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www.elsevier.com/locate/optlastec

Shigeru Murata , Norifumi Yasuda

Department of Mechanical and System Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan

Abstract

This paper describes the potential power of digital holography in particle measurement and its expected development in the near

future. In digital holography, image reconstruction is carried out numerically on a computer using observed hologram patterns and some

quantitative information can be derived from the reconstructed images. In this paper, the basic concept and procedure of digital in-line

holography are shown mainly for particle depth measurement and the performance test results obtained in numerical simulations and

c 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

experiments are demonstrated to examine the potential of the present method.

Keywords: Digital holography; Particle measurement; Numerical image reconstruction

1. Introduction

It is well known that holography is a most powerful tool

for the recording of a 3D object and the measurement of its

shape, displacement, deformation and vibration in various

elds of engineering. Although the experimental setup of

holography is not that complicated for non-experts, the holographic measurement should be improved in the direction of

easy-to-use technique. Furthermore some of the manufacturing companies have terminated the production of sensitive

plates for holography, plates that have high spatial resolution compared with standard negative lm, and hence a new

processing procedure of holography is expected in the place

of the conventional procedure.

Kreis and Juptners research group [13] was the rst to

propose the technique of digital holography for 3D objects

of large volume. In this technique, image reconstruction is

digitally performed on a digital computer from a hologram

pattern observed with a CCD camera. They examined the

quality of reconstructed images and the procedure of fringe

analysis for the digitized hologram patterns in detail to show

the excellent images obtained by digital image reconstruction, using as an example, a cubic die. The authors [4,5] have

also proposed a holographic method for the depth measurement of small particles distributed in 3D space and examined

the computational performance and the measurement accu Corresponding

author.

Tel.:

+81-75-724-7363;

+81-75-724-7300.

E-mail address: murata@ipc.kit.ac.jp (S. Murata).

fax:

racy of the method. This method, based on in-line holography and its digital holography, has the advantages of easy

camera setting in experiment and in the troublesome process

of particle identication, as compared with a stereoscopic

method that is often used for 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) in
uid engineering.

The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the potential power of digital holography in particle measurement

and to examine the possibility of further development of the

technique. We will explain the basic concept and procedure

of digital holography in detail, and report the checking of

the fundamental performance in computing time and measurement accuracy in numerical simulations and in experiments. In this paper, the technique of digital image reconstruction is applied to particle depth measurement and particle size measurement to evaluate the performance of the

present method based on digital holography.

2. Digital holography

2.1. Theory of optics

It is well known that optical phenomena in holography,

for example, interference fringes and image reconstruction,

can be expressed using wave optics because a strongly coherent laser light is used in holography for illumination. The

most fundamental phenomenon is diraction. As explained

in most technical textbooks or handbooks, let us start with

an arbitrary aperture on the plane . The aperture is illuminated from the left-hand side with a plane wave such as

0030-3992/01/$ - see front matter

PII: S 0 0 3 0 - 3 9 9 2 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 0 8 8 - 8

568

Notation

A

d

d0

g

h

hd

hz

Id

Iz

j

J0

L

r

rmax

depth of a tracer particle

detected depth of a tracer particle

transparency function

light amplitude

light amplitude on hologram plane

light amplitude on image plane

light intensity on hologram plane

light intensity on image plane

imaginary unit

zeroth order Bessel function

distance between an arbitrary pair of points on an

aperture and a screen

radial coordinate on hologram plane

domain of numerical integration

rz

R

x; y

xz ; yz

x0 , y0

T

z

radius of circle function

Cartesian coordinates on hologram plane

Cartesian coordinates on image plane

Cartesian coordinates on template

circle function on template

coordinate originating from hologram plane and

perpendicular to it

minimum limit of measurable particle depth

maximum limit of measurable particle depth

size of spatial discretization along the r-axis in

trapezoidal formula

size of spatial discretization along the z-axis

wavelength of illuminating light

radial coordinate on object plane

Cartesian coordinates on object plane

zmin

zmax

r

z

;

laser light, as illustrated in Fig. 1. A spherical wave propagates from a point A on the plane to the screen plane

xy. Assuming that the intensity of the illuminating light is

unity, then if the aperture is expressed as

(

1 for aperture;

g(; ) =

(2.1)

