wearetryingtomakeupforthatwhichyou,inyourcriminal
stupidity, have failed to carry out. By your parliamentarian
jobbingyouhavehelpedtodragthenationintoruin.Butwe,by
ouraggressivepolicy,aresettingupanewphilosophyoflife
whichweshalldefendwithindomitabledevotion.Thusweare

buildingthestepsonwhichournationonceagainmayascendto
thetempleoffreedom.
Andsoduringthefirststagesoffoundingourmovementwehad
totakespecialcarethatourmilitantgroupwhichfoughtforthe
establishment of a new and exalted political faith should not
degenerateintoasocietyforthepromotionofparliamentarian
interests.
The first preventive measure was to lay down a programme
whichofitselfwouldtendtowardsdevelopingacertainmoral
greatnessthatwouldscareawayallthepettyandweaklingspirits
whomakeupthebulkofourpresentpartypoliticians.
Those fatal defects which finally led to Germany's downfall
affordtheclearestproofofhowrightwewereinconsideringit
absolutelynecessarytosetupprogrammaticaimswhichwere
sharplyanddistinctlydefined.
Becausewerecognizedthedefectsabovementioned,werealized
thatanewconceptionoftheStatehadtobeformed,whichin
itselfbecameapartofournewconceptionoflifeingeneral.
InthefirstvolumeofthisbookIhavealreadydealtwiththeterm
vlkisch, and I said then that this term has not a sufficiently
precise meaning to furnish the kernel around which a closely
consolidatedmilitantcommunitycouldbeformed.Allkindsof
people,withallkindsofdivergentopinions,areparadingabout
at the present moment under the device vlkisch on their
banners.BeforeIcometodealwiththepurposesandaimsofthe
National Socialist Labour Party I want to establish a clear
understanding of what is meant by the concept vlkisch and
herewithexplainitsrelationtoourpartymovement.Theword
vlkischdoesnotexpressanyclearlyspecifiedidea.Itmaybe
interpretedinseveralwaysandinpracticalapplicationitisjust
asgeneralastheword'religious',forinstance.Itisdifficultto
attach any precise meaning to this latter word, either as a
theoreticalconceptorasaguidingprincipleinpracticallife.The
word 'religious' acquires a precise meaning only when it is
associatedwithadistinctanddefiniteformthroughwhichthe
concept is put into practice. To say that a person is 'deeply

religious'maybeveryfinephraseology;but,generallyspeaking,
ittellsuslittleornothing.Theremaybesomefewpeoplewho
arecontentwithsuchavaguedescriptionandtheremayevenbe
sometowhomthewordconveysamoreorlessdefinitepicture
oftheinnerqualityofapersonthusdescribed.But,sincethe
massesofthepeoplearenotcomposedofphilosophersorsaints,
suchavaguereligiousideawillmeanforthemnothingelsethan
tojustifyeachindividualinthinkingandactingaccordingtohis
ownbent.Itwillnotleadtothatpracticalfaithintowhichthe
innerreligiousyearningistransformedonlywhenitleavesthe
sphereofgeneralmetaphysicalideasandismouldedtoadefinite
dogmaticbelief.Suchabeliefiscertainlynotanendinitself,but
themeanstoanend.Yetitisameanswithoutwhichtheend
couldneverbereachedatall.Thisend,however,isnotmerely
somethingideal;foratthebottomitiseminentlypractical.We
mustalwaysbearinmindthefactthat,generallyspeaking,the
highest idealsarealways theoutcomeofsomeprofoundvital
need,justasthemostsublimebeautyowesitsnobilityofshape,
inthelastanalysis,tothefactthatthemostbeautifulformisthe
formthatisbestsuitedtothepurposeitismeanttoserve.
By helping to lift the human being above the level of mere
animal existence, Faith really contributes to consolidate and
safeguarditsownexistence.Takinghumanityasitexiststoday
andtakingintoconsiderationthefactthatthereligiousbeliefs
which it generally holds and which have been consolidated
throughoureducation,sothattheyserveasmoralstandardsin
practicallife,ifweshouldnowabolishreligiousteachingandnot
replaceitbyanythingofequalvaluetheresultwouldbethatthe
foundationsofhumanexistencewouldbeseriouslyshaken.We
maysafelysaythatmandoesnotlivemerelytoservehigher
ideals,butthattheseideals,intheirturn,furnishthenecessary
conditionsofhisexistenceasahumanbeing.Andthusthecircle
isclosed.
Ofcourse,theword'religious'impliessomeideasandbeliefsthat
arefundamental.Amongthesewemayreckonthebeliefinthe
immortalityofthesoul,itsfutureexistenceineternity,thebelief
intheexistenceofaHigherBeing,andsoon.Butalltheseideas,

nomatterhowfirmlytheindividualbelievesinthem,maybe
critically analysed by any person and accepted or rejected
accordingly,until the emotional conceptor yearninghas been
transformedintoanactiveservicethatisgovernedbyaclearly
defineddoctrinalfaith.Suchafaithfurnishesthepracticaloutlet
for religious feeling to express itself and thus opens the way
throughwhichitcanbeputintopractice.
Withoutaclearlydefinedbelief,thereligiousfeelingwouldnot
onlybeworthlessforthepurposesofhumanexistencebuteven
mightcontributetowardsageneraldisorganization,onaccount
ofitsvagueandmultifarioustendencies.
WhatIhavesaidabouttheword'religious'canalsobeappliedto
thetermvlkisch.Thiswordalsoimpliescertainfundamental
ideas.Thoughtheseideasareveryimportantindeed,theyassume
suchvagueandindefiniteformsthattheycannotbeestimatedas
having a greater value than mere opinions, until they become
constituentelementsinthestructureofapoliticalparty.Forin
order to give practical force to the ideals that grow out of
philosophical ideals and to answer the demands which are a
logical consequence of such ideals, mere sentiment and inner
longingareofnopracticalassistance,justasfreedomcannotbe
wonbyauniversalyearningforit.No.Onlywhentheidealistic
longingforindependenceisorganizedinsuchawaythatitcan
fightforitsidealwithmilitaryforce,onlythencantheurgent
wishofapeoplebetransformedintoapotentreality.
Everyphilosophyoflife,evenifitisathousandtimescorrect
andofthehighest benefittomankind,willbeofnopractical
serviceforthemaintenanceofapeopleaslongasitsprinciples
havenotyetbecometherallyingpointofamilitantmovement.
And,onitsownside,thismovementwillremainamereparty
untilishasbroughtitsidealstovictoryandtransformeditsparty
doctrinesintothenewfoundationsofaStatewhichgivesthe
nationalcommunityitsfinalshape.
Ifanabstractconceptionofageneralnatureistoserveasthe
basis of a futuredevelopment,thenthefirst prerequisite isto
formaclearunderstandingofthenatureandcharacterandscope

ofthisconception.Foronlyonsuchabasiscanamovementhe
founded which will be able to draw the necessary fighting
strength from the internal cohesion of its principles and
convictions.Fromgeneralideasapoliticalprogrammemustbe
constructed and general ideas must receive the stamp of a
definitepoliticalfaith.Sincethisfaithmustbedirectedtowards
endsthathavetobeattainedintheworldofpracticalreality,not
onlymustitservethegeneralidealassuchbutitmustalsotake
intoconsiderationthemeansthathavetobeemployedforthe
triumphoftheideal.Herethepracticalwisdomofthestatesman
mustcometotheassistanceoftheabstractidea,whichiscorrect
in itself. In that way an eternal ideal, which has everlasting
significanceasaguidingstartomankind,mustbeadaptedtothe
exigenciesofhumanfrailtysothatitspracticaleffectmaynotbe
frustratedattheveryoutsetthroughthoseshortcomingswhich
aregeneraltomankind.Theexponentoftruthmustheregohand
inhandwithhimwhohasapracticalknowledgeofthesoulof
thepeople,sothatfromtherealmofeternalveritiesandideals
whatissuitedtothecapacitiesofhumannaturemaybeselected
andgivenpracticalform.
To take abstract and general principles, derived from a
philosophywhichisbasedonasolidfoundationoftruth,and
transformthemintoamilitantcommunitywhosemembershave
the same political faith a community which is precisely
defined,rigidlyorganized,ofonemindandonewillsucha
transformation is the most important task of all; for the
possibilityofsuccessfullycarryingouttheideaisdependenton
thesuccessfulfulfilmentofthattask.Outofthearmyofmillions
whofeelthetruthoftheseideas,andevenmayunderstandthem
tosomeextent,onemanmustarise.Thismanmusthavethegift
ofbeingabletoexpoundgeneralideasinaclearanddefinite
form,and,fromtheworldofvagueideasshimmeringbeforethe
mindsofthemasses,hemustformulateprinciplesthatwillbeas
clearcutandfirmasgranite.Hemustfightfortheseprinciplesas
the only true ones, until a solid rock of common faith and
commonwillemergesabovethetroubledwavesofvagrantideas.
Thegeneraljustificationofsuchactionistobesoughtinthe

necessityforitandtheindividualwillbejustifiedbyhissuccess.
Ifwetrytopenetratetotheinnermeaningofthewordvlkisch
wearriveatthefollowingconclusions:
ThecurrentpoliticalconceptionoftheworldisthattheState,
though it possesses a creative force which can build up
civilizations,hasnothingincommonwiththeconceptofraceas
the foundation of the State. The State is considered rather as
something whichhas resulted from economic necessity, or, at
best, the natural outcome of the play of political forces and
impulses. Such a conception of the foundations of the State,
togetherwithallitslogicalconsequences,notonlyignoresthe
primordialracialforcesthatunderlietheState,butitalsoleadsto
apolicyinwhichtheimportanceoftheindividualisminimized.
Ifitbedeniedthatracesdifferfromoneanotherintheirpowers
of cultural creativeness, thenthis sameerroneousnotionmust
necessarily influence our estimation of the value of the
individual.Theassumptionthatallracesarealikeleadstothe
assumptionthatnationsandindividualsareequaltooneanother.
And international Marxism is nothing but the application
effectedbytheJew,KarlMarxofageneralconceptionoflife
to a definite profession of political faith; but in reality that
generalconcepthadexistedlongbeforethetimeofKarlMarx.If
it had not already existed as a widely diffused infection the
amazingpoliticalprogressoftheMarxistteachingwouldnever
havebeenpossible.InrealitywhatdistinguishedKarlMarxfrom
themillionswhowereaffectedinthesamewaywasthat,ina
worldalreadyinastateofgradualdecomposition,heusedhis
keenpowersofprognosistodetecttheessentialpoisons,soasto
extractthemandconcentratethem,withtheartofanecromancer,
inasolutionwhichwouldbringabouttherapiddestructionofthe
independentnationsontheglobe.Butallthiswasdoneinthe
serviceofhisrace.
Thus the Marxist doctrine is the concentrated extract of the
mentalitywhichunderliesthegeneralconceptoflifetoday.For
thisreasonaloneitisoutofthequestionandevenridiculousto
think that what is called our bourgeois world can put up any
effective fight against Marxism. For this bourgeois world is

