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Modulation

Techniques
Experiments

-1-

List of Contents
Introduction
Part 1 : Basic Experiments
1.1

Adder and Multiplier.......


8.

1.2

Voltage Control Oscillator(VCO)... ..


11

1.3

Filters..........13

Part 2: Analog Modulation / Demodulation Techniques

-2-

2.1

Amplitude Modulation:
2.1.1AM DSB LC.......19.
2.1.2AM DSB SC.........22
2.1.3AM SSB.......24

2.2

Frequency Modulation(FM) 26.

2.3

Phase Modulation(PM). .....30

2.4

Demodulation of AM:
2.4.1 Demodulation of
35.

AM DSB LC ...

2.4.2 Demodulation of
...37

AM DSB SC ...

2.4.3 Demodulation of
..39

AM SSB ...

2.5

Demodulation of

FM ...42.

2.6

Demodulation of

PM .....47

Part 3: Pulse Modulation Techniques


3.1

Fundamental theory of Pulse Modulation technology:

3.2

Pulse Amplitude Modulation ( PAM).. .


.51.

3.3

Pulse Frequency Modulation ( PFM) ......


...53

-3-

3.4

Time Division Multiplexing ( TDM) ..


.54.

3.5

Demodulation of PAM ....57

Part 4: Digital Representation of Analog Signals


4.1 Pulse Code Modulation ( PCM) ....
...60
4.2 PCM Multiplexing .........
63.
4.3 Delta Modulation ( DM) ...
..65.
4.4

Demodulation of DM ......69.

Part 5: Digital Modulation Techniques

-4-

5.1

Fundamental theory of Digital Modulation technology:

5.2
Amplitude Shift Keying ( ASK )
....73
5.3 Frequency Shift Keying ( FSK )
....75
5.4
78
5.5
80.

Phase Shift Keying ( PSK )


Demodulation of ASK ..

5.6 Demodulation of FSK ..


....82
5.7 Demodulation of PSK ..
..84.

Part 6: Optical Communication Techniques


6.1 Fundamental theory of Optical Communication
technology.88

-5-

Introduction
Modulation is the influencing of a carrier signal by the signal to be transmitted. The
signal is modulated because it is not usually possible to transmit a signal in its original
frequency position or because multiple usage of a transmission medium is desired. This
multiple usage is known as the multiplexing technique, whereby a distinction is made between
frequency-division multiplexing and time-division multiplexing Sinusoidal or pulse-shaped
signals are mainly used as carrier signals.
The diagram below, , illustrates that Modulation and Demodulation of a message signal

Messages or information signals: any type of message which we want to transmit, e.g.
speech, music, pictures, data, texts, measured values

Message or information sources:

origin or generation of messages, e.g. man-made

Information converter:

has the job of converting information signals from a


source into electrical signals, e.g. microphone,
measurement transducer, etc.

-6-

Electrical information signal:

representation of a message, e.g. as a voltage,


current or field strength

Signal converter (modulation):

If the signal generated in the information converter


cannot be transmitted directly, as is possible for
example in a door intercom device, it has to be
modulated.
The message is converted into a form suitable for
transmission.
Radio signals can only be broadcasted at higher frequencies; in telephone communications, multiple
usage of the transmission medium is achieved by
modulation.

Modulated signal:

In modulation in the signal converter, one of the


parameters (e.g. frequency, amplitude, phase) of the
modulation carrier is controlled by the message
signal.

Transmission channel and line:

transmission medium, e.g. cable, wireless transmission, fiber optic, characterized by such properties as
attenuation, bandwidth, etc.

Disturbance source:

supplies disturbance signals which may occur at


practically any point along the transmission path
(hum pick-up, disturbance signals from electrical
switching processes, ignition sparks, etc.)

Signal converter (demodulation): From

the

modulated

signal,

the

receiver

reconstructs the signal which was originally fed to


the modulator. Disturbance signals are also
demodulated.

-7-

Message sink:

..message consumer", e.g. the human ear

Example of a transmission system:


Message source:

the human vocal cords

Message:

speech

Information converter:

microphone

Signal:

microphone voltage

Signal converter (modulation):

AM channel, wireless

Disturbance source:

ignition sparks from a motor vehicle

Signal converter (demodulation):

AM receiver

Information converter:

loudspeaker

Information and disturbance:

speech + noise (e.g. crackle)

Message sink:

the listener's ear

-8-

Adder and Multiplier Experiment


Object:
To study the effect of the summing and multiplication 0n the( amplitude, frequency
and shape) of the signals.

