Proceedings of WIND2003
2003 ASME Wind Energy Symposium
January 69, 2003, Reno, Nevada, USA
AIAA20030524
WIND2003524
A STRAIGHTBLADED VARIABLEPITCH VAWT CONCEPT FOR
IMPROVED POWER GENERATION
Yann Staelens*
Universitd Libre de Bruxelles, 180 Av. du Roi Albert, 1082 Brussels, Belgium
yannst aelens~hotmail.com
F. Saeedt and I. Paraschivoiu$
]~cole Polytechnique de Montreal, Ddpaxtement de Gdnie M~canique
CP 6079, Succ. CentreVille, Montreal, Qudbec, H3C 3A7, Canada
farooq.saeed~polymtl.ca, ion.paraschivoiu@polymtl.ca
ABSTRACT
The paper presents three modifications for an improved performance in terms of increased power output of a
straightbladed VAWT by varying its pitch. Modification I examines the performance of a VAWT when the
local angle of attack is kept just below the stall value throughout its rotation cycle. Although this modification
results in a very significant increase in the power output for higher wind speeds, it requires abrupt changes
in the local angle of attack making it physically and mechanically impossible to realize. Modification H
improves upon the first by replacing the local angle of attack by the blade staticstall angle only when the
former exceeds the latter. This step eliminates the two jumps in the local effective angle of attack curve but
at the cost of a slight decrease in the power output. Moreover, it requires a discontinuous angle of attack
correction function which may still be practically difficult to implement and also result in an early fatigue.
Modification III overcomes the limitation of the second by ensuring a continuous variation in the local angle
of attack correction during the rotation cycle through the use of a sinusoidal function. Although the power
output obtained by using this modification is less than the two preceding ones, it has the inherent advantage
of being practically feasible.
NOMENCLATURE
CD
CL
CN
CO
CT
c
D
FN
FT
f
H
L
N
P
Reb
Ret
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
blade section drag coefficient
blade section lift coefficient
blade section normal force coefficient
rotor torque coefficient, T/[2pVo~SR ]
blade section tangential force coefficient
akfoil chord, m
blade drag force, N
blade normal force, N
blade tangential force, N
function
halfheight of the rotor, m
blade lift force
number of blades
rotor power, k W
blade Reynolds number, W c / u
turbine Reynolds number, R w c / u
r
S
u
V
Voo
W
X
X~Q
xROyR
z
c~
c~e
c~stau
c~
~ae
* G r a d u a t e Research Student.
?Research Associate. M e m b e r AIAA.
:tBombaxdier Aeronautical Chair Professor. Associate
Fellow AIAA.
Copyright (~) 2003 by t h e authors. Published by t h e American I n s t i t u t e of Aeronautics a n d Astronautics, Inc. or t h e
A m e r i c a n Society of Mechanical Engineers with permission.
W
~
v
P
w
 rotor radius at the equator, m
 local rotor radius, m
 rotor swept area, m 2
interference factor
 local induced velocity, m / s
= free stream wind velocity, m / s
= local relative velocity, m / s
= local tipspeed ratio, r w / V
= tipspeed ratio at the equator, Rw/Voo
= system of rotational cartesian coordinates
= local turbine height, m
= local angle of attack, deg
= local effective angle of attack, a + A c e deg
= local staticstall angle, deg
= atmospheric wind shear component
= local effective angle of attack
increment, O l s t a l I   Ol deg
nondimensional height, z / H
 nondimensional radius, r / R
= azimuthal angle, deg
~ kinematic viscosity, m2/s
fluid density, k g / m 3
=
= turbine rotational speed, r a d / s
146
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Superscripts:
()
= average value
(')
= downstream value
Without (') = upwind value
Subscripts:
= equatorial
EQ
i
c
value
= value at a height equal to the center of
slice i
= freestream value
INTRODUCTION
The continuing oil crisis, environmental pollution
and global warming has been a matter of great concern for the industrialized nations and, therefore,
caused a renewed interest in the field of renewable
energy resources. Amongst these resources, wind
energy has been in the forefront of progress and
development specifically because of its proven efficiency, a growth rate of 40% and very positive enviromnental impact [1]. Many countries, such as
Denmark [2], are investing a lot of money in research in the field of Wind Energy that is now not
only evolving into a significant proportion of their
annual power production but is also a source of encouragement for the wind energy community. This
encouragement is vital for a continued research and
development. The wind turbine, whether it may
be a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) or a
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT), offers a practical way to convert wind energy into any other useful forms of energy. The major research effort at
cole Polytechnique de Montral, Canada, is devoted
towards the development and improvement of the
performance prediction of VAWTs [315].
