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EKB 2113 MASS


TRANSFER
Lecture 5 Mass transfer coefficient

Mass Transfer Coefficients:


In most mass transfer operations, turbulent flow is desired
to increase the rate of transfer per unit area.
In such cases, the mass transfer rate is expressed in terms
of mass transfer coefficients.
In turbulent flow, there are three regions of mass transfer
but as it is very difficult to know the value of distance in
turbulent region through which diffusion occurs, it is
considered that the entire resistance to mass transfer lies in a
laminar sub-layer of thickness z (effective laminar film
thickness).

Mass Transfer Coefficients:


The resistance offered by the effective laminar film
thickness is approximately the same as the combined
resistance offered by three regions in turbulent motion.

The flux (mass transfer rate/unit area) equations for such


situations are of the type
Flux = (Mass transfer coefficient) (Concentration difference)

Microscopic (or Ficks Law) approach:

JA = - DAB

dCA
dz

(1)
good for diffusion dominated problems

Macroscopic (or mass transfer coefficient) approach:

NA = - k CA

(2)

where k is known as the mass transfer coefficient


good for convection dominated problems

Mass Transfer Coefficient for Equimolar counter diffusion

As concentrations can be expressed in number of ways, several types of mass transfer


coefficients are possible.
Mass transfer coefficient is thus, defined as the rate of mass transfer per unit area per unit
concentration difference.
The flux equation obtained for the steady state equimolar counter diffusion for turbulent
motion becomes

For a given situation, the term


coefficient for the gas

Therefore,

is constant and it can be termed as the mass transfer film

Mass Transfer Coefficient Approach

= = 1 2

(3)

kc is the liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient


based on a concentration driving force.

What is the unit of ?

2
=
= . = /

3

CA1

A&B

NA

CA2

Mass Transfer Coefficient Approach

= = 1 2

(3)

Using the following relationships between concentrations and


partial pressures:
CA1 = pA1 / RT;

CA2 = pA2 / RT

Equation (3) can be written as


NA = (pA1 pA2) / RT

= (pA1 pA2)

where = / RT

is a gas-phase mass-transfer coefficient


based on a partial-pressure driving force.

What is the unit of ?

(4)

(5)


=
=


. 2 .

/
3 .
.

Mass Transfer Coefficient for Equimolar counter diffusion

Often, we define the concentration in term of mole fraction

if a liquid/gas and in term of partial pressure if a gas.


For is mole fraction in a gas phase; is mole fraction
in a liquid phase, equation for equimolar counterdiffusion
can be written as below:
Gases: N A kc (c A1 c A 2 ) kG ( p A1 p A 2 ) k y ( y A1 y A 2 )
'

Liquid:

'

'

N A kc (c A1 c A2 ) k L (c A1 c A2 ) k x ( x A1 x A2 )
'

'

'

Mass Transfer Coefficient for Equimolar counter diffusion

Substituting 1 =

, 2 = 2

'

c A1 c A2 k y
N A kc (c A1 c A2 ) k y ( y A1 y A2 ) k y ( ) (c A1 c A2 )
c
c
c
'

'

'

kc
'

ky
c

'

Mass Transfer Coefficient for A through Stagnant B

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The flux equation obtained for steady state diffusion of A through non-diffusing B for
turbulent motion is

Where
Similar equations can be written for the liquid phase.
The flux equation for the diffusion of A through non-diffusing B for the liquid phase
is

= 1 2
Where

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Mass Transfer Coefficient for A through Stagnant B

NB=0

'

kc
NA
(c A1 c A2 ) kc (c A1 c A2 )
xBM
'

kx
NA
( x A1 x A2 ) k x ( x A1 x A2 )
xBM

kc is the mass transfer coefficient for A diffusing

through non diffusing B

xBM

xB 2 xB1
x
ln( B 2 xB1 )

y BM

y B 2 y B1
y
ln( B 2 yB1 )

'

kc
kc
xBM

Mass Transfer Coefficient for A through Stagnant B

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rewriting the equation for A diffusing through nondiffusing

B for gases and liquid


Gases:

N A kc (c A1 c A2 ) kG ( p A1 p A2 ) k y ( y A1 y A2 )

Liquid:

N A kc (c A1 c A2 ) k L (c A1 c A2 ) k x ( x A1 x A2 )

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Type of mass transfer coefficients


the relations among mass transfer coefficient and

various flux equations

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Dimensionless groups for Convective mass


transfer
Reynolds number, NRe, which indicates the degree of

turbulence

=
=


Where L is diameter Dp for sphere, diameter D for a pipe or
Length L for a flat plate. is the mass average velocity if is

in pipe. For packed bed, = where is superficial


velocity and is void fraction of bed
Schmidt number, NSc, is the ratio of shear component for

diffussivity

to the diffusivity for mass transfer DAB


=
=

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Dimensionless groups for Convective mass


transfer
Sherwood number, NSh, which is dimensionless

=
=
=

Stanton number, NSt



=
=
=

=
=

factor, relates with Nsc


2/3
2/3
=
( ) =
( ) = /( 3 )

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Mass transfer coefficient for various


geometries
Mass transfer in flow parallel to flat plates
Eg. Drying of inorganic or biological materials, evaporation
of solvents from paints
1.