0 otherwise

following equation:

y can be obtained by integrating the spherical waves emitted

from the aperture, as follows:

Z

Z

ej(2=)L

1

d d;

(2.2)

g(; )

h(x; y) =

j

L

apparatus is set up in line along an optical axis for in-line

L=

z 2 + (x )2 + (y )2 :

h(x; y; z; g(; )) =

Z

e

jz

2

(2.4)

(2.3)

In Eqs. (2.2) and (2.3), is the wavelength of illuminating light and j denotes the imaginary unit. The Cartesian

coordinates on the aperture and on the screen are denoted

by (; ) and (x; y), respectively, as shown in Fig. 1, and

z is the distance backward measured from the aperture. If

the size of the aperture is much less than the distance between the aperture and the screen L, the Fresnel diraction

formula may be employed as a governing equation, and the

light amplitude on the screen, hz , can be represented by the

holography, unlike o-axis holography. The optical phenomena in the recording and reconstruction stages of in-line

holography can be expressed by the theory of wave optics, and hence Eq. (2.4) can be employed for theoretically

and numerically obtaining the light intensity distributions

on the hologram plane and the image plane. First, the interference fringes on the hologram plane are formed according

to the shape and layout of objects on the object plane, and

the fringes are expressed by

Id = hd hd ;

(2.5)

light intensity and hd is the light amplitude on the hologram

plane, given by

hd = h(x; y; d; g(; )):

(2.6)

the image plane can be formed according to the following

intensity Iz :

Iz = hz hz ;

(2.7)

(2.8)

expresses the distribution of opaque objects and transparent space on the object plane and the pattern of bright and

dark fringes on the hologram plane in Eqs. (2.6) and (2.7),

respectively.

For the case of small particles sparsely distributed, as in

this study, the hologram pattern for each particle becomes

locally axisymmetric, so the governing equation can be

rewritten in one-dimensional notation as

hz =

Z

2

2 j(2=)(z+rz2 =2z)

rId (r)ej(2=)(r =2z) J0 (2rz r=z) dr;

e

jz

0

(2.9)

where J0 denotes the zeroth-order Bessel function. Furthermore, r and rz are the radial coordinates measured

from the center of axisymmetric interference fringes for

each particle on the hologram plane and image plane,

respectively.

2.2. Digital image reconstruction

In the present method, the image reconstruction is digitally and numerically carried out from the observed hologram pattern, expressed by Id , using the above Fresnel

diraction equations (2.7) and (2.8) or Eqs. (2.7) and (2.9).

Since the hologram patterns are experimentally obtained

with a CCD camera without development of a sensitive

plate, the input information can be directly transferred into

a computer and calculations of particle measurements are

569

major advantages as follows:

(1) its procedure is independent of the particle size and

depth,

(2) its experimental setup is very simple because the present

method requires only one CCD camera and the layout

of optical apparatus is in line,

(3) the numerical reconstruction and the use of a CCD camera reduce the complication compared to the ordinary

holographic method.

