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Domain: Eubacteria
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Epsilonproteobacteria
Order: Campylobacterales
Family: Helicobacteraceae
Genus: Helicobacter
Species: Helicobacter pylori

Domain Eubacteria: H. pylori is in this

domain because it has no nuclear membrane,
no organelles (except for ribosomes), and its
genetic material is found within a single
strand of circular chromosome.
Kingdom Bacteria: H. pylori is considered a
bacterium because it is a unicellular
microorganism that lacks a nucleus. It also
has no membrane bound organelles.
Phylum Proteobacteria: H. pylori falls under
this phylum because when a gram stain is
performed, it stays pink, indicating that it is a
Gram-negative bacterium. Its outer
membrane consists of lipopolysaccharides,
rather than peptidoglycan as found in
Gram-positive bacteria.

As seen in H. pylori, many of these bacteria

use flagella for movement but some are
sessile (non-motile), or move via gliding.
This phylum gets its name from the Greek
god Proteus, who could change his shape
because of the wide variety of bacterial
forms found in it.
Class Epsilonproteobacteria: Most of the
bacteria within this class inhabit the
intestinal tract of mammals. They can
either be symbionts (either benefiting or
not affecting the host) or parasites such as
H. pylori.
Order Campylobacterales: This order is
composed of mesophiles, meaning they live
in moderate temperatures (10-50C).
The human stomach, which is the habitat
for H. pylori, falls within this range.

Family Helicobacteraceae: This family is

characterized by the helical shape of its
Genus Helicobacter: Members of this
genus live in the acidic mammalian
stomach by producing urease. They are
all flagellated and can move quite fast.
This genus was once part of the
Campylobacter genus but was later made
into its own group.
Species Helicobacter pylori: H. pylori is
the most widely known species of the
Helicobacter genus. It is pathogenic to

Gram negative

Length : 3m
Microaerophilic / Diameter : 0.5 m






-grow in low O2
concentration (5-19%)

grow in high O2
concentration, but in high
bacterial concentration


-adherent cell

adhere to surfaces of gastric

susceptibility to antibiotics
bacterial infection

1. Hydrogenase
-oxidize molecular hydrogen
in stomach to obtain energy
-Higher [hydrogen], higher
bacterial activity of H.pylori

2. Urease
-hydrolyse urea into
bicarbonate and ammonia
-enable H. pylori to persist in
acidic environment

-presence of 4-6
lophotrichous flagella

- 3 m long
- has a sheath that protects
the acid-labile flagellar
structure from stomach acid

1) Can be found in
gastrointestinal tract of
mammals and birds
2) found in mucus, inner
surface of epithelium and
inside the epithelial cell
3) Located adjacent to
surface and pit gastric
epithelial cell

1) spread from one
person mouth to

2) contact with
contaminated food
or drink

3) transferred from faeces to the mouth

1) H.Pylory infection in children may
produce symptomatic antral gastritis or
duodenal ulceration .
2) In adults , H.Pylori and the principal
that cause of duodenal ulcer disease ,
and there is epidermiological evidence of
an association with gastric cancer .
3) H.Pylori possible contribution to the
aetiology of childhood malnutrition and
to the genesis of gastric cancer .
4) The organism can be transmitted
from human to human with evidence of
colonization appearance of gastric and
serum antibody response .
5) Strain of H.Pylori associated with
human disease produce specific cytoxic
protein .

H.Pylori is organisms that was

unheard of 15 years ago , now
recognized as a clinically
significant pathology entity .

The ultimate significance of H.Pylori

as an agent of disease remains to be
seen !.

? Does not use complex
carbohydrates as energy source, the
only carbohydrate used is glucose.
? Glucose is metabolized through
fermentation and oxidation
? Also involved in lipopolysaccharide
and nucleotide biosynthesis, aerobic
and anaerobic respiration.
? Metabolism and paucity of gene
expression regulation systems are
the indicative of high level of
adaptation to the human gastric
environment (low pH)

How doe

H. pylori
enzyme w
carbon di


es H. pylori survive in acidic environment

synthesises a huge amount of UREASE, an

which hydrolyses urea into ammonia and
dioxide. Ammonia neutrailizes the acidity of
, making it more hospitable for the bacterium.

~able to adapt and survive in acidic
environment of stomach by borrowing itself
into the mucus lining of the stomach to
protect itself from the acidic environment.
~ able to sense the pH gradient in the mucus
and move towards the less acidic region
~Protein CagA of H.pylori co-expressed with
VacA shows clear pathway for secretion of
toxins that contribute to virulence.
~Gene of H.pylori associate with virulence
located in pathogenicity island has been
identified with being related to the risk of
gastric cancer .

1)Stomach ulcer
(As known as peptide ulcer)
-H. pylori enters your body and attacks the
lining of your stomach,which usually protects
you from the acid your body uses to digest
-Once the bacteria has done enough of
damage, the acid get through the lining
which leads to ulcers.
2)Stomach cancer
-The stomach ulcers formed in the stomach
will eventually leads to stomach cancer.

This video is briefly talking about Helicobacter

pylori. Helicobacter pylori, which is often simply
called H. pylori believed to be closely connected
to a pair of serious stomach disorders: ulcers and
stomach cancer.
Research has shown that H. pylori can weaken
the protective coating of the stomach. It is
capable of growing in the human stomach
despite highly acidic conditions that impossible
for other types of germs to survive. But HOW?
Check it out form the video.=)

Simple structures and components of H.pylori
Part of stomach and intestine that H.pylori locate
Zooming into the atrium lining (structures,
component and condition )
How do H.pylori survive in acidic condition
How H.pylori cause ulcer
Diagnosis of H.pylori infection
Treatment for H.pylori infection