In this regards, a study was carried to determine
if the performance o f a VAWT, in terms of the power
output, could be improved by operating the blade
just below stall, whether static or dynamic. The
basic idea was to actively lower the effective angle of attack of a VAWT blade as it approaches
stall. As such the blade never experiences stall
throughout its cycle of rotation. Moreover, it was
desired to determine whether or not symmetry in
the tangential force component could be achieved
through the variation of the geometric angle of attack of the VAWT blade during its cycle of rotation analogous to the concept of symmetry of lift
in helicopter blades in forward flight. In order to
study the above ideas, three modifications to the
existing CARDAAV code [11] were studied. A 2blade straightbladed VAWT model was used for
this study. The results were examined to determine
the potential of such modifications and their impact
on the performance of a VAWT. In the sections that
follow, some brief details of the CARDAAV code
along with a discussion on the three modifications
are presented. The paper ends with some brief conclusions.
THE CARDAAV CODE
The first approach using a momentum model to
analyze the flow field around a VAWT was developed by Templin [17] who considered the rotor as
an actuator disk enclosed in a simple streamtube
where the induced velocity through the swept volume of the turbine is assumed to be constant. An
extension of this method to the multiplestreamtube
model was developed by Strickland [18] who considered the swept volume of the turbine as a series
of adjacent streamtubes. Paraschivoiu [7, 8, 9, 10]
developed an analytical model, the doublemultiple
streamtube model (DMS model), that considers a
multiplestreamtube system divided into two parts
where the upwind and downwind components of the
induced velocities at each level of the rotor are calculated by using the principle of two actuator disks
in tandem. The DMS model has been implemented
in CARDAAV computer code [11] in which VAWTs
can be designed to meet the desired specifications.
CARDAAV has the capability to analyze several predefined or userdefined rotor shapes with
straight or curved blades (parabola, catenary, ideal
and modified troposkien, and Sandia shape). CARDAAV is also able to account for the socalled "secondary effects," such as those of rotating tower,
strut, and spoiler. Dynamic stall can also be included in the analysis. Significant changes are
then observed in the aerodynamic loads and performance in the range of low tipspeed ratios. Several
dynamicstall models are available in CARDAAV.
The important ones include (a) the incidencedelay
method originating from BoeingVertol which is
based on numerical correlations of the dynamicstall
delay with pitchrate parameter (also known as Gormont's model [19]), (b) a modified Gormont's model
based on the turbulence level effects between the
left and right sides of the rotor, and (c) a modified Gormont's model [20] which introduced some
damping effects at very large angle of attack. Dynamics stall results in increased peak aerodynamic
torque and affects the structural fatigue of the Darrieus turbine. This effect significantly impacts the
drivetrain generator sizing and system reliability.
147
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CARDAAV has made it possible to design, analyze and build more efficient and low cost wind energy systems such as the Darrieusrotor VAWT. The
CARDAAV code is used to determine aerodynamic
forces and power output of VAWTs of any geometry
at the specified operational conditions. Wind speed
can vary with height according to a power law. The
program output consists of the local induced velocities, the local Reynolds numbers and angle of attack,
the blade loads, and the azimuthal torque and power
coefficient data. Each of these is calculated separately for the upwind and downwind hMves of the
rotor. The numerical models used by the program
have been validated through comparison with experimental data, obtained from laboratory tests made
in wind or water tunnels, for different Darrieustype
VAWTs, thus, making CARDAAV a very attractive
and efficient design and analysis tool.
1.6
1.2
/f
&
Strickland et al.
//
....
 ....
//
~f
Paraschivoiu et aL
e.
A. = 6.o
B~rg, A~=
Measurements
~ Mechanical Power
I
10
15
]Equatorial wind speed, I~Q (m/s)
20
F i g u r e 2: C o m p a r i s o n of t h e p o w e r o u t p u t
p r e d i c t e d by C A R D A A V w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l
d a t a [8].