Theory:
Adders are modules used throughout communications technology to unite several
signals in a collective signal.
Multipliers form the product of two inputs. It is used in telecommunication as a product
modulator, phase comparator, frequency doublers, ring modulator and demodulator for
coherent demodulation
- The Fig (1-1) shows the Adder in Modulation Board.
-The Fig (1-2) shows the multiplier in Modulation Board.
- The input of the multiplier on the Modulation Board is capacitive coupled and the output
signal has no DC offset.

V1
V2

Vo V2

Vo

V1

V3

Fig. (1-2)

Fig.)1-1(

Required equipment:
-9-

1- Modulation Board (4280 )

2- Oscilloscope

3- Wires

Procedure:
1. Add sine wave with DC voltage use the Fig(1-3)
Let V1 (DC voltage) = 1v

&

V2=3vp-p, f=1 KHZ

Fig(1-3)
2. Add sin (2000t) with cos (2000t) use the Fig(1-4)

V1

V2

Vout

Fig(1-4)
3. Multiply a sinewave by a DC voltage use the Fig(1-5) and determine the constant K.
Let V1=2v p-p ,f =1KHz

& V2(DC Voltage ) =1 v

vo
k v .v

1 2

- 10 -

Fig(1-5)

4. Multiply a sinewave by it self, use the Fig(1-6)


Let V1=V2=2vp-p , f =1KHz.

Fig(1-6)

5. Multiply of two sinewave but different frequency use the Fig(1-7)


Let V1=3vp-p ,f =20KHz

&

V2=3vp-p ,f =2 KHz

Fig(1-7)

Theoretical calculations:
1- What is the frequencies of the output voltage Vo for each step?
2. Draw the spectrum for each step?
3-verify each step you have done theoretically?
- 11 -

Voltage Control Oscillator Experiment


Object:
To study how it possible to generate the ( sinusoidal wave) from Dc voltage.

Theory:
A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is a circuit that provides a varying output signal
(typically of square-wave or triangular-wave form) whose frequency can be adjusted over a
range controlled by a dc voltage. The frequency of the VCO at the output can be changed by its
input voltage. It is therefore also known as a voltage frequency converter.. The VCO constant of
a generator specifies what frequency change is caused by a change in the input voltage of 1 V.
f

- K VCO v
in
-The Fig (2-1) shows the VCO in Modulation Board.

Fig(2-1)

Required equipment:
1- Modulation Board (4280 )

2- Oscilloscope

- 12 -

3- Wires

Procedure:
1. Determine the characteristic of the VCO. use the Fig(2-2) to complete Table1.

Vin /volt

-1.5

-1

-0.5

FVCO /KHZ

0.5

1.5

2.5

Fig(2-2)

Table 1

Theoretical calculations:
1- Draw the pin configuration for 566 IC ?
2- How can generate the sinusoidal wave from square wave?
3- What is the application of VCO cct. ?

Discussion:
1- Draw the characteristic of VCO?
2- Calculate the VCO constant?
3- At what value of input DC voltage the frequency of the output is 37KHZ?
4- Is the change in amplitude of the input cause change in the amplitude of output ?

- 13 -

Filters Experiment
Object:
To draw the frequency response of the Low Pass Filter and Band Pass Filter

Theory:
Afilter is an electronic circuit used to select desirable signal from many signals. A
filter that provides a constant output from dc up to a cutoff frequency f OH and then passes no
signal above that frequency is called an ideal low-pass filter. A filter that provides or passes
signals above a cutoff frequency fOL is a high-pass filter. When the filter circuit passes signals
that are above one ideal cutoff frequency and below a second cutoff frequency, it is called a
bandpass filter.
In addition, different properties may be required of a filter (e. g. high edge steepness, good
transient response or flattest possible trajectory of the filter curve in the transmission band).
- The most common filter type are:

The frequency response of ideal LPF, HPF and BPF :

- 14 -

Required equipment:
1- Modulation Board (4280 )

2- Oscilloscope

3- Wires

Procedure:
1. Measure the frequency response for the LPF. use the Fig(3-1) to complete Table 2.

Fig(3-1)

f ( KHZ)
Vin (volt )
Vout (volt )
Vout / Vin
Table 2
2. Measure the frequency response for the BPF. use the Fig(3-2) to complete Table 3.

- 15 Fig(3-2)

f ( KHZ)
Vin (volt )
Vout (volt )
Vout / Vin
Table 3

Theoretical calculations:
1. What is the deferent between passive filter and active filter?
2. Explain the Butterworth filter and Chebyshev filter?
3. Explain the first order filter and second order filter?