permeatedwithallthosesamepoisonsanditsconceptionoflife
in general differs from Marxism only in degree and in the
character of the persons who hold it. The bourgeois world is
Marxist but believes in the possibility of a certain group of
peoplethatistosay,thebourgeoisiebeingabletodominate
theworld,whileMarxismitselfsystematicallyaimsatdelivering
theworldintothehandsoftheJews.
Over against all this, the vlkisch concept of the world
recognizesthattheprimordialracialelementsareofthegreatest
significanceformankind.Inprinciple,theStateislookedupon
onlyasameanstoanendandthisendistheconservationofthe
racial characteristics of mankind. Therefore on the vlkisch
principlewecannotadmitthatoneraceisequaltoanother.By
recognizingthattheyaredifferent,thevlkischconceptseparates
mankindintoracesofsuperiorandinferiorquality.Onthebasis
ofthisrecognitionitfeelsboundinconformitywiththeeternal
Willthatdominatestheuniverse,topostulatethevictoryofthe
better and stronger and the subordination of the inferior and
weaker.Andsoitpayshomagetothetruththattheprinciple
underlyingallNature'soperationsisthearistocraticprincipleand
it believes that this law holds good even down to the last
individualorganism.Itselectsindividualvaluesfromthemass
andthusoperatesasanorganizingprinciple,whereasMarxism
actsasadisintegratingsolvent.Thevlkischbeliefholdsthat
humanitymust have its ideals, because ideals are a necessary
conditionofhumanexistenceitself.But,ontheotherhand,it
deniesthatanethicalidealhastherighttoprevailifitendangers
theexistence of a race thatisthestandardbearer of a higher
ethical ideal. For in a world which would be composed of
mongrelsandnegroidsallidealsofhumanbeautyandnobility
andallhopesofanidealizedfutureforourhumanitywouldbe
lostforever.
On this planet of ours human culture and civilization are
indissolubly bound up with the presence of the Aryan. If he
shouldbeexterminatedorsubjugated,thenthedarkshroudofa
newbarbarianerawouldenfoldtheearth.
Tounderminetheexistenceofhumanculturebyexterminating

itsfoundersandcustodianswouldbeanexecrablecrimeinthe
eyesofthosewhobelievethatthefolkidealiesatthebasisof
humanexistence.Whoeverwoulddaretoraiseaprofanehand
againstthathighestimageofGodamongHiscreatureswouldsin
against the bountiful Creator of this marvel and would
collaborateintheexpulsionfromParadise.
Hencethefolkconceptoftheworldisinprofoundaccordwith
Nature'swill;becauseitrestoresthefreeplayoftheforceswhich
will lead the race through stages of sustained reciprocal
educationtowardsahighertype,untilfinallythebestportionof
mankindwillpossesstheearthandwillbefreetoworkinevery
domainallovertheworldandevenreachspheresthatlieoutside
theearth.
Weallfeelthatinthedistantfuturemanymaybefacedwith
problemswhichcanbesolvedonlybyasuperiorraceofhuman
beings,aracedestinedtobecomemasterofalltheotherpeoples
andwhichwillhaveatitsdisposalthemeansandresourcesof
thewholeworld.
Itisselfevidentthatsogeneralastatementofthemeaningful
content of a folkish philosophy can be easily interpreted in a
thousanddifferentways.Asamatteroffactthereisscarcelyone
of our recentpolitical movementsthatdoes notrefer atsome
point to this conception of the world. But the fact that this
conceptionoftheworldstillmaintainsitsindependentexistence
infaceofalltheothersprovesthattheirwaysoflookingatlife
are quite difierent from this. Thus the Marxist conception,
directed by a central organization endowed with supreme
authority,isopposedbyamotleycrewofopinionswhichisnot
veryimpressive infaceof thesolidphalanxpresented bythe
enemy. Victory cannot be achieved with such weak weapons.
Only when the international idea, politically organized by
Marxism,isconfrontedbythefolkidea,equallywellorganized
inasystematicwayandequallywellledonlythenwillthe
fightingenergyintheonecampbeabletomeetthatoftheother
onanequalfooting;andvictorywillbefoundonthesideof
eternaltruth.

Butageneralconceptionoflifecanneverbegivenanorganic
embodimentuntilitispreciselyanddefinitelyformulated.The
functionwhichdogmafulfilsinreligiousbeliefisparalleltothe
functionwhichpartyprinciplesfulfilforapoliticalpartywhich
isintheprocessofbeingbuiltup.
Therefore,fortheconceptionoflifethatisbasedonthefolkidea
itisnecessarythataninstrumentbeforgedwhichcanbeusedin
fightingforthisideal,similartotheMarxistpartyorganization
whichclearsthewayforinternationalism.
This is the goal pursued by the National Socialist German
Workers'Party.
Thefolkconceptionmustthereforebedefinitelyformulatedso
thatitmaybeorganicallyincorporatedintheparty.Thatisa
necessaryprerequisiteforthesuccessofthisidea.Andthatitis
soisveryclearlyprovedevenbytheindirectacknowledgmentof
thosewhoopposesuchanamalgamationofthefolkideawith
party principles. The very people who never tire of insisting
againandagainthattheconceptionoflifebasedonthefolkidea
canneverbetheexclusivepropertyofasinglegroup,becauseit
liesdormantor'lives'inmyriadsofhearts,onlyconfirmbytheir
ownstatementsthesimplefactthatthegeneralpresenceofsuch
ideasintheheartsofmillionsofmenhasnotprovedsufficientto
impedethevictoryoftheopposingideas,whicharechampioned
byapoliticalpartyorganizedontheprincipleofclassconflict.If
thatwerenotso,theGermanpeopleoughtalreadytohavegained
agiganticvictoryinsteadoffindingthemselvesonthebrinkof
theabyss.Theinternationalideologyachievedsuccessbecauseit
was organized in a militant political party which was always
readytotaketheoffensive.Ifhithertotheideasopposedtothe
internationalconcepthavehadtogivewaybeforethelatterthe
reasonisthattheylackedaunitedfronttofightfortheircause.A
doctrinewhichformsadefiniteoutlookonlifecannotstruggle
andtriumphbyallowingtherightof freeinterpretationof its
generalteaching,butonlybydefiningthatteachingincertain
articlesoffaiththathavetobeacceptedandincorporatingitina
politicalorganization.

Therefore I considered it my special duty to extract from the


extensivebutvaguecontentsofageneralworldviewtheideas
which were essential and give them a more or less dogmatic
form.Becauseoftheirpreciseandclearmeaning,theseideasare
suitedtothepurposeofunitinginacommonfrontallthosewho
are ready to accept them as principles. In other words: The
NationalSocialistGermanWorkers'Partyextractstheessential
principles from the general conception of the world which is
based on the folk idea. On these principles it establishes a
politicaldoctrinewhichtakesintoaccountthepracticalrealities
oftheday,thenatureofthetimes,theavailablehumanmaterial
and all its deficiencies. Through this political doctrine it is
possibletobringgreatmassesofthepeopleintoanorganization
which is constructed as rigidly as it could be. Such an
organization is the main preliminary that is necessary for the
finaltriumphofthisworldview.

Chapter 2:

The State
By19201921certaincirclesbelongingtothepresentoutlived
bourgeoisclassaccusedourmovementagainandagainoftaking
upanegativeattitudetowardsthemodernState.Forthatreason
the motley gang of camp followers attached to the various
politicalparties,representingaheterogeneousconglomerationof
politicalviews,assumedtherightofutilizingallavailablemeans
tosuppresstheprotagonistsofthisyoungmovementwhichwas
preaching a new political gospel. Our opponents deliberately
ignored the fact that the bourgeois class itself stood for no
uniformopinionastowhattheStatereallymeantandthatthe
bourgeoisiedidnotandcouldnotgiveanycoherentdefinitionof
thisinstitution.Thosewhosedutyitistoexplainwhatismeant
when we speak of the State, hold chairs in State universities,
ofteninthedepartmentofconstitutionallaw,andconsiderittheir
highestdutytofindexplanationsandjustificationsforthemore
orlessfortunateexistenceofthatparticularformofStatewhich
providesthemwiththeirdailybread.Themoreabsurdsucha
form of State is the more obscure and artificial and
incomprehensible are the definitions which are advanced to
explainthepurposeofitsexistence.What,forinstance,coulda
royalandimperialuniversityprofessorwriteaboutthemeaning
andpurposeofaStateinacountrywhosestatalformrepresented
thegreatestmonstrosityofthetwentiethcentury?Thatwouldbe
a difficult undertaking indeed, in view of the fact that the
contemporaryprofessorofconstitutionallawisobligednotso
muchtoservethecause of truthbutrathertoserveacertain
definitepurpose.Andthispurposeistodefendatallcoststhe
existenceofthatmonstroushumanmechanismwhichwenow
call the State. Nobody can be surprised if concrete facts are

evadedasfaraspossiblewhentheproblemoftheStateisunder
discussion and if professors adopt the tactics of concealing
themselvesinmorassofabstractvaluesanddutiesandpurposes
whicharedescribedas'ethical'and'moral'.
Generally speaking, these various theorists may be classed in
threegroups:
1. Those who hold that the State is a more or less voluntary
associationofmenwhohaveagreedtosetupandobeyaruling
authority.
Thisisnumericallythelargestgroup.Initsranksaretobefound
thosewhoworshipourpresentprincipleoflegalizedauthority.In
their eyes the will of the people has no part whatever in the
wholeaffair.ForthemthefactthattheStateexistsissufficient
reason to consider it sacred and inviolable. To protect the
madnessofhumanbrains,apositivelydoglikeadorationofso
calledstateauthorityisneeded.Inthemindsofthesepeoplethe
means is substituted for the end, by a sort of sleightofhand
movement.TheStatenolongerexistsforthepurposeofserving
menbutmenexistforthepurposeofadoringtheauthorityofthe
State, which is vested in its functionaries, even down to the
smallest official. So as to prevent this placid and ecstatic
adorationfromchangingintosomethingthatmightbecomein
anywaydisturbing,theauthorityoftheStateislimitedsimplyto
thetaskofpreservingorderandtranquillity.Therewithitisno
longereitherameansoranend.TheStatemustseethatpublic
peaceandorderarepreservedand,intheirturn,orderandpeace
mustmaketheexistenceoftheStatepossible.Alllifemustmove
betweenthesetwopoles.InBavariathisviewisupheldbythe
artful politicians of the Bavarian Centre, which is called the
'Bavarian Populist Party'. In Austria the BlackandYellow
legitimistsadoptasimilarattitude.IntheReich,unfortunately,
the socalled conservative elements follow the same line of
thought.
2.Thesecondgroupissomewhatsmallerinnumbers.Itincludes
thosewhowouldmaketheexistenceoftheStatedependenton
someconditionsatleast.Theyinsistthatnotonlyshouldtherebe

auniformsystemofgovernmentbutalso,ifpossible,thatonly
onelanguageshouldbeused,thoughsolelyfortechnicalreasons
ofadministration.InthisviewtheauthorityoftheStateisno
longerthesoleandexclusiveendforwhichtheStateexists.It
mustalsopromotethegoodofitssubjects.Ideasof'freedom',
mostlybasedonamisunderstandingofthemeaningofthatword,
enterintotheconceptoftheStateasitexistsinthemindsofthis
group. The form of government is no longer considered
inviolablesimplybecauseitexists.Itmustsubmittothetestof
practicalefficiency.Itsvenerableagenolongerprotectsitfrom
beingcriticizedinthelightofmodernexigencies.Moreover,in
thisviewthefirstdutylaidupontheStateistoguaranteethe
economic wellbeing of the individual citizens. Hence it is
judged from the practical standpoint and according to general
principles based on the idea of economic returns. The chief
representativesofthistheoryoftheStatearetobefoundamong
the average German bourgeoisie, especially our liberal
democrats.
3.Thethirdgroupisnumericallythesmallest.IntheStatethey
discoverameansfortherealizationoftendenciesthatarisefrom
apolicyofpower,onthepartofapeoplewhoareethnically
homogeneousandspeakthesamelanguage.Butthosewhohold
this view are not clear about what they mean by 'tendencies
arising from a policy of power'. A common language is
postulated not only because they hope that thereby the State
wouldbefurnishedwithasolidbasis fortheextensionofits
poweroutsideitsownfrontiers,butalsobecausetheythink
thoughfallingintoafundamentalerrorbydoingsothatsucha
commonlanguagewouldenablethemtocarryoutaprocessof
nationalizationinadefinitedirection.
Duringthelastcenturyitwaslamentableforthosewhohadto
witnessit,tonoticehowinthesecirclesIhavejustmentioned
theword 'Germanize' was frivolously playedwith, thoughthe
practicewasoftenwellintended.Iwellrememberhowinthe
days of my youth this very term used to give rise to notions
whichwerefalsetoanincredibledegree.EveninPanGerman
circles one heard the opinion expressed that the Austrian

