Sei sulla pagina 1di 27

See

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/262308589

We are all servants here! Mimar Sinan


architect of the Ottoman Empire
ARTICLE MARCH 2014
DOI: 10.3311/PPar.7444

READS

245

1 AUTHOR:
Peter Rabb
Budapest University of Technology and Eco
5 PUBLICATIONS 1 CITATION
SEE PROFILE

Available from: Peter Rabb


Retrieved on: 03 December 2015

We

are all servants here!


Mimar Sinan architect of the Ottoman Empire
Pter Rabb PhD
architect, senior lecturer
BUTE Department of History of Architecture and of Monuments
keywords: Mimar Sinan, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman art, Ottoman architecture, Istanbul, Edirne,
Bursa, Iznik
The statement quoted in the title was made by Pasha Rstem sometime in the mid 1550s but
essentially similar statements could be borrowed from almost all Ottoman overlords.1 The affairs
of the Ottoman Empire were managed by men in slavish subjection, most of whom had once
followed Christian faith but were forced to become Muslims from the second half of the 15th
century. Beside pashas, viziers and grand viziers, who had positions on different levels of the
government and military leadership, there were fellow sufferers in other areas of the life of the
empire. In fact, even the most famous of them served his monarch in one of the latter 'side
areas', however, in such a way that both his name and his oeuvre survived up to this day: Mimar
(ie. architect) Sinan, chief architect of the Ottoman Empire.
Mimar Sinan was born around 1489-90, in Arnas near Kayseri. 2 His origin is uncertain. The
Armenian origin can be considered the most probable (most accepted) but Albanian, Serbian,
Anatolian Greek, Jewish and even Austrian parentage of his family or at least her mother
has also been suggested.3 It is assumed that Christian Armenian among others prisoners
were taken to the newly annexed territory of Karaman after 1487, when at the expense of
centuries of hard fights Sultan Bayezid II finally managed to force this small state, which had
been enclosed in the body of the Empire independently till that time, under his rule. 4 Generally,
resettlements were associated with forced marriages. It can be assumed that Sinan's parents
established a family like that; so the question of his origin is just further complicated. 5
In 1512, Sinan came to Istanbul through the practice of child tax (devirme) imposed on the

1 Pasha Rstem (1500-1561) confessed this to his Grand Vizier brother's, Pasha Sinan's doctor, who left this
behind in his memoir. Villaln, 1984 p. 145. Pasha(Pargali) Ibrahim (1493-1536) Grand Vizier shared similar
statements with Hieronymus aski who negotiated with the Porta on behalf of John Zpolya in 1527-28. Kszeghy,
1996 pp. 114, 125.
2 Sinan's date of birth is uncertain, beside the year of 1489, the year of 1490, 1494 or even 1499 has already
incurred as birth date. 1489: Saoud, 2007 pp. 2-3; 1489/90: Akgndz, 2011 p. 195; 1490: Encyclopaedia
Britannica online: Mimar Sinan http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/545603/Sinan; 1499: Gnay, 2006
p. 23.
3 The issue of Sinan's origin is summarized by: Akgndz, 2011 p. 196; Goodwin, 1992 p. 197; Saoud, 2007 p. 2.
4 It shows the status and the weight of role of Karaman region well that after losing the Battle of Nicopolis, the
area became major eastern partner of Europe, particularly Hungary in the fight against the Turks. Sigismund of
Luxembourg, John Hunyadi and King Matthias sent several legations here in order to start a two-front war against
the Ottomans. Tardy, 1983 pp. 9-34. The settlement layout is attributed to the younger andarl Ibrahim Pasha
Grand Vizier ( 1499) by some sources: Goodwin, 1992 p. 197. Also later a significant Christian population lived
in the area of Karaman. Tardy, 1977 p. 302; Villaln, 1984 p. 440.
5 Georgius of Hungary reported on the practice of settlements and forced marriages as an eye wittness: Fgedi,
1976 pp. 36-37; and Bertalan Gyurgyevics: Fgedi, 1976 p. 158.

non-Muslim population of the empire.6


The majority of young people gathered was placed in military service, thus augmenting the
number of Janissaries (jeni eri = new corps) or they were put on physical work or were assigned
to assist different masters. At the same time, young people with outstanding abilities (acemi
olan = alien boy) could hope for bright carrier by learning in the schools of the seraglio
because the empire solved the personal recruits for government and military leaderships
positions being solely dependent on the will of the Sultan in this way since the end of the 14th
century.7
Sinan was 21-22 years old at that time. Thanks to his age, talent and good practice gained by
working with his stonemason and carpenter father, Sinan got into the school operating in the
palace of Pasha Pargali Ibrahim (1493-1536) Grand Vizier (1523-1536), 8 where he studied
carpentry. Presumably, he took up Islam and was given the name, Sinan at that time.9 His first
works - boats and bridges - show that initially he worked in the army as an engineer.10
He participated in several campaigns: in the Siege of Belgrade (1521) and Rhodes (1522) as
well as in the conquest of Southern Mesopotamia (1535), Corfu and Moldavia (1537-1538). As
a member of the yard cavalry or as a Janissary aga according to other opinions he was
there at the Battle of Mohcs (1526) and the Siege of Vienna (1529) and later at the Siege of
Esztergom (1543) too.11 As a military engineer, he served in the Balkans for many years. These
years spent in the army brought change in his career: his war-related buildings attracted the
attention of Suleiman and his environment. The Drava Bridge in Osijek (1526), the ferry built on
the water of Lake Van belonging to the operations area of the Persian campaign (1535), the
success of a Danube Bridge (1537), and a bridge over River Prut (1538), as well as the support
of Pasha Lfti Grand Vizier (1539-1541) helped him to get the chief architect authority of the
Empire in 1539.12 His architectural career, which can be considered breathtaking both in terms
of the number and the quality of the completed buildings, started at this time, at nearly fifty
years of his age.
The architect career of Sinan started under extremely favorable conditions since the Ottoman
Empire was at the peak of its strength and power just at that time. The small area located near
St in the north-west area of the Anatolian peninsula, in the corner of Rumi Seljuk Sultanate,
had been occupied by 400 warriors (gazi) in the second half of the 13th century and became
a world-empire over two centuries. In 1326, they occupied Brussa (today Bursa), the former
Byzantine resort at the crossroads of important trade routes and made it the first capital; and
by the occupation of Gallipoli in 1354 they gained European properties as well. After the
conquest of Thrace, in 1362 Adrianople (today: Edirne) became the new capital; and by the
6 Hegyi, 1986 p. 54. The practice of child tax developed at the end of the 14th century, during the reign of Sultan
Murad I (1359-1389), probably due to influences coming from Persia. Initially, it affected the local population, but
later it was levied on non-Muslim population (Muslims could not be enslaved): by chosing every fifth of boys
between 12-22 years of age in every 4-5 years. Lewis, 1981 p. 62-65. Under the reign of Sultan Bayezid II (14811512), the newly settled area of Airnas was exempt from the child tax. However, this privilege ceased with the
new sultan, Selim I coming to the throne. Saoud, 2007 p. 3.
7 Among the 39 grand viziers governing in the period between 1453-1591 only one was of Turkish origin, and we
know it for sure that 15 of them got to the service of the Empire through child tax. On child tax see: Tardy, 1977
pp. 312-318; Fgedi, 1976 pp. 41-42 and p. 156; Goodwin, 1992 p. 198; Hegyi, 1986. pp. 49, 54-56; Lewis 1981
pp. 65-70; Villaln, 1984 pp. 428-429.
8 Also Ibrahim Pasha, who had Greek origins, got to the service of the Empire through child tax.
9 According to some assumptions his original name was Joseph (Yusuf?). Goodwin, 1992 p. 199.
10 On the studies written by Sinan: Saoud, 2007 p. 4.
11 Goodwin, 1992 p. 199; Kuban, 2007 p. 256; Saoud, 2007 p. 5. On janissary aga status: Molnr, 1972 p. 25.
12 Fehrvri, 1987 p. 239; Goodwin, 1992p. 200.