Discussion:
1. Draw the frequency response for the LPF use Table 2?
2. Draw the frequency response for the BPF use Table 3?
3. What is the applications of filters?

- 16 -

Analog
Modulation / Demodulation

- 17 -

Fundamental theory of Amplitude Modulation


technology:
Amplitude Modulation is characterized by the fact that the amplitude A of the carrier
A cos(wct +c ) is varied in proportion to the baseband ( message ) signal m(t). The frequency
wc and the phase c are constant .
The term Amplitude Modulation can be understood initially as the classic AM technique for
transmitting messages as it is still used today for radio broadcasting on short, medium and
long wave. The major advantage of this modulation technique is in the simple demodulation.
In addition to this technique, there are a number of other techniques which differ within the
spectrum of conventional AM. The diagram overleaf (Fig. 4.1.) lists the different types of
Amplitude Modulation.

Modulation factor (index)


The change in the carrier amplitude is proportional to the change in the modulation

signal amplitude. The ratio of this change to the unmodulated carrier amplitude is known as
modulation factor (m) it is often specified as a percentage. As high modulation percentage as
possible is aimed at in a transmission system .however in practice, AM transmitter are only
modulated up to modulation factor of approx (80%) to protect them against over modulation
and selective carrier fading .

V p. p max V p. p min
V p. p max V p . p min

( Ac Am) ( Ac Am) Am

Ac Am Ac Am
Ac
- 18 -

Fig(4-1)

- 19 -

AM- Double Side Band Large Carrier Experiment


Object:
To study the methods of generating AMDSB LC signals and how to calculate the
modulation index (m).

Theory:
A disadvantage of conventional AM (AMDSB LC) is that a carrier is transmitted
which does not represent a message. In addition, two sidebands are transmitted with
the same information. The aim of the further developed AM is to save bandwidth or
transmitter power or to utilize it more economically

The block diagram of AM DSB is shown in Fig.(4-2):

Ka m(t)

VAM

Ac Cos(wct)

Fig.(4-2 )

VAM Ac Cos (Wct ) Ka Ac m(t ) Cos (Wct )

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Oscilloscope.
- 20 -

3-Wires

Procedure:
1- Generation of AM- DSB -LC with a diode modulator (non- Liner ):
Connect the circuit shown in Fig(4-3)
Set

VC = 2cos (40000t)

Set

Vinf =1.5 cos (4000t)

Set

VDC =1v

Draw VAM
Calculate Modulation Index m

VC

VAM

Vinf

Fig(4-3)

2- Generation of AM- DSB -LC with multiplier:


Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.(4-4)
Set

VC = 2.5cos (40000t)

Set

Vinf = cos (4000t)

Set

DC voltage =2V
- 21 -

Draw VAM
Calculate Modulation Index m

VC

VAM
Vinf

Fig.(4-4)

Theoretical calculations:
1.Draw the spectrum of AM -DSB?

2.What is the different between non-liner and multiplier modulator ?


3.Drive the power equation of AM DSB ?
4.What is the minimum B.W required to modulate the voice signal by using AM DSB -SC?
5.Explain the enter modulation in power law ?

Discussion:
1- On what variable dose the shape of the envelope curve depend?
2- Compute the Band Width and Power of AM DSB ?
3- Why we used BPF in non-liner and dont used in multiplier?
4- Why we used (15 25 ) KHz BPF ?
5- What is the application of AM DSB?
6- Comment your results?
- 22 -

AM- Double Side Band Suppress Carrier Experiment


Object:
To study the methods of generating AMDSB SC signals and how to calculate the
modulation index (m).

Theory:
If the carrier amplitude is influenced in a multiplier with a message signal without
DC offset, an amplitude modulation with suppressed carrier is generated.

The block diagram of AM DSB is shown in Fig.(4-5):

Ka m(t)

VDSB/SC

Ac Cos(wct)

Fig.(4-5)

VAM Ka Ac m(t ) Cos (Wct )

Required equipment:
- 23 -

1-Modulation board.

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
1- Generation of AM- DSB -SC with multiplier:
Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.(4-6)
Set

VC = 2cos (40000t)

Set

Vinf = cos (4000t)

Draw VAM
Calculate Modulation Index m

VC

Vinf

VAM

Fig.(4-6)

Theoretical calculations:
1.Draw the spectrum of AM DSB SC ?
2.What is the minimum B.W required to modulate the voice signal by using AM DSB -SC?
3.Why we used AM DSB SC ?
4.Compare between AM DSB LC and AM DSB SC a power requirement?

