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HISTORY OF BASKETBALL

Lets Invent a Game


Most sports develop over time out of games that people begin to play informally. Not so with basketball. Basketball history shows that it has the
distinction of being an intentionally invented game. In 1891, James Naismith was assigned to create an indoor activity for students at the YMCA
Training School in Springfield, Mass. The students, who were training to be P.E. teachers, were understandably bored doing nothing but
calisthenics and gymnastics during those long New England winters. They longed for action and competition.
Dr. Naismith combined elements of outdoor games like soccer and lacrosse with the concept of a game hed played in childhood, Duck on a
Rock. To win Duck on Rock, players threw stones to hit a target placed on top of a large boulder. A ball and an elevated goalthose are the
simple ingredients of the sport that now has players and rabid fans in nearly every part of the world.
Basketball History at 1-0
Naismiths class played the first game of basket ball (two words) using a soccer ball and two peach baskets nailed to a balcony railing ten feet
above the floor. The class of 18 was divided into two teams of nine players. The gym they played in was just 54 feet by 35 feet (modern courts
are 94 feet x 54 feet). The final score of that first ever basketball game was 1-0. William Chase scored the lone goal from 25 feeta half-court
shot in that small gym. Now thats the kind of fact that will someday help you win a basketball history sports trivia contest.
Naismith had just 13 rules for basket ball (see box), which he carefully typed on two pages. The game had to stop after each goal so the referee
could climb a ladder and retrieve the ball from the basket. Fortunately, those early games were very low scoring affairs.

The Original 13 Rules of Basketball


As written by Dr. James Naismith

The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.
The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands (never with a fist).
A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to
made for a man who catches the ball when running if he tries to stop.
The ball must be held by the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it.
No shouldering, holding, pushing, tipping, or striking in any way the person of an opponent shall be allowed;
the first infringement of this rule y any player shall count as a foul, the second shall disqualify him until the next
goal is made, or if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game, no substitute
allowed.
A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violation of Rules 3, 4 and such as described in Rule 5.
If either side makes three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents (consecutive means
without the opponents in the mean time making a foul).
A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the base key and stays there,
providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edges, and the
opponent moves the basket, it shall count as a goal.
When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field of play by the person first touching it. He has
a right to hold it unmolested for five seconds. In case of a dispute, the umpire shall throw it straight into the
field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds; if he holds it longer it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists
in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on the side.
The umpire shall be the judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three
consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have power to disqualify men according to Rule 5.
The referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play, in bounds, to which side it
belongs, and shall keep the account of the goals, with any other duties that are usually performed by the
referee.
The time shall be two fifteen minute halves, with five minutes rest between.
The side making the most goals in the in that time shall be declared the winner. In the case of a draw, the
game my, by agreement of the captains, be continued until another goal is made.

The Five Basic Skills of Basketball

Basketball is a fast-paced game that requires the knowledge and instinct to perform quickly and properly. The
sport of basketball requires five basic skills. While some players might be more experienced with some skills
than others, it is best to have at least some ability in all five areas.
Dribbling
Dribbling is an important skill for all basketball players. This skill will allow you to move up and down the court,
maneuver past defenders and execute plays. Proper dribbling requires ball-handling skills and knowledge of
how to spread your fingers for ball control. It is also best if you know how to dribble equally well with both
hands.
Shooting
In order to score points in basketball, you need to shoot the ball into the hoop. This requires the ability to
properly hold and throw the ball into the air toward the basket while avoiding defenders. A proper shot requires
precise aiming, arm extension and lift from the legs. There are different types of shots you need to learn,
including jump shots, layups and free throws.

Running
Running is a big part of basketball. In a full-court game, you will find yourself running back and forth as the
game quickly transitions between offense and defense. When you have the ball, running will help you to avoid
defenders and get to the basket quicker. On defense, you often will find yourself needing to run after the
opponent, especially during fast breaks.
Passing
Passing is another skill that when mastered can help you become a complete basketball player. Basketball is a
team sport that involves finding a teammate who is open for a shot. The ability to pass the ball to this player
can make the difference between scoring and not scoring. Really great passers are an important part of a
basketball team and usually the ones who set up scoring plays.
Jumping
Jumping is another skill that can define how good a basketball player is. Jumping is involved in offense during
the jump ball in the beginning, while taking shots and sometimes while trying to catch a pass. On defensive
you will need the ability to jump when trying to block a shot or a pass. Being able to out jump your opponent for
a rebound also is important.