end of the century the total area of the Balkan Peninsula (hereinafter referred to as Rumelia)
was dominated by the Ottomans to the line of the Danube and Drava. In 1453, they occupied
Constantinople living under Ottoman pressure for decades with possession of which they
considered themselves the formal successors of the Byzantine Empire , and after some
decades they completed their Anatolian hegemony too by conquering the Karaman region.
Syria, the land of Egypt and the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula with the holy cities, Mecca
and Medina were annexed to the Empire during the short reign of Selim I (1512-1520). His
successor, Suleiman completed the Ottoman Empire with his North African, Persian and
Hungarian conquests.
The dilapidated or non-existent infrastructure of the territories conquered by the large empire,
the complete absence of buildings necessary for everyday Muslim life provided plenty of
architectural works. But Istanbul itself also presented a lot of opportunities, because much of
the historic city core especially the surrounding of the former imperial palace was in ruins
since the destruction of the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
Thanks to the large number of tasks and to Sinan's talent, position and relations deriving from it
several works of his were implemented empire-wide from Esztergom to Jerusalem, Baghdad
or Bosnia. Among them except for his engineering works mosques are the outstanding
designs both in their number and quality.
By the start of Sinan's career, the typical spatial form of Ottoman mosques had already
developed. 13 Contrary to the columnar mosques of the first Islamic empires (such as the
Ummayads) or to the Persian Islamic mosques with eyvan, Ottoman architecture under
Byzantine influence preferred the domed mosques.
The first remained Ottoman domed mosques were either covered with one single dome and
had square or rectangular layout14, or they were multiple domed buildings with a floor plan
called inverted 'T' by art historians.15 Among these, the most significant ones can be found in
Bursa16, therefore this type is often called Bursa mosque. Originally here the place of prayer was
the same square-shaped space covered with a single dome in front of the mihrab, the other
domed spaces in front of or next to it played originally a different role in public life
(administration, court, etc.).
The first mosque having actually more than one domes is also located in Bursa (Ulu Cami,
around 1396?), and was built by Bayezid I true to his oath taken in Nicopolis. The construction
of the space covered with twenty domes today only a copy of which is visible could clearly
be the result of the influence of Byzantine architecture,17 similarly to the old grand mosque of
Edirne with nine domes (Eski Cami, around 1402), which was built by Suleiman, one of Bayezid
I's sons.18
The crucial change appeared in Serefeli mosque built by Murad II (Edirne, 1437-1447). This
was the first example of building an arcaded forecourt topped with a row of domes (avlu), four
13 Mosque (Grand Mosque, Friday Mosque) is a Muslim place of prayer proper to perform Friday worships too.
One of its important components is the pulpit (minbar, minber), from where the Friday sermon (khutba) was held.
The Hungarian name for it is derived from the Turkish word Cami.
14 Haci zbek Mosque (Iznik, 1333), Alaeddin Mosque (Bursa, 1334), Green Mosque (Yesil Cami, Iznik, 13781391). Fehrvri, 1987 p. 233; Goodwin, 1992 pp. 17-21; Yerasimos, 2000 p. 158.
15 Jakub Celebi Mosque (Iznik, 1380) and Nilfer Hatun Mosque (iznik, 1388). According to the assumptions, the
space form of mosques with inverted 'T' floor plan shows similarities with the early Ottoman Dervish monasteries
called zvije. Fehrvri, 1987 p. 234; Ger, 1980 p. 41; Goodwin, 1992 pp. 47-51; Kuban, 2007 p. 83.
16 Orhn Mosque (Bursa, 1339-1340), Bayezid I Mosque (Yeil Cami, Bursa, 1412-1424)
The great Seljuk mosque in Divrii (Ulu Cami, 1296) could be constructed in the same spirit. Here the space of
prayer is roofed by domes and arches with a design rising towards the center space, as well as in Bursa.
Kszeghy, 1996 p. 235.

minarets, and an enormous center dome of 24 m diameters above the closed chapel, leaning
on a specially designed hexagonal-shaped support.19 From that time, this dominant center
dome has certainly become the main motif of the representative mosques by the pattern of
Hagia Sophia.
The Islamic world especially the Umayyad Caliphate respected the power and wealth of
Byzantium, and Constantinople was regarded as the premier center of arts and culture. This
affection was especially true for the Ottomans. Their state was formed in the immediate vicinity
and under the spell of Byzantium, and when it reached its full extent incorporating almost the
entire territory of the Justinianos Empire , they were entitled to feel themselves be the heirs of
Byzantium.
Byzantine architecture had influence on the development of Ottoman architecture from the
beginning. It can be particularly true in the case of Hagia Sophia (and its dome) which building
had special reverence due to its size, architectural design and symbolic power.20 The rapturous
enthusiasm of Mehmed II, which he expressed when going around the mosque, is a testimony
of this:
If you long for Paradise, oh, Sufi, you find Heaven in Hagia Sophia. [] What a dome,
that vies in rank with the nine spheres of heaven! In this work a perfect master displayed the whole of
the architectural science.
With the semi domes leaning to each other, with the acute and obtuse angles, with the
gorgeous vaults reminding us of the brow of fetching maidens, and with the
perpendicular ornaments the master created such a great internal space that could
accommodate fifty thousand people. []
[He] expressed the desire to visit Ayasofya, the heavenly miracle. This Ayasofya,
unrivaled throughout the world, had, like the Empire fallen into ruin and decay and
there was no architect who could place a stone upon in. A splendid dome had survived
a dome created by the efforts of a learned and experienced master supported by
arches and columns and embellished with the finest ornament. The visitors were
amazed at the miracle of the building and its work of art. Int he ornately decorated
central dome there is a picture of Adam which remains visible from whichever point
one looks at it.
Tursun Beg (1499) historian of Mehmed II, secretary of the divan21
In many cases, mosques stood not alone, but in the middle of a building complex. This
development can be explained by a specific Ottoman practice originated from Islamic
tradition.
The key to the survival of the empire was to ensure the monocracy of the monarch. Among
others, preventing the development of individual property and power concentration was also
a tool to achieve this aim. 22 The fifth of the conquered territories and captured goods
according to Muslim tradition already were the entitled to the Sultan. On the remaining fields,
similarly to the Byzantine institution of military lands, the monarch meted land donations (tmr,
zimet) in return for military service, however, these donations could be withdrawn at any time,

19 Fehrvri, 1987, p. 236; Kuban, 2007 pp. 143-148; Yerasimos, 2000 p. 193. Later also Sinan used this hexagonal
shape in several places: Pasha Rstem mosque, Pasha Sokullu Mehmed mosque.
20 This was the royal mosque of the all-time Sultan; when he stayed in Istanbul he was listening to the Friday
worship there. Tardy, 1977 p. 327.
21 Inalck, 1993 p. 421; The text is published by: Kuban, 2007 pp. 173-174; Lewis, 1981 pp. 13-14.
22 Monocracy was ensured by the child-tax based military and administrative structure operated by subjects
solely dependent on the sultan, by the 'filtering' of the emperor's environment with the introduction of the
practice of fratricides associated with taking the power, as well as by chosing the Sultan's concubines (mother of
the potential future monarch) from Christian slaves. These tools were completed with the system mentioned
above in order to prevent the development of increasing wealth.

and could not be inherited. 23 This way the private properties, which were acquired and
enlarged during the crusades, could not develop to a large estate able to defy with the
monarch.24
Only 'asset-salvage' option offered: the establishment of a pious foundation (vaqf, vakf, vakuf).
For Muslims the duty of alms-giving (zakt) as the Third Pillar of Islam was of a high
importance.25 The management of pious foundations helping travelers, pilgrims and needy
landlesses , which were established for this purpose, remained by the founder, and in fact it
was possible to be inherited.26 Thus, with this solution it was possible to preserve the right of
provision over substantial private properties in a way that the whole community could benefit
from it.27
These kinds of building complexes (klliye) were established across the Ottoman empire, in
which the mosque (mescit) was surrounded by several other buildings: the founder's tomb
(trbe), Koranic school (drlkurr), elementary (mekteb) and post-secondary school
(medrese), bath (hamam), public soup kitchen (imaret), pilgrim accommodation (tabhane),
lodging house (kervansaray), possibly Dervish monastery (tekke) or hospital (drifa), not
mentioning those lodging houses, bazaars, covered markets (bedesten), row of stores (arasta)
and baths located somewhere else, which provided the revenue for the operation of the
foundation according to the founder's provisions.28 A pious foundation could be launched by
individuals too but the largest and most magnificent ones were the foundations established by
the Sultan.29
The prolific fifty years of Sinan spent as an architect are known for us thanks to his friend and
colleague Mustafa Si elebi who left behind the memoirs of old Sinan in three manuscripts. 30
This memoir credits Sinan with 343 buildings.31
His main clients came from the top level of the government and from the environment of the
Sultan reigning at the time Sinan served also for three of them: Suleiman II, Selim and Murad
III. Suleiman himself and his family is represented on this list with 47 buildings among them 5
klliyes but this number increases to 71 if we also count the building activity of the Sultan's
son-in-law Rstem Pasha Grand Vizier and his brother Sinan Pasha. But certainly the most active
builder was Grand Vizier Pasha Sokullu Mehmed, the son-in-law of Selim II, who commissioned
Sinan with the design of 30 buildings on his own.32
During the planning of the mosques, Sinan tested and applied almost every possible space
forms. He designed mosques topped with plain slab as well as single domed ones or with series
of domes, spaces with hexagonal or octagonal center dome as well as mosque with the spatial
arrangement of Hagia Sophia.33 Among his works the most important ones were the sultan23 Bertalan Gyurgyevics already reported on this in his work published in 1544. Published by: Fgedi, 1976 p.189.
24 Hegyi 1986 pp-5-8. and pp. 52-53.
25 Simon, 2009 pp. 411-412. About the vaqfs: Jany 2006. 398-406.
26 Rogers, 1987 p. 52.
27 Hattstein, 2005 p. 21; Bertalan Gyurgyevics reported on this as an eye-wittness: Fgedi, 1976 p. 186.
28 Gladiss, 2005 p. 545.
29 Reported on the constructions of the pashas' and sultans' foundation: Villaln, 1984 p. 411.
30 The manuscripts (anonymous text, Architectural masterpieces and The Book of architecture) are preserved
today in the Topkap Museum. The English edition: Book of Buildings. (Memoirs of Sinan the Architect) Istanbul,
Kocbank, 2002.
31 Nowadays, the researches put the number of buildings well over 400.
32 The summary table of Sinan's constructions can be found in the appendix.
33 Many of Sinan's mosques are covered with plain slab, for example: Pasha Gazi Iskender Mosque (Istanbul,
1559-1560); single-domed: Haseki Hrrem Mosque (Istanbul, 1538-1539); row of domes: Piyale Pasha Mosque
(Istanbul, 1573-1574); central dome above a hexagonal layout: Sokullu Mehmed Pasha Mosque (Istanbul, 1571-