Discussion:
1. Compute the Band Width and Power of AM DSB SC ?
2. What is the application of AM DSB SC ?
- 24 -

3. Comment your results?

AM- Single Side Band Experiment


Object:
To study the methods of generating AMSSB signals.

Theory:
The simplest and most common AM system is the double side band transmission with
carrier. Since both sidebands contain the information, power and bandwidth can be
saved by filtering one sideband and suppressing the carrier. This method is known as
single side band modulation and is used widely,

- Generation of AM- SSB with Filtering Methode :

B.P.F

Ka m(t)

VSSB

Ac Cos(wct)

In this method a double side band AM with suppressed carrier is generated first and
then one of these side bands is filtered out through a filter and transmitted. The
smaller the modulation frequency, the closer the resultant sideband frequencies
approach the carrier. The filter should change from very high to low attenuation
within the frequency gap between the lower and the upper sideband. This is more
difficult, the greater the carrier frequency is (also referred to as relative edge
steepness).
This problem can be remedied by double conversion.

- 25 -

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.(4-7)
Set

VC = 2cos (40000t)

Set

Vinf =2 cos (4000t)

Draw VAM

VC

Vinf

VAM

Fig.(4-7)

Theoretical calculations:
1.Draw the spectrum of AM SSB ?
2.What is the minimum band width required to modulate the voice signal by using AM SSB?
3.Why we used AM SSB ?
4.Explain the phase method which is used in AM SSB ?

Discussion:
1. Compute the Band Width and Power of AM SSB ?
- 26 -

2. Which side the filter is select ( upper or lower )?Explain that ?


3. Can we used information signal has frequency 500 Hz ? why ?
4. What is the application of AM SSB ?
5. Comment on your results?

Frequency Modulation Experiment


Object:
To study the methods of generating FM signals and how to calculate modulation
index ( ) and frequency deviation (f ).

Theory:
Frequency modulation is a type of continuous wave modulation in which the
frequency of a sinusoidal signal is changed in proportion to the message where
amplitude and phase are constant

Fig. (5-7) shows a frequency modulation carrier oscillation.

Vinf

VFM

Fig.(5-7)

e(t ) FM Ac cos wc t 2 K f m( ) d
0

Frequency modulation can be generated with (VCO). The frequency of the VCO at the
output can be changed by input voltage.
- 27 -

Measuring the Frequency Deviation


Deviation of the un modulated carrier frequency from the highest or lowest frequency

is referred to as frequency deviation. Fig.(5-8)

f max

1
Tmin

f min

1
Tmax

1
. f max f min
2

Vout

Fig (5-8)
Modulation Index
In frequency modulation, the ratio of frequency deviation to modulation
frequency is the measure of intensity of the FM. this ratio is known as the modulation
index.

f
f inf

=modulation index,
- 28 -

finf = information frequency

Frequency spectrum of FM oscillation


An FM oscillation includes a large number of sidebands above and below
the carrier frequency. The amplitudes of carrier and sideband oscillation change
with increasing modulation index. This dependence of the amplitudes on the
modulation index can be calculated with the so called Bessel function.

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
Connect the circuit shown in Fig.(5-9)
Complete the Table 4

Vout

Vinf

Fig(5-9)
Step 1
Set Vinf =0.2vp.p

finf =500Hz

finf =2KHz

finf =1KHz

finf =500Hz

finf =2KHz

finf =1KHz

Tmin =
Tmax =
Step 2
Set Vinf =0.5vp.p
Tmin =
Tmax =
Step 3

- 29 -

Set Vinf =1vp.p

finf =500Hz

finf =2KHz

finf =1KHz

Tmin =
Tmax =
Table 4

Theoretical calculations:
1.How can you draw the spectrum of FM ?
2. What is the minimum band width required to modulate the voice signal by using FM ?
3. How dose the bandwidth change in relation to increasing signal amplitude?
4. On what variable of the information signal does the distains of the side band oscillation
depend ?
5. How does the bandwidth change in relation to increasing signal amplitude ?
6. What are the types of FM?

Discussion:
1. Calculate the frequency deviation f and the modulation index for each steps
2. Compute the Band width of FM for each steps
3. Draw the f with Vinf and with Vinf

4.Does the frequency deviation depend on the frequency of the information signal?
5. Give some practical application for the FM ?
6. Comment on your results?

