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Lecture 3

Nuclear models:
Shell model

WS2012/13: Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics, Part I


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Nuclear models
Nuclear models
Models with strong interaction between
the nucleons

 Liquid drop model


 -particle model
 Shell model

Models of non-interacting
nucleons

 Fermi gas model


 Optical model



Nucleons interact with the nearest
neighbors and practically dont move:
mean free path << RA nuclear radius

Nucleons move freely inside the nucleus:


mean free path ~ RA nuclear radius

III. Shell model

Shell model
Magic numbers: Nuclides with certain proton and/or neutron numbers are found
to be exceptionally stable. These so-called magic numbers are
2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126
The doubly magic nuclei:
Nuclei with magic proton or neutron number have an unusually large number
of stable or long lived nuclides.
A nucleus with a magic neutron (proton) number requires a lot of energy to
separate a neutron (proton) from it.
A nucleus with one more neutron (proton) than a magic number is very easy to
separate.
The first exitation level is very high: a lot of energy is needed to excite such
nuclei
The doubly magic nuclei have a spherical form

Nucleons are arranged into complete shells within the atomic nucleus
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Excitation energy for magic


nuclei
m

Nuclear potential
 The energy spectrum is defined by the nuclear potential
 solution of Schrdinger equation for a realistic potential
 The nuclear force is very short-ranged => the form of the potential follows the
density distribution of the nucleons within the nucleus:
 for very light nuclei (A < 7), the nucleon distribution has Gaussian form
(corresponding to a harmonic oscillator potential)
 for heavier nuclei it can be parameterised by a Fermi distribution. The latter
corresponds to the Woods-Saxon potential
e.g. 3) approximation by the
rectangular potential well
1) Woods-Saxon potential: U (r ) = U0r R
with infinite barrier energy :
1+ e a
a=0
a>0

2) a
0:
approximation by the
rectangular potential
well :

U(r)

U0 , r < R
U (r ) =
0, r R

0, r < R
U (r ) =
, r R

Schrdinger equation
H = E

Schrdinger equation:
Single-particle
Hamiltonian operator:

(1)

 Consider U(r) rectangular potential


well with infinite
barrier energy

2
h

H =
+ U (r )
(2)
2M
Eigenstates: (r) - wave function
Eigenvalues: E - energy
U(r) is a nuclear potential spherically symmetric 

0, r < R
U (r ) =
, r R

1 2
1
1

2
(sin ) + 2 2
= 2 r
+ 2
r r r r sin
r sin 2
2

Angular part:

2
1
1

(sin ) + 2
=
sin
sin 2

h 2 = L2

1
L

2 = 2 r 2 2 2
r r r r h

L operator for the orbital angular momentum


L2 lm ( , ) = h 2 l (l + 1)lm ( , )

(3)

Eigenstates: Ylm spherical harmonics


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Radial part
The wave function of the particles in the nuclear potential can be decomposed into
two parts: a radial one 1(r), which only depends on the radius r, and an angular
part Ylm(,) which only depends on the orientation (this decomposition is possible
for all spherically symmetric potentials):
(4)
(r , , ) = 1 (r ) lm ( , )
From (4) and (1) =>
h 2 1 1 L2

r2 + 2
2
2 M r r r r 2 M

1 (r )lm ( , ) = E 1 (r )lm ( , )

=> eq. for the radial part:


h 2 1 2 h 2 l (l + 1)
r
+ 2

2
2 M r r r r 2 M

Substitute in (5):

1 (r ) =

1 (r ) = E 1 (r )

(5)

( r )
r

h 2 d 2( r ) h 2 l ( l + 1 )

+ 2
( r ) = E ( r )
2
2 M dr
r 2M

(6)
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Constraints on E
2
2
2

h
d
(
r
)
l( l + 1 )
Eq. for the radial part:
+ E 2
( r ) = 0
2 M dr 2
r
2
M

(7)

From (7) 
1) Energy eigenvalues for orbital angular momentum l:
E:
l=0 s
l=1 p states
l=2 d
l=3 f

2) For each l: -l < m < l => (2l+1) projections m of angular momentum.


