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Numerical Simulation of Predicting and Reducing Solid Particle Erosion of Solid-liquid Two-phase Flow in a Choke

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2 visualizzazioni7 pagineNumerical Simulation of Predicting and Reducing Solid Particle Erosion of Solid-liquid Two-phase Flow in a Choke

Article about erosion

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(2009)6:91-97

91

DOI 10.1007/s12182-009-0017-9

solid particle erosion of solid-liquid two-phase flow

in a choke

Li Guomei1, 2, Wang Yueshe1*, He Renyang2, Cao Xuewen3, Lin Changzhi4

and Meng Tao2

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, Shaanxi 710049, China

China Special Equipment Inspection and Research Institute, Beijing 100013, China

3

School of Transport & Storage and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555, China

4

Petroleum Exploration and Production Research Institute, Sinopec, Beijing 100083, China

1

2

Abstract: Chokes are one of the most important components of downhole flow-control equipment. The

particle erosion mathematical model, which considers particle-particle interaction, was established and

used to simulate solid particle movement as well as particle erosion characteristics of the solid-liquid

two-phase flow in a choke. The corresponding erosion reduction approach by setting ribs on the inner

wall of the choke was advanced. This mathematical model includes three parts: the flow field simulation

of the continuous carrier fluid by an Eulerian approach, the particle interaction simulation using the

discrete particle hard sphere model by a Lagrangian approach and calculation of erosion rate using semiempirical correlations. The results show that particles accumulated in a narrow region from inlet to outlet

of the choke and the dominating factor affecting particle motion is the fluid drag force. As a result, the

optimization of rib geometrical parameters indicates that good anti-erosion performance can be achieved

by four ribs, each of them with a height (H) of 3 mm and a width (B) of 5 mm equaling the interval

between ribs (L).

Key words: Solid-liquid two-phase flow, discrete particle hard sphere model, choke, erosion rate, antierosion, numerical simulation

1 Introduction

The mechanical damage to the surface caused by the

impact of solid particles has been a serious problem in a

variety of engineering applications. Any industrial process

involving the transportation of solid particles entrained in

the fluid phase can be subject to erosion damage (Humphrey,

1990; Finnie, 1995). In oil and gas production, the solid

particles, which were used as proppants and carried by

fracturing fluids with a high velocity in sand fracturing

operations, can cause serious damage to downhole flowcontrol equipment (chokes) as well as the surface of casing

walls (Economides and Nolte, 2002; McCasland et al,

2004; Vincent et al, 2004). During oil-field water injection

operations, particles entrained in continuous fluids can also

cause damage to the casing wall (Jordan, 1998; Richardson

et al, 1986). Depending on the actual conditions, the erosion

damage may be severe and extremely expensive, as it may

be frequently necessary to replace or repair the device or

component that is exposed and susceptible to the erosive

environment (McCasland et al, 2004; Jordan 1998; McLaury

* Corresponding author. email: wangys@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Received August 25, 2008

and more important to predict the erosion caused by particle

impact accurately and to develop corresponding erosion

reduction methods.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used

in the research on solid particle erosion for many years.

CFD-based erosion prediction process includes several

different aspects (Zhang, 2006): flow modeling, particlefluid interaction, particle-particle interaction, particle-wall

interaction and particle erosion modeling. Each aspect by

itself is very complex, and many researchers have made

great efforts in order to better understand the mechanisms.

The current erosion computational models are established

based on different mechanisms, which show satisfactory

application to predicting particle movement characteristics,

calculating the erosion rate of wall surfaces and improving

particle tracking in order to reduce erosion (Chen et al, 2006;

Fan et al, 2004; Forder et al, 1998; Habib and Badr, 2004;

McCasland et al, 2004; McLaury and Wang 1997; Song et

al, 1996; Yao et al, 2002). However, most of these models

neglect the influence of particle movement on the fluid as well

as particle-particle interactions. These are one-way coupling

methods and only applicable to the conditions of low volume

fraction of the discrete particle phase. The four-way coupling

Pet.Sci.(2009)6:91-97

92

particle-fluid interaction and particle-particle interaction into

consideration at the same time, has been rarely reported in the

literature, especially in the study of erosion of well pipeline

systems.