- 30 -

Phase Modulation Experiment


Object:
To study the methods of generating PM signals and how to calculate modulation
index ( ) and frequency deviation (f ).

Theory:
Phase modulation is a type of continuous wave modulation in which the phase of a
sinusoidal signal is changed in proportion to the message where amplitude and
frequency are constant

e(t ) FM Ac cos wc t Kp m(t )

Fig. (6-1) shows a Phase modulation carrier oscillation.

Fig.(6-1)

Phase modulation can be generated by derivative the message signal and the result
entered to frequency modulator, see Fig.(6-2).
- 31 -

Fig.(6-2)

Measuring the Frequency Deviation


the same as of FM

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
Connect the circuit shown in Fig.(6-3)
Complete the Table 5

Fig.(6-3)
Step 1
Set Vinf =0.2vp.p

finf =500Hz

finf =2KHz

finf =1KHz

finf =500Hz

finf =2KHz

finf =1KHz

Tmin =
Tmax =
Step 2
Set Vinf =0.5vp.p
Tmin =
- 32 -

Tmax =
Step 3
Set Vinf =1vp.p

finf =500Hz

finf =2KHz

finf =1KHz

Tmin =
Tmax =
Table 4

Theoretical calculations:
1.How does the phase deviation change in relation to increasing signal amplitude?
2.How does the frequency deviation change in relation to increasing signal frequency ?
3.How does the modulation index change at different signal frequencies?

Discussion:
1. Calculate the frequency deviation f and the modulation index for each steps
2. Draw the f with Vinf and with Vinf
3. Give some practical application for the PM ?

4. Compare between FM and PM?


5. Comment on your results?

- 33 -

Demodulation of AM :
The demodulator in the receiver has the job of recovering the message from the
modulated carrier signal.

Fig. (7-3) Block diagram of a simple straight receiver and its realization

Fig.(7-3)

The antenna receives a varied signal mix from which the desired transmitter can be
filtered with the tunable band-pass filter. The demodulator, which consists only of a diode in
this case, effects rectification of the AM signal. Only positive signal parts occur after the diode
at the polarity illustrated. The diaphragm of the high-ohmic receiver is only set in motion by
the low frequency information oscillation, the carrier signal has no effect.
- 34 -

This reception principle was extended by RF filters, AF amplifier and series-circuited bandpass filters in the early days of radio engineering. However, the synchronization of the tuning
circuits was difficult to achieve.
The superheterodyne receiver principle in which the input frequencies are shifted to a constant
intermediate frequency position with the aid of an oscillator and a mixer therefore established
itself.

Fig. (7-4) Block diagram of a superheterodyne receiver

Fig.(7-4)

Demodulators can be divided basically into demodulators with:


-

incoherent methods

- coherent or synchronous methods.

Incoherent methods:
In the incoherent methods the envelope curve of the AM signal is evaluated. This is
therefore often referred to as envelope curve demodulation. The frequency of the
carrier is irrelevant in this case. The envelope curve demodulation only supplies the
desired message signal as long as it is contained in un-distorted form in the envelope
curve. This is generally the case in normal AM with full carrier. Receivers which
- 35 -

operate on this principle can be set up easily and cheaply. This enables widespread
application (e. g. AM radio receivers).
Coherent method:
In the coherent method, the carrier (frequency fT and usually the phase relation T
as well) is required for demodulation. The demodulation procedure is based in
principle on a multiplication of the received signal by the added carrier signal.

Demodulation of AM-DSB-LC Experiment


Object:
To study the methods of Demodulation of AM DSB LC signals.

Theory:
Demodulation of AM Signals by Envelope Curve Rectification (Incoherent Method):
An envelope curve demodulator is very simple to set up in principle. It consists of a
diode which effects the rectification of the AM signal and a low-pass filter. The time
constant of the low-pass filter should be dimensioned so that the output signal follows
the envelope curve of the AM signal.
The Fig (7-5) shows the two rectifier circuit in Modulation Board

- 36 -

Fig.(7-5)

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Demodulation board

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
Demodulation of AM Signals by Envelope Curve Rectification (Incoherent Method):
Connect the circuit shown in Fig.(7-6)
Setting Values on Modulation Board :
Set

VC = 2cos (40000t)

Set

Vinf = cos (2000t)

Set

VDC =1.5v

- 37 -

Fig.(7-6)

Theoretical calculations:
1-what is the difference between the coherent and non coherent demodulation?
2- draw the block diagram for the demodulation cct.?

Discussion:
- Dose the output voltage(information) fits the input voltage?
- Comment on your results?