In practice, the integral in Eq. (2.4) is discretized with a

simple trapezoidal formula or a FFT algorithm to obtain the

light intensity Iz . Kreis and his coresearchers publications

point out that the reconstructed image is enlarged or contracted according to the reconstruction depth, z, by conventionally applying the FFT algorithm to Eq. (2.4) and the

formulation with a convolution is useful for keeping the size

of the reconstructed image constant. This formulation, presented by Kreis, can be written as

h(x; y; z; g(; ))

Z Z

2

2

1

g(; ) ej(2=){z+((x) +(y) )=2z} d d

=

jz

Z Z

g(; )gF (x ; y ) d d

=

(2.10)

change by using Eq. (2.10), the above approach requires

one Fourier transform and one inverse Fourier transform

each to obtain one two-dimensional reconstructed image,

and the image may be disturbed near the boundaries by

the assumption of periodicity over a sampling window. It

should be noted that the approach of solving Eq. (2.4) with

a simple trapezoidal formulation prevents the reconstructed

image from being aected by the assumption of the periodicity. Next, the domain of integration is limited to a certain

radial distance rmax in practical computation, hence Babinets principle is employed to suppress the in uence of the

size of the sampling window on the reconstructed image in

this research.

3. Particle depth measurement

3.1. Procedure

If some small particles are illuminated by an expanded

laser beam from left to right, as shown in Fig. 2, we can

have a hologram on which the axisymmetric interference

fringes for all the particles are recorded overlapping each

other. For the fringes of each particle, the particle image

can be computed at the true depth to obtain the clearest

image that is the shade of the particle. Our purpose is to

570

detect the true depth where the light intensity at the center of the particle image is a minimum. In order to reduce the computing time required for the detection of the

position where a focused particle image is clearly reconstructed, the light intensity Iz is computed only along the

z-axis from the center of axisymmetric fringes for each particle z = zmin to the maximum limit of depth measurement

zmax . Then the z coordinate is taken as the detected depth

d0 if the intensity Iz is a minimum over the range from zmin

to zmax .

particles.

In this section, test results obtained in numerical simulations will be demonstrated to examine the reliability of the

present method. The wavelength of the illuminating light

used in the numerical simulations is 632.8 nm, that of a

HeNe laser.

Fig. 3 shows the reconstructed light intensity distributions

along the z-axis for the case with the domain of integration

rmax = 10 mm, the z-range from zmin = 200 mm to zmax =

800 mm. Also three numerical results for the true particle

depths d = 300, 500 and 700 mm are compared with each

other in this gure. These results are separately computed

from the hologram pattern for a single particle based on

the governing equation (2.9) with a trapezoidal formulation,

because the hologram pattern is axisymmetric. The sizes of

spatial discretization along the directions r and z are r =

0:01 mm and z = 1 mm, respectively. As explained in the

previous section, the reconstructed light intensity Iz steeply

drops down around the z-coordinate corresponding to each

true depth, and it is easily seen that we have only to search

the position where the light intensity is minimum along the

z-axis.

Fig. 4 depicts an example of in-line hologram patterns numerically obtained using Eqs. (2.5) and (2.6) for

50 tracer particles. The 3D positions of the particles are

determined with random numbers for the depth range

all the particles overlap each other, it is dicult to detect

the depth of each particle with higher accuracy using Eq.

(2.9). Fig. 5 shows the correlation between target depth and

detected depth for ve holograms with 50 small particles

such as shown in Fig. 4. This correlation has been obtained

using Eq. (2.4) and the domain of integration is conned

to the second dark fringe to reduce the computational load.

From Fig. 5, the correlation is found to be nearly linear and

its averaged slope d0 =d is about 0.96. This means that the

present results have about 5% error, though the error can be

reduced to about 1% if the domain of integration is assigned

to 10 or 20 mm. There is a trade-o between computational

time and measurement accuracy in the present method.

571

Table 1

Eect of correction factor on RMS error

Without correction

With correction

37 mm

16 mm

Table 2

Comparison of RMS error in particle size measurement

Radius A (mm)

over the wide range of particle depth, and any detected

1

= 1:04. The

depth can be corrected with a single factor 0:96

root mean square errors are summarized in Table 1. It is

seen from the table that the RMS error is improved using the correction factor that is applicable to experimental

results.

