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HEAT TRANSFER

AND
HEAT EXCHANGERS

Slide 1

What We Will Cover

Heat transfer theory-review


Relation of heat transfer theory to shell and tube
heat exchangers
Design of a S&T exchanger--procedure outline
Design features and parameters of shell and tube
exchangers

Slide 2

BASIC HEAT TRANSFER CONCEPTS

Flow of heat behaves like flow of fluids and flow of


electrons

Rate K x

Driving Force
Resistance

QK x

Pressure Drop
Resistance

I = 1.0 x

Voltage
Resistance

Temperature Difference
QK x
Resistance
Slide 3

(General)

(Fluids)

(Electricity)

(Heat)

COMPARISON WITH FLUIDS


Fluids:

Heat:

Q
A

= K x (P2 - P1)

(Remember Section 3?)

fL
D
Q = 1 x (T2 - T1)
A

RT
FLUIDS

Q = Volume / Second
P2, P1 = Higher, lower pressures
A = Area available for flow

fL
4 * D = Number of fluid flow
resistance units
Slide 4

HEAT

Q = Btu / Hour
T2, T1 = Higher, lower
temperatures
RT = Total specific
resistance
A = Area available for flow
of heat

BASIC HEAT TRANSFER EQUATION

Q = 1 x (T2 - T1) = 1 x T
A
RT
RT
RT = Total Resistance, Hr x FT2 x F / Btu
I = Total Conductivity = U Btu / Hr x Ft2 x F
RT
Q = 1 x U T
A
Q = U x A x T Btu / Hr
U is Referred to as the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Slide 5

TOTAL RESISTANCE TO HEAT FLOW - HEAT EXCHANGERS

There are two areas through which heat must flow: The
inside tube area and the outside tube area. Resistance
occurs at both areas.
The Industry Standard Reference Area is the Outside Tube
Area.

Slide 6

INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS OF THE TOTAL RESISTANCE


Inside Film Resistance = R io = R i
Inside Fouling Resistance = r io = r i

Ao
Ai
Ao
Ai

Tube Wall Resistance = r w = w / k w


Outside Fouling Resistance = ro
Outside Film Resistance = Ro

Rio + rio + rw + ro + Ro = RT =
w = Wall Thickness, Feet

I
U

Kw = Thermal Conductivity, Btu / Hr x Ft 2 x F


Ft
r = Resistances, Hr x Ft2 x F/Btu

Slide 7

INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS OF THE TOTAL RESISTANCE

Slide 8

TYPICAL RESISTANCE VALUES

Very Low

Typical

Very High

0.00050
(2000)

0.004
(250)

0.04
(25)

0.001
(1000)

0.002
(500)

0.01
(100)

Wall Resistance
Inverse

0.000030
(32,000)

0.00027
(3760)

0.00049
(2030)

Total Resistance
Inverse

0.00303
(330)

0.01227
(81)

0.10050
(10)

Film Resistances (Each)


(Inverse = h)
Fouling Resistance (Each)
Inverse

Slide 9

THE CONTROLLING COEFFICIENT

Frequently One of the two film coefficients determines the value of the overall
coefficient:

Out side Coefficient,


Inside Coefficient,

h
hio
Ro
Rio
rw + rio + ro
RT
U
Improvement

Slide 10

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

75
1000
0.01333
0.00100
0.00070
0.01503
66.5
Base

75
3000
0.01333
0.00033
0.00070
0.01436
69.6
+4.6%

150
1000
0.00667
0.00100
0.00070
0.00837
119.5
+80%

Hence h is the Controlling Coefficient, and efforts to improve exchanger


performance should concentrate on this side of the exchanger.

TEMPERATURE DROPS ACROSS THE RESISTANCES

Temperature drop across each of the resistances is


directly proportional to each resistance.
For example, If T2 = 200 and T1 = 80, then total temperature
drop = 120F, and:
Temperature Drop

Ro
Rio
rw
rio+ ro
RT

Slide 11

=
=
=
=
=

0.01333
0.00500
0.00030
0.00200
0.02063

77.6
29.1
1.7
1.6
120F

0.01333
0.02063

x 120

TEMPERATURE DROPS ACROSS THE RESISTANCES

Q
A

A Useful Concept is Heat Flux =

Btu
Hr x Ft2

Q = U x A x (T2 - T1) = U x A x T
Then T =

Q
UxA

Then Q = T =
A
RT

Q
A

* x

Flux x Resistance

120
0.02063

= 5817 Btu , and


T across Ro = 5817 x 0.01333 = 77.6 F
Hr x Ft
as shown on that slide.
Slide 12

BACK TO BASICS

Weve looked at basic theory, and discussed Q = U x A x T. In


refinery work we usually know either Q or A, and need to calculate the
other value.
How do we do it?