GermansmightverywellsucceedinGermanizingtheAustrian
Slavs, if only the Government would be ready to cooperate.
ThosepeopledidnotunderstandthatapolicyofGermanization
can be carried out only as regards human beings. What they
mostlymeantbyGermanizationwasaprocessofforcingother
people to speak the German language. But it is almost
inconceivablehowsuchamistakecouldbemadeastothinkthat
aNegrooraChinamanwillbecomeaGermanbecausehehas
learnedtheGermanlanguageandiswillingtospeakGermanfor
thefuture,andeventocasthisvoteforaGermanpoliticalparty.
Our bourgeoisnationalistscouldneverclearlysee thatsucha
process of Germanization is in reality deGermanization; for
evenifalltheoutstandingandvisibledifferencesbetweenthe
variouspeoplescouldbebridgedoverandfinallywipedoutby
theuseofacommonlanguage,thatwouldproduceaprocessof
bastardization which in this case would not signify
GermanizationbuttheannihilationoftheGermanelement.Inthe
courseofhistoryithashappenedonlytoooftenthataconquering
racesucceededbyexternalforceincompellingthepeoplewhom
theysubjectedtospeakthetongueoftheconquerorandthatafter
athousandyearstheirlanguagewasspokenbyanotherpeople
and that thus the conqueror finally turned out to be the
conquered.
What makes a people or, to be more correct, a race, is not
languagebutblood.Thereforeitwouldbejustifiabletospeakof
Germanizationonlyifthatprocesscouldchangethebloodofthe
people who would be subjected to it, which is obviously
impossible.Achangewouldbepossibleonlybyamixtureof
blood,butinthiscasethequalityofthesuperiorracewouldbe
debased. The final result of such a mixture would be that
preciselythosequalitieswouldbedestroyedwhichhadenabled
theconqueringracetoachievevictoryoveraninferiorpeople.It
isespeciallytheculturalcreativenesswhichdisappearswhena
superiorraceintermixeswithaninferiorone,eventhoughthe
resultantmongrelraceshouldexcelathousandfoldinspeaking
the language of the race that once had been superior. For a
certain time there will be a conflict between the different

mentalities,anditmaybethatanationwhichisinastateof
progressivedegenerationwillatthelastmomentrallyitscultural
creativepowerandonceagainproducestrikingexamplesofthat
power.Buttheseresultsaredueonlytotheactivityofelements
thathaveremainedoverfromthesuperiorraceorhybridsofthe
firstcrossinginwhomthesuperiorbloodhasremaineddominant
andseeks toassert itself.Butthiswillneverhappenwiththe
finaldescendantsofsuchhybrids.Thesearealwaysinastateof
culturalretrogression.
WemustconsideritasfortunatethataGermanizationofAustria
accordingtotheplanofJosephIIdidnotsucceed.Probablythe
resultwouldhavebeenthattheAustrianStatewouldhavebeen
abletosurvive,butatthesametimeparticipationintheuseofa
commonlanguagewouldhavedebasedtheracialqualityofthe
Germanelement.Inthecourseofcenturiesacertainherdinstinct
might have been developed but the herd itself would have
deterioratedinquality.AnationalStatemighthavearisen,buta
peoplewhohadbeenculturallycreativewouldhavedisappeared.
For the German nation it was better that this process of
intermixturedidnottakeplace,althoughitwasnotrenouncedfor
anyhighmindedreasons butsimply throughthe shortsighted
pettiness of the Habsburgs. If it had taken place the German
peoplecouldnotnowbelookeduponasaculturalfactor.
NotonlyinAustria,however,butalsointheReich,theseso
callednationalcircleswere,andstillare,undertheinfluenceof
similarerroneousideas.Unfortunately,apolicytowardsPoland,
wherebytheEastwastobeGermanized,wasdemandedbymany
andwasbasedonthesamefalsereasoning.Hereagainitwas
believedthatthePolishpeoplecouldbeGermanizedbybeing
compelledtousetheGermanlanguage.Theresultwouldhave
beenfatal.Apeopleofforeignracewouldhavehadtousethe
Germanlanguagetoexpressmodesofthoughtthatwereforeign
to the German, thus compromising by its own inferiority the
dignityandnobilityofournation.
Itisrevoltingtothinkhowmuchdamageisindirectlydoneto
GermanprestigetodaythroughthefactthattheGermanpatoisof

theJewswhentheyentertheUnitedStatesenablesthemtobe
classedasGermans,becausemanyAmericansarequiteignorant
ofGermanconditions.Amongus,nobodywouldthinkoftaking
theseunhygienicimmigrantsfromtheEastformembersofthe
German race and nation merely because they mostly speak
German.
WhathasbeenbeneficiallyGermanizedinthecourseofhistory
wasthelandwhichourancestorsconqueredwiththeswordand
colonizedwithGermantillersofthesoil.Totheextentthatthey
introduced foreign blood into our national body in this
colonization, they have helped to disintegrate our racial
character,aprocess whichhas resulted inour Germanhyper
individualism, though this latter characteristic is even now
frequentlypraised.
Inthisthirdgroupalsotherearepeoplewho,toacertaindegree,
considertheStateasanendinitself.Hencetheyconsiderits
preservationasoneofthehighestaimsofhumanexistence.Our
analysismaybesummedupasfollows:
All these opinions have this commonfeature andfailing:that
theyarenotgroundedinarecognitionoftheprofoundtruththat
thecapacityforcreatingculturalvaluesisessentiallybasedon
the racial element and that, in accordance with this fact, the
paramountpurposeoftheStateistopreserveandimprovethe
race; for this is an indispensable condition of all progress in
humancivilization.
ThustheJew,KarlMarx,wasabletodrawthefinalconclusions
fromthesefalseconceptsandideasonthenatureandpurposeof
the State. By eliminating from the concept of the State all
thoughtoftheobligationwhichtheStatebearstowardstherace,
without finding any other formula that might be universally
accepted, the bourgeois teaching prepared the way for that
doctrinewhichrejectstheStateassuch.
That is why the bourgeois struggle against Marxist
internationalismisabsolutelydoomedtofailinthisfield.The
bourgeois classes have already sacrificed the basic principles
whichalonecouldfurnishasolidfootingfortheirideas.Their

craftyopponenthasperceivedthedefectsintheirstructureand
advances to the assault on it with those weapons which they
themselveshaveplacedinhishandsthoughnotmeaningtodo
so.
Therefore any new movement which is based on the racial
conceptoftheworldwillfirstofallhavetoputforwardaclear
andlogicaldoctrineofthenatureandpurposeoftheState.
ThefundamentalprincipleisthattheStateisnotanendinitself
butthemeanstoanend.Itisthepreliminaryconditionunder
which alone a higher form of human civilization can be
developed,butitisnotthesourceofsuchadevelopment.Thisis
tobesoughtexclusivelyintheactualexistenceofaracewhichis
endowed with the gift of cultural creativeness. There may be
hundredsofexcellentStatesonthisearth,andyetiftheAryan,
whoisthecreatorandcustodianofcivilization,shoulddisappear,
allculturethatisonanadequatelevelwiththespiritualneedsof
thesuperiornationstodaywouldalsodisappear.Wemaygostill
further and say that the fact that States have been created by
humanbeingsdoesnotintheleastexcludethepossiblitythatthe
humanracemaybecomeextinct,becausethesuperiorintellectual
facultiesandpowersofadaptationwouldbelostwhentheracial
bearerofthesefacultiesandpowersdisappeared.
If,forinstance,thesurfaceoftheglobeshouldbeshakentoday
by some seismic convulsion and if a new Himalaya would
emergefrom thewaves of the sea,this onecatastrophealone
might annihilate human civilization. No State could exist any
longer.Allorderwouldbeshattered.Andallvestigesofcultural
products which had been evolved through thousands of years
woulddisappear.Nothingwouldbeleftbutonetremendousfield
ofdeathanddestructionsubmergedinfloodsofwaterandmud.
If,however,justafewpeoplewouldsurvivethisterriblehavoc,
andifthesepeoplebelongedtoadefiniteracethathadtheinnate
powers to build up a civilization, when the commotion had
passed,theearthwouldagainbearwitnesstothecreativepower
of the human spirit, even though a span of a thousand years
mightintervene.Onlywiththeexterminationofthelastracethat
possessesthegiftofculturalcreativeness,andindeedonlyifall

the individuals of that race had disappeared, would the earth


definitely be turned into a desert. On the other hand, modern
historyfurnishesexamplestoshowthatstatalinstitutionswhich
owetheirbeginningstomembersofaracewhichlackscreative
genius are not made of stuff that will endure. Just as many
varietiesofprehistoricanimalshadtogivewaytoothersand
leavenotracebehindthem,somanwillalsohavetogiveway,if
he loses that definite faculty which enables him to find the
weapons that are necessary for him to maintain his own
existence.
It is not theState assuch thatbringsaboutacertaindefinite
advanceinculturalprogress.TheStatecanonlyprotecttherace
thatisthecauseofsuchprogress.TheStateassuchmaywell
exist without undergoing any change for hundreds of years,
thoughtheculturalfacultiesandthegenerallifeofthepeople,
whichisshapedbythesefaculties,mayhavesufferedprofound
changesbyreasonofthefactthattheStatedidnotpreventa
processofracialmixturefromtakingplace.ThepresentState,
forinstance,maycontinuetoexistinameremechanicalform,
butthepoisonof miscegenationpermeatingthenationalbody
bringsaboutaculturaldecadencewhichmanifestsitselfalready
invarioussymptomsthatareofadetrimentalcharacter.
Thus the indispensable prerequisite for the existence of a
superiorqualityofhumanbeingsisnottheStatebuttherace,
whichisalonecapableofproducingthathigherhumanquality.
Thiscapacityisalwaysthere,thoughitwillliedormantunless
external circumstances awaken it to action. Nations, or rather
races, which are endowed with the faculty of cultural
creativenesspossessthisfacultyinalatentformduringperiods
whentheexternalcircumstancesareunfavourableforthetime
being and therefore do not allow the faculty to express itself
effectively.Itisthereforeoutrageouslyunjusttospeakofthepre
ChristianGermansasbarbarianswhohadnocivilization.They
never have been such. But the severity of the climate that
prevailedinthenorthernregionswhichtheyinhabitedimposed
conditionsoflifewhichhamperedafreedevelopmentoftheir
creativefaculties.Iftheyhadcometothefairerclimateofthe