The purpose of this paper is to provide deeper

understanding of solid particle erosion characteristics in

the choke and to change the flow field geometry in order to

reduce erosion. In this paper, the discrete particle hard sphere

model was used to simulate particle-particle interaction;

after obtaining information on particle movement (impact

velocity and impact angle), the semi-empirical correlations

were used to calculate particle erosion rate. Fortunately,

this model not only takes particle-fluid interaction into

consideration but particle-particle interaction as well, and is

a four-way coupling method. Therefore, this model avoids

the shortcomings of former models mentioned above and is

applicable to the case of high volume fractions of the particle

phase.

2 Mathematical model

2.2.1 Inter-particle collision model

model. The hard sphere model is based on binary quasiinstantaneous collisions. It neglects particle deformation

during collision, resulting in a high calculation efficiency

(Crowe et al, 1998).

Collision of two particles can be shown in Fig. 1. All the

post-collision velocities can be expressed as follows:

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

for the case where the two spheres slide, and

parts, namely the continuous carrier fluid flow field simulation

by an Eulerian approach, particle-particle interaction

simulation using a discrete particle hard sphere model by a

Lagrangian approach, and erosion calculation using semiempirical correlations.

(9)

(10)

(11)

volume averaged Navier-Stokes equations, which take into

account the influence of fluid volume fraction and drag force

between the fluid and particle phases. The continuity and

momentum equations are expressed as follows:

(1)

(2)

(12)

for the case where two spheres stop sliding during the

collision process,where superscript 0 means before collision;

s is fraction coefficient; e is the coefficient of restitution; n

is the unit normal vector from particle 1 to particle 2 at the

moment of contact; m is the particle mass; R is particle radius;

v is particle velocity; is angular velocity; G0 is the relative

velocities between particle centers before collision, and Gct0 is

the tangential component of the relative velocity; t is the unit

tangential vector at contact point.

0

1

respectively; g is gravity acceleration; is the fluid shear

stress; is the volume fraction of fluid; and fdrag is volumetric

fluid-particle interaction force, which can be given as:

1

0

2

1

(3)

(4)

where V and Vpi are the volume of a computational cell and

the volume of particle i inside this cell, respectively; Fdrag is

the fluid drag force for an individual particle; n is the number

of particles in the cell.

The flow is turbulent, and the fluid turbulence is treated

with the standard

turbulent model.

n

2

expressed through the fluid drag force Fdrag of an individual

particle. Using the modified fluid drag force correlation (Di

Felice, 1994), the fluid drag force can be described as follows:

Pet.Sci.(2009)6:91-97

93

(13)

with

the particle velocity; Cd0 and Rep are the fluid drag coefficient

and particle Reynolds number, respectively, and they can be

expressed as follows:

particles in the hard sphere model

In the hard sphere model system, the initiative search

approach is used to judge the binary collisions. It is supposed

that the two particles i and j happen to collide after the time

tc, so Rij=rij+vijtc, as a result tc can be calculated with the

following expression (Kang and Guo, 2006):

(9)

with

If tc<0 or if rij.vij>0, the two particles will not collide.

2.2.3 Equation of particle motion

approach. Because inter-particle collision is described by

the hard sphere model, the inter-particle force and particle

shape deformation can be neglected (Crowe et al, 1998).

Thus forces acting on an individual particle mainly include

gravitational and fluid drag forces during particle movement

(Zhang, 2006). Other forces such as virtual mass force,

pressure gradient force, Saffman lift force, Magnus lift

force and Basset history force acting on a particle could

be neglected in this study (Habib and Badr 2004; Habib et

al, 2007; Meng and Van der Geld 1991). The motion of an

individual particle is determined by Newtons second law of

motion. The equation of particle can be written as follows:

(14)

where mp is the particle mass.