klliyes in particular their central objects, the mosques. He also tied his career to these
buildings: he considered the completion of Prince's Mosque (ehzade Camii, Istanbul, 15431548) as the end of his apprentice, then came the mastery years with the Suleiman Mosque
(Sleyman Camii, Istanbul, 1550-1557) on the zenith, followed by the period of an experienced
but aging master, the masterpiece of which time was Selimiye II Mosque (Selimiye Camii, Edirne,
1568-1574).
Even Sinan's sultan mosques in Istanbul could not evade themselves from the magnificent and
inspirational impact of the dome of Hagia Sophia. However, this does not mean that they have
been slavish copies of Hagia Sophia.34 Though Sinan himself designed mosque that copied the
spatial arrangement of Hagia Sophia,35 it could not be adapted widespread, mainly due to
the difference in the use of the two buildings types (church vs. Mosque). While Hagia Sophia is
a longitudinal space-complex of central roofing structures arranged along the axis defined by
the entrance gate and the apse, in case of mosques, where the transverse qibla wall
dominates opposite the entrance, even a square floor plan can be considered a compromise
solution.36
Italian Renaissance architecture, especially the development of central church spaces, had
much more influence on the spatial arrangement of sultan-mosques. Ottoman emperors most
of all Mehmed II, Bayezid II and Suleiman paid curious attention to Europe, particularly to Italy.
The trade relationships with Genoese and Venetian merchants, established at the time of the
Byzantine Empire, were completed with cultural aspects at this time. In addition to delegations
and merchants, series of poets and artists appeared in the court of the sultan, giving a proof
of the vibrant intellectual life lived there. Mehmed hired Venetian painter in his court,37 and
Bayezid was waiting for a bridge construction engineer also from this country.38 So it was not
amazing at all that the Sublime Porte was well-informed about the application of central
spaces gaining ground, especially about the design works of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. Its
influence can be traced on several buildings of Sinan.
The Prince's Mosque (ehzade Camii, Istanbul, 1543-1548) was built by Suleiman in memory of
Mehmed, his son born by Hrrem, the second wife with notorious agility, who was raised to be
a crown prince and who died in 1543. Also Ibrahim Peevi, born in Pcs, has reported on the
prince's funeral and the foundation of the klliye:
The funeral service was held in the Bayezid mosque in presence of Suleiman. Previously,
the Sultan's favorite son had planted a saplings on top of the ancient ruins. The Sultan
ordered to bury him at this place, and to build a trbe over his tomb and a large

1572); central dome above an octogonal layout: Rstem Pasha Mosque (Istanbul, 1561-1562); Hagia Sophia type:
Kili Ali Pasha Mosque (Istanbul, 1580-1587)
34 Among the former sultans, presumably Mehmed II was the first who treated the building of Hagia Sophia (at
least its dome) as a standard which he was longing to transcend. Rumours say that the architect, who was unable
to perform this task Atik (ie. Old) Sinan , paid with his life for the failure.
35 Kili Ali Pasha Mosque (Isztambul, 1580), though the scale is completely different: the total floor area of the
mosque is equal to the center dome of Hagia Sophia. Kuban, 2007 p. 282.
36 The early (columned) mosques where builders sought to maximize the length of the qibla wall were built
almost always with a chapel of transverse, rectangular layout: Grand Mosque of Damascus, Kairouan, Crdoba;
Ibn Tln Mosque, Cairo. Early Ottoman architecture follows a similar solution: Grand Mosque, Bursa; Old Grand
Mosque, Edirne; erefeli Mosque, Edirne.
37 Gentile Bellini (1429-1507) was the son-in-law of Andrea Mantegna, he was in the service of the sultan since
1479 as the delegate of the Venetian Senate.
38 According to Vasari, Leonardo da Vinci prepared the plans of the bridge over the Golden Horn Bay between
1502-1503 to this request. His volunteer letter is preserved in the Topkap Museum, and his drawing in the Institut
de France.

mosque next to it.39

Plan of the Prince Klliye

http://www.mimarsinaneserleri.com/mimari_cizimler/Istanbul%20Sehzade%20Camii/slides/L
evha017_Istanbul_Sehzade_Camii_Vaziyet_Plani.html
The building complex stands on the land between the above mentioned klliye of Bayezid II
and Mehmed II, in the corner of the Old Palace, by the road leading to Edirne. The mosque
and its forecourt is surrounded by a garden of irregular shape, encircled with walls. Here stands
the tomb of the prince (trbe), and the other buildings of the klliye attached to the outer side
of the fence: Madrasah (medrese), public soup kitchen (imaret) and pilgrim accommodation
(tabhane), pilgrim lodging (kervansaray), Koranic school (drlkurra).
The overall shapes of the layout of the mosque and of the forecourt are two squares with the
same dimensions. A central space makes the interior of the mosque, its nine-parted square
floor plan is divided by the four pillars and the vaults leaning to them, supporting the center
dome. The pendetive center dome of 19 m diameters is supported by quarter spheres along
the legs of a Greek cross shape which can be drawn into the square layout, and the quarter
spheres are completed with two small additional quarter-sphere domes. The position of the
domes gives the feeling as if though in a smaller scale the row of domes of Hagia Sophia
would have been built here both in longitudinal and in cross direction. Actually, it could not
serve as a model for Sinan, one has to look for the inspiration in the Renaissance Italy. Namely,
this scheme a space of square layout, covered with pendetive dome, expanded with apses
that are roofed with quarter domes was built as an independent building first in Todi, by the
design of Donato Bramante.40

39 Fehr, 1990 p. 33.


40 Santa Maria della Consolazione (Todi, 1508-). The relationship between the two buildings is suggested in:
Kuban, 2007 p. 271.

The interior of Prince Mosque (taken by the author)


Due to its size and the builder's person, the Suleiman Mosque can be considered the most
prestigious building complex of Sinan. This extentious building complex was erected at place
of the former Old Palace (Eski Saray), on top of the third hill of the town, and it presented the
completeness of the components of klliyes beside the mosque and the tombs: elementary
school (mekteb), Koranic school (drlhadi), tradition narrating school (hadith) and dormitory,
5 post-secondary schools (medrese), medical university (drttb), hospital (drssifa), bath
(hamam), public soup kitchen (imaret) and guesthouse (tabhane). It describes well the
dimensions of the building complex that Hans Dernschwarm estimated it the same size as the
city of Bratislava at that time.41
The construction lasted for seven years.42 According to the description of Evlia elebi, after
three years of earthworks, the implementation of the wall foundations took the same time. This
was followed by one year of a break, in which the rumors thought to see the decline of the
empire's power. However, the work was stopped for technical reasons actually: the builders
had to wait for the consolidation of the foundations and for the production of the necessary
building materials.43 The demanded quantity of stone was gained from the ruins of Emperor
Diocletian's palace in Nicomedia (today: Izmit), and was transported to Istanbul on the so
called stone-ships (on special galleys without sails).44
The mosque itself has considerable dimensions: four Prince's Mosques could fit in it. Its spatial
41 Dernschwarm stayed in Istanbul between 1553-1556, joining the delegate of Antal Verancsics. His memoirs
are published in: Tardy, 1977 p. 345.
42 In 1555, Dernschwarm saw the building half-ready and according to his estimation three years of work was to
be done at that time. Tardy, 1977 p. 385.
43 Quotes Evlia: Lewis, 1981 pp. 123-124;
44 Pasha Sinan, brother of Pasha Rstem was responsible for the transportation. He reported on the
transportation and site works as an eye-wittness: Villaln, 1984 p. 113 and p. 285.

arrangement follows much more that of Hagia Sophia than does the layout of Prince's Mosque.
Though the interior has a square layout (58 m), here certainly due to the huge size Sinan
did not applied the row of domes with a Greek cross layout, which can be seen at the Prince's
Mosque, but created a directed central space similar to that of Hagia Sophia. At the same
time, lacking the gallery floor above the aisles, the inner space became clearer and more
consistent than its role model. This effect is reinforced by the light streaming through the
windows and the light interior paint on the walls.