Demodulation of AM-DSB-SC Experiment


Object:
To study the methods of Demodulation of AM DSB SC signals.

Theory:
Demodulation of AM-DSB Signals (Coherent Method):
The envelope curve demodulation requires no information on frequency and phase relation of
the carrier oscillation at the reception site. Distortion-free demodulation only functions for
signals in which the envelope curve follows the message signal. It is therefore unsuitable for
double sideband AM with suppressed carrier and for single sideband modulation. In these
cases, coherent demodulation must be used. Fig.(8-1) shows the principle of this demodulation
type.

- 38 -

Fig.(8-1)

In the receiver, the amplitude modulated signal V AM is multiplied by a reference carrier and the
output signal is filtered through a low-pass filter. This reference carrier must be available in
the receiver. Not only the carrier frequency but also the phase relation is essential for correct
demodulation
The Fig (8-2) shows the mixer module circuit in Modulation Board

Fig.(8-2)

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Demodulation board

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
Demodulation of AM -DSB SC (Coherent Method):
Connect the circuit shown in Fig.(8-3)
Setting Values on Modulation Board :
Set

VC = 2cos (40000t)

Set

Vinf = cos (4000t)

- 39 -

Fig.(8-3)

Demodulation of AM-SSB Experiment


Object:
To study the methods of Demodulation of AM SSB signals.

Theory:
There are two methods of demodulating single sideband signals:
1st method:
In the so-called coherent demodulation, the received single sideband signal is multiplied by a
carrier. The carrier frequency added in the receiver should match the frequency of the
transmission carrier otherwise there are frequency deviations in the recovered signal. To avoid
deterioration in the comprehensibility of speech signals, the deviation should have max. 10
Hz .The deviation for music signals should be < 1 Hz. A changing phase relation of the added
carrier has no negative effect on the amplitude of the demodulated signal.
2nd method:

- 40 -

An auxiliary carrier with the same frequency as the transmission carrier is added to the
received sideband in the receiver. This sum signal is then rectified with an envelope curve
demodulator. A sufficient amplitude of the added carrier signal is a prerequisite for distortionfree demodulation.

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Demodulation board

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
1- Demodulation of AM -SSB (Coherent Method):

Connect the circuit shown in Fig.(9-1)


Setting Values on Modulation Board :
Set

VC = 2cos (40000t)

Set

Vinf =2 cos (4000t)

Setting potentiometer of the phase corrector to left stop on Demodulation board.

- 41 -

Fig.(9-1)

2- Demodulation of AM -SSB (Incoherent Method):

Connect the circuit shown in Fig.(9-2)


Setting Values on Modulation Board :
Set

VC = 2cos (40000t)

Set

Vinf =2 cos (4000t)

- 42 -

Fig.(9-2)

Discussion:
- Comment on your result?

Demodulation of FM :
Demodulators for angle modulated signals are encountered frequently in day to day life
because every radio receiver which can handle frequency modulated signals in the VHP band
must have one of these demodulators. The sound in your TV set is also frequency modulated
and must be processed with a suitable demodulator.
Frequency modulated and phase modulated signals are not usually demodulated directly in the
high frequency position. As in amplitude modulation, so-called superheterodyne receivers are
often used. In these, the received signals are mixed with a variable oscillator in a mixer. Of the
sum and difference frequencies produced during mixing, the following IF filter only allows the
difference frequency to pass. One of the advantages of the superheterodyne receiver principle
is that the main amplification up to demodulation does not take place in the high frequency
position but in a fixed narrow banded IF position. The transmitter is selected by a change in
the oscillator frequency unlike in the straight receiver in which selection must be made by the
pre-circuit.
A group of demodulators for frequency modulated or phase modulated signals converts the
frequency modulation or phase modulation into an amplitude modulation which is additionally
- 43 -

frequency modulated. This amplitude modulated signal is then rectified as is familiar from AM
envelope curve demodulators. The edge, push-pull, phase and ratio discriminators also
operate on this principle..
In modern devices, especially in the entertainments industry, demodulators which can be used
as far as possible without coils and adjustments in integrated technology are preferred.
Circuits which unite the IF amplifier and coincidence demodulator in one integrated
component (e. g. TBA 120) have been in use for a long time.

Demodulation of FM with a C-Discriminator Experiment


Object:

To study the Demodulation method of FM signals with a C-Discriminator.