Equipment for Basketball Game


There is some equipment needed to play a basketball game. The basketball equipment can be broke down into three more
categories court equipment, officials equipment and players equipment. To make it more clear, here is a list of all the equipment
used in basketball.
Court Equipment
Floor
The playing surface is made of either wood or maple and it has to be flat and rectangular in shape
Ball
Ball is the most visible equipment in the game of basketball. There are different types of basketball used in different leagues.
Usually it is made of leather, rubber or any synthetic material but it has to be inflated properly.
Basket/Hoop
Basket consists of a round shaped metal rim with the covering of net around it. Baskets are mounted at a certain height (10 feet
above the floor).
Backboard
Backboard is a rectangular board on which the basket is attached.
Scoreboard
Scoreboard displays the time left in the period and running scores of the both team. A scoreboard can be either digital or
manual.
Officials Equipment
Uniform of Officials
Officials wear a uniform prescribed by their respective governing body. Usually, officials are dressed in white and black stripped
shirts, black pants and black shoes. NBA officials wear gray shirts, black pants and black shoes.
Whistle
Basketball referee carries a whistle which he blows every time he needs to stop a play.
Score book
Score book is used by the scorekeeper who writes down scores and stats on it. Score book is something where you find
summary of the whole game, names of the players, their positions and jersey numbers, details of each quarter and half etc.
Shot Clock and Game Clock
Shot clock and game clock are operated by timekeepers. Game clock records the overall time of the game while shot clock
counts down the 24 second shot clock.
Players Equipment

Players Uniform
Uniform consists of jersey (preferably sleeveless), short and shoes. All the teams wears their own specific uniform. In NBA, all
players wear a uniform prepared by leagues sponsored sportswear company. They are not allowed to wear shorts which are too
long. In NBA, players can be fined if their uniform does not comply with the rules of the league.
Protective Gears and Accessories
Protective gears and accessories include goggles, face masks, mouth guards, knee pads or brace, headbands, arm sleeves,
wristbands etc. Not all players wear necessarily all these things. They use them only when they required them.

Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction in art of landscapes
natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the
main subject is a wide view with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.
example:

A wood block (also spelled as a single word, woodblock) is a small slit drum made from a single piece
of wood and used as a percussion instrument. The term generally signifies the Western orchestral instrument,
though it is related to the ban time-beaters used by the Han Chinese, which is why the Western instrument is
sometimes referred to as Chinese woodblock. Alternative names sometimes used in ragtime and jazz are clog
box and tap box. In orchestral music scores, wood blocks may be indicated by the French bloc de bois or tambour
de bois, German Holzblock or Holzblocktrommel, or Italian cassa di legno (Blades and Holland 2001).

The orchestral wood-block instrument of the West is generally made from teak or another hardwood. The
dimensions of this instrument vary, although it is either a rectangular or cylindrical block of wood with one or
sometimes two longitudinal cavities (Blades and Holland 2001). It is played by striking it with a stick, which produces
a sharp crack (Montagu 2002b). Alternatively a rounder mallet, soft or hard, may be used, which produces a deeperpitched and fuller "knocking" sound.
In a drum kit, a woodblock was traditionally mounted on a clamp fixed to the top of the rear rim of the bass drum.

example:

Roof-guard A board or an ornamental edging of ironwork placed just above the eaves of a
roof to prevent snow from sliding off.

example:

The Peking Opera


Characters in the Peking Opera

There are four main characters roles in the Peking opera. They are : shng(male character), tan (female
character), ching (painted faces), chou(jester). To make the role more specific prefixes are added. Some important prefixes
are wu(warrior), Lao (elderly person), siao (young).

Shng
Shng are usually dignified, or heroic characters. There are three types of sheng: wushng, laoshng, and xiaoshng.
Wushng are usually warriors, and heroes, while laoshng are scholars, officials, and advisors, and siaoshng are lovers
and young scholars (Wichmann 7).

Tan
The tan roles are female roles, and were often played by men until the communist era. The five types of tan are blue
cloth tan (quingyi), and flower tan (huatan), laotan , wutan and choutan. Blue cloth tan are demure middle-aged women
distinguished by their light blue trimming on sleeves, while flower tan are flirtatious women , typically of low
status. Laotan are older women, wutan are war heroines, and choutan are ugly humorous women of low status (Wichmann
9).

Ching
Ching are easy discerned by their elaborately painted faces, and usually have some sort of supernatural power. There are
three types of ching the great painted face (dahaulian), supporting role ching (fuching) and warrior ching (wuching)
(Wichmann 10).