South,withnopreviousculturewhatsoever,andiftheyacquired
thenecessaryhumanmaterialthatistosay,menofaninferior
racetoservethemasworkingimplements,theculturalfaculty
dormant in them would have splendidly blossomed forth, as
happened in the case of the Greeks, for example. But this
primordialcreativefacultyinculturalthingswasnotsolelydue
to their northern climate. For the Laplanders or the Eskimos
would not have become creators of a culture if they were
transplantedtotheSouth.No,thiswonderfulcreativefacultyisa
specialgiftbestowedontheAryan,whetheritliesdormantin
himorbecomesactive,accordingastheadverseconditionsof
naturepreventtheactiveexpressionofthatfacultyorfavourable
circumstancespermitit.
Fromthesefactsthefollowingconclusionsmaybedrawn:
TheStateisonlyameanstoanend.Itsendanditspurposeisto
preserveandpromoteacommunityofhumanbeingswhoare
physically as well as spiritually kindred. Above all, it must
preserve the existence of the race, thereby providing the
indispensableconditionforthefreedevelopmentofalltheforces
dormantinthisrace.Agreatpartofthesefacultieswillalways
havetobeemployedinthefirstplacetomaintainthephysical
existenceoftherace,andonlyasmallportionwillbefreeto
workinthefieldofintellectualprogress.But,asamatteroffact,
theoneisalwaysthenecessarycounterpartoftheother.
Those States which do not serve this purpose have no
justificationfortheirexistence.Theyaremonstrosities.Thefact
thattheydoexistisnomoreofajustificationthanthesuccessful
raids carried out by a band of pirates can be considered a
justificationofpiracy.
WeNationalSocialists,whoarefightingforanewphilosophyof
lifemustnevertakeourstandonthefamous'basisoffacts',and
especiallynotonmistakenfacts.Ifwedidso,weshouldceaseto
betheprotagonistsofanewandgreatideaandwouldbecome
slavesintheserviceofthefallacywhichisdominanttoday.We
must make a clearcut distinction between the vessel and its
contents. The State is only the vessel and the race is what it

contains.Thevesselcanhaveameaningonlyifitpreservesand
safeguardsthecontents.Otherwiseitisworthless.
HencethesupremepurposeofthefolkishStateistoguardand
preservethoseoriginalracialelementswhich,throughtheirwork
in the cultural field, create that beauty and dignity which are
characteristicofahighermankind.We,asAryans,canconsider
theStateonlyasthelivingorganismofapeople,anorganism
whichdoesnotmerelymaintaintheexistenceofapeople,but
functionsinsuchawayastoleaditspeopletoapositionof
supreme liberty by the progressive development of the
intellectualandculturalfaculties.
WhattheywanttoimposeuponusasaStatetodayisinmost
cases nothing but a monstrosity, the product of a profound
humanaberrationwhichbringsuntoldsufferinginitstrain.
WeNationalSocialistsknowthatinholdingtheseviewswetake
uparevolutionarystandintheworldoftodayandthatweare
brandedasrevolutionaries.Butourviewsandourconductwill
notbedeterminedbytheapprobationordisapprobationofour
contemporaries,butonlybyourdutytofollowatruthwhichwe
haveacknowledged.Indoingthiswehavereasontobelievethat
posteritywillhaveaclearerinsight,andwillnotonlyunderstand
theworkwearedoingtoday,butwillalsoratifyitastheright
workandwillexaltitaccordingly.
OntheseprinciplesweNationalSocialistsbaseourstandardsof
value in appraising a State. This value will be relative when
viewedfromtheparticularstandpointoftheindividualnation,
butitwillbeabsolutewhenconsideredfromthestandpointof
humanityasawhole.Inotherwords,thismeans:
ThequalityofaStatecanneverbejudgedbythelevelofits
culture or the degree of importance which the outside world
attachestoitspower,butthatitsexcellencemustbejudgedby
thedegreetowhichitsinstitutionsservetheracialstockwhich
belongstoit.
AStatemaybeconsideredasamodelexampleifitadequately
servesnotonlythevitalneedsoftheracialstockitrepresentsbut
ifitactuallyassuresbyitsownexistencethepreservationofthis

sameracialstock,nomatterwhatgeneralculturalsignificance
this statal institution may have in the eyes of the rest of the
world. For it is not the task of the State to create human
capabilities, but only to assure free scope for the exercise of
capabilitiesthatalreadyexist.Thus,conversely,aStatemaybe
calledbadif,inspiteoftheexistenceofahighculturallevel,it
doomstodestructionthebearersofthatculturebybreakingup
theirracialuniformity.Forthepracticaleffectofsuchapolicy
wouldbetodestroythoseconditionsthatareindispensablefor
the ulterior existence of that culture, which the State did not
createbutwhichisthefruitofthecreativepowerinherentinthe
racialstockwhoseexistenceisassuredbybeingunitedinthe
livingorganismoftheState.Onceagainletmeemphasizethe
fact that the State itself is not the substance but the form.
Therefore,theculturallevelisnotthestandardbywhichwecan
judge the value of the State in which that people lives. It is
evident that a people which is endowed with high creative
powersintheculturalsphereisofmoreworththanatribeof
negroes.Andyetthestatalorganizationoftheformer,ifjudged
fromthestandpointofefficiency,maybeworsethanthatofthe
negroes.NoteventhebestofStatesandstatalinstitutionscan
evolvefacultiesfromapeoplewhichtheylackandwhichthey
never possessed, but a bad State may gradually destroy the
faculties which once existed. This it can do by allowing or
favouringthesuppressionofthosewhoarethebearersofaracial
culture.
Therefore,theworthofaStatecanbedeterminedonlybyasking
howfarit actuallysucceeds inpromotingthewellbeingof a
definiteraceandnotbytherolewhichitplaysintheworldat
large.Itsrelativeworthcanbeestimatedreadilyandaccurately;
butitisdifficulttojudgeitsabsoluteworth,becausethelatteris
conditionednot onlybytheStatebutalsobythequalityand
culturallevelofthepeoplethatbelongtotheindividualStatein
question.
Therefore,whenwespeakofthehighmissionoftheStatewe
mustnotforgetthatthehighmissionbelongstothepeopleand
thatthebusinessoftheStateistouseitsorganizingpowersfor

thepurposeoffurnishingthenecessaryconditionswhichallow
thispeoplefreelytounfolditscreativefaculties.Andifweask
whatkindofstatalinstitutionweGermansneed,wemustfirst
have a clear notion as to the people which that State must
embraceandwhatpurposeitmustserve.
Unfortunately the German national being is not based on a
uniformracialtype.Theprocessofweldingtheoriginalelements
togetherhasnotgonesofarastowarrantusinsayingthatanew
racehasemerged.Onthecontrary,thepoisonwhichhasinvaded
thenational body,especially sincetheThirtyYears'War,has
destroyedtheuniformconstitutionnotonlyofourbloodbutalso
ofournationalsoul.Theopenfrontiersofournativecountry,the
associationwithnonGermanforeignelementsintheterritories
thatlieallalongthosefrontiers,andespeciallythestronginflux
of foreign blood into the interior of the Reich itself, has
preventedanycompleteassimilationofthosevariouselements,
becausetheinfluxhascontinuedsteadily.Outofthismeltingpot
nonewracearose.Theheterogeneouselementscontinuetoexist
sidebyside.Andtheresultisthat,especiallyintimesofcrisis,
whentheherdusuallyflockstogether,theGermansdispersein
all directions. The fundamental racial elements are not only
differentindifferentdistricts,buttherearealsovariouselements
inthesingledistricts.BesidetheNordictypewefindtheEast
European type, beside the Eastern there is the Dinaric, the
Westerntypeinterminglingwithboth,andhybridsamongthem
all.Thatisagravedrawbackforus.ThroughittheGermanslack
thatstrongherdinstinctwhicharisesfromunityofbloodand
savesnationsfromruinindangerousandcriticaltimes;because
onsuchoccasionssmalldifferencesdisappear,sothataunited
herdfacestheenemy.Whatweunderstandbythewordhyper
individualism arises from the fact that our primordial racial
elementshaveexistedsidebysidewithouteverconsolidating.
During times of peace such a situation may offer some
advantages,but,takenallinall,ithaspreventedusfromgaining
a mastery in the world. If in its historical development the
Germanpeoplehadpossessedtheunityofherdinstinctbywhich
otherpeopleshavesomuchbenefited,thentheGermanReich

wouldprobablybemistress oftheglobetoday.Worldhistory
wouldhavetakenanothercourseandinthiscasenomancantell
if what many blinded pacifists hope to attain by petitioning,
whining and crying, may not have been reached in this way:
namely,apeacewhichwouldnotbebaseduponthewavingof
olive branches and tearful miserymongering of pacifist old
women,butapeacethatwouldbeguaranteedbythetriumphant
swordofapeopleendowedwiththepowertomastertheworld
andadministeritintheserviceofahighercivilization.
Thefactthatourpeopledidnothaveanationalbeingbasedona
unityofbloodhasbeenthesourceofuntoldmiseryforus.To
manypettyGermanpotentatesitgaveresidentialcapitalcities,
buttheGermanpeopleasawholewasdeprivedofitsrightto
rulership.
Eventodayournationstillsuffersfromthislackofinnerunity;
butwhathasbeenthecauseofourpastandpresentmisfortunes
mayturnoutablessingforusinthefuture.Thoughontheone
handit maybeadrawbackthatour racialelements were not
weldedtogether,sothatnohomogeneousnationalbodycould
develop,ontheotherhand,itwasfortunatethat,sinceatleasta
partofourbestbloodwasthuskeptpure,itsracialqualitywas
notdebased.
A complete assimilation of all our racial elements would
certainlyhavebroughtaboutahomogeneousnationalorganism;
but,ashasbeenprovedinthecaseofeveryracialmixture,it
wouldhavebeenlesscapableofcreatingacivilizationthanby
keepingintactitsbestoriginalelements.Abenefitwhichresults
fromthefactthattherewasnoallroundassimilationistobe
seeninthatevennowwehavelargegroupsofGermanNordic
peoplewithinournationalorganization,andthattheirbloodhas
notbeenmixedwiththebloodofotherraces.Wemustlookupon
this as our most valuable treasure for the sake of the future.
Duringthatdarkperiodofabsoluteignoranceinregardtoall
raciallaws,wheneachindividualwasconsideredtobeonapar
with every other, there could be no clear appreciation of the
differencebetweenthevariousfundamentalracialcharacteristics.
Weknowtodaythatacompleteassimilationofallthevarious

elementswhichconstitutethenationalbeingmighthaveresulted
ingivingusalargershareofexternalpower:but,ontheother
hand,thehighestofhumanaimswouldnothavebeenattained,
becausetheonlykindofpeoplewhichfatehasobviouslychosen
tobringabout thisperfectionwouldhavebeenlostinsucha
generalmixtureofraceswhichwouldconstitutesucharacial
amalgamation.
ButwhathasbeenpreventedbyafriendlyDestiny,withoutany
assistanceonourpart,mustnowbereconsideredandutilizedin
thelightofournewknowledge.
HewhotalksoftheGermanpeopleashavingamissiontofulfil
onthisearthmustknowthatthiscannotbefulfilledexceptbythe
buildingupofaStatewhosehighestpurposeistopreserveand
promotethosenoblerelementsofourraceandofthewholeof
mankindwhichhaveremainedunimpaired.
Thusforthefirsttimeahighinnerpurposeisaccreditedtothe
State.InfaceoftheridiculousphrasethattheStateshoulddono
morethanactastheguardianofpublicorderandtranquillity,so
thateverybodycanpeacefullydupeeverybodyelse,itisgivena
veryhighmissionindeedtopreserveandencouragethehighest
typeofhumanitywhichabeneficentCreatorhasbestowedon
thisearth.Outofadeadmechanismwhichclaimstobeanendin
itself a living organism shall arise which has to serve one
purposeexclusively:andthat,indeed,apurposewhichbelongs
toahigherorderofideas.
AsaStatetheGermanReichshallincludeallGermans.Itstask
isnotonlytogatherinandfosterthemostvaluablesectionsof
our people but to lead them slowly and surely to a dominant
positionintheworld.
Thusaperiodofstagnationissupersededbyaperiodofeffort.
Andhere,asineveryothersphere,theproverbholdsgoodthatto
rest is to rust; and furthermore the proverb that victory will
alwaysbewonbyhimwhoattacks.Thehigherthefinalgoal
whichwestrivetoreach,andthelessitbeunderstoodatthetime
bythebroadmasses,themoremagnificentwillbeitssuccess.
Thatiswhatthelessonofhistoryteaches.Andtheachievement

