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1.

INTRODUCTION

a) PRIMARY CARBON BRUSH DIMENSIONS According brush utilization, collector or slipring, primary brush dimensions are determinated as well as drawing:

brush dimensions are determinated as well as drawing: Different standards differently determined dimension order

Different standards differently determined dimension order but the last one is brush length.

b) BRAID & BRUSH BODY JOINT

last one is brush length. b) BRAID & BRUSH BODY JOINT  stamphing – special metal

stamphing – special metal powder swaging

riveting – applied to very soft brushes which could not be swaging

armature joint – applied to special brushes

c) BRAID LENGTH

joint – applied to special brushes c) BRAID LENGTH Standard length L:

Standard length L:

16-20-25-32-40-50-56-63-71-80-90-100-112-125-140-160 (mm)

d) BRUSH TOP

special brushes c) BRAID LENGTH Standard length L: 16-20-25-32-40-50-56-63-71-80-90-100-112-125-140-160 (mm) d) BRUSH TOP
1. dent top 2. top with armature 3. flat top 4. conducting hole 5. descent

1. dent top

2. top with armature

3. flat top

4. conducting hole

5. descent top

6. radial top

e) CONTACT SURFACE

hole 5. descent top 6. radial top e) CONTACT SURFACE Lower brush contact slope is treated

Lower brush contact slope is treated according to collector (slipring)

descent

radial

radial + descent

f) SPECIAL TREATMENT

(slipring)  descent  radial  radial + descent f) SPECIAL TREATMENT Is applied for better

Is applied for better brush function

g) MARKING All kind of brushes produced in Metalika, are marked by “VOLF” sign (if dimensions of brush allow), then material sign and unique working order number at the end.

h) BRUSH SHAPES

sign (if dimensions of brush allow), then material sign and unique working order number at the
i) CONTACT SHOE SHAPES 2. BRUSH MATTERIALS All kind of materials are divided according production

i) CONTACT SHOE SHAPES

i) CONTACT SHOE SHAPES 2. BRUSH MATTERIALS All kind of materials are divided according production methods:

2. BRUSH MATTERIALS

All kind of materials are divided according production methods:

a) CARBON GRAPHITE Production: natural and syntethic graphite are mixed with binder, then press and termic treate on 1200 o C.

Primar characheristics: very high hardness, medium voltage drop, good commutating conditions and good polishing properties. Applying area: older type of motors, small motors with unsunk insulation, electric hand tool, home appliances.

b) SOFT GRAPHITE Production: natural graphite is mixed with binder then temic treates on 1200 o C. Primar characheristics: very soft material with low resistance, self cleaning and vibration absorbance. very high peripherial speed. Applying area: high peripherial speed steel sliprings, turbo generators.

c) ELECTROGRAPHITE

P roduction: similar process like two past. Temperature treatment up to 2800 o C. All of filths evaporate on this temperature and graphite structure is very uniform. Heating & Cooling process lasts 3 – 4 weeks. Primar characheristics: very high current density (10-12 A/cm 2 ), overload capability. Veru good commutation proprties, termic and current conducivity. Applying area: all kind of modern motors, stationary and traction, high speed, high voltage and overload.

d) METAL GRAPHITE Production: metal powder (basicly Cu with small quantity of Sn and Pb) and natural graphite are sintered. Process temperature is app. 850 o C. Special kind is based on Ag powder. Tehere is possibility graphite to be impregnated by melted Cu. Primar characheristics: high density brushes, current density up to 30 A/cm 2 , very low dissipation. Applying area: low speed DC motors/generators with very low voltage, asynchronous machines with bronze sliprings, with or without brush lift devices.

e) BAKELITO GRAPHITE Production: natural or syntethic graphite are mixed with bakelite based resins. Polymerization after pressing. Primar characheristics: very high mechanical and electric resistance, good commutation properties. Very high difference of resistance through x, y and z ose. Applying area: AC Schrage and Schorch commutator motors. Thyristor driven motors.

All kind of materials could be impregnated afterward, to be improved for different working conditions.