'.ll
o CARDAAV
   CARDAAS1Dturb.
  CARDAAS3Dturb.
Expefimen~ldata
dt __~
/r~
&A
::::
....
.#"2":.,=.0..+
g~
Figures 1 and 2 show a comparison between the
the normal force coefficients and the power output in comparison with experiments and other numerical codes. In Fig. 1, the CARDAAS1D and
CARDAAS3D are different variants of the CARDAAV code that take into account atmospheric
turbulence through use of different scholastic wind
models. In Fig. 2, AM is an empirical constant used
to correct Cz, and CD for dynamic stall effects [8].
2.0
2 NACA 0 0 1 5 b l a d e s / . .
50
0.8
zEQ~
i
~
I
CO
~ 0.0
= 0.4
1.2
SANDIA 17m
2 NACA0015blades
Solidityffi 0.157
38.7 rpm
1.6
2.0
90
30
Downwind
F i g u r e 3: A Sketch of t h e s t r a i g h t  b l a d e d
V A W T m o d e l u s e d in t h i s s t u d y .
~'~
~]
V
l
30
90
150 210
Azimuthal angle,0 (deg)
270
7] applicable to straightbladed rotor is briefly outlined below.
F i g u r e 1: N o r m a l  f o r c e coefficient versus azi m u t h a i angle at t h e e q u a t o r [8].
For a straightbladed VAWT rotor, the resultant
velocity vector W during the upwind half of the rotation cycle (~r/2 < 0 < 7r/2) can be found from
the velocity diagram of Fig. 4:
The Aerodynamic Model
W 2 = V 2 [(X  sin 0) 2 + cos2 0]
Since the focus of the present study is on a
straightbladed VAWT (see Fig. 3), a simplified
model for the doublemultiple streamtube theory [3,
(1)
The expression for the local angle of attack a can
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y},
r(z)
\,,_
',
. . . . . .
'
vtz)
\~\
Dx~"
~_.X.J
!0
. . . .
The blade section lift and drag coefficients, CL
and CD respectively, are obtained by interpolating
known experimental data using both the local blade
section Reynolds number Reb = W c / v ~ and the
local angle of attack c~. Using Eq. 1, Reb is given
as a function of the induced upwind velocity V for
each blade element in rotation. Defining the turbine
Reynolds number as Ret = Rwc/u~, one obtains
the relationship between Reb and Ret:
/'r7e __ ryo
I N
e~
"\
._
v,.,
, "~J
Reb = (Ret/X)~/(X  sin 8) 2 + cos 2 8
The Computational
//,;
(270")
D'
F i g u r e 4: T h e v a r i o u s angles, forces a n d vel o c i t y v e c t o r s in t h e e q u a t o r i a l p l a n e .
also be found from geometric considerations:
c~ = arcsin
~/(X  sin 0) 2 + cos2 0~
(2)
Assuming that the freestream velocity profile is
given by the relation:
V~i/V~ = (zi/zmq) ~
(3)
Then by applying the blade element theory and
equating the change in momentum to the drag on
the rotor for each streamtube, one finds:
=
(4)
or, in terms of interference factor,
f u = 7rr/(1  u)
(5)
where r / = r / R ~ 1 and f is the upwind function [3,
7] that characterizes the upstream halfcycle of the
rotor on the blade element rotating in this zone.
The upwind function is given by the equation:
Nc ;=/2 CNCOSO+CTsinO ( _ ~ ) 2
f = 871'~j_~/2
iCOSS[
d8 (6)
where
CN
CT
= CL sin c~  CD cos c~
(8)
Procedure
For a given rotor geometry and rotational speed
w, a value of the local tipspeed ratio X is chosen
by assuming that the interference factor u is unity.
Thus, Reb and c~ are evaluated as first approximation and the airfoil CL and C o characteristics are
interpolated from test data, (the blade section type
is usually a symmetrical NACA airfoil). Then, with
Eq. 7, the normal and tangential force coefficients of
the blade section are estimated while Eq. 6 allows
the upwind function f to be evaluated. With the
first value of f , Eq. 5 is used to calculate another
value for the interference factor and the iterations
continue until successive sets of u are reasonably
close. Convergence is rapid with an error of less
than 10 4 . Once the final value of the upwind zone
V has been calculated, the local relative velocity W
is determined from Eq. 1 and the local angle of attack c~ from Eq. 2. A similar procedure is adopted
for the downwind half cycle.