willbeallthemoresignificantiftheendisconceivedintheright
wayandthefightcarriedthroughwithunswervingpersistence.
ManyoftheofficialswhodirecttheaffairsofStatenowadays
mayfinditeasiertoworkforthemaintenanceofthepresent
order than to fight for a new one. They will find it more
comfortable to look upon the State as a mechanism, whose
purposeisitsownpreservation,andtosaythattheirlives'belong
totheState'asifanythingthatgrewfromtheinnerlifeofthe
nationcanlogicallyserveanythingbutthenationalbeing,andas
if man could be made for anything else than for his fellow
beings. Naturally, it is easier, as I have said, to consider the
authorityoftheStateasnothingbuttheformalmechanismofan
organization, rather than as the sovereign incarnation of a
people's instinct for selfpreservation on this earth. For these
weakmindstheStateandtheauthorityoftheStateisnothingbut
anaiminitself,whilefor usitisaneffectiveweaponinthe
serviceofthegreatandeternalstruggleforexistence,aweapon
which everyone must adopt, not because it is a mere formal
mechanism,butbecauseitisthemainexpressionofourcommon
willtoexist.
Therefore, in the fight for our new idea, which conforms
completelytotheprimalmeaningoflife,weshallfindonlya
smallnumberofcomradesinasocialorderwhichhasbecome
decrepitnotonlyphysicallybutmentallyalso.Fromthesestrata
ofourpopulationonlyafewexceptionalpeoplewilljoinour
ranks,onlythosefewoldpeoplewhoseheartshaveremained
youngandwhosecourageisstillvigorous,butnotthosewho
considerittheirdutytomaintainthestateofaffairsthatexists.
Againstuswehavetheinnumerablearmyofallthosewhoare
lazyminded and indifferent rather than evil, and those whose
selfinterestleadsthemtoupholdthepresentstateofaffairs.On
the apparent hopelessness of our great struggle is based the
magnitudeofourtaskandthepossibilitiesofsuccess.Abattle
crywhichfromtheverystartwillscareoffallthepettyspirits,or
atleastdiscouragethem,willbecomethesignalforarallyofall
thosetemperamentsthatareoftherealfightingmetal.Andit
mustbeclearlyrecognizedthatifahighlyenergeticandactive

bodyofmenemergefromanationanduniteinthefightforone
goal, thereby ultimately rising above the inert masses of the
people,thissmallpercentagewillbecomemastersofthewhole.
Worldhistoryismadebyminoritiesifthesenumericalminorities
representinthemselvesthewillandenergyandinitiativeofthe
peopleasawhole.
Whatseemsanobstacletomanypersonsisreallyapreliminary
conditionofourvictory.Justbecauseourtaskissogreatand
becausesomanydifficultieshavetobeovercome,thehighest
probabilityisthatonlythebestkindofprotagonistswilljoinour
ranks.Thisselectionistheguaranteeofoursuccess.
Nature generally takes certain measures to correct the effect
whichracialmixtureproducesinlife.Sheisnotmuchinfavour
of the mongrel. The later products of crossbreeding have to
sufferbitterly,especiallythethird,fourthandfifthgenerations.
Notonlyaretheydeprivedofthehigherqualitiesthatbelonged
totheparentswhoparticipatedinthefirstmixture,buttheyalso
lackdefinitewillpowerandvigorousvitalenergiesowingtothe
lack of harmony in the quality of their blood. At all critical
momentsinwhichapersonofpureracialbloodmakescorrect
decisions,thatistosay,decisionsthatarecoherentanduniform,
the person of mixed blood will become confused and take
measures that are incoherent. Hence we see that a person of
mixedbloodisnotonlyrelativelyinferiortoapersonofpure
blood,butisalsodoomedtobecomeextinctmorerapidly.In
innumerable cases wherein the pure race holds its ground the
mongrel breaks down. Therein we witness the corrective
provisionwhichNatureadopts.Sherestrictsthepossibilitiesof
procreation, thus impeding the fertility of crossbreeds and
bringingthemtoextinction.
Forinstance,ifanindividualmemberofaraceshouldminglehis
bloodwiththememberofasuperiorracethefirstresultwouldbe
aloweringoftheraciallevel,andfurthermorethedescendantsof
this crossbreedingwould beweaker than those of thepeople
around them who had maintained their blood unadulterated.
Where no new blood from the superior race enters the racial
streamofthemongrels,andwherethosemongrelscontinueto

crossbreed among themselves, the latter will either die out


because they have insufficient powers of resistance, which is
Nature'swiseprovision,orinthecourseofmanythousandsof
yearstheywillformanewmongrelraceinwhichtheoriginal
elementswillbecomesowhollymixedthroughthismillennial
crossingthattracesoftheoriginalelementswillbenolonger
recognizable.Andthusanewpeoplewouldbedevelopedwhich
possessedacertainresistancecapacityoftheherdtype,butits
intellectual value and its cultural significance would be
essentially inferior to those which the first crossbreeds
possessed.Buteveninthislastcasethemongrelproductwould
succumbinthemutualstruggleforexistencewithahigherracial
groupthathadmaintaineditsbloodunmixed.Theherdsolidarity
which this mongrel race had developed through thousands of
yearswillnotbeequaltothestruggle.Andthisisbecauseit
wouldlackelasticityandconstructivecapacitytoprevailovera
race of homogeneous blood that was mentally and culturally
superior.
Therewithwemaylaydownthefollowingprincipleasvalid:
everyracialmixtureleads,ofnecessity,soonerorlatertothe
downfallofthemongrelproduct,providedthehigherracialstrata
of this crossbreed has not retained within itself some sort of
racial homogeneity. The danger to the mongrels ceases only
whenthishigherstratum,whichhasmaintainedcertainstandards
ofhomogeneousbreeding,ceasestobetruetoitspedigreeand
intermingleswiththemongrels.
Thisprincipleisthesourceofaslowbutconstantregeneration
whereby all the poison which has invaded the racial body is
graduallyeliminatedsolongastherestillremainsafundamental
stockofpureracialelementswhichresistsfurthercrossbreeding.
Such a process may set in automatically among those people
whereastrongracialinstincthasremained.Amongsuchpeople
wemaycountthoseelementswhich,forsomeparticularcause
suchascoercion,havebeenthrownoutofthenormalwayof
reproductionalongstrictraciallines.Assoonasthiscompulsion
ceases,thatpartoftheracewhichhasremainedintactwilltend

to marry with its own kind and thus impede further


intermingling.Thenthemongrelsrecedequitenaturallyintothe
backgroundunlesstheirnumbershadincreasedsomuchastobe
able to withstand all serious resistance from those elements
whichhadpreservedthepurityoftheirrace.
When men have lost their natural instincts and ignore the
obligationsimposedonthembyNature,thenthereisnohope
that Nature will correct the loss that has been caused, until
recognitionofthelostinstinctshasbeenrestored.Thenthetask
of bringing back what has been lost will have to be
accomplished.Butthereisseriousdangerthatthosewhohave
becomeblindonceinthisrespectwillcontinuemoreandmoreto
breakdownracialbarriersandfinallylosethelastremnantsof
whatisbestinthem.Whatthenremainsisnothingbutauniform
mishmash,whichseemstobethedreamofourfineUtopians.
Butthatmishmashwouldsoonbanishallidealsfromtheworld.
Certainlyagreatherdcouldthusbeformed.Onecanbreeda
herdofanimals;butfromamixtureofthiskindmensuchas
havecreatedandfoundedcivilizationswouldnotbeproduced.
Themissionofhumanitymightthenbeconsideredatanend.
Those whodonot wishthatthe earthshould fallintosuch a
conditionmustrealizethatitisthetaskoftheGermanStatein
particulartoseetoitthattheprocessofbastardizationisbrought
toastop.
Ourcontemporarygenerationofweaklingswillnaturallydecry
such a policy and whine and complain about it as an
encroachmentonthemostsacredofhumanrights.Butthereis
onlyonerightthatissacrosanctandthisrightisatthesametime
amostsacredduty.Thisrightandobligationare:thatthepurity
oftheracialbloodshouldbeguarded,sothatthebesttypesof
humanbeingsmaybepreservedandthatthusweshouldrender
possibleamorenobledevelopmentofhumanityitself.
AfolkStateshouldinthefirstplaceraisematrimonyfromthe
levelofbeingaconstantscandaltotherace.TheStateshould
consecrateitasaninstitutionwhichiscalledupontoproduce
creatures made in the likeness of the Lord and not create

monstersthatareamixtureofmanandape.Theprotestwhichis
putforwardinthenameofhumanitydoesnotfitthemouthofa
generation that makes it possible for the most depraved
degenerates to propagate themselves, thereby imposing
unspeakable suffering on their own products and their
contemporaries, while on the other hand contraceptives are
permitted and sold in every drug store and even by street
hawkers, so that babies should not be born even among the
healthiest of our people. In this present State of ours, whose
functionitistobetheguardianofpeaceandgoodorder,our
nationalbourgeoisielookuponitasacrimetomakeprocreation
impossibleforsyphiliticsandthosewhosufferfromtuberculosis
orotherhereditarydiseases,alsocripplesandimbeciles.Butthe
practicalpreventionofprocreationamongmillionsofourvery
bestpeopleisnotconsideredasanevil,nordoesitoffendagainst
thenoblemoralityofthissocialclassbutratherencouragestheir
shortsightednessandmentallethargy.Forotherwisetheywould
atleaststirtheirbrainstofindananswertothequestionofhow
to create conditions for the feeding and maintaining of those
future beings who will be the healthy representatives of our
nation and must also provide the conditions on which the
generationthatistofollowthemwillhavetosupportitselfand
live.
How devoid of ideals and how ignoble is the whole
contemporary system! The fact that the churches join in
committingthissinagainsttheimageofGod,eventhoughthey
continue to emphasize the dignity of that image, is quite in
keepingwiththeirpresentactivities.TheytalkabouttheSpirit,
but they allow man, as the embodiment of the Spirit, to
degenerate to the proletarian level. Then they look on with
amazementwhentheyrealizehowsmallistheinfluenceofthe
Christian Faith in their own country and how depraved and
ungodly is this riffraff which is physically degenerate and
thereforemorallydegeneratealso.Tobalancethisstateofaffairs
theytrytoconverttheHottentotsandtheZulusandtheKaffirs
andtobestowonthemtheblessingsoftheChurch.Whileour
Europeanpeople,Godbepraisedandthanked,arelefttobecome

thevictimsofmoraldepravity,thepiousmissionarygoesoutto
CentralAfricaandestablishesmissionarystationsfornegroes.
Finally,soundandhealthythoughprimitiveandbackward
people will be transformed, under the name of our 'higher
civilization',intoamotleyoflazyandbrutalizedmongrels.
Itwouldbetteraccordwithnoblehumanaspirationsifourtwo
Christiandenominationswouldceasetobotherthenegroeswith
theirpreaching,whichthenegroesneitherdesirenorunderstand.
Itwouldbebetteriftheyleftthisworkalone,andif,initsstead,
theytriedtoteachpeopleinEurope,kindlyandseriously,thatit
ismuchmorepleasingtoGodifacouplethatisnotofhealthy
stockweretoshowlovingkindnesstosomepoororphanand
becomeafatherandmothertohim,ratherthangivelifetoa
sicklychildthatwillbeacauseofsufferingandunhappinessto
all.
InthisfieldthePeople'sStatewillhavetorepairthedamagethat
arisesfromthefactthattheproblemisatpresentneglectedbyall
thevariouspartiesconcerned.ItwillbethetaskofthePeople's
Statetomaketheracethecentreofthelifeofthecommunity.It
must make sure that the purity of the racial strain will be
preserved.Itmustproclaimthetruththatthechildisthemost
valuablepossessionapeoplecanhave.Itmustseetoitthatonly
thosewhoarehealthyshallbegetchildren;thatthereisonlyone
infamy,namely,forparentsthatareillorshowhereditarydefects
tobringchildrenintotheworldandthatinsuchcasesitisahigh
honourtorefrainfromdoingso.But,ontheotherhand,itmust
be considered as reprehensible conduct to refrain from giving
healthychildrentothenation.InthismattertheStatemustassert
itselfasthetrusteeofamillennialfuture,infaceofwhichthe
egotisticdesiresoftheindividualcountfornothingandwillhave
togivewaybeforetherulingoftheState.Inordertofulfilthis
dutyinapracticalmannertheStatewillhavetoavailitselfof
modern medical discoveries. It must proclaim as unfit for
procreation all those who are inflicted with some visible
hereditarydiseaseorarethecarriersofit;andpracticalmeasures
must beadoptedtohavesuchpeoplerenderedsterile.Onthe
other hand, provision must be made for the normally fertile