The energy is independent of the m quantum number, which can be any integer
value between l. Since nucleons also have two possible spin directions, this
means that the l levels are 2(2l+1) times degenerate if a spin-orbit interaction is
neglected.
3) The parity of the wave function is fixed by the spherical wave function Yml and
reads (1)l:
P (r , , ) = P (r ) ( , ) = (1)l (r ) ( , )
1

lm

lm

s,d,.. - even states; p,f, - odd states


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Main quantum number n


2
2
2

h
d
(
r
)
l( l + 1 )
Eq. for the radial part:
+ E 2
( r ) = 0
2 M dr 2
r
2
M

(7)
A
jl ( kr )
r
2 ME
k2 = 2
h

( r ) =

Solution of differential eq: ( r ) ( r ) + ( r )( r ) = 0


Spherical Bessel functions jl(x):

The wave function:


(r , , ) =

A
jl (kr ) lm ( , )
r

U(r)

Boundary condition for the surface, i.e. at r =R: (R,,) =0


0
R
 restrictions on k in Bessel functions: jl ( kR ) = 0
main quantum number n corresponds to nodes of the Bessel function : Xnl
kR = X nl

k 2 R 2 = X nl2

2 ME 2
R = X nl2
2
h

(8)
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Shell model with rectangular potential well


Thus, according to Eq. (8) :

Enl =

X nl2 h 2
2MR2

Enl = Const X nl2

(9)

Nodes of Bessel function

Energy states are quantized


l = 0 s states j0
n = 1 X 10 = 3.14
n = 2 X 20 = 6.28
n = 3 X 30 = 9.42

structure of energy states Enl

state Enl = C X nl2 degeneracy states with E Enl


1s
E1 s = C 9.86
2 2(2l+1),l=0
2

n = 1 X 11 = 4.49
n = 2 X 21 = 7.72

1 p E1 p = C 20.2
1d E1d = C 33.2
2 s E2 s = C 39.5
1 f E1 f = C 48.8
2 p E2 p = C 59.7

l = 2 d states j2

1g

l = 1 p states j1

n = 1 X 12 = 5.76

l=3

f states j3

n = 1 X 13 = 6.99
l = 4 g states j4
n = 1 X 14 = 8.1

E1 g = C 64

6 2(2l+1),l=1
10
2
14
6
18

8
18
20
34
40
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 First 3 magic numbers are reproduced, higher not!


2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126
Note: this result corresponds to for U(r) = rectangular
potential well with infinite barrier energy
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Shell model with Woods-Saxon potential


 Woods-Saxon potential:
U (r ) =

U0

1+ e

rR
a

The first three magic numbers (2, 8 and 20) can then be understood as
nucleon numbers for full shells.
Thus, this simple model does not work for the higher magic numbers. For
them it is necessary to include spin-orbit coupling effects which further split
the nl shells.
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Spin-orbit interaction
 Introduce the spin-orbit interaction Vls a coupling of the spin and the
orbital angular momentum:
2
h

H =
+ U (r ) + Vls
2M
h 2
(r , , ) = E (r , , )

+
U
(
r
)
+
V

ls
2
M

h 2

+
U
(
r
)

(r , , ) = (E Vls ) (r , , )
2M

where

Vls (r , , ) = Vls (r , , )

eigenvalues

Eigenstates

spin-orbit interaction:

Vls = Cls ( l , s )

total angular momentum:

- scalar product of l and s

j=l +s
2

j j = (l + s )(l + s) = l + s + 2l s

1 2 2 2
ls = (j l s )
2

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Spin-orbit interaction
1 2 2 2
Cls ( j l s )(r , , ) = Vls (r , , )
2
Eigenvalues:

h2
Vls = Cls [ j( j + 1 ) l ( l + 1 ) s( s + 1 )]
2

Consider:
1
j=l+ :
2

h2
Vls = Cls
2

1
1
1 3
h2

2
(l + 2 )(l + 2 ) l l 2 2 = Cls 2 l

1
j=l :
2

h2
Vls = Cls
2

1
1
1 3
h2

2
(l 2 )(l + 2 ) l l 2 2 = Cls 2 (l + 1)

This leads to an energy splitting Els which linearly increases with the angular
momentum as
2l + 1

Els =

Vls

 It is found experimentally that Vls is negative, which means that the state
with j =l+ 1/2 is always energetically below the j = l 1/2 level.
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Spin-orbit interaction
The total angular momentum quantum
number j = l1/2 of the nucleon is denoted by
an extra index j: nlj

Single particle energy levels:


j (2j+1)

e.g., the 1f state splits into a 1f7/2 and a 1f5/2


state
1f
1f5/2
1f7/2
 The nlj level is (2j + 1) times degenerate

 Spin-orbit interaction leads to a sizeable


splitting of the energy states which are indeed
comparable with the gaps between the nl
shells themselves.
 Magic numbers appear when the gaps
between successive energy shells are
particularly large:

(10)
(2)

(6)
(4)
(8)
(4)
(2)
(6)
(2)
(4)

2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126


(2)

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Collective Nuclear Models

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Collective excitations of nuclei


The single-particle shell model can not properly describe the excited states of
nuclei: the excitation spectra of even-even nuclei show characteristic band
structures which can be interpreted as vibrations and rotations of the nuclear
surface
low energy excitations have a collective origin !
The liquid drop model is used for the description of collective excitations of
nuclei: the interior structure, i.e., the existence of individual nucleons, is neglected
in favor of the picture of a homogeneous fluid-like nuclear matter.