3. HOW TO MAKE AN ORDER

Send us brush sample, which worked correctly, mark dimensions of new one, or

Make a full details drawing of brush, necessarily mark type of material, or

Make application form “brush description”.

a) BRUSH DESCRIPTION

primary form

page 2. chapter h

   

brush dimensions

 

t

x a x r =

mm

brush top

 

α =

 

contact surface

 

β =

 

braid length

 

L

=

mm

braid insulation

   

Yes / No

contact shoe type

     

contact shoe dimension

 

d

=

mm

braid & brush body joint

     

special treatment

     

armature hole

 

d

=

mm

armature length

 

e

=

mm

material in use

     

mailfunctions

     

4. REQUIRED CONDITIONS FOR APPROPRIATE BRUSH FUNCTION

Although you have chosen adequatue material and construction, it would not be enough for proper function. The best of brushes will not work correctly without properly work conditions. These are reasons why correctly brush working factors should be mentioned.

a) COLLECTOR & SLIPRING REPAIR New or repaired collector should not be adjective more than 30 µm. Higher values cause brush jumping, therefore arcing and rapid brush wearing with collector damage. There is no need to make observation rugged surfaces wear rapidly brush, but very smooth surfaces wear brush rapidly too. If brush surface is to smooth, graphite particles will not stick and surface film forming will be difficult. Optimal values are 3 to 5 µm. Especially shuold be adviced to lamella-lamella insulation. Insulation should be diged and edges should be choped after collctor repair. Channel should be 0,1 mm both side wider than insulation. Width and deep of channel should be the same dimension. Lamella angles should be chopped by “V” shape 90 degrees tool and chamfer edges to 45 degrees.

be the same dimension. Lamella angles should be chopped by “V” shape 90 degrees tool and

b) SURFACE FILM Proper function of electric machines depends of forming and maintaining appropriate surface film. This layer is 1000 times thinner than blade of hair and it is base for brush good working characteristics and correct commutation. Surface film is consists of four layers: copper oxid, graphite film, graphite particles and moisture. This film is generated by brush effect to collector with appropriate current. There could be a few huors to a few days since correctly film be formed. Moisture is required condition for film forming.

be formed. Moisture is required condition for film forming. Sometimes it could make some difficulties in

Sometimes it could make some difficulties in some causes wich result rapid wearing. Simillar cosequences are caused by lower current density. Worse case is low load than overload. Low current density causes film unable to be formed and rapid wearing.

c) HOLDER MOUNTING

unable to be formed and rapid wearing. c) HOLDER MOUNTING Correct brush holder disposition is necessary

Correct brush holder disposition is necessary good commutation to be proved and decrease lamella burning. Distance between holder and collector must be 1,5 – 2 mm and positioned in line with lamellas (except special causes). As well as cathode brush (+ generator brush, - motor brush) is resposible to electrocorrosion slip surfaces, they must be disposed equal longitudinally. Position of anode brush is not important. Anode brushes are responsible to graphite layer forming.

d) HOLDER PREASSURE Holder preassure is very important, but neglected very often during repairing and periodical examinations. Electric and mechanical wearings are result of that. If the preassure low, with eccentric collector and vibrations, brush – collector contact will be lost and therefore welding appearance. Final result is rapid wearing. If the preassure is high, mechanical wearing will be expressed.

Lower table shows approximate values of recommended brush preassure s/n machine brush preassure (g/cm 2

Lower table shows approximate values of recommended brush preassure

s/n

machine

brush preassure (g/cm 2 )

1.

low power collector motors

200

– 300

2.

turbo generators

130

– 180

3.

slipring motors

180

– 250

4.

tramway motors

300

– 500

5.

trolley motors

300

– 450

6.

traction motors

250

– 400

7.

mine mills and crane motors

450

– 600

Working conditions, and material quality determine brush preassure. The most important condition is brush disposition to be equal. Despite of that current distribution could be very various. Some brushes could have 40% higher current.

be very various. Some brushes could have 40% higher current. e) BRUSH FIRST RUNNING If new

e) BRUSH FIRST RUNNING If new brush assembly is mounted, brush seating will be necessary. This act obeys slip surfaces to be in touch from very low beginning. Despite of that overloading could appear. Replacment one by one brush is necessary to avoid overload. Previous brush should seats app. 50% of own surface.