The geometric characteristics as well as operating conditions of the straightbladed VAWT aerodynamic model chosen for this study are listed in
Table 1 below.
T a b l e 1: T h e g e o m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d
t h e o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s u s e d in t h i s s t u d y .
Variables
Values
Blade profile
NACA 0015
Blade chord, c
0.2 m
6m
Blade length, 2H
2
Number of blades, N
3m
Rotor height, zR
13.09 rad/s (125)
Rotational speed, w (rpm)
2.9
Tipspeed ratio, X~Q
13.6 m / s
Wind speed, V~,Eq
Wind shear component, aw 0.0
1.21 k g / m a
Air density, pet
1.48 x I0 5 m2/s
Kinematic viscosity, v ~
e L c o s ot .+ C D s i n ot
(7)
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30 1
~zo
~
0.24
(X0~e= if" + AUe = 0~mu
Static and dynamic stall
modl
0.20
Aa.
10
Static stall only
....
0.16
"~ 0.12
O
0.08
0.04
~ lO
.20;o
..............
0
90
1 0+ '
Azimuthal angle, e (deg)
0.00
'
'
'
I
270
0.04~
....
90
180
270
Azimuthal angle, 0 (deg)
F i g u r e 5: L o c a l angle o f a t t a c k as a f u n c t i o n
o f t h e a z i m u t h a l angle.
600I
F i g u r e 7: T o r q u e coefficient as a f u n c t i o n o f
the azimuthal angle.
25
Static stall only
Static and dynamic stall
modl
....
Static stall only
Static and dynamic stall /
20
~E~400f
/%,
,Y,
2oo
/~
15
~
cJ
10
200.~0 '
,
. . . .
90
180
270
Azimuthal angle, e (deg)
.......
?,:,iiii,
,,25
5
10
15
20
Equatorial wind speed, V ~ (m/s)
Figure 6: T a n g e n t i a l force as a f u n c t i o n of t h e
a z i m u t h a l angle.
F i g u r e 8: P o w e r p r o d u c e d as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e
wind speed at the equator.
MODIFICATIONS
Modification I
plished by introducing an effective angle of attack
a e ( = a + A c ~ ) term as an additional step in the
computations. For modl, A a e = astaU  ~ . Thus,
essentially the local blade angle of attack a is increased/decreased to the local blade staticstall angle value and as such the blade never experiences
stall since it avoids the stall region, whether static
or dynamic, altogether. Hence the lift and the tangential force only increase with the wind speed and
the power output is not affected by stall effects.
In modification I (rood1), the local blade angle of
attack c~ is kept just below the local stall angle at
all points along the rotation cycle. This is accom
Figure 5 illustrates the variation of the local angles of attack a and ae during a complete rotation.
Here the a is replaced by ae (solid line) in the
In general, the modifications were mainly performed in the aerodynamics module of the CARDAAV program, and, in particular, in the way it
calculates the local angle of attack a. Overall, three
different modifications were studied that are described below along with the associated results.
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0.24
301
20
(Xe(x= (X+ A(X_<~sUdl
.. ",, A(X
Static stall only
Sta~c and dynamic stall
modl
. . . .
0.20
.......
/I,I
0.16
mod2
Ila
0.12
,~ lO
\
0
90
90
180
270
Azimuthal m]gle, 0 (deg)
0 (deg)
Figure 11: Torque coefficient as a function of
the azimuthal angle.
25
static and dynamic stall
modl
mod2
.......
.0.0.4~0
270
Static stall only
. . . .
Z:
~.~ 400
0.04
0.00
F i g u r e 9: L o c a l angle of a t t a c k as a f u n c t i o n
o f t h e a z i m u t h a l angle.
600
E
/
180
Azimuthal ~gle,
0.08
/
%
2
ca
20
Static stall only
Static and dynffimicstall ~
modl
/~"
mod2
~i
. . . .
. . . .
.......