 The moving nuclear surface may be described quite generally by an expansion


in spherical harmonics with time-dependent shape parameters as coefficients:
(1)
where R(,,t) denotes the nuclear radius in the direction (,) at time t, and R0 is
the radius of the spherical nucleus, which is realized when all =0.
The time-dependent amplitudes (t) describe the vibrations of the nucleus with
different multipolarity around the ground state and thus serve as collective
coordinates (tensor).
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Collective excitations of nuclei


vibrations

rotations

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Collective coordinates
(1)

Properties of the coefficients :


- Complex conjugation: the nuclear radius must be real, i.e.,
R(,,t)=R*(,,t).

(2)

Applying (2) to (1) and using the property of the spherical harmonics
(3)
one finds that the have to fulfill the condition:
(4)

- The dynamical collective coordinates (tensors!) define the distortion vibrations - of the nuclear surface relative to the groundstate.
- The general expansion of the nuclear surface in (1) allows for arbitrary
distortions: =0,1,2,.

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Types of Multipole Deformations


Groundstate

The monopole mode,, = 0.


Y00 =

1
4

R( , , t ) = R0 ( 1 + 00Y00 ) = R0 ( 1 +

00
)
4

Monopole
mode =0

The spherical harmonic Y00 is constant, so that


a nonvanishing value of 00 corresponds to a change of the radius of the sphere.
The associated excitation is the so-called breathing mode of the nucleus. Because
of the large amount of energy needed for the compression of nuclear matter, this
mode is far too high in energy to be important for the low-energy spectra
discussed here. The deformation parameter 00 can be used to cancel the overall
density change present as a side effect in the other multipole deformations.

The dipole mode, = 1.


Y10 cos

Dipole deformations, = 1 to lowest order, really do not


correspond to a deformation of the nucleus but rather to a
shift of the center of mass, i.e. a translation of the nucleus, and
should be disregarded for nuclear excitations since
translational shifts are spurious.

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Types of Multipole Deformations

The quadrupole mode,, = 2

The quadrupole deformations - the most important


collective low energy excitations of the nucleus.

The octupole mode,, = 3

The octupole deformations are the principal asymmetric


modes of the nucleus associated with negative-parity bands.

The hexadecupole mode,, = 4

The hexadecupole deformations: this is the highest angular


momentum that has been of any importance in nuclear
theory. While there is no evidence for pure hexadecupole
excitations in the spectra, it seems to play an important role
as an admixture to quadrupole excitations and for the
groundstate shape of heavy nuclei.
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Types of Multipole Deformations

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Quadrupole deformations
 The quadrupole deformations are the most important vibrational degrees of
freedom of the nucleus.
For the case of pure quadrupole deformation (
= 2) the nuclear surface is given by
(5)
 Consider the different components of the quadrupole deformation tensor 2
The parameters 2 are not independent - cf. (4):
From (4):

(6)

(6) => 20 is real (since 20= 20) ; and we are left with five independent real
degrees of freedom: 20 and the real and imaginary parts of 21 and 22
To investigate the actual form of the nucleus, it is best to express this in
cartesian coordinates by rewriting the spherical harmonics in terms of the
cartesian components of the unit vector in the direction (,) :
(7)
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From spherical to cartesian coordinates


Spherical coordinates (r,,)

Cartesian coordinates (x,y,z)=>(,,)

The invention of Cartesian coordinates in


the 17th century by Ren Descartes
(Latinized name: Cartesius)

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Cartesian coordinates
Cartesian coordinates fulfil subsidiary conditions

(8)

(9)

Substitute (9) in (5):


(10)

where the cartesian components of the deformation are related to the spherical
ones by

(11)

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Cartesian coordinates
In (11) six independent cartesian components appear (all real) , compared to the
five degrees of freedom contained in the spherical components. However, the
function R(,) fulfills
(12)
Subs. (10) into (12) and accounting that
we obtain:
(12)
 5 independent cartesian components
As the cartesian deformations are directly related to the streching (or
contraction) of the nucleus in the appropriate direction, we can read off that:

 20 describes a stretching of the z axis with respect to the and x axes,


 22, 22 describes the relative length of the x axis compared to the axis (real
part), as well as an oblique deformation in the x-y plane,

 21, 21 indicate an oblique deformation of the z axis.


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