Seating could be performed by emery paper wrapped around its ose, or by infiltration emery

Seating could be performed by emery paper wrapped around its ose, or by infiltration emery paper between brush and collector, so collector radius reflects on brush. High speed seating stone is known as BIMSTAIN. Stone snould be leaned on collector or slipring. Result is abrazive dust forming which tucks in brushes and wears rapidly. After this action dust must be blowed out.

5. COLLECTOR STATUS

Normal patina status

must be blowed out. 5. COLLECTOR STATUS Normal patina status P2, P4, P6 are pictures of
must be blowed out. 5. COLLECTOR STATUS Normal patina status P2, P4, P6 are pictures of
must be blowed out. 5. COLLECTOR STATUS Normal patina status P2, P4, P6 are pictures of

P2, P4, P6 are pictures of normal patina status. Patina is unique, and color pigment is unessential

Damaged collector

Damaged collector P14 Streaked patina similar as well as P12 , but there is collector wear.

P14 Streaked patina similar as well as P12, but there is collector wear. Causer: as well as P12 , more intensivly and longer periodor or material grade missing.

intensivly and longer periodor or material grade missing. P12 Patina with very accented different wide lines.
intensivly and longer periodor or material grade missing. P12 Patina with very accented different wide lines.
intensivly and longer periodor or material grade missing. P12 Patina with very accented different wide lines.

P12 Patina with very accented different wide lines. There is no collector wear. Causer: very high humidity, oil steam, agressive gas and low current.

P16 Different color pigment and shape stains. Causer: oval collector or vicious working conditions.

P22 Patina with dark areas and uniform or unisotropic dots distribution on one or more segments. Causer: as well as P16, subsequently motor vibrations motora came from mounted axle or damaged bearing

P24 Limited dark stains next to lamella edges. Causer: rising lamellas. P26 Lamella with dark
P24 Limited dark stains next to lamella edges. Causer: rising lamellas. P26 Lamella with dark

P24 Limited dark stains next to lamella edges. Causer: rising lamellas.

P26 Lamella with dark spots in the middle or next to edge. Causer: irregular collector service or low brush preasure, unfitting material grade.

service or low brush preasure, unfitting material grade. P42 Alternating dark and bright lamellas. Causer: different

P42 Alternating dark and bright lamellas. Causer: different value of current through parallel windings.

different value of current through parallel windings. P46 T10 Dark stains next to lamella edges. Causer:
different value of current through parallel windings. P46 T10 Dark stains next to lamella edges. Causer:

P46

T10 Dark stains next to lamella edges. Causer: shorter motor stop with load or longer motor stop (without load).

T12 Dark stains. Causer: reentering lamella (fig. L4) T14 T16 Clearly defined areas with lamella
T12 Dark stains. Causer: reentering lamella (fig. L4) T14 T16 Clearly defined areas with lamella
T12 Dark stains. Causer: reentering lamella (fig. L4) T14 T16 Clearly defined areas with lamella
T12 Dark stains. Causer: reentering lamella (fig. L4) T14 T16 Clearly defined areas with lamella

T12 Dark stains. Causer: reentering lamella (fig. L4)

T14

T16 Clearly defined areas with lamella burned edges. Causer: rising insulation (fig. L6).

T18 Dark spots. Causer: lamellas edge incorrect service.

T18 Dark spots. Causer: lamellas edge incorrect service. B2, B6, B8 Burned lamellas edges or middles.
T18 Dark spots. Causer: lamellas edge incorrect service. B2, B6, B8 Burned lamellas edges or middles.
T18 Dark spots. Causer: lamellas edge incorrect service. B2, B6, B8 Burned lamellas edges or middles.
T18 Dark spots. Causer: lamellas edge incorrect service. B2, B6, B8 Burned lamellas edges or middles.

B2, B6, B8 Burned lamellas edges or middles. Causer: sparking caused commutation problem.

B10 Burned areas with bright dots, different size and frequency. Causer: sparking under brush surface.

