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# Bourdon Tube Basics

John Denker

1 Introduction
A Bourdon tube is a way of measuring pressure. Probably every mechanical dialtype pressure gauge youve ever seen is based on a Bourdon tube. Our goal here is
to understand the physics of how it works.
At first glance, a Bourdon tube is a curled-up metal tube. The base-end is held
fixed while the tip-end is free to move. The tube tends to straighten out when
pressure is applied to its inside. This means the tip moves. Via a mechanical
linkage, the motion of the tip drives the indicator needle on the gauge.
If you look more closely, you discover that a cross-section of the Bourdon tube is
nowhere near round. You could say that the tube has been flattened and then coiled
up. The flattening turns out to be important, for the following reason: Any pressure
inside the tube tends to un-flatten the cross-section. It pushes the two flat sides
away from each other, making the cross-section more nearly round. This is the first
step toward understanding why the tube straightens out.
Before we proceed further, lets do a warm-up exercise. Consider the following
secondary-school riddle: Suppose you wrap a cable around the equator of the earth.
The cable is exactly the right length, so that it fits snugly. Then you wrap another
cable around the equator. It follows nearly the same path as the first, except that
this cable is six feet too long, so it does not fit snugly. You arrange that the excess
length is evenly distributed all around the circumference. The question is,
approximately how much of a gap is there between this cable and the ground?
The answer is that the second cable is everywhere about 1 foot off the ground. This
comes as a surprise to some people, but we can understand it in terms of the simple
formula
L

where R is the radius and L is the length of the cable. We can immediately deduce
that
L

## where L is the extra length and R is the extra radius.

More generally, if the cable goes only partway around the circle, we can write
L
L + L

You can see that equation 3 reduces to equation 1 in the case of a complete circle.
We now switch from talking about equatorial cables to talking about Bourdon
tubes. The same equations apply, with almost the same interpretation.
In this new context, L is the overall length of the tube. Because the tube is curled
up, the outside edge of the tube is longer than the inside edge, by an amount
L. Also, R is the gap between the two flat sides of the cross-section.
Meanwhile, R and/or can be used to describe how curled-up the tube is.
The same appears on both lines in equation 3, without any . This expresses the
physical fact that the inner edge and outer edge start together, and also end
together.
It must be emphasized that in all equations in this document, the symbol refers to
the change in a given quantity as we go from the inside edge to the outside edge of
the tube. For example,
R

In particular, we do not use the symbol to tell us anything about how R changes
in response to pressure when we operate the Bourdon tube. To avoid confusion on
this point, we rename the -variables:

x

## We can use equation 3 to eliminate from equation 6. That gives us

Note that the factor in square brackets is constant during normal Bourdon-tube
operation, to a fair approximation. Thats because it is very much easier to flex a
piece of metal than it is to lengthen or shorten it. We assume that the length L and
the extra length x are baked in at the time the device is built.
Equation 7 tells us that when pressure causes the gap to increase, the radius of
curvature of the curled-up tube must increase in proportion.
Lets do an example, with numbers and pictures, as shown in figure 1. We start
with the imaginary yellow tube as shown in the upper-left corner. If we make
another tube using a longer piece of the same kind of tubing, we get the pink tube
shown in the lower-left corner. It has 50% more length L, 50% more extra
length x, and 50% more angle compared to the yellow tube. However, its
gap g and radius R are unchanged relative to the yellow tube.

## Figure 1: Basic Physics of the Bourdon Tube

Another way to make the yellow tube bigger is just to scale it up in every direction,
keeping the shape the same. This gives us the tube shown in the upper-right corner.
It has 50% more length L, 50% more extra length x, 50% more gap g, and 50%
more radius R compared to the original. The only thing that stays the same is the
angle .
The interesting thing is that the upper-right tube can be considered the same tube as
the lower-left tube, just with an increase in pressure. The length L is the same in
both cases, as is the extra length x, so we are not trying to stretch the metal by
brute force. The gap g has increased and the radius R has increased in proportion.

2 Spring Constant
The analysis in section 1 can be considered a volume-based analysis. Pushing apart
the inner and outer edges increases the internal volume of the tube, and we have
shown how this results in an increase in the radius of curvature. It remains to
connect this volume-change to pressure. This largely depends on the springiness of

the cross-section. Previously we said it was relatively easier to flex the walls, but
it is not infinitely easy.

3 Mutations
Now that we understand whats going on, we can make some interesting
predictions.
For one thing, suppose we build a mutant Bourdon tube, flattened in the wrong
direction, such that the side walls (parallel to the R vector) are close together, while
the inside (small-R) and outside (large-R) edges are far apart, as shown
in figure 2. We predict that such a tube will move the opposite way (compared to
an ordinary Bourdon tube). Pressure will not cause it to straighten out; pressure
will cause it to curl up. I call this a Nodruob tube.

## Figure 2: Cross-Sections of Bourdon and Nordruob Tubes

Once upon a time I explained all this to a visiting professor who did not believe the
prediction. We made a small bet. Then we went down to the shop and actually built
such a thing. Its slightly tricky to get the tube to curl in the unnatural direction, but
we built a little jig that did the trick.

4 Next Steps
Treating the tube as having a more realistic cross-section, namely a flattened circle,
would allow a much deeper and more accurate analysis. However, this would
require quite a bit more mathematics, including fourth-order Green functions,
elliptic integrals, et cetera.