4. Particle size measurement

4.1. Procedure

In the previous section, we have shown the numerical

procedure for detecting the depth of small particles from observed in-line hologram patterns. Next, we will present the

procedure for simultaneously measuring the particle size and

depth from in-line hologram patterns (Fig. 6). This method

consists of two stages of particle depth measurement and

particle size measurement and the rst stage follows the

same procedure as described in Section 3.1. The second

stage is performed by computing the two-dimensional reconstructed image only at the position that has been detected

as the particle depth at the rst stage. As described before,

the reconstructed image is the shade of the small particle, so

we have only to measure the diameter of the locally darker

part on the image.

4.2. Numerical results

We have examined the performance of the method for

simultaneously measuring the particle size and depth in

0.08

0.16

0.24

Threshold

0.3

0.4

0.5

0:0 m

5:8 m

1:1 m

0:0 m

0:0 m

0:0 m

0:0 m

0:0 m

2:6 m

numerical simulations. It is assumed that only a single particle is recorded on the hologram pattern for simplicity,

so Eq. (2.9) is employed for reconstructing the 2D image.

Fig. 7 shows the radial distributions of light intensity reconstructed at the given true depth 500 mm. The radius of

the particle, A, is given values of 0.08, 0.12, 0.16, 0.20,

0.24 and 0:28 mm. Since the particle image is its shade, the

light intensity around the center of the image (radial distance 0.00) is much lower than the light intensity on the

background, and it suddenly increases around the radial distance corresponding to the given true radius of the particle.

The light intensity distribution for A = 0:28 mm is somewhat dierent from that for the other sizes, but the particle radius may be accurately detected with an appropriate

threshold for light intensity. Table 2 compares the RMS

error of the detected particle radius between three dierent thresholds, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. It can be seen that the

particle size can be measured with the lowest RMS error

using the threshold 0.4. Fig. 8 displays the correlation between true diameter and detected diameter with the threshold 0.4 for the case with the true particle depth d = 600 mm.

We can see that the particle size can be measured with

high accuracy because the present results are in good agreement with the line of unitary slope indicating an error-free

relationship.

572

5. Further development

5.1. Full volume reconstruction

The remarkable recent developments in computer and

image processing enable us to realize the computational

processing and analysis that were considered to be impossible only ve years ago. The methods explained in Sections

3 and 4 have been developed to reduce computing time.

However, reconstruction in 3D full volume, which is called

full-volume reconstruction in this paper, is expected

to provide higher measurement accuracy. This section

deals with the full-volume reconstruction to examine this

possibility.

Fig. 9 illustrates the light intensity distribution reconstructed in the 3D volume. There are locally some spatial

regions with lower light intensity corresponding to the 3D

positions of the small particles. For measuring particle depth,

we have only to detect the 3D positions where the light intensity is locally a minimum as shown in Fig. 9. This approach

is very simple in procedure, but there is a high overhead in

computing time required to obtain the light intensity in a

3D full volume. The most reasonable way is to numerically

solve Eq. (2.4) using a conventional FFT algorithm. However, the scale of reconstructed image changes according to

the computational eort is twice that of the above FFT processing. In this study, it is conrmed that the FFT algorithm,

programmed in FORTRAN, can be carried out only once in

about 5 s on a standard CPU (AMD K6-II 450 MHz) for the

size of image 512 512 pixels.

There are a number of variations in detecting the center of

local 3D space with lower light intensity. In this study, we

prepared the following template of a black circle with radius

R to search the 3D position of a particle using a normalized

cross-correlation coecient, at the position where the pattern

on a reconstructed 2D image is very similar to the template

which, as shown in Fig. 9, is given by

T (x0 ; y0 ) =

for R

otherwise:

q

x02 + y02 ;

(2.11)

Figs. 10 and 11(a), respectively, depict the layout of 10

small particles distributed in 3D space projected onto the

h plane, and its hologram pattern numerically obtained.

