Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

MECH 423 Casting, Welding, Heat

Treating and NDT


Time: _ T _ J _13:15 - 14:45
Credits: 3.5

Review
Lecture 13
Lecture 13

Grading
Assessment Criteria

Share towards final

Presentation

10 %

10 %

Lab (preliminary and final)

10 %

10 %

Assignments (4)

15 %

15 %

Exams:

(with Midterm) (without Midterm)

Midterm (optional)

15 %

0%

Final

50 %

65%

100%

100%

Total

Final Lab report due on 9th December

Assignment 4 and project report due today


Lecture 13

Final

Closed book exam for 3 hours

80 marks

15 True or False questions (1 mark each)

15 multiple choice questions (1 mark each)

10 small questions (2 marks each)

3 questions, that require design, calculations or


explanation, of which you attend 2 questions (15
marks each)

Relevant formulae and pictures will be given along

with the question paper


Lecture 13

Writing Strategy

Questions will be similar to the ones in the assignments

Answers, it will be better to be crisp looking at all the


possibilities of the questions in full

No bonus for lengthy answers

I will be marking based on keywords for example

Normalizing process - Keywords will be, how much and how

long you will heat the sample, and how fast and by what
method you will cool it. Include crystal size, shape, advantages
and disadvantages as well.

Lecture 13

Preparing Strategy

Casting

Types, classifications, relative advantages and limitations, considerations,


techniques etc.

Heat Treatment

Types, classifications, relative advantages and limitations, considerations,


techniques etc.

Welding

Types, classifications, relative advantages and limitations, considerations,

techniques etc.

NDT

Types, classifications, relative advantages and limitations, considerations,

techniques etc.

Lecture 13

Weld Zones Prediction


The various
microstructural
zones formed
in fusion welds
between a
pure metal
(right) and an
alloy (alloy).

Schematic of
the distinct
zones in a
fusion weld in a
pure metal (a)
and an alloy (c)
as these
correspond to
phase regions
in the
hypothetical
phase diagram
shown (b).

Lecture 11

Simplified Welding Equations


Peak Temperatures in solid metal:

2e Chy 1
1

TP T0
H net
Tm T0
0.5

where:
T0 = temperature of workpiece at start of welding (K)
TP = Peak temperature at distance y from fusion boundary (K)
Tm = melting temperature (or liquidus) of metal being welded (K)
= density of metal (g.m-3)
C = specific heat (J.g-1 .K-1)
Hnet = heat input (J.m-1) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes
h = thickness of base material (m)
e = base of natural logarithms (2.718)
y = distance form fusion zone (= 0 at the fusion zone, where TP = Tm) (m)

Lecture 11

Simplified Welding Equations


Solidification rate
The rate at which weld metal solidifies can have a strong effect
on microstructure and properties.
Solidification time, St , in seconds:

LH net
St
2
2kC Tm T0

where:
L = Latent heat of fusion (J/m3)
T0 = temperature of workpiece at start of welding (K)
Tm = melting temperature (or liquidus) of metal being welded (K)
k = thermal conductivity (J.m-1.s-1. K-1)
= density of metal (g.m-3)
C = specific heat (J.g-1 .K-1)
Hnet = heat input (J.m-1) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes

Lecture 11

Simplified Welding Equations


Cooling Rates
Final metallurgical state of FZ and HAZ is primarily determined by cooling
rates. Affects fineness/coarseness of grains, homogeneity, phases,
microconstituents etc. Especially in steels where some phase
transformations are dependent on cooling rate (fast cooling can produce
hard, brittle martensite).

For a single pass in a butt joint between


thick plates (> 6 passes) of equal
thickness:

2k TC T0
R
H net

where:
R = cooling rate at the weld centreline (K/s)
T0 = initial temperature of workpiece (K)
TC = temperature at which cooling rate is calculated (K)
k = thermal conductivity (J.m-1.s-1. K-1)
Hnet = heat input (J.m-1) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes
Lecture 11

Simplified Welding Equations


For thin plates ( < 4 passes):

h
TC T0
R 2kC
H net

where:
R = cooling rate at the weld centreline (K/s)
T0 = initial temperature of workpiece (K)
TC = temperature at which cooling rate is calculated (K)
k = thermal conductivity (J.m-1.s-1. K-1)
= density of metal (g.m-3)
C = specific heat (J.g-1 .K-1)
C = volumetric specific heat (J.m-1 .K-1)
Hnet = heat input (J.m-1) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes
Note: increasing the initial temperature, T0, (by preheating)
decreases the cooling rate,R.
Lecture 11

10