womansothatshewillnotberestrictedinchildbearingthrough
thefinancialandeconomicsystemoperatinginapoliticalregime
thatlooksupontheblessingofhavingchildrenasacursetotheir
parents.TheStatewillhavetoabolishthecowardlyandeven
criminalindifferencewithwhichtheproblemofsocialamenities
forlargefamiliesistreated,anditwillhavetobethesupreme
protectorofthisgreatestblessingthatapeoplecanboastof.Its
attentionandcaremustbedirectedtowardsthechildratherthan
theadult.
Thosewhoarephysicallyandmentallyunhealthyandunfitmust
notperpetuatetheirownsufferinginthebodiesoftheirchildren.
Fromtheeducationalpointofviewthereishereahugetaskfor
thePeople'sStatetoaccomplish.Butinafutureerathiswork
willappeargreaterandmoresignificantthanthevictoriouswars
ofourpresentbourgeoisepoch.Througheducationalmeansthe
Statemustteachindividualsthatillnessisnotadisgracebutan
unfortunateaccidentwhichhastobepitied,yetthatitisacrime
andadisgracetomakethisafflictionalltheworsebypassingon
diseaseanddefectstoinnocentcreaturesoutofmereegotism.
AndtheStatemustalsoteachthepeoplethatitisanexpression
ofareallynoblenatureandthatitisahumanitarianactworthyof
admirationif apersonwhoinnocentlysuffersfromhereditary
diseaserefrainsfromhavingachildofhisownbutgiveshislove
andaffectiontosomeunknownchildwho,throughitshealth,
promisestobecomearobustmemberofahealthycommunity.In
accomplishingsuchaneducationaltasktheStateintegratesits
functionbythisactivityinthemoralsphere.Itmustactonthis
principlewithoutpayinganyattentiontothequestionofwhether
its conduct will be understood or misconstrued, blamed or
praised.
If for a period of only 600 years those individuals would be
sterilized who are physically degenerate or mentally diseased,
humanity would not only be delivered from an immense
misfortunebutalsorestoredtoastateofgeneralhealthsuchas
weatpresentcanhardlyimagine.Ifthefecundityofthehealthy
portion of the nation should be made a practical matter in a
conscientiousandmethodicalway,weshouldhaveatleastthe

beginnings of a race from which all those germs would be


eliminatedwhicharetodaythecauseofourmoralandphysical
decadence.IfapeopleandaStatetakethiscoursetodevelopthat
nucleus of the nation which is most valuable from the racial
standpointandthusincreaseitsfecundity,thepeopleasawhole
will subsequently enjoy that most precious of gifts which
consistsinaracialqualityfashionedontrulynoblelines.
To achieve this the State should first of all not leave the
colonizationofnewlyacquiredterritorytoahaphazardpolicybut
should have it carried out under the guidance of definite
principles. Specially competent committees ought to issue
certificatestoindividualsentitlingthemtoengageincolonization
work,andthesecertificatesshouldguaranteetheracialpurityof
theindividualsinquestion.Inthiswayfrontiercoloniescould
graduallybefoundedwhoseinhabitantswouldbeofthepurest
racialstock,andhencewouldpossessthebestqualitiesofthe
race. Such colonies would be a valuable asset to the whole
nation. Their development would be a source of joy and
confidenceandpridetoeachcitizenofthenation,becausethey
wouldcontainthepuregermwhichwouldultimatelybringabout
agreatdevelopmentofthenationandindeedofmankinditself.
ThefolkishphilosophyoflifewhichbasestheStateontheracial
ideamustfinallysucceedinbringingaboutanoblerera,inwhich
men will no longer pay exclusive attention to breeding and
rearingpedigreedogsandhorsesandcats,butwillendeavourto
improvethebreedofthehumanraceitself.Thatwillbeaneraof
silenceandrenunciationforoneclassofpeople,whiletheothers
willgivetheirgiftsandmaketheirsacrificesjoyfully.
That such amentalitymaybepossible cannot bedeniedina
world where hundreds and thousands accept the principle of
celibacyfromtheirownchoice,withoutbeingobligedorpledged
to do so by anything except an ecclesiastical precept. Why
shoulditnotbepossibletoinducepeopletomakethissacrifice
if, instead of such a precept, they were simply told that they
oughttoputanendtothistrulyoriginalsinofracialcorruption
whichissteadilybeingpassedonfromonegenerationtoanother.
And,further,theyoughttobebroughttorealizethatitistheir

boundendutytogivetotheAlmightyCreatorbeingssuchasHe
himselfmadetoHisownimage.
Naturally,our wretchedarmyof contemporaryphilistines will
not understand these things. They will ridicule them or shrug
their round shoulders and groan out their everlasting excuses:
"Of course it isafinething,butthepityisthatitcannotbe
carriedout."Andwereply:"Withyouindeeditcannotbedone,
foryourworldisincapableofsuchanidea.Youknowonlyone
anxietyandthatisforyourownpersonalexistence.Youhave
one God, and that is your money. We do not turn to you,
however,forhelp,buttothegreatarmyofthosewhoaretoo
poortoconsidertheirpersonalexistenceasthehighestgoodon
earth.Theydonotplacetheirtrustinmoneybutinothergods,
intowhosehandstheyconfidetheirlives.Aboveallweturnto
thevastarmyofourGermanyouth.Theyarecomingtomaturity
inagreatepoch,andtheywillfightagainsttheevilswhichwere
duetothelazinessandindifferenceoftheirfathers."Eitherthe
GermanyouthwillonedaycreateanewStatefoundedonthe
racial idea or they will be the last witnesses of the complete
breakdownanddeathofthebourgeoisworld.
Forifagenerationsuffersfromdefectswhichitrecognizesand
evenadmitsandisneverthelessquitepleasedwithitself,asthe
bourgeois world is today, resorting to the cheap excuse that
nothing can be done to remedy the situation, then such a
generationisdoomedtodisaster.Amarkedcharacteristicofour
bourgeois world is that they no longer can deny the evil
conditions that exist. They have to admit that there is much
whichisfoulandwrong;buttheyarenotabletomakeuptheir
mindstofightagainstthatevil,whichwouldmeanputtingforth
theenergytomobilizetheforcesof60or70millionpeopleand
thusopposethismenace.Theydojusttheopposite.Whensuch
aneffortismadeelsewheretheyonlyindulgeinsillycomment
andtryfromasafedistancetoshowthatsuchanenterpriseis
theoreticallyimpossibleanddoomedtofailure.Noargumentsare
toostupidtobeemployedintheserviceoftheirownpettifogging
opinions and their knavish moral attitude. If, for instance, a
wholecontinentwageswaragainstalcoholicintoxication,soas

tofreeawholepeoplefromthisdevastatingvice,ourbourgeois
Europeandoesnotknowbetterthantolooksidewaysstupidly,
shake the head in doubt and ridicule the movement with a
superiorsneerastateofmindwhichiseffectiveinasociety
thatissoridiculous.Butwhenallthesestupiditiesmisstheiraim
andinthatpartoftheworldthissublimeandintangibleattitude
is treated effectively and success attends the movement, then
suchsuccessiscalledintoquestionoritsimportanceminimized.
Even moral principles are used in this slanderous campaign
againstamovementwhichaimsatsuppressingagreatsourceof
immorality.
No. We must not permit ourselves to be deceived by any
illusionsonthispoint.Ourcontemporarybourgeoisworldhas
becomeuselessforanysuchnoblehumantaskbecauseithaslost
allhighqualityandisevil,notsomuchasIthinkbecauseevil
iswishedbutratherbecausethesepeoplearetooindolenttorise
up against it. That is why those political societies which call
themselves 'bourgeois parties' are nothing but associations to
promotetheinterestsofcertainprofessionalgroupsandclasses.
Theirhighestaimistodefendtheirownegoisticinterestsasbest
theycan.Itisobviousthatsuchaguild,consistingofbourgeois
politicians, may be considered fit for anything rather than a
struggle, especially when the adversaries are not cautious
shopkeepersbuttheproletarianmasses,goadedontoextremities
anddeterminednottohesitatebeforedeedsofviolence.
IfweconsideritthefirstdutyoftheStatetoserveandpromote
thegeneralwelfareofthepeople,bypreservingandencouraging
the development of the best racial elements, the logical
consequence is that this task cannot be limited to measures
concerningthebirthoftheinfantmembersoftheraceandnation
butthattheStatewillalsohavetoadopteducationalmeansfor
makingeachcitizenaworthyfactorinthefurtherpropagationof
theracialstock.
Justas,ingeneral,theracialqualityisthepreliminarycondition
for the mental efficiency of any given human material, the
training of the individual will first of all have to be directed
towardsthedevelopmentofsoundbodilyhealth.Forthegeneral

ruleisthatastrongandhealthymindisfoundonlyinastrong
andhealthybody.Thefactthatmenofgeniusaresometimesnot
robustinhealthandstature,orevenofasicklyconstitution,isno
proofagainst theprincipleIhaveenunciated.These cases are
onlyexceptionswhich,aseverywhereelse,provetherule.But
whenthebulkofanationiscomposedofphysicaldegeneratesit
israreforagreatspirittoarisefromsuchamiserablemotley.
And in any case his activities would never meet with great
success. A degenerate mob will either be incapable of
understandinghimatallortheirwillpowerissofeeblethatthey
cannotfollowthesoaringofsuchaneagle.
TheStatethatisgroundedontheracialprincipleandisaliveto
the significance of this truth will first of all have to base its
educationalworknotonthemereimpartingofknowledgebut
ratheronphysicaltraininganddevelopmentofhealthybodies.
The cultivation of the intellectual facilities comes only in the
second place. And here again it is character which has to be
developed first of all, strength of will and decision. And the
educational system ought to foster the spirit of readiness to
acceptresponsibilitiesgladly.Formalinstructioninthesciences
must be considered last in importance. Accordingly the State
whichisgroundedontheracialideamuststartwiththeprinciple
thatapersonwhoseformaleducationinthesciencesisrelatively
smallbutwhoisphysicallysoundandrobust,ofasteadfastand
honestcharacter,readyandabletomakedecisionsandendowed
withstrengthofwill,isamoreusefulmemberofthenational
community than a weakling who is scholarly and refined. A
nation composed of learned men who are physical weaklings,
hesitantaboutdecisionsofthewill,andtimidpacifists,isnot
capableofassuringevenitsownexistenceonthisearth.Inthe
bitterstrugglewhichdecidesthedestinyofmanitisveryrare
that an individual has succumbed because he lacked learning.
Thosewhofailaretheywhotrytoignoretheseconsequences
andaretoofaintheartedaboutputtingthemintoeffect.There
mustbeacertainbalancebetweenmindandbody.Anillkept
bodyisnotmadeamorebeautifulsightbytheindwellingofa
radiant spirit. We should not be acting justly if we were to