For gases,
Reynolds number less than 15,000; = 0.664( )0.5

In term of Sherwood number,


= =

0.664( )0.5 1/3


Reynolds number 15,000-30,000; = 0.036

For liquid,
Reynolds number of 600-50,000;
= 0.99( )0.5

0.2

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Example : Mass transfer from a flat plate


A large volume of pure water at 26.1C is flowing parallel
to a flat plate of solid benzoic acid, where L = 0.244 m in
the direction of flow. The water velocity is 0.062 m/s. The
solubility of benzoic acid in water is 0.02948 kg mol/m3.
The diffusivity of benzoic acid is 1.245 x 10-9 m2/s.
calculate the kc and the flux NA.

Ans:
kc= 5.85 x 10-6 m/s
NA= 1.726 x 10-7 kg mol /s.m2

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Solution
Since the solution is quite dilute, the physical properties of water at
26.1 C can be used,
= 8.71 104 .

= 996 3

= 1.245 109 2 /

= 702

0.244(0.0610)(996)
Reynolds number, =
=
= 1.7 104
4

8.7110
0.5
For liquid, = 0.99( )
= 0.99(1.7 104 )0.5 = 0.00758

The Schmidt number, =


From definiton, =
( )2/3

solving for , = ( )2/3 =


106 /

0.00758 0.0610 702

= 5.85

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Solution
This is the situation where A is diffusing through stagnant
B.

1 2 = (1 2 )

For dilute solution, xBM = 1.0, CA1 = 0.02948 kg mol /m3,


CA2 = 0
= 5.85 10

0.02948 0 = 1.726 10
. 2
7

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Mass transfer coefficient for various


geometries
2. Mass transfer for flow past single spheres

For very low Reynolds number, the Sherwood number


should approach a value of 2.0
=

1 2 = (1 2 )

for dilute solution, 1.0, = =


= = 2.0

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Mass transfer for flow past single spheres


For gases:
NSc range of 0.6-2.7, NRe range of 1-48,000
= 2 + 0.552( )0.53 1/3
For liquid:
NRe range of 2 to about 2,000
= 2 + 0.95( )0.50 1/3

NRe range of 2000-17,000


= 0.347( )0.62 1/3

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Example : Mass transfer from a sphere


Calculate the value of the mass transfer coefficient and the
flux for mass transfer from a sphere of naphthalene to air
at 45C and 1 atm abs flowing at a velocity of 0.305 m/s.
the diameter of the sphere is 25.4mm. The diffusivity of
naphthalene in air at 45C is 6.92 x 10-6 m2/s and the
vapor pressure of solid naphthalene is 0.555 mmHg.
Ans:
kc= 5.72 x 10-3 m/s
NA= 1.599 x 10-7 kg mol /s.m2

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Solution
Since the conc of naphthalene is low, the physical properties of air at
45 C can be used,
= 1.93 105 .

= 1.113 3

= 6.92 106 2 /

= 2.505

0.0254(0.305)(1.113)
Reynolds number, =
=
= 446

1.93105
For gases, = 2 + 0.552( )0.53 1/3 = = 2 +
0.53
1/3

The Schmidt number, =

0.552(446)

(2.505)

From definiton, =
21 =

0.0254
,
6.92106

= 21

= 5.72

103 /

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Solution

From table = =

5.72 103

=
=
= 2.163 109 /2

8314(318)
Since the gas is very dilute, 1.0, =
0.555
1 =
= 7.303 104 = 74
760
2 = 0 (Pure air)
= 1 2
= 2.163 109 (74-0)= 1.599 107 /2
Area of sphere = A = 2
Total amount evaporated = = 1.599 107 0.02542 = 3.238
1010 /

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Mass transfer coefficient for various


geometries
Mass transfer to packed bed
Occurs in drying operation, adsorption or desorption of
gases or liquid by solid. By using packed bed, large
amount of mass transfer area can be contained in a
relatively small volume
3.

For gases:
NRe range of 10-10,000, in packed bed of spheres
0.4548
=
( )0.4069

=superficial mass average velocity in empty tube without


packing

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Mass transfer to packed bed


For liquid:
NRe range of 0.0016-55; NSc range of 165-70,000
1.09
=
( )2/3

NRe range of 55-1500; NSc range of 165-10,690


0.250
=
( )0.31

For fluidized beds of spheres,


For gases and liquid and a Reynolds number range of 10-10,000.