Either question requires calculating U or T.

Well talk about U later, first lets discuss T, the temperature driving
force.

Note that capital letter T denotes the hot stream, while lower case t
denotes the cold stream:
T1 = Hot In
t1 = Cold In

Slide 13

T2 = Hot Out
t 2 = Cold Out

FLOW PATTERNS AND TEMPERATURE DRIVING FORCE

Slide 14

FLOW PATTERNS AND TEMPERATURE DRIVING FORCE

Slide 15

FLOW PATTERNS AND TEMPERATURE DRIVING FORCE

Slide 16

FLOW PATTERNS AND TEMPERATURE DRIVING FORCE

Slide 17

TEMPERATURE DRIVING FORCE

From the preceding slides, it is clear that some sort of average driving force
must be used in design calculations.
What is this average?
The average is called The Effective Mean Temperature Difference, or MTDe.
For true countercurrent and true cocurrent flow, the effective driving force
equals the log mean average of the two extreme (largest and smallest) deltas.

Te = LMTD =

(T1 - t2) - (T2 - t1)


(T1 - t2)

LN

(T2 - t1)

This is precisely true only when the heat release curves are straight lines.
Otherwise it is an approximation.

Slide 18

TEMPERATURE DRIVING FORCE


What about mixed flow: Shell and Tube Exchangers?
The complex flow in these units was analyzed mathematically
many years ago, resulting in rigorous equations for a
Correction Factor, Fn. This is multiplied by the LMTD to give
the correct MTDe.
MTDe = Fn x LMTD
Equations are valid only when heat release curves are linear.
Similar relations are available for transverse flow (air fin
coolers, for example).

Slide 19

CALCULATION OF Fn
Depends on the number of shells in series (Shell Passes)

The more shells one has in series, the closer Fn approaches 1.0
Typically the minimum acceptable value of Fn is 0.8

What exactly do we mean by shells in series or shell


passes?

Slide 20

CALCULATION OF Fn - SHELL PASSES

Slide 21

CALCULATION OF Fn - SHELL PASSES

Slide 22

CALCULATION OF Fn

Slide 23

Complex equations simplified to charts


See TEMA Section 7, or Exxon DP IX-D
Applicable only to linear heat curves

CALCULATION OF Fn

Example

T1 = 300
T2 = 105

t1 = 85
t2 = 115

P = j = 115 - 85 = 0.14
300 - 85
R = 300 - 105 = 6.5
115 - 85

R n (1 Shell) = <0.8 (unreadable on chart) - Unacceptable


Fn (2 Shell) = 0.95 Use two shells
Slide 24

CALCULATION OF Fn

Since this technique is applicable only to the case of


straight-line heat release, how do we estimate number
of shells and MTDe for other cases?

Slide 25

NON-LINEAR HEAT RELEASE - MTDe SUGGESTION FOR COMPLEX


CASES SUCH AS REFORMER FEED/EFFLUENT

Slide 26

Plot T Vs. Enthalpy


Step Off to Get Minimum Number of Shells
Calculate MTDe for Each Shell (Discuss Later)

NON-LINEAR HEAT RELEASE--MTDe


SUGGESTION FOR CONDENSERS
Plot the condensing curve
Assume cold side is linear and draw in cold side flow pattern
If two shells, assume equal duties

Slide 27

MTDe FOR CONDENSERS (Continued)

Calculate the LMTD for each zone, assuming that the cold temperature
in each zone is the average of the inlet/outlet cold temperatures of the
shell in which the zone occurs (see graph)

Then weight the overall MTDe as follows:

MTDe (Weighted) =

Slide 28

Qtotal
Qzone1 + Qzone2 + Qzone3
LMTD1
LMTD2
LMTD3

+ Qzone4
LMTD4

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS

Film coefficients are relatively easy to estimate:

They are a function of


Reynolds Number DV

Prandtl Number (Cp) ()


K

Slide 29

Similarly, pressure drop is a function of Reynolds number and length of


flow path.

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS (Continued)


The handouts just examined are suitable ONLY for estimates
of coefficients.

For detailed coefficients on which to base the purchase of an


exchanger, detailed computer calculations are necessary.
Detailed computer calculations examine the effects of many
other parameters, particularly shell-side effects such as
channeling and baffle leakage.

Slide 30