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REVISION NOTES- ACTION RESEARCH

METHODOLOGY
1. What is educational research?
The application of the scientific method
to study educational problems
The goal is to explain, predict, and/or
control educational phenomena
Research is a process, not a product
2. What are the aims of educational
research?
-To provide teachers, clinicians,
managers and learners with
systematically obtained information that
helps to improve the quality of the
learning process.
-the immediate effects of the
intervention are seen and assessed on
the educators or their students.
-Therefore, wherever possible, we should
think about how to measure the effects
of an education intervention on the
student.
-the teacher-researcher can improve
his/her own performance at the
workplace, as well as the performance of
his/her learners
3. What are the characteristics of the
educational research?
Minimally bias
Transparent-Allows for independent
verification through replication
Defensible -Should be able to explain the
use of methods and interpretation of
results
4. What are the two approaches in
educational research?
- Qualitative- interpretive
- Quantitative- Positivist
5. Compare quantitative and qualitative
approaches
(Refer lecture notes topic 1)
6. What are the key ethical issues?
The privacy of actual and potential
participants
The voluntary nature of participation and
the right to withdraw partially or
completely from the process
Consent and possible deception on the
part of the participants

Maintenance of the confidentiality of


data provided by individuals or
identifiable participants, as well as their
anonymity
The participants reaction to the way the
researcher uses analyses and reports his
or her findings
The behaviour and objectivity of the
research
Honoring Research Sites
Get permission first
Dont overly disturb operation
Remember you may be a guest
Reporting Research Fully & Honestly
Make sure your reporting is
accurate.
Report what you find even if it
does not support your hypothesis.
Respect your own position as
researcher (personal bias)
7. What is the quantitative type design?
Basic Designs:
Experimental
Quasi-experimental
Survey
Correlation
8. What are the characteristics of
quantitative design?
Characteristics
a. Numerical data
b. Use of formally stated hypotheses
and procedures
c. Use of controls to minimize the
effects of factors that could
interfere with the outcome of the
research
d. Large numbers of participating
subjects
e. An objective, detached researcher
f. Use of pencil and paper tests,
questionnaires, etc.
9. What are the characteristics of
qualitative design?
a. There are no hypotheses guiding
the researcher, rather a general
issue known as the foreshadowed
problem suggests the general
issues of concern
b. Problems and methods tend to
evolve over the course of the
study as understanding of the
research context and participants
deepens
c. Phenomena are examined as they
exist in a natural context, and

they are viewed from the


participants perspectives
d. There are few participants
involved in the study
e. Data analysis is interpretative in
nature
10.What are the types of qualitative design?
Ethnography
Case study
Historical
11.What are the educational research
procedures?
(Refer to lecture notes topic 3)
12.What are the criteria of research
objectives?
Measureable, achievable, time bound,
specific and relevant.
13.What is a literature review?
A literature review surveys scientific
articles, books, medical journals,
dissertations and other sources []
relevant to a particular issue, area of
research, or theory, providing a
description, summary, and critical
evaluation of each work.
14.What is the purpose of literature review?
Place each work in the context of its
contribution to the understanding of the
subject under review
Describe the relationship of each work to
the others under consideration
Identify new ways to interpret, and shed
light on any gaps in, previous research
Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly
contradictory previous studies
Identify areas of prior research to
prevent duplication of effort
Place one's original work (in the case of
theses or dissertations) in the context of
existing literature
15.What is action research?
Action Research is simply reflecting
about your teaching and going through a

cycle of change the central focus in


action research is on improving practice
(McBride and Schostak, 1994) learning
by doing a group of people identify a
problem, do something to resolve it, see
how successful their efforts were, and if
not satisfied, try again.
16.What are the characteristics of action
research?
It is a dynamic and systematic process of
self-inquiry and action carried out by
practitioners in the line of work. The
researcher is involved in an immediate
and direct way.
17.
What are the types of data collection
methods? (REFER TO TOPIC 7 LECTURE)
18.
What are the types of interviews?
( REFER TO TOPIC 7 LECTURE)
19

What is sample? What is population?


What are the types of sampling?(REFER
LECTURE NOTE 10)
20
What are the steps to analyze content
analysis(Qualitative data) ?
Get to know your data, focus the
analysis, categorize the information by
identifying the themes or patterns and
organizing into coherent categories,
identify patterns and connections within
and between categories and finally
interpreting.
21.
What are the steps to interpret
quantitative data?
Organizing the data, doing the
calculations, interpreting the information
and explaining the limitations
22
What are the steps in writing an action
research report?
(Refer lecture notes topic 14)