Lamella descriptions

Lamella descriptions L2 Rising segment L4 Reentering segment L6 Rising insulation L8 Segment edge deformation caused

L2 Rising segment

L4 Reentering segment

L6 Rising insulation

L8 Segment edge deformation caused incorrect collector service

L10 Cooper insertion due to impacts and vibrations

7. USED CARBON BRUSHES SURFACE VISAGE

and vibrations 7. USED CARBON BRUSHES SURFACE VISAGE S1, S3 brush without operating problems. S5 normal
and vibrations 7. USED CARBON BRUSHES SURFACE VISAGE S1, S3 brush without operating problems. S5 normal
and vibrations 7. USED CARBON BRUSHES SURFACE VISAGE S1, S3 brush without operating problems. S5 normal

S1, S3 brush without operating problems.

S5 normal operation with low dust influence.

Damaged brush surface status

S7 scratches. Causer: low load. S9 scratches and tranches. Causer: very low load. S11 partial
S7 scratches. Causer: low load. S9 scratches and tranches. Causer: very low load. S11 partial
S7 scratches. Causer: low load. S9 scratches and tranches. Causer: very low load. S11 partial
S7 scratches. Causer: low load. S9 scratches and tranches. Causer: very low load. S11 partial
S7 scratches. Causer: low load. S9 scratches and tranches. Causer: very low load. S11 partial
S7 scratches. Causer: low load. S9 scratches and tranches. Causer: very low load. S11 partial
S7 scratches. Causer: low load. S9 scratches and tranches. Causer: very low load. S11 partial
S7 scratches. Causer: low load. S9 scratches and tranches. Causer: very low load. S11 partial
S7 scratches. Causer: low load. S9 scratches and tranches. Causer: very low load. S11 partial

S7 scratches. Causer: low load.

S9 scratches and tranches. Causer: very low load.

S11 partial dark area on a uniform porous surface. Causer: unadjusted neutral zone or auxiliary poles.

S13 burning of incoming or outgoing lamella. Causer: intensive sparking due to collector ovallity, low brush preasure or unadjusted holder.

S15 erosioned brush surface. Caused: overload, contact lost.

S17 lamellas replica on brush surface. Causer: incorrect winding connection.

S19 „double surface“. Causer: brush position changing due to rotating direction.

S21 cooper shatters. Causer: consequent of cooper insertion usually (fig. L10).

S23 broken edges. Causer: very rised lamella, oval collector, brush jumping when motor is idle.

9. EXPLOATATION PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

INTENSIVE BRUSH SPARKING

causers

solutions

oval collector

service the collector (grating or grinding)

spiked brushes in holder

clean the holder

dirt and oil between lamellas

clean segments, filtrate air, close the bearings

low brush preasure

increase preasure

brush was not run in properly

run in brush, again

riding insulation

run in insulation and service the collector

wrong holder possition

adjust holder position

wrong brush possition

set up neutral axle

machine vibrations

decrease vibrations if it is possibly, increase holder preasure, change material grade and brush construction (set up rubber schock absorber on brush top)

wrong material grade

contact us, please

RAPID COLLECTOR OR SLIPRING WEARING

causers

solutions

ununiform current distribution; brush track overload

adjust holder preasure to the same level; take more burnish material grade

dusty cooling air

mount cooling air filter

low load tranches

turn off some brushes or change material grade to lower current

agressive gasses and vapours

clear cooling air should be inserted and take more burnish material grade

collector or slipring tranches due to oil film

use covered bearings and decrease oil vapour influence

anode effect material wearing (DC sliprings)

periodical polarity changing

copper squeezing (see L10)

complex problem – conntact us

UNUNIFORM BRUSH WEARING

causers

solutions

ununiform current distribution

adjust holder preasure to the same level

uncorrect brush connectors

change brush

mix brush materials

mount same material brushes

stucked brush

clean brush holder, check tolerances and predict dust drain channels

DARK STAIN & BURNING SURFACES GENERATION

causers

solutions

protruding or drawn lamella

process collector

elliptic collector or slipring (P16), unbalancence

process collector or slipring, balance it

raised mica insulation (T16, P24)

process lamella channels

uncorrect welded segments

weld it correct