~.,15
200
~
10
201 P0
90
180
270
Azimuthal angle, 0 (deg)
F i g u r e 10: T a n g e n t i a l force as a f u n c t i o n o f
the a z i m u t h a l angle.
computations. Figures 6 and 7 not only indicate
an overall increase in the area under the tangential
force and torque coefficient curves for modl but also
a smoother variation along the rotation cycle. As
a result of this modification, the power output increases linearly with wind speed (Fig. 8). Moreover,
the increase in power output at high wind speeds is
significantly higher than the case where static or
dynamic stall or both are encountered by the blade.
However, a major drawback of this modification are
the two jumps in the local effective angle of attack
at 8 = 1r/2 and ~r/2 that may be physically and
mechanically difficult to implement as well as result
in an early fatigue. In order to overcome this diffi
10
15
20
25
Equatorial wind speed, V ~ (m/s)
F i g u r e 12: P o w e r p r o d u c e d as a f u n c t i o n o f
t h e w i n d s p e e d at t h e e q u a t o r .
culty, a slightly different strategy is applied and is
discussed next.
Modification II
In modification II (mod2), the local effective
blade angle of attack ae is kept at the blade stall angle during the rotation cycle only when its value exceeds the staticstall angle value a s t a u . This change
eliminates the two jumps in the local effective angle of attack at ~ = ~r/2 and 7r/2 as shown in
Fig. 9. As a result of this modification, the tangential force and torque coefficient curves also show
a more gradual change or a smoother transition at
151
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~ , = 0~ +
30
A~
Static stall only
Z . ~ . __.i Sm~
d and dynamic stall
0.24 [
Aa.
O~mn
0.20 I
.........
.. __t~[~JJ~LLL~:~,__.~ Max" amplitade
0.16 ~"
/I ~
/' /I
0.12
........
20
\x I
rood3  max. amplitude
II,
~ ~(:~:,
~,J~.~.
u u/ ;~
0.0S
~,
I/,ILg ~.~
~ ~'\
,~L.
~ \\
0.04
~
10
0.00
I
. . . .
'
~9101
180
0.0~
270
. . . .
Azimuthal angle, 0 (deg)
2oo
20
,qj,
180
270
modl
.......
 . . . . . . . .
....
mod2
~/
mod3  max. ampfitudef/"
rood3  $0 % of max.~./
amplltude.~//
//
,
x.
9'
90
Z (/
,)~"
7"4,~,
" t
1,
201
90
/ A~  'I.
I "\
Static stall only
static and dynamic stall
25 "    
Z~4OO
/
F i g u r e 15: T o r q u e c o e f f i c i e n t as a f u n c t i o n o f
t h e a z i m u t h a l angle.
Static stall only
Static and dynamic stall
mod2
mod3 ma~. amplitude
. . . .
.......
/'~l" . . . .
Azimuthal angle, 0 (deg)
F i g u r e 13: L o c a l a n g l e o f a t t a c k as a f u n c t i o n
of the azimuthal angle.
600
, a
90
,I
i
180
270
Azimuthal angle, e (deg)
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
$
10
15
20
Equatorial wind speed, V ~ (m/s)
25
F i g u r e 14: T a n g e n t i a l f o r c e as a f u n c t i o n o f
the azimuthal angle.
F i g u r e 16: P o w e r p r o d u c e d as a f u n c t i o n o f
t h e w i n d s p e e d at t h e e q u a t o r .
0 =  l r / 2 and ~r/2 as evident from Figs. 10 and
11, respectively. The decrease in the area under the
tangential force and torque coefficient curves as a
result of this modification is reflected in a slightly
less power output than m o d l as seen in Fig. 12. In
this case as well, the power output increases linearly
with wind speed since the stall regions are avoided
during the rotation cycle.
implement and also cause early fatigue due to the
abrupt dynamical loads. A continuous correction
function, such as a sinusoidal function, will overcome this limitation. This idea is explored next.