0.4548
( )0.4069

For liquid, NRe range of 1-10


=

1.1068
( )0.72

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Calculation method for Mass transfer to


packed bed
To calculate the total flux:
1.
2.
3.

For sphere, =

6(1)

=m2 surface area/m3 total volume of bed

Total external surface, = , =total volume of bed


(void+solids)
5. Mass transfer rate, log mean driving force should be used
1 ( 2 )
=
= (2 1 )
1
ln(
)
2
=concentration at the surface of solid
1 =concentration of inlet bulk fluid
2 =concentration of outlet bulk fluid
V = volumetric flow rate of fluid entering
4.

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Example : Mass transfer of liquid in a packed bed


Pure water at 26.1C flows at the rate of 5.514 x 10-7 m3/s
through a packed bed of benzoic acid spheres having a
diameter of 6.375mm. The total surface area of spheres in bed
is 0.01198 m2 and the void fraction is 0.436. The tower diameter
is 0.0667 m. The solubility of benzoic acid in water is 0.02948
kg mol/m3. DAB is 1.245 109 2 /.

Predict the mass transfer coefficient, kc.


b) Using the experimental kc of 4.665 x 10-6 m/s, predict the
outlet concentration of benzoic acid in the water.
a)

Ans:
kc= 4.447 x 10-6 m/s
cA2= 2.842 x 10-3 kg mol /m3

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Solution
a) Since the solution is quite dilute, the physical properties of water at
26.1 C can be used,
= 8.71 104 .

= 996.7 3

= 1.245 109 2 /

The tower cross sectional area = (0.0667)2 = 3.494 103 2


= (5.514 107 )/(3.494 103 ) = 1.578 104 /
Reynolds number, =

The Schmidt number, =

0.006375(1.578104 )(996.7)
8.71104

= 702

= 1.150

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Solution
Asumming = for dilute solution,
1.09
=
( )2/3 = 2.277

From definition, =


2/3
(
)


2/3
2.277=
(702)
1.578104
= 4.447 106 m/s

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Solution
b) =

1 ( 2 )


ln( 1 )

= (2 1 )

1 = 0

0.1198 4.665 106 (2 0)


2.948 102 0
ln(
)
2.948 102 2
= (5.514 107 )(2 0)
2 = 2.842 103 /3

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Mass transfer coefficient for various


geometries
4. Mass transfer flow past single cylinders

For liquid:
NRe range of 50-50,00, NSc range of 0.6-2.6
= 0.600( )0.487

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Mass transfer to suspensions of small


particles
Occurs in liquid phase hygrogenation, hydrogen diffuses from gas
bubbles, through an organic liquid to suspended catalyst particles
In fermentation, oxygen diffuses from gas bubbles through the
aqueous medium to small suspended microorganism.

1.

Mass transfer to small particles <0.6mm

2
1/3
2/3
=
+ 0.31( )
(
)

2
diameter of bubbles
- viscosity of solution
g- gravitational force, 9.81 m/s2
-density of continuous phase
-density of gas or solid particle, = =
(always positive)

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Mass transfer to suspensions of small


particles
Mass transfer to large particle >2.5mm
Large bubbles are produced when pure liquids are
aerated in mixing vessels & sieves columns.
2.

= 0.42(

)0.5 (

1/3
)
2

diameter of bubbles
- viscosity of solution
g- gravitational force, 9.81 m/s2
-density of continuous phase
-density of gas or solid particle, = always
positive

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Example : Mass transfer from air bubbles in


fermentation
Calculate the maximum rate of absorption of oxygen in
fermenter from air bubbles at 1atm abs pressure having
diameters of 100m at 37C into water having zero
concentration of dissolved oxygen. The solubility of
oxygen from air in water at 37C is 2.26 x 10-4 kgmol
O2/m3 liquid. The Diffusivity of oxygen in water at 37 C is
3.25 x 10-9 m2/s. Agitation is used to produce air bubbles.
Ans:
NA= 5.18 x 10-8 kg mol/s. m2

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Solution
The mass transfer resistance inside the gas bubble to the

outside interface of the bubble neglected, the mass


transfer coefficient, is needed
Given, = 100 = 1 104
= 3.25 109 2 /
At 37 C,
= 6.947 104 . = 6.947 104 kg/m (water)
= 994 /3 (water)
= 1.13 /3 (air)

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The Schmidt number, =

= 215

2/3 = 2152/3 = 35.9


= = 994 1.13 = 993 /3
For particle size < 0.6mm,
2
1/3

2/3
=
+ 0.31( )
(
)
2

2(3.25 109 )
0.31 (993)(6.947 104 )(9.806) 1/3
=
+(
)(
)
4
2
1 10
35.9
994
= 2.290 104 /

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Assuming =
= 1 2 = 5.18 108 2 / 2
Knowing the total number of bubbles and their area, the
maximum possible rate of transfer of O2 to the
fermentation liquid can be calculated.

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