Theory:
The C-discriminator( its shown in Fig.(10-1) ) in its simple basic form is rarely used in
practice. It is usually extended as an edge discriminator. However, the C-discriminator can be
used to clearly demonstrate the conversion of the FM signal into an AM signal and the
subsequent demodulation.

Fig.(10-1)
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The following relationship applies for the capacitor current in the C-discriminator:

iC

XC

v
v w c 2 f cv
1
wc

If the voltage V is kept constant, the current ic is only dependent on the frequency f. The
voltage amplitude can be kept constant with a limiter amplifier or a constant voltage source.
The current ic flows through the resistor and effects a frequency-dependent voltage drop here.
The FM is converted into an AM in this stage. The steeper the characteristic ic = f (f), the more
effective it is. However, the frequency deviation is very low in relation to the unmodulated
frequency.

The Fig.(10-2) shows the C-Discriminator circuit in Demodulation Board

Fig.(10-2)

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Demodulation board

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
Connect the circuit shown in Fig.(10-3)
Setting Values on Modulation Board :
Set

Vinf = 0.5 cos (4000t)


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Fig.(10-3)

Demodulation of FM with a Phase Locked Loop


Experiment
Object:
To study the Demodulation method of FM signals with PLL .

Theory:
The phase locked loop (PLL) is shown in Fig.(11-1) ,consists of a phase comparator, a
low-pass filter and a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). A multiplier can be used for example
as a phase comparator. The controlled oscillator is controlled to the frequency of the input
voltage Vin within a certain range by the output voltage of the low-pass filter. If the input is
frequency modulated, the voltage for the VCO will also change in the rhythm of the frequency
alteration of the FM. The phase locked loop can therefore be used for demodulating frequency
modulated signals.

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Fig.(11-1)

PLL systems are not only used in demodulation. You will find PLL circuits in:
Frequency synthesis (e. g. for setting the frequency in radiotelephones and radios)
Exact motor speed control
Generation of defined phase shifts
Synchronization e. g. in stereo decoders

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Demodulation board

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
Connect the circuit shown in Fig.(11-2)
Setting Values on Modulation Board :
- Set

Vinf = 0.5 cos (2000t)

Setting Switch on the u/f converter in the FM position on Demodulation Board.

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Fig.(11-2)

Demodulation of PM with a Phase Locked Loop


Experiment
Object:
To study the Demodulation method of PM signals with PLL .

Theory:
In the MODULATION BOARD the phase modulation is generated with a modulator for
frequency modulation which is preceded by a circuit with suitable frequency-dependent
transmission factor for the modulation voltage Vinf . This circuit raises the amplitude of higher
information frequencies to achieve a constant phase deviation in the transmission band.
The demodulation can be carried out with FM demodulators. However, these give off a voltage
proportional to the frequency deviation and not to the phase deviation. The error produced
here must be compensated by a network connected in series with the discriminator. With the
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integrator, the DEMODULATION BOARD has a module which can compensate the increase in
the higher information frequencies affected by the PM modulator.

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Demodulation board

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
Connect the circuit shown in Fig.(12-1) , to complete Table 5.
Setting Switch on the u/f converter in the FM position on Demodulation Board.
Setting on the integrator in position ti 10 on Demodulation Board.

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Fig.(12-1)

Set the amplitude of the information = 1 Vp.p for each frequency :


f (KHz)

0.5

VTP (volt)
Vout (volt)

Pulse Modulation Techniques


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Fundamental theory of Pulse Modulation technology:


The pulse modulation is based on the use of a pulsiform carrier signal which is
modulated by an analog information signal. Depending on how the carrier pulse is
changed you get:
Pulse frequency modulation PFM
Pulse phase modulation
PPM
Pulse duration modulation
PDM
Pulse amplitude modulation PAM

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- 52 -

Pulse Amplitude Modulation ( PAM)


Object:
Generation of a Pulse Amplitude Modulated Signal.

Theory:
The pulse amplitude modulation is seldom used for message transmission. It is used frequently,
however, for other pulse modulation techniques and for time-division multiplexing.
In pulse amplitude modulation, the signal to be modulated, e.g. a telephone signal, is sampled
by a digital pulse sequence. Although only these short sampling pulses are transmitted, it is
possible to fully recover the original signal on the receiver side providing that:
- Band limiting of the message signal has taken place before modulation.
-

The number of sampling values is in a certain ratio to the maximum information


frequency.

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Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
-

Connect the cct .shown in fig (13-1).

Let Vinf = 3vp.p

Let fs = 8 KHz.

Draw Vinf, VSampling, and VPAM.

f =1 KHz.

fig (13-1)

Theoretical calculations:1- Draw the spectrum of VPAM?


