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Fundamentals of Photonics

Bahaa E. A. Saleh, Malvin Carl Teich

of Photonics Bahaa E. A. Saleh, Malvin Carl Teich 송석호 Physics Department (Room #36-401) 2220-0923,

송석호 Physics Department (Room #36-401) 2220-0923, 010-4546-1923, shsong@hanyang.ac.kr http://optics.hanyang.ac.kr/~shsong

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(Supplements)

From Maxwell Eqs to wave equations

Optical properties of materials

Optical properties of metals

outline (Supplements) From Maxwell Eqs to wave equations Optical properties of materials Optical properties of metals
outline (Supplements) From Maxwell Eqs to wave equations Optical properties of materials Optical properties of metals
outline (Supplements) From Maxwell Eqs to wave equations Optical properties of materials Optical properties of metals
outline (Supplements) From Maxwell Eqs to wave equations Optical properties of materials Optical properties of metals

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Optics

Optics
Also, see Figure 2-1, Pedrotti

Also, see Figure 2-1, Pedrotti

(Genesis 1-3) And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.
(Genesis 1-3) And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.

A Bit of History

Wave Theory (Longitudinal) (Fresnel)

Empirical Law of Refraction (Snell)

Light as Pressure Wave (Descartes) Law of Least Time (Fermat)
Light as Pressure
Wave (Descartes)
Law of Least
Time (Fermat)

and “

lookingglasses of the women

the foot of it of brass, of the

assembling,”

(Exodus 38:8)

v<c, & Two Kinds of Light (Huygens) Corpuscles, Ether (Newton)
v<c, & Two Kinds of
Light (Huygens)
Corpuscles, Ether
(Newton)
Two Kinds of Light (Huygens) Corpuscles, Ether (Newton) Transverse Wave, Polarization Interference (Young)

Transverse Wave, Polarization Interference (Young)

Rectilinear Propagation (Euclid)

Shortest Path (Almost Right!) (Hero of Alexandria)

Plane of Incidence Curved Mirrors (Al Hazen)

Light & Magnetism (Faraday)

EM Theory (Maxwell)

Rejection of Ether, Early QM (Poincare, Einstein)

Rejection of Ether, Early QM (Poincare, Einstein) -1000 0 1000 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 (Chuck

-1000

0

1000

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

(Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University)

More Recent History

Laser Hubble (Maiman) Telescope Polaroid Sheets (Land) Phase Erbium Contrast SM Fiber HeNe Optical Fiber
Laser
Hubble
(Maiman)
Telescope
Polaroid Sheets (Land)
Phase
Erbium
Contrast
SM Fiber
HeNe
Optical Fiber
(Lamm)
Fiber Amp
(Zernicke)
(Hicks)
(Javan)
Quantum Mechanics
Optical Maser
(Schalow, Townes)
GaAs
FEL
(4 Groups)
(Madey)
Speed/Light
CO 2
(Michaelson)
Holography
Commercial
(Patel)
Fiber Link
(Gabor)
(Chicago)
Spont. Emission
(Einstein)
Many New
Lasers
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000

(Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University)

Let’s warm-up

일반물리

전자기학

Question

How does the light propagate through a glass medium?

(1)

through the voids inside the material. through the elastic collision with matter, like as for a sound. through the secondary waves generated inside the medium.

(2)

(3)

Secondary on-going wave Primary incident wave Construct the wave front tangent to the wavelets What
Secondary
on-going wave
Primary incident wave
Construct the wave front
tangent to the wavelets
What about –r direction?

Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwell’s Equation

Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell’s Equation ∫ r E ⋅dA = r Q ε 0 r ∫ B
∫ r E ⋅dA = r Q ε 0
r
E ⋅dA =
r
Q
ε
0

r B dA = 0

r

r

r

d

Φ

B

 

E

ds

=−

 

dt

r

⋅ =μ +εμ

r

d

Φ

E

B

ds

i

 

0

0

0

 

dt

Gauss’s Law

No magnetic monopole

Faraday’s Law (Induction)

Ampere-Maxwell’s Law

Maxwells Equation

r r r E ⋅ dA = r ∫ ∫ r ∇ ⋅ Edv =
r
r
r
E ⋅ dA =
r
r
∇ ⋅ Edv =
r
ρ
ρ Gauss’s Law
⇒ ∇⋅ E =
dv
ε
ε
0
0
r
r
r
r
r
r
B
⋅ dA
= ∇⋅
Bdv
= 0
⇒ ∇⋅ B = 0
No magnetic monopole
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
d
r
r
∂ B
E
ds
= ∇× ⋅
E dA
=−
B⋅dA
∇× =−
E
Faraday’s Law (Induction)
dt
∂ t
r
r
r
r
r
d
Φ
E
B
ds
= ∇× ⋅
B
dA
=μ +με
i
0
0
0
dt
r
r
r
r
r
d
r
r
r
∂ E
=μ ⋅ +με
j
dA
E ⋅ dA
∇× =μ +με
0
0
0
dt
∂ t
r
r
r
r
∂ E
r
r
(
d )
Ampere-Maxwell’s Law
∂ t

B

0

j

0

0

ε 0

= j

d

∇× =μ +

B

0

j

ε 0 = j d ⇒ ∇× =μ + B 0 j j
ε 0 = j d ⇒ ∇× =μ + B 0 j j
ε 0 = j d ⇒ ∇× =μ + B 0 j j

j

Wave equations

r

B

r

E

r

r

E

r

r

∇× =−

t

r ∇×∇× B =

∇× =

B

)