Plan of Suleiman klliye (Sleymaniye)

http://www.mimarsinaneserleri.com/mimari_cizimler/Istanbul%20Suleymaniye%20Camii/sli
des/Levha031_Suleymaniye_Vaziyet_Plani_Zemin_Katlari.html
Sinan handed over the building to Suleiman:
Oh, my Sultan, I have built this mosque for you, which will stand upon the earth till the
day of the last judgment.45
From the time of its completion, Suleiman Klliye especially the mosque has meant a lot
more than a building itself, it represented the strength and power of the empire. Proof of this
can be that on signed feast-days the model of the building was carried around. This happened
for example in 1582, on occasion of the circumcision ceremony of Prince Mehmed, son of
Sultan Murad III, as reported by not only the eye-witnesses but also the miniature of Nakkas
Oman.46

45 Published by: Lewis, 1981 p. 126.


46 Nakkas Osman: Surnme-i Hmayun (Book of Feasts, 1582). The description is published by: Lewis, 1981 pp.
156-162; According to the illustration of the miniature, the some meter high model presented not only the
mosque but also the forecourt and the tombs: Yerasimos, 2000 p. 312.

The interior of Suleiman mosque (taken by the author)

Miniature of the model of Suleiman mosque by Nakkas Osman


(Yerasimos, 2000. 312.o.)
The third milestone in Sinan's life was the Klliye of Sultan Selim II. Suleiman' son with modest
caliber posterity refers to him just with the name 'the Sot' (Mest) spent his time in the quieter
Edirne instead of the vibrant capital, and he designated the location of his klliye also here.
The construction took place between 1569 and 1576 (at that time Sinan was at the beginning
of his eighties). The building complex, surrounded by walls, can be entered through a covered
market (arasta) from direction of the town's old center (old Grand Mosque, covered bazaar).
In addition to this and the mosque, the klliye contains an elementary school (mekteb) and
two post-secondary schools (medrese). No tomb was placed here since the trbe of the sultan
(also Sinan's work) was built in Istanbul, on the south side of Hagia Sophia.

The dimensions of the mosque are slightly smaller than that of Suleiman Mosque (45 x 36 m),
and contrary to that mosque, this one was built with a traverse rectangular layout. However,
the size of the dome surpassed all previous dimensions: its diameter is 31.5 m. Not only its size
but also its position is remarkable. While in Hagia Sophia the center dome forms an integral
unity with the attached quarter-spheres and vaults, in case of Selim Mosque this structure
dominantly towers over the space. Sinan subordinated everything to this dome, as if the only
sense of the building would manifest in this structure and in the space enclosed by the eight
pillars supporting (lifting) the dome.
He emphasized this aim by placing the gallery of the muezzins (mahfil) and the well under it
(adirvan) to the middle, on the axis of the dome, which is an unusual solution in Ottoman
architecture. 47 Due to this central spatial arrangement and the dominance of the dome,
researchers believe to find the influence of Italian Renaissance central spaces, especially that
of St. Peter's cathedral in Suleiman Mosque.48

Plan of the Selim II. mosque

The interior of Selim II. mosque

http://www.mimarsinaneserleri.com/mimari_cizimler/Edirne%20Selimiye%20Medreseleri/sli
des/Levha276.html

Sinan was active in Hungary too, but as missing relevant resources, the number of his works in

47 Kuban, 2007 p. 302.


48 Mahfil (singer gallery) is a special gallery built for the muezzins and for the Sultan. Kuban, 2007 p. 307.

the country cannot even be estimated. 49 The design of the Drava Bridge in Osijek can be
associated to his name, as well as the reconstruction of the castle in Szeged. 50 Sinan also
completed the conversion of St. Adalbert Basilica in Esztergom to a mosque in 1343. According
to Evlia elebi evoking the memories of his father who was also involved in the construction
works as a goldsmith , Suleiman watched the buildings on Castle Hill with admiration,
especially a pink-domed church (this was probably Bakcz Chapel). And while the sultan led
a battle around Fehrvr, Sinan was already carrying out the conversion work.51
Also, he designed the Pasha Mustafa Mosque that once stood in Vzivros. Knowing his close
relationship with the builder Sokullu family Sinan prepared the plans of 30 buildings just for
Grand Vizier Sokullu Mehmed, the cousin of Mustafa , it is presumable that he designed some
elements (a bath and a medrese) of the klliye in Vzivros too. But it is only suspected that
Mustafa, having also the position of the Pasha of Buda, within his extentious constructing
activity employed Sinan at other places too.52
Mimar Sinan died in 1588, at the age of nearly hundred years, leaving an unprecedented body
of work behind. In addition to his undoubted talent and adaptability, his success could be
owed for the lucky interference of a variety of factors. His long life fifty years of which he spent
as the chief architect coincided with the golden age of the empire. The conquered areas
provided plenty of construction tasks, as well as the clients did, who were aspiring for
architectural representation worthy of their rank among them the monarch and his wider
environment. In addition, the empire not being without financial resources - was also able to
realize these plans. The destruction of later centuries spared much of Sinan's oeuvre, in fact
most of the buildings are still used for their original purpose. Also Sinan's own personality
escaped the oblivion. First of all, not because his grave and his dictated biography survived
though in Central Europe it would also constitute a special value , but because he became
a symbol of the most glorious era of the Ottoman Empire by his works. The symbol of the Empire
from a former deported Christian slave.

References:

49 On the Ottoman architecture in Hungary including the works of Sinan see: Ger, 1980; Molnr, 1976; further
adaptation by Adrienn Papp and Balzs Sudr : www.torokvarak.hu
50 Jzsef Molnr attributes the assignment of Sinan as chief architect directly to the success of the bridge in
Osijek. On both constructions: Molnr, 1972 pp. 25-28; Molnr 1976. p. 106.; Farbaky, 1998 p. 86.
51 Evlia, 1985 p. 312.
52 On the constructions of Pasha Mustafa: Ger, 1980 pp. 122-124.

AGI:

Architectural Guide to Istanbul. (ed.: Afife Batur) Istanbul,


Chamber of Architects of Turkey Istanbul Metropolitan Branch,
2006.

Akgngz-ztrk, 2011.

Ahmed Akgndz Said ztrk: Ottoman History, Misperceptions


and Truths. Islamic University of Rotterdam, IUR Press, 2011.
http://books.google.hu/books?id=EnT_zhqEe5cC&printsec=front
cover&hl=hu#v=onepage&q&f=false

Blair-Bloom, 1994.

Sheila S. Blair Jonathan M. Bloom: The art and architecture of


Islam 1250-1800. Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, 1994.

Tardy, 1977.

Dernschwarm Jnos: Utazs Konstantinpolyba, 1553-55. [Jnos


Dernschwarm: Trip to Constantinople, 1553-55] In. Rabok, kvetek,
kalmrok az Oszmn birodalomrl. [In. Prisoners, delegates,
merchants about the Ottoman Empire.] (ed.: Lajos Tardy)
Budapest, Gondolat, 1977. pp. 277-415.

Evlia, 1985.

Evlia Cselebi trk vilgutaz magyarorszgi utazsa 1660-1664.


[Evlia elebi Turkish world traveler's trip to Hungary from 1660 to
1664.] (ed.: Pl Fodor) Budapest, Gondolat, 1985.
Farbaky, 1998. Farbaky Pter: Trk ptszet Magyarorszgon.
[Pter Farbaky: Turkish architecture in Hungary.] In. Wiebenson,
Dora: The architecture of historic Hungary. MIT Press. p. 68.

Fehr, 1990.

Fehr Gza: Isztambul. [Gza Fehr: Istanbul] Budapest,


Panorma, 1990.

Fehrvri, 1987.

Fehrvri Gza: Az iszlm mvszet trtnete. [Gza Fehrvri:


The history of Islamic art.] Budapest, Kpzmvszeti, 1987.

Fgedi, 1976.

Kimondhatatlan nyomorsg. Kt emlkirat a 15-16. szzadi


oszmn fogsgrl. [Unspeakable misery. Two memoirs about the
Ottoman captivity in the 15-16th century] (ed.: Erik Fgedi).
Budapest, Eurpa, 1976 pp. 5-150.

Ger, 1980.

Ger Gyz: Az oszmn-trk ptszet Magyarorszgon. [Gyz


Ger: The Ottoman-Turkish architecture in Hungary.]
Mvszettrtneti fzetek 12. Budapest, Akadmiai, 1980.

Gladiss, 2005.

Almut von Gladiss: ptszet [az Oszmn birodalomban].


[Architecture [in the Ottoman Empire] In. Iszlm mvszet s
ptszet. [in. Islamic art and architecture.] Budapest, Vince, 2005
pp. 544-565.

Goodwin, 1992:

Godfrey Goodwin: A History of Ottoman Architecture. London,


Thames and Hudson, 1992.

Gnay, 2006:

Reha Gnay: A Guide to the Works of Sinan the Architect in


Istanbul. Istanbul, Yap-Endstri Merkezi Yaynlar, 2006.

Hattstein, 2005.

Marcus Hattstein: Az iszlm vilgvalls s kulturlis hatalom. In.


Iszlm mvszet s ptszet. [Islam - world religion and cultural
power. In. Islamic art and architecture.] Budapest, Vince, 2005. 833.o.

Hegyi, 1986.

