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MAY 2013 SEMESTER

COURSE

PAB3053

RESERVOIR

MODELING

AND

SIMULATION
DATE

July 18th 2013

TIME

(2 HOURS)

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1.

Answer ALL questions from the Question Booklet.

2.

Indicate clearly answers that are cancelled, if any.

3.

Where applicable, show clearly steps taken in arriving at the solutions and indicate
ALL assumptions.

4.

Do not open this Question Booklet until instructed.

5.

You may use the back of the question booklet, whenever deemed necessary

Note :

There are SIX (6) pages in this Question Booklet including the cover page
and Appendices.

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

Question 1
Starting from the continuity equation for single phase flow where fluid flow enters in
left face of the element and flows out at the right face. Element from x to position
x+x is examined and bulk volume of the element is the product of the area, A and
length, dx, i.e. bulk volume = A.x. consequently, pore volume and mass contained in
the element can be calculated. Starting from these calculations obtain the Black Oil
model for oil and gas phases only, where gas can be soluble into the oil phase with Rso
(Bbl/SCF) and oil can vaporize into the gas phase with values Rvo (Bbl/SCF).
[15 marks]

Question 2:

For the linear system shown in FIGURE Q2 with THREE (3) blocks each having a
length of 400 ft and area of 3000 ft2, the viscosity, o is 1.5 cp. The initial pressure is
2500 psia in all blocks. There is a well in block 1 producing at a constant rate of 750
STB/day. The outer boundaries of the reservoir are both closed no-flow boundaries.
The porosity is 20% for all blocks. Compressibility of the oil and format are 12x10 -6
and 3x10-6 psia-1, respectively. Using a block centred grid and a time step of 3 days

1. Write the finite difference equation for all blocks of the system.
[25 marks]
2. Arrange the solution in a matrix format AP=b
[10 marks]
3. Solve for the pressure at all blocks after 3 days by Thomas algorithm method (given
in the Appendix).
[15 marks]

FIGURE Q2

Question 3:
Apply LU factorization (Grout algorithm) to solve the following system of equations
8 X1 X2 +X3 =9
- X1 +15 X2 - X3 = 26
2 X1 X2 +12 X3 = 36
Hint:
Use short cut method for fast solution
Put the equations in the Ax=b format
Set [U][X]=L-1b = [Y]
Therefore [L][Y] = [b]
Solve [L][Y]=b for Y
Solve [U][X] = [Y] for [X]
[35 marks]

Appendix
In field units:

1.127kAX p
c V p

x q t b
x

x
5.62 t

Thomas Algorithm
For a tri-diagonal matrix with diagonals a,b. and c and constant vector d with dimension N (
a1 = 0 , cN = 0)
Eliminate the lower diagonal a, the main diagonal b becomes , the constant vector d
becomes S, and the upper diagonal c remains unchanged as follows
1 = b1

S1 = d1

i = bi ci-1 . ai / i-1

Si = di - Si-1 . ai / i-1

The resulting matrix will be upper diagonal with diagonals and c and constant vector S. The
last equation is N xN = SN is solved for xN
Going backward to solve for xi i= N-1. N-2, ,2,1 using the equation
i xi + ci xi+1 = Si