B)

r

r

με

0

0

t

In vacuum

 

r ∇× E =

r

⎜ −

r

B

r

t

με

0

0

t

t

B

 
 

2

B

2

B

 

=

0

 

2

με

0

0

t

2

∂ x  

x

 

2

E

2

E

   

=

0

 

2

με

0

0

t

2

x

 

0

2

(

(

r

με

0

 

 

ˆ

i ˆ +

ˆ j +

k

 

x

y

z

(

r

B)

r

r

C

r r

( B)

r

r

∇=

r

r

r

∇ × ∇ × = −∇

∇ × ∇ ×

r

A ×

(B

r

×

= ∇ ∇ ⋅ − ∇

) (A

=

r

r r

C

)B (A

r

2

 

r

r

2

B

2

με

B

=

0

0

t

2

 

r

r

2

E

2

με

E

=

0

0

t

2

Wave equations

r

B

= −∇

r r

B)C

2

r

B

Scalar wave equation

2

∂Ψ

2

∂Ψ

x

2

t

2

με

0

0

=

0

Ψ =Ψ

0 cos(kx ωt)

k

2

2

−μεω = 0

0

0

= 0 Ψ =Ψ 0 cos( kx − ω t ) k 2 2 −μεω =

ω 1

k =

με

0

0

c

=

2.99792

= ≡

v

c

×

8

10 m / sec

Speed of Light

3

≈ ×

8

10 m / s

Transverse Electro-Magnetic (TEM) waves

r

r

∇× =−με 0 0

B

r

E

t

 

r

r

E

B

Electromagnetic Wave
Electromagnetic
Wave

Energy carried by Electromagnetic Waves

Poynting Vector : Intensity of an electromagnetic wave

r r r 1 S = E × B (Watt/m 2 ) μ 0 1
r
r
r
1
S
=
E
×
B
(Watt/m 2 )
μ
0
1
⎛ B
S
=
EB
= c ⎟ ⎞
μ
E
0
1
c
2
2
=
E
=
B
c μ
0 μ
0

Energy density associated with an Electric field :

Energy density associated with a Magnetic field :

1

2

E

2

u

E =

ε

0

1

2

u

=

B

B 2

μ

0

Reflection and Refraction

Smooth surface Rough surface
Smooth surface
Rough surface
n 1 n 2
n
1
n
2

Reflected ray

Refracted ray

θ = θ′

1

1

n sinθ

1

1

= n sinθ

2

2

Reflection and Refraction

In dielectric media,

n

c με λ ( ) ( λ ) = = v ( λ ) με
c
με λ
(
)
(
λ
) =
=
v (
λ
)
με
0
0

(Material) Dispersion

and Refraction In dielectric media, n c με λ ( ) ( λ ) = =

Interference & Diffraction

Interference & Diffraction

Reflection and Interference in Thin Films

Reflection and Interference in Thin Films • 180 º Phase change of the reflected light by

180 º Phase change of the reflected light by a media with a larger n

No Phase change of the reflected light by a media with a smaller n

Interference in Thin Films

( m + δ= 2 t = ( 1 2 ) m + 1 )
(
m +
δ= 2 t =
(
1 2 )
m
+
1
)
λ =
λ
2
n
n
Bright
( m = 0, 1, 2, 3, ···)
Phase change: π
m
n
t
δ=
2 t
=
m
λ =
λ
n
n
No Phase change
Dark
( m = 1, 2, 3, ···)
m
δ=
2 t
=
m
λ =
λ
n
1
n
1
Phase change: π
Bright
( m = 1, 2, 3, ···)
n
t
1
(
m +
1
)
δ= =
2 t
(
2
m
+
λ =
λ
n 2
Phase change: π
1 2 )
n
1
n
1
n
2 > n 1
Bright
( m = 0, 1, 2, 3, ···)

Interference

Young’s Double-Slit Experiment

Interference Young’s Double-Slit Experiment
Interference Young’s Double-Slit Experiment

Interference

Interference The path difference δ = r 2 δ = d sin θ = m λ

The path difference

δ = r

2

δ = d sin θ = mλ

δ=

d sin

θ=( +

m

1 2 )λ

r

1

= d sin θ

Bright fringes

Dark fringes

The phase difference

δ

2 π

d sin

θ

φ= ⋅ π=

λ

2

λ

m = 0, 1, 2, ····

m = 0, 1, 2, ····

Diffraction

Diffraction Hecht, Optics, Chapter 10

Hecht,

Optics,

Chapter 10

Diffraction

Diffraction
Diffraction

Diffraction Grating

Diffraction Grating

Diffraction of X-rays by Crystals

Incident

Reflected

beam

beam θ θ θ dsinθ
beam
θ
θ
θ
dsinθ

2d sinθ = mλ

: Bragg’s Law

d

Regimes of Optical Diffraction

d >> λ

Regimes of Optical Diffraction d >> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d <<
Regimes of Optical Diffraction d >> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d <<
Regimes of Optical Diffraction d >> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d <<

Far-field

Fraunhofer

of Optical Diffraction d >> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d << λ

d ~ λ

d >> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d << λ Evanescent-field Vector
d >> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d << λ Evanescent-field Vector
d >> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d << λ Evanescent-field Vector

Near-field

Fresnel
Fresnel

d << λ

>> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d << λ Evanescent-field Vector diffraction
>> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d << λ Evanescent-field Vector diffraction
>> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d << λ Evanescent-field Vector diffraction

Evanescent-field Vector diffraction

>> λ Far-field Fraunhofer d ~ λ Near-field Fresnel d << λ Evanescent-field Vector diffraction