Hegyi Klra Zimnyi Vera: Az oszmn birodalom Eurpban.


[Klra Hegyi Vera Zimnyi: The Ottoman Empire in Europe.]
Budapest, Corvina, 1986.

Inalck, 1993.

Halil Inalck: Tursun Beg, the Historian of Mehmed the Conquerors


time. In. The Middle East and the Balkans under the Ottoman
Empire. Bloomington, Indiana University, 1993. 417-431.o.
http://www.inalcik.com/images/pdfs/16634347TURSUNBEG.pdf

Jani, 2006.

Jany Jnos: Klasszikus iszlm jog. [Jnos Jani: The classical Islamic
law.] Budapest, Gondolat, 2006.

Kuban, 2007.

Doan Kuban: Ottoman Architecture. Woodbridge, Antique


Collectors Club, 2007.

Kszeghy, 1996.

Hieronymus aski trgyalsa a trknl Jnos kirly nevben. In.


Kt trgyals Isztambulban. [Hieronymus aski's negotiation with
the Turks on behalf of King John Zpolya. Two meetings in
Istanbul.] (ed. Pter Kszeghy) Rgi Magyar Knyvtr, Forrsok 5.
Budapest, Balassi, 1996.

Lewis, 1981.

Bernard Lewis: Isztambul s az oszmn civilizci. [Bernard Lewis:


Istanbul and the civilization of the Ottoman Empire] Budapest,
Gondolat, 1981.

Molnr, 1972.

Molnr Jzsef: Sinan magyarorszgi munkinak nyomban.


[Jzsef Molnr: In the wake of Sinan's works in Hungary] In.
Memlkvdelem 16. 1972 pp. 25-28.

Molnr, 1976.

Molnr Jzsef: A trk vilg emlkei Magyarorszgon. [Jzsef


Molnr: The memories of the Ottoman world in Hungary.]
Budapest, Corvina, 1976.

Necipolu, 2005:

Glru Necipolu: The Age of Sinan. Architectural culture in the


Ottoman empire. London, Reaktion Books, 2005.

Saoud, 2007.

Dr. Rabah Saoud: Sinan, a Great Ottoman Architect and Urban


Designer.
Machester,
FSTC,
2007.
http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/Mimar_Sinan_Great_
Ottoman_Architect.pdf

Simon, 2009.

Simon Rbert: Iszlm kulturlis lexikon. [Rbert Simon: Islamic


cultural lexicon] Budapest, Corvina, 2009.

Tardy, 1983:

Tardi Lajos: Rgi magyar kvetjrsok keleten. [Lajos Tardi:


Former Hungarian delegations in the East] Krsi Csoma
kisknyvtr 11. (ed.: Lajos Ligeti). Budapest, Akadmiai, 1983.

Yerasimos, 2000.

Stphane
Heritage.

Villaln, 1984.

Cristbal de Villaln: Trkorszgi utazs. [A Trip to Turkey]


Budapest, Eurpa, 1984.

Yerasimos:

Constantinople.

Istanbuls

Historical

WORKS OF MIMAR SINAN [53]


1. Buildings by types:
1.0. Trust for charity / Kllije:
1.
Edirne
Sultan Selim (II)

1574-1575

2.

Istanbul

Eski (Atik) Vlide Sultan


(skdar)

1570-1579

3.

Istanbul

1559-60

4.

Istanbul

1538-1539

extant

5.

Istanbul

Gazi
Iskender
Paa
(Kanlca)
Haseki
Hrrem
Sultan
(Ftih)
Kara Ahmed Paa (Ftih)

great mosque, 2 madrasas,


covered market
great mosque, madrasa,
dervish lodge, public kitchen,
caravanserai, quran school,
guest house, primary school,
bath
public kitchen, school ruined

1555-1572

6.

Istanbul

Kili Al Paa (Beyolu)

1580-1587

7.

Istanbul

Mihrimah
(Edirnekap, Ftih)

Sultan

1562-1569

8.

Istanbul

Mihrimah Sultan (skdar)

1547-1548

9.

Istanbul

Piyale Paa

1573-1574

10.

Istanbul

Rstem Paa (Eminn)

1560-1561

11.

Istanbul

Sinan Paa (Beikta)

1550-1555

12.

Istanbul

ehzade Mehmed

1543-1548

13.

Istanbul

1568-1569

14.

Istanbul

15.

Istanbul

Sokullu Mehmed Paa


(Eyp)
Sokullu Mehmed Paa
(Kadrga)
Sultan
Sleyman
(Sleymaniye)

16.

Istanbul

Zal Mahmut Paa (Eyp)

1894: earthquake / 1969:


rebuilt
great mosque, madrasa,
mausoleum, bath
great mosque, madrasa,
mausoleum,
bath,
caravanserai, bazaar
great mosque, mausoleums,
madrasa,
school,
caravanserai, extant
great mosque, mausoleum,
extant
great mosque, bath, 3
bazaars extant, in use
great
mosque,
madrasa
extant, bath ruined
great mosque, mausoleums,
school,
madrasa,
guest
house, caravanserai, public
kitchen
mausoleum, madrasa, quran
school, extant
great mosque, madrasa,
dervish lodge
great mosque, mauloseums,
school, quran school, 5
madrasas, medical university,
hospital, guest house, public
kitchen, bath, bazaar, extant
great mosque, mausoleums, 2
madrasas

1.1. Great Mosque / Cami:


1.
Aksaray
Ostodayn Sah Vlidesi
2.
Aleppo (Halep) Hsrev Paa
3.
Aleppo (Halep) Adliye Camisi

1571-1572
1550-1557

1546-1547
1565-1566

extant / today: Syria


- / today: Syria

53 AGI, 2006; Fehr, 1982.; Fehr, 1990.; Kuban, 2007.; Saoud, 2007.; www.mimarrsinaneserleri.com;
www.sinanasaygi.org; www.tas-istanbul.com; www.archnet.org; www.mimarist.org

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

Ankara
Babaeski
Bagdad
(Badat)
Bagdad
(Badat)
Bagdad
(Badat)
Basra
Bolu
Bolu
Bolvadin
Buda
Bykekmece
atalca
orum
Datodayscus
(am)
Diyarbakr
Diyarbakr
Diyarbakr
Diyarbakr
Edirne
Edirne
Edirne
Edirne
Edirne
Ereli
Erzurum
Esztergom

32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.

Gebze
Gzleve
(Kezlev)
Hatay
Havsa (Edirne)
Hersek
Isparta
Istanbul
Istanbul

38.
39.

Istanbul
Istanbul

40.
41.

Istanbul
Istanbul

42.

Istanbul

43.

Istanbul

44.
45.

Istanbul
Istanbul

46.
47.

Istanbul
Istanbul

48.

Istanbul

Cenb Ahmed Paa


Cedid Ali Paa
Abdlkadir Geylani

1561-1566
1555-1561
-

extant
ruined / today: Iraq

todaym- Azam (Ebu


Hanife)
Murad Paa

1534-1535

ruined / today: Iraq

1570-1571

ruined / today: Iraq

Todayktul Ayas Paa


Ferhad Paa
Mustafa Paa
Rstem Paa
Sokullu Mustafa Paa
Sokullu Mehmed Paa
Ferhad Paa
Sultan Aleddin Selk
Sultan Sleyman

1546-1548?
1546
1567
1575
1550-1554

ruined / today: Syria


ruined
ruins
extant
renovation
extant

Behran Paa
Hadim Ali Paa
skender Paa
Melek Ahmet Paa
Talik Mahmut Paa
Sultan Selim II.
Defterdar Mustafa Paa
Haseki Sultan
Sokullu Mehmed Paa
Semiz Ali Paa
Lala Mustafa Paa
Sultan Sleyman / Szent
Adalbert
oban Mustafa Paa
Tatar Han

1564-1572
1541-1544
1551
1587-1591
(1470)
1574-1575
1574
1550
1576-1577
1561-1565
1562-1563
1543

extant
extant
extant
extant
extant
extant
extant
extant
extant
rebuilt
extant
ruined

extant
- / today: Jevpatiroja, Ukraine

Sokullu Mehmed Paa


Sokullu Mehmet Paa
Sofu Mehmed Paa
Firdevs Bey
Ah elebi (Ftih)
Arakiyeci Ahmed elebi
(Ftih)
Bli Paa (Ftih)
arvubai (Stlce)
(Beyolu)
Datodayt Ferhat Paa
Defterdar Mahmud
elebi
Draman Yunus Bey
(Ftih)
Dmeci Paa
(Dmeciler)
Ebl-Fazl (Tophne)
Eski (Atik) Vlide Sultan
(skdar)
Ferruh Kethda (Ftih)
Gazi Ahmet Paa
(Topkap)
Gazi Iskender Paa

1567-1574
1576-1577
1561
1539
-

extant
extant
extant
extant, renovated
ruined

1546-1548
1538-1539

extant
extant

1541

extant
extant

1541-1542

extant

1553-1554
1570-1579

1916: fire, 1993: rebuilt


extant

1562-1563
1558

1877: fire, renovated


extant

1559-60

extant

49.
50.