The diameter of small particles is 0:32 mm, and their depths

are given by random numbers within the range from 200 to

300 mm, as indicated in Fig. 10. We carried out the FFT image reconstruction at all the positions from 200 to 300 mm

with an interval z = 1 mm. From Fig. 11(a), it can be

seen that there is little dierence between the interference

fringes for any particle. However, we can clearly recognize

the dierence between Figs. 11(b) and (c) which are the reconstructed images at the coordinates z = 219 and 279 mm,

respectively. In Fig. 11(b), the shades of the particles at

d = 217, 219 and 222 mm are focused, and on the other

573

Fig. 11. Full volume processing: (a) hologram pattern, (b) reconstructed image at z = 219 mm and (c) reconstructed image at z = 279 mm.

Table 3

RMS errors in full volume digital holography

x-direction

y-direction

z-direction

0:0 m

3:2 m

0:55 mm

with higher contrast in Fig. 11(c). Table 3 summarizes

the RMS error of detected x, y and z coordinates for 10

particles.

directly on the CCD element without a camera lens. The diameter of the expanded laser beam is about 35 mm and the

size of the CCD element is 13 inch with 659(H )494(V ) resolution (cell size 7:4 7:4 m=pixel). The tracer particle is

colored white and its mean radius is 0:16 mm. The observed

images are captured into the personal computer (DEC VENTURIS 5100) with the image capture board (CYBERTEK,

CT3001RGB). The resulting digital image is composed of

640 480 pixel with 8 bit gray-level resolution for a green

image.

Figs. 13(a) and (b) demonstrate a pair of observed hologram patterns for d = 700 mm and its reconstructed particle

image at the detected depth z = d0 = 698 mm. The hologram

pattern is normalized with the background image to eliminate the eect of tiny dust on the glass plate or the surface

of CCD element on the observed fringes. It is found from

Fig. 13(b) that the particle image can be successfully reconstructed based on Eq. (2.10). The absolute error of detected

particle depth was 1 mm.

6. Conclusion

reliability of the numerical simulations in this paper. The

experimental setup used for the observation of in-line hologram patterns is shown in Fig. 12. All optical equipment

and optics are set up in line on an optical rail to easily measure the position of each apparatus in depth. The small particles attached to the glass plate are illuminated by HeNe

laser light (wavelength =632:8 nm, output =2 mW) through

a spatial lter and a laser collimating lens. The diracted

light and plane light are recorded by the B=W CCD camera (SONY XC-55), and interference fringes are observed

measurement has been examined by numerical simulations

and experiment. Although the measurement accuracy and

computational performance in particle size and depth measurements is not good enough to apply the present method

to industrial measurements, it is expected that digital holography will be very useful in various elds of engineering,

because the spatial resolution of CCD cameras is now being

improved and computational performance of personal computers is greatly increasing. In the near future we anticipate

an experimental environment with a video camera of spatial

574

Fig. 13. Experimental results: (a) normalized hologram pattern and (b) a reconstructed particle image.

consider that it is very important to develop new approaches

to fast, accurate and convenient measurement and to examine their performance, in advancing of the development of

the hardware.

References

[1] Schnars U, Kreis TM, Juptner WPO. Direct recording of holograms

by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction. Appl Opt 1994;33(2):

17981.

[2] Kreis TM, Juptner WPO. Principles of digital holography. Fringe 97.

Berlin: Akademie Verlag GmbH 1997. p. 353 63.

[3] Adams M, Kreis TM, Juptner WPO. Particle size and position

measurement with digital holography. Proc of SPIE 1997;3098:

23440.

[4] Murata S, Masuda M. Detection of the depth of tracer particles

using numerical reconstruction from in-line hologram patterns.

Proceedings of Fifth Triennial International Symposium on Fluid

Control, Measurement and Visualization, 1997. p. 9238.

[5] Murata S, Masuda M. Detection of the depth of tracer particles using

numerical reconstruction from in-line hologram patterns. Proceedings

of Eighth International Symposium on Flow Visualization, Vol. 177,

1998. p. 177.1177.6.