Modification III
In modification III (rood3), the evolution of the
local angle of attack correction A a e for the local
angle of attack curve is replaced by a smooth con
tinuous function such as a sinusoidal function represented by a dotted line in Fig. 13. The maximum
amplitude of the sinusoidal correction function is set
equal to the maximum difference between the local
From Fig. 9 we can see t h a t mod2 does not completely eliminate the drawback of m o d l since the
evolution of the correction function for the local angle of attack curve (Ac~ in Fig. 9) is still discontinuous at some points which may not be practical to
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CONCLUSIONS
angle of attack a, and the blade staticstall angle
a s t ~ u . As a consequence, the local effective angle of
attack ae curve also follows a sinusoidal change. For
this case, the blade does experience dynamic stall at
a few locations during the rotation cycle as evident
from Fig. 13. As a consequence, abrupt changes
in the tangential force and torque coefficient curves
are predicted by the program only when the blade
experiences dynamic stall as seen in Figs. 14 and
15, respectively. This can, however, be eliminated
by decreasing the maximum amplitude of the correction function till the dynamic stall regions are
avoided alltogether yielding a smooth continuous
variation in the tangential and normal forces and
the torque. Moreover, a smooth and continuous correction function for Aae is more practical since it is
physically and mechanically feasible to implement.
In this study, three modifications for an improved
performance in terms of increased power output of
a straightbladed VAWT by introducing a variation
in the blade pitch have been presented along with
results. These modifications include:
(a) Modification I examines the performance of a
VAWT when the local angle of attack is kept just below the stall value throughout its cycle of rotation.
This is accomplished by adjusting the local geometric angle of attack of the blade. This modification
results in a very significant increase in the power
output for wind speeds above 10 m/s. However,
this modification requires sharp changes (jumps) in
the local angle of attack making it physically and
mechanically impossible to realize.
A drawback of mod3 is that the power output, although significantly higher than the one without any
modification, is much less than in the case of modl
and mod2 as shown in Fig. 16. Another interesting
point to note in Figs..16 and 17 is that by using
half the magnitude of the maximum amplitude, the
power output is seen to increase. This increase is
due to the fact that the local effective angle of attack ae value is higher at each azimuthal location
for the case when 50% of the maximum amplitude
is used. Thus, it suggests that an optimum value for
the maximum magnitude must be determined that
yields the maximum power output. Figure 17 shows
the variation of the normal force during the rotation
cycle after applying modifications II and III.
2000
(b) Modification II improves upon the first by replacing the local angle of attack by the local profile
stall angle, which is obtained in the same manner
as for modification I, but only when the former exceeds the latter. As a consequence, this modification
eliminates the two jumps in the local effective angle
of attack curve but at the cost of a slight decrease
in the power output. Moreover, it also renders the
angle of attack correction function as discontinuous which may be practically difficult to implement
and result in an early fatigue. A remedy for this
limitation is to introduce a smooth and continuous
variation in the local angle of attack correction.
(c) Modification III overcomes the limitation of
the second by ensuring a continuous variation in the
local angle of attack correction during the rotation
cycle through the use of a sinusoidal function. The
amplitude of the sinusoidal function is set equal to
the maximum difference between the local angle of
attack and the blade staticstall angle. The difference is only calculated when the former exceeds the
latter. Although the power output obtained by using this modification is less than the two preceding
modifications, it has the inherent advantage of being
practically feasible.
nod2
rood3  max. amplitude
mod3  S0% of max. amplitude
Z 1000
~ 1000
200.0 ~ ,
0I
1~0
'
'
I
.
180
. . .
Although the above modifications suggest an increase in the power output of a straightbladed
VAWT, the scheduling of blade angle of attack
negates some nice features of VAWTs, i. e. their
insensitivity to wind direction as well as the natural
feathering effect. It would, therefore, require special winddirection sensors, blade pitch mechanism
and power generation and transmission systems designed for heavier loads to achieve the desired performance.

270
A z i m u t h a l angle, 0 ( d e g )
F i g u r e 17: N o r m a l f o r c e as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e
azimuthal angle.
153
Copyright 2003 by ASME
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Acknowledgements
[14] Brochier, G., Frauni4, P., Bdguier, C., and
Paraschivoiu, I., "Experimental Study of Dynamic
Stall on Darrieus Wind Turbine Blades," Proceedings of the 20th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Miami, Florida, USA, August 1823, 1985.
The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
Council (NSERC), Canada, through their Grant
No. 1442.
[15] Ddsy, P., and Paraschivoiu, I., "Aerodynamics of
SmallScale Vertical Axis Wind 'lhlrbines," Proceedings of the 20th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Miami, Florida, August 1823, 1985.
References
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[12] Paraschivoiu, I., "M~thodes des tubes de courant
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154
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