Istanbul
Istanbul

51.

Istanbul

52.

Istanbul

53.
54.
55.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

56.

Istanbul

57.

Istanbul

58.
59.
60.
61.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

62.
63.

Istanbul
Istanbul

64.

Istanbul

65.
66.

Istanbul
Istanbul

67.

Istanbul

68.

Istanbul

69.

Istanbul

70.

Istanbul

71.
72.

Istanbul
Istanbul

73.
74.
75.
76.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

77.

Istanbul

78.
79.
80.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

81.

Istanbul

82.

Istanbul

83.

Istanbul

84.

Istanbul

(Kanlca)
Gzelce Kasim Paa
Hai Evhad (Yedikule,
Ftih)
Hadm Ibrahim Paa
(Silivrikap)
Hammm Htun (Sulu
Manastr)
Haseki Hrrem Sultan
Hrrem avu (Ftih)
Hsrev elebi (Ramazan
Efendi)
Kara Ahmed Paa (Ftih)
Kazasker Abdurrahmn
elebi
Kazasker vaz Efendi
Iskender Paa (Beykz)
Kili Al Paa (Beyolu)
Mahmut Aa (Kapiaasi)
Mehmet Aa (Ftih)
Meih Mehmed Paa
(Ftih)
Mihrimah Sultan
(Edirnekap, Ftih)
Mihrimah Sultan (skdar)
Molla elebi (Fndkl)
(Beyolu)
Muhyiddin elebi
(Tophne)
Nianci Mehmet Paa
(Ftih)
Nianc Mustafa Paa
(Eyp)
Odaba Behruz Aa
(Yenikap)
Piyale Paa (Kasmpaa)
Ramazan Efendi
(Koamustafapaa)
Rstem Paa (Eminn)
ah Sultan (Eyp)
ehzade (Mehmet) (Ftih)
ehzade Cihangir
(Beyolu)
emsi Ahmet Paa
(skdar)
Sinan Aa (Ftih)
Sinan Paa (Beikta)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
(Azapkapi)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
(Kadirga)
Sultan Byezd Kz
(Yenibahe)
Sultan Sleyman
(Sleymaniye)
Sleyman elebi

1533-1534
1575

extant
1920: fire

1551

rebuilt

ruins

1538-1539
1560-1561
1585

extant
extant
extant

1555-1572

1894: earthquake / 1969:


renovated
extant

1575
1585
1559-1560
1580-1587
1553-1554
1574-1575
1584-1585
1585-1586

extant
extant
extant
1895: fire / rebuilt

1562-1569
1547-1548
1570-1584

1719, 1999: earthquake /


rebuilt
extant
extant

1542-1547

1584-1588

1889: rebuilt

extant

1562-1563

extant

1573-1574
1586

extant
1782: fire / 1819: renovated

1561-1562
1555-1556
1543-1548
1559

extant
extant
extant
extant, rebuilt

1580

extant

1550-1555
1577-1578

1749: rebuilt
extant

1571-1572

1550-1557

extant

extant
extant

85.
86.

Istanbul
Istanbul

87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.

108.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Izmit
Izmit
Izmit
Iznik
Kanlica
Karapnar
Kastamonu
Kayseri
Kayseri
Kerkk
Kezlev
(Gzleve)
Ktahya
Kanlica
Kocaeli
Konya
Konya
Lleburgaz
Todaynisa
Todayrtodayra
Erelisi
Mostar

109.
110.
111.
112.

Rodoscuk
Satodaynl
Sapanca
Szfia (Sofya)

113.
114.
115.

Tekirda
Tekirda
Trikala (Trhala)

116.

Trikala (Trhala)

117.
118.

Ulal
Van

100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.

1.2. Mosque / Mescid:


1.
Istanbul
2.
Istanbul
3.
4.

Istanbul
Istanbul

5.
6.
7.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

8.
9.

Istanbul
Istanbul

(skpl)
Sleyman Suba (Eyp)
Turucuzade Hseyin
elebi
Yunus Bey
Zal Mahmut Paa (Eyp)
Abdlsselm
Mehmed Bey
Petrev Paa
Ayasofya
Gazi skender Paa
Sultan Selim
Abdurrahman Paa
Hac Ahmed Paa
Osman Paa
Sultan Sleyman
Tatar Han

rebuilt

1541-1542
1577

extant
extant
feljts
rebuilt
adapted
extant
extant
extant

1579
1559-1560
1563
1582
1576-85
1552

Lala Hseyin Paa


Gazi skender Paa
Petrev Paa
Lala Mustafa Paa
Sultan Selim (II.)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
Sultan Murad
Semiz Al Paa

1566
1559-1560
1572-1580
1576-1577
1560-1564
1569-1570
1583-1586
1571-1565

- / today: Iraq
rebuilt / today: Jevpatorija,
Ukraine
extant
extant
extant
extant
extant
-

Karagz Mehmet Paa


(Bey)
Rstem Paa
Rstem Paa
Rstem Paa
Kara Camii / Bosnali Haci
Mehmed Paa

1557-1558

extant

1555
1528(?)
1547-1548

Rstem Paa
Semiz Ali Paa
Rstem Kethuds
Mehmet Bey
Vezir Osman Paa
(Kurunlu)
Memi Kethud
Kse Hsrev Paa
(Hsreviye)

1552-1553
1561-1565
-

rebuilt / today: Sveti


Sedmochislenitsi Church
(1908)
extant
rebuilt
- / today: Greece

1567-1568

extant / today: Evlahos


Khoursoum mosque, Greece
1915: fire / rebuilt

Arpacba (Eyp)
ivizadekz (avu)
(Ftih)
Davutaa (Eyp)
Defterdar Mahmut elebi
(Eyp)
Duhanizade (Ftih)
Hac Hamza (Ftih)
Hadim Ibrahim Paa
(Esekap) (Ftih)
Hasan elebi (Beyolu)
Karagmrk Emir Ali

rebuilt?
extant

1554-1555
1541

rebuilt
extant

1577?
1560 k.

1894: earthquake, ruins

extant

10.
11.

Istanbul
Istanbul

12.
13.

Istanbul
Istanbul

14.

Istanbul

15.
16.
17.
18.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
Mekka (Mekke)

elebi (Ftih)
Kaysunizade (Beyolu)
Kiremiti Ahmet elebi
(Beyolu)
MemiKethd (Beyolu)
Mimarba ( Mimar Sinan)
(Ftih)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
(Bykekmee)
Sleyman Suba (Eyp)
ba (Nurettin Hamza)
Yahya Kethd
Mescid-i Haram Onarm

1.3. Public kitchen / Itodayret:


1.
Datodayscus
Sultan Sleyman
(am)
2.
Gebze
oban Mustafa Paa
3.
Hatay
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
4.
Istanbul
Eski (Atik) Vlide Sultan
(skdar)
5.
Istanbul
Haseki Hrrem Sultan
(Ftih)
6.
Istanbul
ehzade Mehmet
7.
Istanbul
Sultan Sleyman
8.
Konya
Sultan Selim (II)
9.
Kuds
Cami-i erif (Haseki)
10.
Kuds
Haseki
11.
Todaynisa
Sultan Murat (Muradiye)
12.
Sakarya
Sapanca Rstem Paa
1.4. Krhz / Drifa:
1.
Istanbul
2.

Istanbul

3.

Istanbul

Haseki Hrrem Sultan


(Ftih)
Sultan Sleyman
(Sleymaniye)
Valide Sultan (skdar)

1.5. Dervish lodge / Tekke (Zaviye):


1.
Bagdad
Abdlkadir Geylani
(Badat)
Tekkesi
2.
Bagdad
mam- Azam (Ebu Hanife)
(Badat)
Tekkesi
3.
Istanbul
Eski Valide Sultan Tekkesi
(skdar)
4.
Istanbul
Piyale Paa
5.
Istanbul
Ramazan Efendi
(Koamustafa paa)
6.
Istanbul
Sokollu Mehmet Paa
Tekkesi (Ftih)
7.
Lleburgaz
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
1.6. Quran school / Drlkurr:
1.
Edirne
Sultan Selim II.
2.
Istanbul
Eski (Atik) Valide Sultan
(skdar)
3.
Istanbul
Hsrev Kethd (Ftih)
4.
Istanbul
Sokullu Mehmet Paa