particle erosion rate

According to the dynamic characteristics of solid-liquid

two-phase flow (which is different from gas-solid twophase flow) and the material characteristics of the choke,

the calculation model proposed by Mengtrk and Sverdrup

(1979) was applied in this study:

conditions

The computational domain is a two-dimensional

rectangular region of 0.1m0.038m, which is the same as the

actual size of the choke, the inlet radius is 0.024 m and the

outlet diameter is 0.018 m, as shown in Fig. 2. The hatching

boundary is a wall boundary condition, where a no-slip

boundary condition is imposed for fluid flow. In the particlewall collision, the interaction of a particle with the wall is

modeled in the same manner as a particle-particle collision,

and the wall is considered as one particle with infinitely large

diameter (Crowe et al, 1998). The top dashed axis boundary

is a symmetry boundary and zero normal gradients are used

for all variables. As for particles, the reflective boundary

condition is used on the axis boundary. The direction of

gravity goes along the X direction. The fluid flows into

the choke from the inlet, where a velocity inlet boundary

condition is imposed for continuous flow, and the fluid flows

out through the outlet, where a pressure outlet boundary

condition is imposed.

Axis

Inlet

Inner space of

choke

Outlet

Wall

(15)

(16)

where Ev is the particle erosion rate, mm3/g; W1 is the wall

impact velocity of the solid particle; and 1 is the impact

angle of the solid particle.

kg/m 3 and a dynamic viscosity of 1.00510 -3 Pa . s. The

calculation temperature is room temperature, and the flow in

the choke is turbulent. The velocity at inlet section follows

the 1/7 power function distribution, and the turbulent center

velocity was chosen as 5 m/s.

The particles all have the same diameter (0.4 mm)

and density (2,650 kg/m 3). The friction coefficient and

restitution coefficient are 0.4 and 0.9, respectively. In the

Pet.Sci.(2009)6:91-97

96

1.0

1.0

1.0

A

O

0.5

0.5

Probability, %

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

0.5

1.0

0.5

1.0

D

0.5

0

1.0

1.0

0.5

H

0.5

Velocity, m/s

Fig. 7 Probability distribution of particle-wall impact velocity

significantly reduce particle average impact velocity, which is

a major reason for reducing erosion by setting ribs.

In order to discuss the erosion severity of the choke with

different rib geometrical parameters, the relative erosion rate

E/E0 is defined, namely the ratio of erosion rate of choke

wall after setting ribs E and that of before setting ribs E0. The

smaller the relative erosion rate is, the better the anti-erosion

performance. And the relative erosion rates at different rib

geometrical parameters are shown in Fig. 8. The mean relative

erosion rate of the choke is from 0.04 to 0.61, with an average

value of 0.14, after setting ribs. That is to say setting ribs can

improve the anti-erosion performance of the choke greatly,

which show good agreement with the above conclusions.

Fig. 8 also indicates that rib type F has the smallest relative

rate, in other words, the best anti-erosion performance can

be achieved when there are 4 ribs in the choke, each of them

with a height (H) of 3 mm and a width (B) of 5 mm spaced 5

mm apart (L).

1.0

1.0

0.8

0.4

0.28

0.2

0.138

0.14

0.036

0.024

0.028

Research Group of National Natural Science Foundation of

China (Grant NO. 5052160450323001) and Major Program

of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.

50536020).

0.008

0.004

0.0

O

discussion:

1) The discrete particle hard sphere model can simulate

the dynamic process of solid particle movements and the

non-uniform discrete characteristics of particle distribution

in a choke. At the same time, this model can provide detailed

information on the impact velocity, impact angle and impact

location of an individual particle.

2) Particles accumulate densely in a narrow domain from

inlet to outlet of the choke, where the largest particle velocity

occurs. The dominating factor affecting particle motion in

solid-liquid two-phase flow is the fluid drag force, but particle

collisions also play an important role.

3) When the choke has no ribs, only 40% of particles have

a velocity of less than 0.5 m/s. With ribs in the choke, over

90% of particles have a velocity of less than 0.5 m/s. That is

to say the average impact velocity of particles lies in the low

impact velocity domain after setting ribs.

4) Using ribs can greatly improve the anti-erosion

performance of the choke, and the relative best anti-erosion

performance can be achieved when setting 4 ribs, each of

them with a height (H) of 3 mm and a width (B) of 5 mm at 5

mm spacings (L).

Acknowledgements

0.61

0.6

5 Conclusions

Mean

Type of ribs

Fig. 8 Relative erosion rate at different rib geometrical parameters

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(Edited by Sun Yanhua)