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# MECH 423 Casting, Welding, Heat

## Treating and NDT

Time: _ T _ J _13:15 - 14:45
Credits: 3.5

Review
Lecture 13
Lecture 13

Assessment Criteria

Presentation

10 %

10 %

10 %

10 %

Assignments (4)

15 %

15 %

Exams:

## (with Midterm) (without Midterm)

Midterm (optional)

15 %

0%

Final

50 %

65%

100%

100%

Total

Lecture 13

Final

80 marks

## 3 questions, that require design, calculations or

explanation, of which you attend 2 questions (15
marks each)

Lecture 13

Writing Strategy

## Answers, it will be better to be crisp looking at all the

possibilities of the questions in full

## Normalizing process - Keywords will be, how much and how

long you will heat the sample, and how fast and by what
method you will cool it. Include crystal size, shape, advantages
and disadvantages as well.

Lecture 13

Preparing Strategy

Casting

techniques etc.

Heat Treatment

techniques etc.

Welding

techniques etc.

NDT

techniques etc.

Lecture 13

The various
microstructural
zones formed
in fusion welds
between a
pure metal
(right) and an
alloy (alloy).

Schematic of
the distinct
zones in a
fusion weld in a
pure metal (a)
and an alloy (c)
as these
correspond to
phase regions
in the
hypothetical
phase diagram
shown (b).

Lecture 11

## Simplified Welding Equations

Peak Temperatures in solid metal:

2e Chy 1
1

TP T0
H net
Tm T0
0.5

where:
T0 = temperature of workpiece at start of welding (K)
TP = Peak temperature at distance y from fusion boundary (K)
Tm = melting temperature (or liquidus) of metal being welded (K)
= density of metal (g.m-3)
C = specific heat (J.g-1 .K-1)
Hnet = heat input (J.m-1) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes
h = thickness of base material (m)
e = base of natural logarithms (2.718)
y = distance form fusion zone (= 0 at the fusion zone, where TP = Tm) (m)

Lecture 11

## Simplified Welding Equations

Solidification rate
The rate at which weld metal solidifies can have a strong effect
on microstructure and properties.
Solidification time, St , in seconds:

LH net
St
2
2kC Tm T0

where:
L = Latent heat of fusion (J/m3)
T0 = temperature of workpiece at start of welding (K)
Tm = melting temperature (or liquidus) of metal being welded (K)
k = thermal conductivity (J.m-1.s-1. K-1)
= density of metal (g.m-3)
C = specific heat (J.g-1 .K-1)
Hnet = heat input (J.m-1) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes

Lecture 11

## Simplified Welding Equations

Cooling Rates
Final metallurgical state of FZ and HAZ is primarily determined by cooling
rates. Affects fineness/coarseness of grains, homogeneity, phases,
microconstituents etc. Especially in steels where some phase
transformations are dependent on cooling rate (fast cooling can produce
hard, brittle martensite).

## For a single pass in a butt joint between

thick plates (> 6 passes) of equal
thickness:

2k TC T0
R
H net

where:
R = cooling rate at the weld centreline (K/s)
T0 = initial temperature of workpiece (K)
TC = temperature at which cooling rate is calculated (K)
k = thermal conductivity (J.m-1.s-1. K-1)
Hnet = heat input (J.m-1) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes
Lecture 11

## Simplified Welding Equations

For thin plates ( < 4 passes):

h
TC T0
R 2kC
H net

where:
R = cooling rate at the weld centreline (K/s)
T0 = initial temperature of workpiece (K)
TC = temperature at which cooling rate is calculated (K)
k = thermal conductivity (J.m-1.s-1. K-1)
= density of metal (g.m-3)
C = specific heat (J.g-1 .K-1)
C = volumetric specific heat (J.m-1 .K-1)
Hnet = heat input (J.m-1) = q/v = EI/v for arc welding processes
Note: increasing the initial temperature, T0, (by preheating)
decreases the cooling rate,R.
Lecture 11

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