1555-1556

rebuilt
rebuilt

1573-1574
-

1918: fire, 1938 and 1962:


rebuilt
ruins

1532-1533
-

rebuilt
rebuilt?
rebuilt?
- / today: Saudi Arabia

ruined

1574-1575
1570-1579

extant
ruins
extant

1538-1539

extant

1543-1548
1550-1557
1560-1563
1540-1541
1586-1587
-

extant
extant
ruins
-

1538-1539

extant

1550-1557

extant

1583

extant

ruined / today: Iraq

1534-1535

ruined / today: Iraq

1570-1579

1573-1574
1586

ruined
1782: fire / 1819: renovated

1571-1572

extant

1571-1572

extant

1574-1575
1570-1583

extant
extant

1579

extant
extant

5.
6.
7.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Kk
Karatodayn

(Eyp)
Sultan Sleyman
Kdzde Efendi (Ftih)
Mft Sadi elebi

1.7. School for traditions of islam / Drlhadi:


1.
Edirne
Sultan Selim II.

1550-1557
-

extant
extant
-

1574-1575

extant

1.8. Pritodayry scool for orphans and poor children / Sibyan mektebi:
1.
Istanbul
Eski (Atik) Vlide Sultan
1570-1579
extant
(skdar)
2.
Istanbul
Haseki Hrrem Sultan
1538-1539
extant
(Ftih)
3.
Istanbul
Kara Ahmed Paa (Ftih)
1555-1572
1894: earthquake / 1969:
rebuilt
4.
Istanbul
Mihrimah Sultan (skdar) 1547-1548
extant
5.
Istanbul
Piyale Paa
1573-1574
ruined
1.9. Elementary school / Mekteb:
1.
Istanbul
Eski (Atik) Vlide Sultan
(skdar)
2.
Istanbul
Haseki Hrrem Sultan
(Ftih)
3.
Istanbul
ehzade Mehmet (Ftih)
4.
Istanbul
Sultan Sleyman
(Sleymaniye)

1570-1579

extant

1538-1539

extant

1543-1548
1550-1557

extant
extant

1.10. Todaydrasa (School for islamic theology and law) / Medrese:


1.
Aleppo (Halep) Hsrev Paa (Hsreviye)
1545-1546
2.
Datodayscus
Sultan Sleyman
(am)
(Sleymaniye)
3.
Diyarbakr
Hadm Ali Paa
1534-1537
4.
Gebze
oban Mustafa Paa
1523-1524?
5.
Istanbul
Cafer Aa (Sultanahmet)
1559
6.
Istanbul
Eski Vlide Sultan
1570-1579
(skdar)
7.
Istanbul
Cedid Ali (Karagmrk)
1550-1560
8.

Istanbul

55.

Istanbul
Istanbul

59.

Istanbul

10.
11.
12.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

13.
14.

Istanbul
Istanbul

15.
16.
17.
18.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

rebuilt?
extant
extant
ruins
abandoned

Hadim Ibrahim Paa


(Esekap) (Ftih)
Haseki Hrrem Sultan
(Ftih)
Kapaas Cafer Aa
(Soukkuyu) (Ftih)
Kara Ahmed Paa (Ftih)

1560 k.

1960: helyrelltva / today:


clinic
1894: earthquake, ruins

1538-1539

extant

1554-1559

extant

1555-1572

Mahmud Aa (Ahrkap)
Kili Al Paa (Beyolu)
Mihrimah Sultan (Ftih,
Edirnekap)
Mihrimah Sultan (skdar)
Nianci Mehmet Bey
(Ftih)
Rstem Paa (Ftih)
ehzade Mehmet (Ftih)
Semiz Ali Paa (Ftih)
emsi Ahmet Paa

1553
1580-1587
1569

1894: earthquake / 1969:


rebuilt
1895: fire / rebuilt
extant
extant

1547-1548
1563-1566

extant
ruins

1550-1551
1543-1548
1558-1559
1580

extant
extant
extant
extant

19.
20.

Istanbul
Istanbul

21.

Istanbul

22.
23.

Istanbul
Istanbul

24.

Istanbul

25.

Istanbul

26.

Istanbul

27.

Istanbul

28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
Lleburgaz
Tekirda
Van

1.11. Minaret / Minare:


1.
Istanbul

(skdar)
Sinan Paa (Beyolu)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
(Eyp)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
(Ftih)
Sultan Selim I. (Ftih)
Sultan Sleyman
(blcsandz)
Sultan Sleyman (jogi,
evvel = 1.)
Sultan Sleyman (jogi, rabi
= 4.)
Sultan Sleyman (jogi, salis
= 3.)
Sultan Sleyman (jogi, sani
= 2.)
Sultan Sleyman (orvosi)
ba (Nurettin Hamza)
Yunus Bey (Ftih)
Zal Mahmut Paa (Eyp)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
Rstem Paa
Hsrev Paa
Ayasofya

1.12. Mausoleum / Trbe:


1.
Gebze
oban Mustafa Paa
2.
Istanbul
Arap Ahmed Paa
(Fndkl)
3.
Istanbul
Barbaros Hayrettin Paa
(Beikta)
4.
Istanbul
Defterdar Mahmud Paa
5.
Istanbul
Gazi skender Paa
(Beykz)
6.
Istanbul
Gzel Ahmet Paa (Ftih)
7.
Istanbul
Hac Paa (skdar)
8.
Istanbul
Hadm brahim Paa
(Ftih)
9.
Istanbul
Haseki Hrrem Sultan
(Sleymaniye)
10.
Istanbul
Hsrev Paa (Ftih)
11.
Istanbul
Kara Ahmed Paa (Ftih)
12.
13.
14.

Istanbul
Istanbul

15.

Istanbul

16.
17.

Istanbul
Istanbul

18.

Istanbul

19.

Istanbul

Kili Ali Paa (Beyolu)


Mehmet Aa (Ftih)
Mesih Mehmet Paa
(Ftih)
Mihrimah Sultan
(Edirnekap, Ftih)
Mimar Sinan
Nianc Feridun Ahmet
Paa (Eyp)
Nianc Mehmet Paa
(Ftih)
Piyale Paa

1555
1568-1569

extant
extant

1571-1572

extant

1548-1550
1550-1557

extant
extant

1550-1557

extant

1550-1557

extant

1550-1557

extant

1550-1557

extant

1550-1557
1532-1533
1541-1542
1580
1571
1567-1568

extant
ruins
extant
extant
ruins
1915: fire / rebuilt

2 db / extant

1523-1524?
-

extant
-

1541-1542

extant

1541
1559-1560

extant
extant

1580-1581
1576-1577
1551

extant
extant
extant grave

1557-1558

extant

1542
1555-1572
1587
1584-1585
1585-1586

extant
1894: earthquake / 1969:
rebuilt
extant
extant
extant

1562-1569

1588
1583

extant
extant

1584-1588

extant

1573-1574

extant

20.
21.
22.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

23.
24.

Istanbul
Istanbul

25.

Istanbul

26.
27.
28.
29.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

30.
31.

Istanbul
Istanbul

32.
33.
34.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Van

1.13. Bath / Hamam:


1.
Akbaba
2.
Edirne
3.

Istanbul

4.
5.

Istanbul
Istanbul

6.
7.

Istanbul
Istanbul

8.
9.
10.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

11.

Istanbul

12.

Istanbul

13.

Istanbul

14.

Istanbul

15.

Istanbul

16.

Istanbul

17.
18.
19.
20.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

21.

Istanbul

22.

Istanbul

Petrev Paa (Eyp)


Rstem Paa (Ftih)
ehzade Sultan Mehmed
(Ftih)
ehzadeler (Ayasofya)
emsi Ahmet Paa
(skdar)
Shah- Hban Hatun
((Ftih)
Sinan Paa (skdar)
Siyavu Paa (Eyp)
Siyavu Paa fiai (Eyp)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
(Eyp)
Sultan Selim II. (Ayasofya)
Sultan Sleyman
(Sleymaniye)
Yahya Efendi (Beikta)
Zal Mahmut Paa (Eyp)
Hsrev Paa

1572-1573
1543-1548
1543-1548

extant
extant
extant

1580

extant
extant

extant

1582-1584
1582-1584
1568-1569

extant
1940-1970: renovated
extant
extant

1576-1577
1550-1557

extant
extant

1570
1567-1568

extant
extant
extant

Kethd Hadm
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
(Kasimpaa)
Barbaros Hayrettin Paa
(Ftih)
emberlita
Dere (Akaremekmeiler)
Emir Buhari (Ftih)
Eski Vlide Sultan
(skdar)
Eyp Sultan (Eyp)
Haseki Bostan (Ftih)
Haseki Hrrem Sultan
(Sultanahmet)
Haseki Hrrem Sultan
(Ftih)
Haydar Paa (Zeyrek,
Ftih)
Hayreddin Paa (inili)
(Zeyrek, Ftih)
Hayreddin Paa
(Karagmrk, Ftih)
Hsrev Kethd
(Ortaky)(Beikta)
Hsrev Kethd
(Belediye) (atalca)
Ibrahim Paa (Slvrkap)
Kl Ali Paa (Beyolu)
Kl Ali Paa (Fenerkap)
Merkez Efendi
(Zeytinburnu)
Mihrimah Sultan
(Edirnekap, Ftih)
Mimar Sinan (skdar)

1576-1577

extant, in use

1534-1576

extant

1584
1544

extant, in use
ruins

1570-1579

ruined

1550 k.
1556-1557

ruins, under renovation


extant, in use
extant, in use

1538-1551

extant

1540-1546

extant, in use

rebuilt / today: restaurant

ruins

1583
1552-1572

extant, in use
extant

1562-1569

rebuilt?, in use

1959: partly ruined / today:


bazaar

23.
24.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

25.

Istanbul

26.

Istanbul

27.
28.

Istanbul
Istanbul

29.
30.
31.
32.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

33.