bestow the highest intellectual training on those who are


physically deformed and crippled, who lack decision and are
weakwilledandcowardly.WhathasmadetheGreekidealof
beautyimmortalisthewonderfulunionofasplendidphysical
beautywithnobilityofmindandspirit.
Moltke'ssaying, that inthelongrunfortunefavoursonlythe
efficient,iscertainlyvalidfortherelationshipbetweenbodyand
spirit. A mind which is sound will generally maintain its
dwellinginabodythatissound.
Accordingly, in the People's State physical training is not a
matter for the individual alone. Nor is it a duty which first
devolvesontheparentsandonlysecondlyorthirdlyapublic
interest; butitisnecessaryforthepreservationofthepeople,
whoarerepresentedandprotectedbytheState.Asregardspurely
formal education the State even now interferes with the
individual'srightofselfdeterminationandinsistsupontheright
ofthecommunitybysubmittingthechildtoanobligatorysystem
of training, without paying attention to the approval or
disapproval of the parents. In a similar way and to a higher
degreethenewPeople'sStatewillonedaymakeitsauthority
prevailovertheignoranceandincomprehensionofindividualsin
problems appertaining to the safety of the nation. It must
organizeitseducationalworkinsuchawaythatthebodiesofthe
youngwillbesystematicallytrainedfrominfancyonwards,soas
tobetemperedandhardenedforthedemandstobemadeon
theminlateryears.Aboveall,theStatemustseetoitthata
generationofstayathomesisnotdeveloped.
Theworkofeducationandhygienehastobeginwiththeyoung
mother.Thepainstakingeffortscarriedonforseveraldecades
havesucceededinabolishingsepticinfectionatchildbirthand
reducingpuerperalfevertoarelativelysmallnumberofcases.
Andsoitoughttobepossiblebymeansofinstructingsistersand
mothersinanopportuneway,toinstituteasystemoftrainingthe
childfromearlyinfancyonwardssothatthismayserveasan
excellentbasisforfuturedevelopment.
ThePeople'sStateoughttoallowmuchmoretimeforphysical

trainingintheschool.Itisnonsensetoburdenyoungbrainswith
aloadofmaterialofwhich,asexperienceshows,theyretainonly
asmallpart,andmostlynottheessentials,butonlythesecondary
and useless portion; because the young mind is incapable of
sifting the right kind of learning out of all the stuff that is
pumped into it. Today, even in the curriculum of the high
schools, only two short hours in the week are reserved for
gymnastics; and worse still, it is left to the pupils to decide
whether or not they want to take part. This shows a grave
disproportion between this branch of education and purely
intellectualinstruction.Notasingledayshouldbeallowedto
passinwhichtheyoungpupildoesnothaveonehourofphysical
traininginthemorningandoneintheevening;andeverykindof
sportandgymnasticsshouldbeincluded.Thereisonekindof
sport which should be specially encouraged, although many
people who call themselves vlkisch consider it brutal and
vulgar,andthatisboxing.Itisincrediblehowmanyfalsenotions
prevail amongthe'cultivated'classes.Thefactthattheyoung
manlearnshowtofenceandthenspendshistimeinduelsis
considered quitenatural andrespectable. But boxing that is
brutal. Why? There is no other sport which equals this in
developingthemilitantspirit,nonethatdemandssuchapowerof
rapiddecisionorwhichgivesthebodytheflexibilityofgood
steel.Itisnomorevulgarwhentwoyoungpeoplesettletheir
differences with their fists than with sharppointed pieces of
steel. One who is attacked and defends himself with his fists
surelydoesnotactlessmanlythanonewhorunsoffandyellsfor
theassistanceofapoliceman.But,aboveall,ahealthyyouthhas
tolearntoendurehardknocks.Thisprinciplemayappearsavage
toourcontemporarychampionswhofightonlywiththeweapons
oftheintellect.ButitisnotthepurposeofthePeople'sStateto
educateacolonyofstheticpacifistsandphysicaldegenerates.
ThisStatedoesnotconsiderthatthehumanidealistobefound
inthehonourablephilistineor themaidenlyspinster,butina
darefulpersonificationofmanlyforceandinwomencapableof
bringingmenintotheworld.
Generallyspeaking,thefunctionofsportisnotonlytomakethe

individualstrong,alertanddaring,butalsotohardenthebody
andtrainittoendureanadverseenvironment.
If our superior class had not received such a distinguished
education,andif,onthecontrary,theyhadlearnedboxing,it
would never have been possible for bullies and deserters and
othersuchcanailletocarrythroughaGermanrevolution.Forthe
success of this revolution was not due to the courageous,
energetic and audacious activities of its authors but to the
lamentable cowardice and irresolution of those who ruled the
GermanStateatthattimeandwereresponsibleforit.Butour
educatedleadershadreceivedonlyan'intellectual'trainingand
thusfoundthemselvesdefencelesswhentheiradversariesused
ironbarsinsteadofintellectualweapons.Allthiscouldhappen
onlybecauseoursuperiorscholasticsystemdidnottrainmento
be real men but merely to be civil servants, engineers,
technicians,chemists,litterateurs,juristsand,finally,professors;
sothatintellectualismshouldnotdieout.
Ourleadershipinthepurelyintellectualspherehasalwaysbeen
brilliant, but as regards willpower in practical affairs our
leadershiphasbeenbeneathcriticism.
Ofcourseeducationcannotmakeacourageousmanoutofone
who is temperamentally a coward. But a man who naturally
possessesacertaindegreeofcouragewillnotbeabletodevelop
thatqualityifhisdefectiveeducationhasmadehiminferiorto
others from the very start as regards physical strength and
prowess.Thearmyoffersthebestexampleofthefactthatthe
knowledgeofone'sphysicalabilitydevelopsaman'scourageand
militantspirit.Outstandingheroesarenottheruleinthearmy,
buttheaveragerepresentsmenofhighcourage.Theexcellent
schoolingwhichtheGermansoldiersreceivedbeforetheWar
imbued the members of the whole gigantic organism with a
degreeofconfidenceintheirownsuperioritysuchasevenour
opponentsneverthoughtpossible.Alltheimmortalexamplesof
dauntless courage and daring which the German armies gave
duringthelatesummerandautumnof1914,astheyadvanced
fromtriumphtotriumph,weretheresultofthateducationwhich
had been pursued systematically. During those long years of

peace before the last War men who were almost physical
weaklings were made capable of incredible deeds, and thus a
selfconfidence was developed which did not fail even in the
mostterriblebattles.
ItisourGermanpeople,whichbrokedownandweredelivered
overtobekickedbytherestoftheworld,thathadneedofthe
powerthatcomesbysuggestionfromselfconfidence.Butthis
confidenceinone'sselfmustbeinstilledintoourchildrenfrom
their very early years. The whole system of education and
training must be directed towards fostering in the child the
conviction that he is unquestionably a match for any and
everybody. The individual has to regain his own physical
strengthandprowessinordertobelieveintheinvincibilityofthe
nationtowhichhebelongs.WhathasformerlyledtheGerman
armiestovictorywasthesumtotaloftheconfidencewhicheach
individualhadinhimself,andwhichallofthemhadinthose
who held the positions of command. What will restore the
nationalstrengthoftheGermanpeopleistheconvictionthatthey
willbeabletoreconquertheirliberty.Butthisconvictioncan
onlybethefinalproductofanequalfeelinginthemillionsof
individuals.Andhereagainwemusthavenoillusions.
Thecollapseofourpeoplewasoverwhelming,andtheeffortsto
putanendtosomuchmiserymustalsobeoverwhelming.It
wouldbeabitterandgraveerrortobelievethatourpeoplecould
bemadestrongagainsimplybymeansofourpresentbourgeois
trainingingoodorderandobedience.Thatwillnotsufficeifwe
aretobreakupthepresentorderofthings,whichnowsanctions
theacknowledgmentofourdefeatandcastthebrokenchainsof
our slavery in the face of our opponents. Only by a
superabundance of national energy and a passionate thirst for
libertycanwerecoverwhathasbeenlost.
Also the manner of clothing the young should be such as
harmonizeswiththispurpose.Itisreallylamentabletoseehow
ouryoungpeoplehavefallenvictimstoafashionmaniawhich
pervertsthemeaningoftheoldadagethatclothesmaketheman.
Especiallyinregardtoyoungpeopleclothesshouldtaketheir

placeintheserviceofeducation.Theboywhowalksaboutin
summertime wearing long baggy trousers and clad up to the
neckishamperedevenbyhisclothesinfeelinganyinclination
towards strenuous physical exercise. Ambition and, to speak
quitefrankly,evenvanitymustbeappealedto.Idonotmean
suchvanityasleadspeopletowanttowearfineclothes,which
noteverybodycanafford,butratherthevanitywhichinclinesa
persontowardsdevelopingafinebodilyphysique.Andthisis
somethingwhicheverybodycanhelptodo.
Thiswillcomeinusefulalsoforlateryears.Theyounggirlmust
becomeacquaintedwithhersweetheart.Ifthebeautyofthebody
werenotcompletelyforcedintothebackgroundtodaythrough
our stupid manner of dressing, it would not be possible for
thousandsofourgirlstobeledastraybyJewishmongrels,with
theirrepulsivecrookedwaddle.Itisalsointheinterestsofthe
nation that those who have a beautiful physique should be
broughtintotheforeground,sothattheymightencouragethe
development of a beautiful bodily form among the people in
general.
Militarytrainingisexcludedamongustoday,andtherewiththe
onlyinstitutionwhichinpeacetimesatleastpartlymadeupfor
thelackofphysicaltraininginoureducation.ThereforewhatI
havesuggestedisallthemorenecessaryinourtime.Thesuccess
of our old military training not only showed itself in the
education of the individual but also in the influence which it
exercisedoverthemutualrelationshipbetweenthesexes.The
younggirlpreferredthesoldiertoonewhowasnotasoldier.The
People'sStatemustnotconfineitscontrolofphysicaltrainingto
theofficialschoolperiod,butitmustdemandthat,afterleaving
schoolandwhiletheadolescentbodyisstilldeveloping,theboy
continuesthistraining.Foronsuchproperphysicaldevelopment
successinafterlifelargelydepends.Itisstupidtothinkthatthe
rightoftheStatetosupervisetheeducationofitsyoungcitizens
suddenly comes to an end the moment they leave school and
recommencesonlywithmilitaryservice.Thisrightisaduty,and
as such it must continue uninterruptedly. The present State,
which does not interest itself in developing healthy men, has

criminallyneglectedthisduty.Itleavesourcontemporaryyouth
to be corrupted on the streets and in the brothels, instead of
keepingholdofthereinsandcontinuingthephysicaltrainingof
theseyouthsuptothetimewhentheyaregrownintohealthy
youngmenandwomen.
ForthepresentitisamatterofindifferencewhatformtheState
choosesforcarryingonthistraining.Theessentialmatteristhat
itshouldbedevelopedandthatthemostsuitablewaysofdoing
so should be investigated. The People's State will have to
considerthephysicaltrainingoftheyouthaftertheschoolperiod
justasmuchapublicdutyastheirintellectualtraining;andthis
trainingwillhavetobecarriedoutthroughpublicinstitutions.Its
generallinescanbeapreparationforsubsequentserviceinthe
army.Andthenitwillnolongerbethetaskofthearmytoteach
theyoungrecruitthemostelementarydrillregulations.Infact
thearmywillnolongerhavetodealwithrecruitsinthepresent
sense of the word, but it will rather have to transform into a
soldiertheyouthwhosebodilyprowesshasbeenalreadyfully
trained.
InthePeople'sStatethearmywillnolongerbeobligedtoteach
boyshowtowalkandstanderect,butitwillbethefinaland
supreme school of patriotic education. In the army the young
recruitwilllearntheartofbearingarms,butatthesametimehe
will be equipped for his other duties in later life. And the
supremeaimofmilitaryeducationmustalwaysbetoachievethat
whichwasattributedtotheoldarmyasitshighestmerit:namely,
thatthroughhismilitaryschoolingtheboymustbetransformed
intoaman,thathemustnotonlylearntoobeybutalsoacquire
thefundamentalsthatwillenablehimonedaytocommand.He
mustlearntoremainsilentnotonlywhenheisrightlyrebuked
butalsowhenheiswronglyrebuked.
Furthermore,ontheselfconsciousnessofhisownstrengthand
onthebasisofthatespritdecorpswhichinspireshimandhis
comrades,hemustbecomeconvincedthathebelongstoapeople
whoareinvincible.
Afterhehascompletedhismilitarytrainingtwocertificatesshall