2- State what will happen if you changed the sampling frequency to 4KHz?

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Discussion:
1- Give some practical application for the PAM ?
2- Compare between ( unipolar & bipolar) PAM ? (Draw waveform)
3- Comment on your result?

Pulse Frequency Modulation ( PFM)


Object:
Generation of PFM using VCO.

Theory:
In pulse frequency modulation, the frequency of the pulse train is varied from its default value
in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal at sampling
intervals. The amplitude and width of the pulses is kept constant. The advantage of pulse
frequency modulation is better immunity to noise interference than PAM. The disadvantage is
more complex transmitter and receiver design.

Required equipment:
1-Modulation board.

2- Oscilloscope.

Procedure:
-

Connect the cct .shown in fig (14-1).

Let Vinf = 2vp.p

Draw Vinf, VFM and VPFM.

f =1 KHz.
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3-Wires

fig (14-1).

Theoretical calculations:-

- design the VCO cct.?


- Draw the block diagram of PFM cct.?

Discussion:
- What is the application of PFM.?
- Comment on your result?

Time-division Multiplexing (TDM)


Object:
To study the methods of generating TDM signals and how to calculate the sampling
frequency (fS ).

Theory:
Timedivision Multiplexing is used in telecommunication for multiple use of transmission
line.
Every one of the signals to be transmitted is sampled with the same pulse carrier
frequency but offset in time (see Fig15-1).

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Fig(15-1)
If the sampling frequency (f S ) is fixed, the pulse width determines the number of signals
to be transmitted. To avoid mutual interference, the individual sampling pulses must be spaced.
The analog multiplexer and thus the time-division multiplexing are also used in the
acquisition of measured values from different sensor sources (see Fig.15-2).

Tx
- 57 -

Ts
Fig(15-2)

Tx = Ts/n , fs 2fm , fclock = n fs


n: Number of channel , Tx: Time spacing between two channel , Ts: Sampling time.
fs: Sampling frequency , fm: Signal frequency (information signal).

Required equipment:
1- Modulation board.

2- Oscilloscope.

3-Wires

Procedure:
1- Connect the cct. Shown in Fig.(6-3) .
2-Let Vinf1 = 3vp.p , f= 1KHz

and

Vinf2 = 2v (DC voltage).

3- Draw the information voltage, the sampling signal (Vs1, Vs2) and the output signal (VPAM).

Fig(15-3)

Theoretical calculations:
1- Is the voltage VPAM a unipolar or bipolar?
2- How many channels could you transmit whilst retaining the 8 KHz sampling frequency at
15ms pulse width?
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3- Why is the PAM multiplex technique not used on transmission line?


4- Draw the block diagram of the TDM?
5- What is the band width of the TDM?
6- What is the larger of pulse width if the sampling time 4 KHz?

Discussion:
1- Comment your results?
2- Give some practical application for TDM?

Demodulation of PAM
Object:
Demodulation of a PAM Signal with Sample and Hold Stage and Low-Pass Filter.

Theory:
Improvement of the power can be achieved by the so-called sample and hold circuit which
charges the capacitor to the momentary pulse amplitude during the short closing time of the
switch. The charge and thus the voltage is held until the next pulse when the switch opens. A
large discharge time constant is a precondition for this. This is only possible with a high
resistance of the open switch and a high input resistance of the following circuit. The switch in
the sample and hold circuit must close in sync with the sampling in the modulator
If a low-pass filter is used for demodulation of a PAM signal, only a small part of the energy
Contained in the spectral components of the carrier and its sideband oscillations is used.
This can be remedied by sample and hold stage. It is used to obtain a staircase shaped output
voltage in the frequency spectrum of which the amplitude of the information frequency is much
greater.
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The sample and hold stage is represented on the DEMODULATION BOARD by a switch symbol.
The following fig(16-1). also shows the technical structure of the circuit.

Fig(16-1)

Required equipment:
1- Modulation board.

2- Oscilloscope.

4-Wires

Procedure:
1-Connect the cct. Shown in Fig.(16-2) .
2-Let Vinf = 2vp.p , f= 1KHz .
3- let fs =8 KHz

(TTL level).

4- draw Vinf ,VS/H , VPAM.

- 60 -

3- Demodulation board

Fig(16-2)

Theoretical calculations:
1- state another demodulation way for PAM?
2- draw the spectrum of the input and the output signals?

Discussion:
1-Give some practical application for PAM?
2- Comment your results?

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