Istanbul

34.
35.
36.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

37.
38.
39.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Izmir

39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.

Izmit
Kayseri
Kefe
Konya
Lleburgaz
Mekka (Mekke)
Merkez
(Kocaeli)
Merkez
(Kocaeli)
Sapanca
Sulutodaynastr
Yenibahe
Yenibahe

46.
47.
48.
49.
50.

1.14. Palace / Saray:


1.
Bosnia
2.
iftlik
3.
Halkal
4.
5.

Halkal
Istanbul

7.

Istanbul

9.
10.

Istanbul
Istanbul

11.

Istanbul

Molla elebi (Fndkl)


Nianc Mustafa Paa
(Eyp)
Nurbanu Sultan (Ayakap)
(Ftih)
Nurbanu Sultan
(emberlita) (Ftih)
Odaba Behruz Aa
(Beykz)
Piyale Paa
Rstem Paa (ibali,
Ftih)
Slih Paazde (Yeniky)
Sari Krz
Sinan Paa (Beikta)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
(Yeildirek) (Beyolu)
Sultan Sleyman
(Dkmeciler)(Ftih)
Kapl (Topkap)
Kapl (skdar)
Valide Sultan (Ayakap)
(Ftih)
Valide Sultan (skdar)
Yakup Aa
Hayreddin Paa
(Kemeralt)
Hsrev Kethd
Hseyin Bey
Sultan Sleyman
Sultan Selim (II)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
Sultan Sleyman
Petrev Paa

1570-1584
-

extant
-

1582

ruins

1584

extant, in use

1573-1574
-

ruined
-

1550-1553
1577-1578

1550-1557

extant, in use

1582

ruins

1579?
1545
-

rebuilt?
ruins
-

1552 k.
1560-1563
1569-1570
-

extant
extant / renovated
ruins
-

Sokullu Mehmet Paa

1568-1569

ruins

Rstem Paa
Kapaas Ykub Aa
Koa Mustafa Paa
Lfti Paa

1555
1543?

Mehmed Paa Saray


Ahmed Paa Saray
Halkal Pnar Saraynn
yeniden ins
Mehmed Paa Saray
Ahmed Paa Saray
Atmeydan
Ahmed Paa Saray
(Eyp)
Ali Paa Saray (Eyp)
Atmeydan Saraynn
yeniden ins
(Atmeydan)
Fenerbahe Saraynn
yeniden ins

12.

Istanbul

13.

Istanbul

14.

Istanbul

15.

Istanbul

16.

Istanbul

17.

Istanbul

18.

Istanbul

19.

Istanbul

20.
22.

Istanbul
Istanbul

23.

Istanbul

24.
25.
26.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

27.

Istanbul

28.
29.

Istanbul
Istanbul

30.

Istanbul

31.

Istanbul

32.
33.

Istanbul

34.

Kandilli

(Fenerbahe)
Ferhad Paa Saray
(Beyazit)
Galatasarayn eski yerine
yeniden ins
(Galatasaray)
brahim Paa Saray
(Atmeydan)
skender elebi Bahesi
Saraynn yeniden ins
Mahhmd Aa Saray
(Yenibahe)
Mehmed Paa Saray
(Ayasofya)
Mehmed Paa Saray
(Kadrga)
Mehmed Paa Saray
(skdar)
Pertev Paa Saray
Rstem Paa Saray
(Kadrga)
Rstem Paa Saray
(skdar)
h- Hbn Kadn Saray
Saray- atk tmiri (Beyazit)
Saray- cedd-i hmyun
tmiri (Topkap)
Sinn Paa Saray
(Atmeydan)
Siyavu Paa Saray
Siyavu Paa Saray
(skdar)
Sofu Mehmed Paa Saray
(Hocapaa)
skdar Saraynn tmiri
(skdar)
Yenikap Saraynn
yeniden ins
(Silivrikap)
Kandilli Saraynn yeniden
ins

1.15. Caravanserai / Kervansaray / Han:


1.
Akbyk
RstemPaa
2.
Bursa
Ali Paa
3.
Edirne
Ali Paa (Merkez)
4.
Edirne
Rstem Paa
5.
Edirne
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
6.
Eskiehir
oban Mustafa Paa
7.
Hatay
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
8.
Hatay
Sultan Sleyman
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Havsa
psala
Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

Sokullu Mehmet Paa


Hsrev Kethd
Ibrahim Paa
Kebeciler (Bitpazar)
Mihrimah Sultan

1524

extant / today: museum

1567-1572

1568-1569
1560-1561
1568-1569
1525-1526?
1569-1570
1550

extant
extant, in use
extant, today: hotel
extant
extant
extant, today: cultural
institute
extant
-

1572?
1562-1569

14.
15.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul

16.

Istanbul

17.
18.

Istanbul
Istanbul

19.

Istanbul

20.
21.

Istanbul
Istanbul

22.

Istanbul

23.

Karatodayn
Erelisi
Kardran
Konya
Konya
Konya
Lleburgaz
Rodosuk
Sapanca
Satodaynl

24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

1.16. Pavilion / Ksk:


1.
Istanbul
1.17. Kitchen / Mutfak:
1.
Istanbul
2.

Istanbul

1.18. Storage / Mahzen:


1.
Istanbul
2.
Istanbul
3.
Istanbul
4.
Istanbul
5.

Istanbul

(Edirnekap, Ftih)
Mustafa Paa
Rstem Paa (Byk ukur
Han) (Eminn)
Rstem Paa (Kurunlu
Han) (Beyolu)
Rstem Paa (Kk
ukur Han) (Eminn)
ehzade Mehmed (Ftih)
Semiz Ali Paa (Bitpazar)
(Ftih)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
(Yeildirek)
Sultan Sleyman
Sultan Sleyman
(Bykekmee)
Eski (Atik) Valide Sultan
(skdar)
Rstem Paa

1561

ruins

1544-1550

extant, in use

1560

extant, in use

1543-1548
-

ruins
-

1577-1578

1550-1557
1566

extant

1570-1579

1552

extant

Rstem Paa
Lala Mustafa Paa (Ilgn)
Rstem Paa (Ereli)
Sultan Selim (II)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
Rstem Paa
Rstem Paa
Rstem Paa

1584
1560-1563
1569-1570
1555
-

ruins
extant
extant, in use
ruins
-

Sultan Murat (Ftih)

Sultan Sleyman
(Sleymaniye)
Topkap saray

1550-1557

extant

extant

Anbar (Has Bahe)


Anbar (saray)
Buday Mahzeni (Galata)
ki adet anbar
(Cebehne)
Kurunlu Mahzen
(Tophne)
Mahzen (Unkap)
Mutbak ve kiler (saray)
Zift Mahzeni (Tersne)

1554-1564
1554-1564

extant
extant

1554-1564

extant

1554-1562
1554-1562
1554-1564

extant
extant
extant

6.
Istanbul
7.
Istanbul
8.
Istanbul
1.19. Aqueduct / Kemer:
1.
Eri
Kovuk
2.
Istanbul
Gzelce Kemeri
(Cebeciky)
3.
Kemerburgaz
Evvelbent (Paadere Su
Kemeri)
4.
Kemerburgaz
Krk Kemeri
5.
Kemerburgaz
Todaylova Kemeri
6.
Kemerburgaz
Uzun Kemeri (Gktrk
Eyp)

1.20. Bridge / Kpr:


1.
Alpullu
2.
Bykekmece
3.
Eszk (river
Drva)
4.
orlu
5.
Gebze
6.
Halkalpnar
7.
Hasky
8.
Istanbul
9.
Istanbul
10.
Lleburgaz
11.
Meri
12.
Visegrad (river
Drina)

Sokullu Mehmet Paa


Sultan Sleyman
Sultan Sleyman

1567
1526

extant
extant

Sokullu Mehmet Paa


Sultan Sleyman
Odaba
oban Mustafa Paa
Kapaas
Sultan Sleyman (Silivri)
Sokullu Mehmet Paa
Mustafa Paa
Sokullu Mehmet Paa

1534?
1528-1529
1566?
1529
1577-1578

extant
extant
extant
extant
extant
extant
extant
- / today: Bulgaria
extant

1554-1564

extant

1.21. Water reservoir / Havuz:


1.
Istanbul
Havz Kebir

3
1

1
2

1
1
1

2
1

1
1

1
1
1

bridge

1
1

kitchen

caravanserai

palace

bath

1
1

todayusoleum

todaydrasa

1
2

pritodayry school

1
2
1

elementary school

1
2
1

quran school

dervish lodge

1
1

hospital

5
2

public kitchen

1
1

mosque

great mosque

sultan Suleitodayn
sultan Selim II.
sultan Murat III.
Hrrem
Mihrimah
prince Mehmed
Pargali Ibrahim
pasha grand vizier
Lfti pasha grand
vizier
Rstem pahsa grand
vizier
Sinann paha
Sokullu Mehmed
pasha grand vizier
Sokullu Mustafa
pasha

trust for charity

2. The most important clients of Sinan:

1
1

1
2

1
4
1

1
3

1
2

1
4

1
3