behandedtothesoldier.Theonewillbehisdiplomaasacitizen
oftheState,ajuridicaldocumentwhichwillenablehimtotake
partinpublicaffairs.Thesecondwillbeanattestationofhis
physicalhealth,whichguaranteeshisfitnessformarriage.
ThePeople'sStatewillhavetodirecttheeducationofgirlsjust
asthatofboysandaccordingtothesamefundamentalprinciples.
Hereagainspecialimportancemustbegiventophysicaltraining,
andonlyafterthatmusttheimportanceofspiritualandmental
trainingbetakenintoaccount.Intheeducationofthegirlthe
finalgoalalwaystobekeptinmindisthatsheisonedaytobea
mother.
ItisonlyinthesecondplacethatthePeople'sStatemustbusy
itselfwiththetrainingofcharacter,usingallthemeansadapted
tothatpurpose.
Of course the essential traits of the individual character are
alreadytherefundamentallybeforeanyeducationtakesplace.A
person who is fundamentally egoistic will always remain
fundamentally egoistic, and the idealist will always remain
fundamentallyanidealist.Besidesthose,however,whoalready
possessadefinitestampofcharactertherearemillionsofpeople
with characters that are indefinite and vague. The born
delinquentwillalwaysremainadelinquent,butnumerouspeople
whoshowonlyacertaintendencytocommitcriminalactsmay
become useful members of the community if rightly trained;
whereas,ontheotherhand,weakandunstablecharactersmay
easilybecomeevilelementsifthesystemofeducationhasbeen
bad.
DuringtheWaritwasoftenlamentedthatourpeoplecouldbeso
little reticent.This failing made it verydifficult tokeep even
highlyimportantsecretsfromtheknowledgeoftheenemy.But
letusaskthisquestion:WhatdidtheGermaneducationalsystem
doinpreWartimestoteachtheGermanstobediscreet?Didit
notveryoftenhappeninschooldaysthatthelittletelltalewas
preferredtohiscompanionswhokepttheirmouthsshut?Isitnot
true that then, as well as now, complaining about others was
considered praiseworthy 'candour', while silent discretion was

takenasobstinacy?Hasanyattempteverbeenmadetoteachthat
discretionisapreciousandmanlyvirtue?No,forsuchmatters
aretriflesintheeyesofoureducators.Butthesetriflescostour
Stateinnumerablemillionsinlegalexpenses;for90percentof
alltheprocessesfordefamationandsuchlikechargesariseonly
fromalackofdiscretion.Remarksthataremadewithoutany
senseofresponsibilityarethoughtlesslyrepeatedfrommouthto
mouth; and our economic welfare is continually damaged
because important methods of production are thus disclosed.
Secretpreparationsforournationaldefencearerenderedillusory
becauseourpeoplehaveneverlearnedthedutyofsilence.They
repeat everything they happen to hear. In times of war such
talkativehabitsmayevencausethelossofbattlesandtherefore
may contribute essentially to the unsuccessful outcome of a
campaign.Here,asinothermatters,wemayrestassuredthat
adultscannot dowhattheyhavenotlearnttodoinyouth.A
teachermustnottrytodiscoverthewildtricksoftheboysby
encouragingtheevilpracticeoftalebearing.Youngpeopleform
asortofStateamongthemselvesandfaceadultswithacertain
solidarity.Thatisquitenatural.Thetieswhichunitethetenyear
boys to one another are stronger and more natural than their
relationshiptoadults.Aboywhotellsonhiscomradescommits
anactoftreasonandshowsabentofcharacterwhichis,tospeak
bluntly,similartothatofamanwhocommitshightreason.Such
aboymust notbeclassed as'good','reliable',andsoon,but
ratherasonewithundesirabletraitsofcharacter.Itmayberather
convenient for the teacher to make use of such unworthy
tendenciesinordertohelphisownwork,butbysuchanattitude
thegermofamoralhabitissowninyoungheartsandmayone
dayshowfatalconsequences.Ithashappenedmoreoftenthan
oncethatayounginformerdevelopedintoabigscoundrel.
Thisisonlyoneexampleamongmany.Thedeliberatetrainingof
fineandnobletraitsofcharacterinourschoolstodayisalmost
negative.Inthefuturemuchmoreemphasiswillhavetobelaid
onthissideofoureducationalwork.Loyalty,selfsacrificeand
discretionarevirtueswhichagreatnationmustpossess.Andthe
teaching and development of these in the school is a more

importantmatterthanmanyothersthingsnowincludedinthe
curriculum.Tomakethechildrengiveuphabitsofcomplaining
andwhiningandhowlingwhentheyarehurt,etc.,alsobelongs
tothispartoftheirtraining.Iftheeducationalsystemfailsto
teachthechildatanearlyagetoendurepainandinjurywithout
complainingwecannotbesurprisedifatalaterage,whenthe
boyhasgrowntobethemanandis,forexample,inthetrenches,
the postal service is used for nothing else than to send home
letters of weeping and complaint. If our youths, during their
yearsintheprimaryschools,hadhadtheirmindscrammedwith
alittlelessknowledge,andifinsteadtheyhadbeenbettertaught
howtobemastersofthemselves,itwouldhaveserveduswell
duringtheyears19141918.
InitseducationalsystemthePeople'sStatewillhavetoattachthe
highest importance to the development of character, handin
hand with physical training. Many more defects which our
nationalorganismshowsatpresentcouldbeatleastameliorated,
ifnotcompletelyeliminated,byeducationoftherightkind.
Extremeimportanceshouldbeattachedtothetrainingofwill
powerandthehabitofmakingfirmdecisions,alsothehabitof
beingalwaysreadytoacceptresponsibilities.
Inthetrainingofouroldarmytheprinciplewasinvoguethat
anyorderisalwaysbetterthannoorder.Appliedtoouryouth
thisprincipleoughttotaketheformthatanyanswerisbetter
thannoanswer.Thefearofreplying,becauseonefearstobe
wrong,oughttobeconsideredmorehumiliatingthangivingthe
wrongreply.Onthissimpleandprimitivebasisouryouthshould
betrainedtohavethecouragetoact.
IthasbeenoftenlamentedthatinNovemberandDecember1918
alltheauthoritieslost theirheadsandthat,fromthemonarch
downtothelast divisionalcommander,nobodyhadsufficient
mettletomakeadecisiononhisownresponsibility.Thatterrible
fact constitutes a grave rebuke to our educational system;
because what was then revealed on a colossal scale at that
momentofcatastrophewasonlywhathappensonasmallerscale
everywhereamongus.Itisthelackofwillpower,andnotthe

lackofarms,whichrendersusincapableofofferinganyserious
resistance today. This defect is found everywhere among our
peopleandpreventsdecisiveactionwhereverriskshavetobe
taken,asifanygreatactioncanbetakenwithoutalsotakingthe
risk.Quiteunsuspectingly,aGermanGeneralfoundaformula
forthislamentablelackofthewilltoactwhenhesaid:"Iact
onlywhenIcancountona51percentprobabilityofsuccess."In
that'51percentprobability'wefindtheveryrootoftheGerman
collapse.ThemanwhodemandsfromFateaguaranteeofhis
successdeliberatelydeniesthesignificanceofanheroicact.For
this significance consists in the very fact that, in the definite
knowledgethatthesituationinquestionisfraughtwithmortal
danger,anactionisundertakenwhichmayleadtosuccess.A
patientsufferingfromcancerandwhoknowsthathisdeathis
certainifhedoesnotundergoanoperation,needsno51percent
probability of a cure before facing the operation. And if the
operation promises only half of one per cent probability of
successamanofcouragewillriskitandwouldnotwhineifit
turnedoutunsuccessful.
Allinall,thecowardlylackofwillpowerandtheincapacityfor
makingdecisionsarechieflyresultsoftheerroneouseducation
given us in our youth. The disastrous effects of this are now
widespread among us. The crowning examples of that tragic
chainof consequences areshown inthelackof civilcourage
whichourleadingstatesmendisplay.
Thecowardicewhichleadsnowadaystotheshirkingofevery
kindofresponsibilityspringsfromthesameroots.Hereagainit
is the fault of the education given our young people. This
drawback permeates all sections of public life and finds its
immortal consummation inthe institutions of government that
functionundertheparliamentaryregime.
Already in theschool, unfortunately, morevalue is placed on
'confessionandfullrepentance'and'contriterenouncement',on
thepartoflittlesinners,thanonasimpleandfrankavowal.But
this latter seems today, in the eyes of many an educator, to
savourofaspiritofutterincorrigibilityanddepravation.And,
though it may seem incredible, many a boy is told that the

gallowstreeis waitingfor himbecause hehas showncertain


traits which might be of inestimable value in the nation as a
whole.
Just as the People's State must one day give its attention to
training the willpower and capacity for decision among the
youth, so too it must inculcate in the hearts of the young
generationfromearlychildhoodonwardsareadinesstoaccept
responsibilities,andthecourageofopenandfrankavowal.Ifit
recognizesthefullsignificanceofthisnecessity,finallyaftera
century of educative work it will succeed in building up a
nationwhichwillnolongerbesubjecttothosedefeatsthathave
contributedsodisastrouslytobringaboutourpresentoverthrow.
Theformalimpartingofknowledge,whichconstitutesthechief
workofoureducationalsystemtoday,willbetakenoverbythe
People'sStatewithonlyfewmodifications.Thesemodifications
mustbemadeinthreebranches.
Firstofall,thebrainsoftheyoungpeoplemustnotgenerallybe
burdenedwithsubjectsofwhichninetyfivepercentareuseless
tothemandarethereforeforgottenagain.Thecurriculumofthe
primaryandsecondaryschoolspresentsanoddmixtureatthe
presenttime.Inmanybranchesofstudythesubjectmattertobe
learnedhasbecomesoenormousthatonlyaverysmallfraction
ofitcanberememberedlateron,andindeedonlyaverysmall
fractionofthiswholemassofknowledgecanbeused.Onthe
other hand, what is learned is insufficient for anybody who
wishes to specialize in any certain branch for the purpose of
earning his daily bread. Take, for example, the average civil
servantwhohaspassedthroughtheGymnasiumorHighSchool,
and ask him at the age of thirty or forty how much he has
retainedoftheknowledgethatwascrammedintohimwithso
muchpains.
Howmuchisretainedfromallthatwasstuffedintohisbrain?He
willcertainlyanswer:"Well,ifamassofstuffwasthentaught,it
wasnotforthesolepurposeofsupplyingthestudentwithagreat
stockofknowledgefromwhichhecoulddrawinlateryears,but
itservedtodeveloptheunderstanding,thememory,andabove

allithelpedtostrengthenthethinkingpowersofthebrain."That
ispartlytrue.Andyetitissomewhatdangeroustosubmergea
youngbraininafloodofimpressionswhichitcanhardlymaster
andthesingleelementsofwhichitcannotdiscernorappreciate
at their just value. It is mostly the essential part of this
knowledge, and not the accidental, that is forgotten and
sacrificed.Thustheprincipalpurposeofthiscopiousinstruction
isfrustrated,forthatpurposecannotbetomakethebraincapable
oflearningbysimplyofferingitanenormousandvariedamount
ofsubjects foracquisition,butrathertofurnishtheindividual
withthatstockofknowledgewhichhewillneedinlaterlifeand
which he can use for the good of the community. This aim,
however,isrenderedillusoryif,becauseofthesuperabundance
ofsubjectsthathavebeencrammedintohisheadinchildhood,a
personisabletoremembernothing,oratleastnottheessential
portion,ofallthisinlaterlife.Thereisnoreasonwhymillionsof
people should learn two or three languages during the school
years,