Chou
The chou is a clown character. They are usually of lower status and are the only characters that use slang and improvise
speeches. The three types of chou are military cho (wuchou), civil chou (wenchou), and female chou (choutan)
(Wichmann 11).

Japan instrument
Percussion (Membranophone)

Hyshigi () wooden or bamboo clappers

Mokugyo () woodblock carved in the shape of a fish, struck with a wooden stick; often used
in Buddhist chanting

Shko () small bronze gong used in gagaku; struck with two horn beaters

Sasara () clapper made from wooden slats connected by a rope or cord

Ita-sasara () clapper made from wooden slats connected by a rope or cord


Bin-sasara (, ; also spelled bin-zasara) clapper made from wooden slats
connected by a rope or cord

Kokiriko (, ) a pair of sticks which are beaten together slowly and rhythmically

Kagura suzu hand-held bell tree with three tiers of pellet bells

Strings (Chorclophone)

Biwa a pear shaped lute

Gottan or hako-jamisen

Ichigenkin (kanji: ) monochord

Junanagen () 17-stringed koto

Koto (, ) long zither

Wind (Aerophone)

Flutes
Japanese flutes are called Flutes. There are eight different flutes plus a new one

Hocchiku () vertical bamboo flute

Hichiriki () double-reeded flute used in different kinds of music

Sh () 17-pipe mouth organ used for gagaku

Horagai () seashell horn; also called jinkai ()

China instrument
Percussion (Membranophone)

Dagu () large drum played with two sticks

Bangu () small, high pitched drum used in Beijing opera; also called danpigu ()

Paigu () set of three to seven tuned drums played with sticks

Tanggu () medium-sized barrel drum played with two sticks; also called tonggu ()
or xiaogu ()

Biqigu () a very small drum played with one stick, used in Jiangnan sizhu

Strings (Chorclophone)

Huqin () family of vertical fiddles

Erhu () two-stringed fiddle

Zhonghu () two-stringed fiddle, lower pitch than erhu

Gaohu () two-stringed fiddle, higher pitch than erhu; also called yuehu ()

Banhu () two-stringed fiddle with a coconut resonator and wooden face, used primarily in
northern China

Wind (Aerophone)

Dizi () - transverse bamboo flute with buzzing membrane

Xiao (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: xio) - end-blown flute; also
called dongxiao (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: )

Paixiao (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: pixio) - pan pipes

Chi (; pinyin: ch) - ancient transverse bamboo flute

Xindi () - modern transverse flute with as many as 21 holes

korea instrument
Percussion (Membranophone)

Pyeongyeong (hangul: ; hanja: ) A set of 16 tuned stone chimes used in ancient court music;
derived from the Chinese bianqing

Banghyang (hangul: ; hanja: ) A metallophone with 16 tuned iron slabs; derived from the
Chinese fangxiangphoto

Janggu or Janggo (hangul: or ; hanja: or ) A double-headed hourglass-shaped


drum generally played with one stick and one hand

Galgo (hangul: ; hanja: ) Double-headed hourglass-shaped Kkwaenggwari (hangul:


) A small gong used primarily in folk music

Jabara (hangul: ; also called bara, bal, or jegeum) pair of large brass cymbals

Strings (Chorclophone)

Gayageum (hangul: ; hanja: ) A long zither with 12 strings; modern versions may have
13, 17, 18, 21, 22, or 25 strings

Geomungo (hangul: ; hanja: A fretted bass zither with six to eleven silk strings that is
plucked with a bamboo stick and played with a weight made out of cloth

Daejaeng (hangul: ; hanja: ) A long zither with 15 strings, slightly larger than the gayageum;
it was used during the Goryeo period but is no longer usedphoto

Gonghu (hangul: ; hanja: ) Harps (no longer used). There were four subtypes according to
shape:

Wolgeum (hangul: ; hanja: ) A lute with a moon-shaped wooden body, four strings, and 13
frets; no longer used

Wind (Aerophone)

Daegeum (hangul: ; hanja: or ) A large transverse bamboo flute with buzzing


membrane

Junggeum (hangul: ; hanja: or ) A medium-sized transverse bamboo flute without


buzzing membrane

Taepyeongso (hangul: ; hanja: ; also called hojok) A conical oboe with a wooden body
and metal bell

Saenghwang (hangul: ; hanja: ) A free reed mouth organ with 17 bamboo pipes; derived from
the Chinese sheng

Nabal (hangul: ; hanja: ) Long metal trumpet

Nagak (hangul: ; hanja: ) Sea shell horn; also called sora