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Analgesics classification

According to the chemical structure


Opioids
1. Phenanthrene derivates
-morphine
-buprenorphine
-omnopon
-nalbuphine

2. Phenylpiperidine derivates
-fentanyl
-sufentanyl
-alfentanyl
-trimeperidine

3.Benzomorphan derivates
-pantazocine
5. Cyclohexanoles derivates
-thramadol

4. Derivates of cyclohexen-carbonic
acid: -thilidine
6. Morphinane derivates
-butorphanol
7. Opioid antagonist
-naloxone
-nalorphine
-nalmephene
-naltrexone

Non-opioid drugs
1. The salicylates
- acetylsalicylic acid
- sodium salicylate
- methylsalicylate
- salicylamid
2. Pirazolone derivates
-fenylbutazone
-baralgine
II Classification of analgesics
1) With central action:
1. opioid drugs and their antagonists
A)agonist of opioid receptors
a) alkaloids from Papaver somniferum
b). Synthetic drugs
- morphine
- fentanyl
- omnopon
- alfentanyl
- sufentanyl
- thalamonal
- promedol
B)agonist-antagonist and partial agonist of opioid receptors
- pentazocine

- nalbuphine
- butorphanol
C) Antagonists of opioid drugs
-naloxone
-nalorphine
-nalmephene
-naltrexone

2. Non-opioids with central act


a) paraaminophenols derivates
- Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)
- mixed drugs: coldrex, panadol-extra, saridon
b) the drugs from diverse groups with central analgesic effect.
- Clonidine
- Lamotridgine
- Calcitonine
- Levomepromasine
- Amitriptyline
-Carbamazepine
- Ketamine
c) central analgesics with mixed action (opioid and non-opioid)
-thramadole
3. non-opioid drugs with peripheral action
a) the salicylates
- acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
b) pyrasolones
- fenylbuthazone
- baralgine
c) diverse chemical structures
ketorolac
Opioid antagonists: Naloxone and naltrexone are pure opioid receptor
antagonists that have few other effects at doses which produce marked
antagonism of agonist effects. The major clinical use of the opioid antagonist is
in the management of acute opioid overdose.. Naloxone has a short duration of
action (1-2 hours). Naltrexones duration of action is 24-48 hours.

Naloxone : short duration of action 1 - 2h


Naltrexone : longer duration of action 24 - 48 h

Classification of hypnotics
1. Agonist of benzodiazepine receptors.
1) Benzodiazepine derivates
a) Short action T 0,5 1,5-3 hours
- Tiazolam
- Midazolam
- Estazolam
- Ketazolam
b) Medium action T0,5 12-24 hours
- Temazepam
- Nitrazepam
- Lorazepam
- Oxazepam
- Clonazepam
c) Long action T 0,5 30-40 hours
I..Benzodiazepines
- Diazepam
- Flurazepam
- Flunitrazepam
- Fenazepam
II Not benzodiazepines
- Zopiclon
- Zolpidem
- buspiron
II. Hypnotics with anesthetic action (narcotic)
Heterocycles
barbiturics
Medium action
- Pentobarbital
Long action
- Phenobarbital
Aliphatic drugs
- Chloral hydrate
III. Remedies from various groups
- Sedatives
- Tranquilisators
- Neuroleptics (a little doses)
- Antihistamines
**Flumazenil is antagonist of hypnotic drugs

Anti-epileptics
I Partial convulsions
1.psychomotor crisis
- carbamazepine
- phenytoin
- hexamidine
- valproic acid

- phenobarbital
- lamotridgine
- clobazepam

II Generalized convulsions
1) Petit mal (minor crisis)
- ethosuximide
- lamotridgine
- valproic acid
- clonazepam
- thrimetadione
2) Grand mal (major crisis) ( tonic-clonic convulsions)
- phenobarbital
- phenytoin
- valproic acid
- carbamazepine
- lamotridgine
- hexamidine
3) Status epilepticus
- diazepam
- phenobarbital
- lorazepam
- general anesthetics (intravenous)
- clonazepam
4) Myoclonic syndromes
1. valproic acid
2. clonazepam
3. diazepam
4. nitrazepam
5.
III Contractures
a) GABA derivates
b) non benzodiazepines
c) benzodiazepines
Phenibut
tolperyzone
diazepam
baclofen
mefedol
fenazepam
Antiepileptics
Classification 2
I order the drugs administrated in monotherapy
Phenobarbital
Phenytoin
Trimetadione
Ethsuximide
Primidone
Clonazepam
Carbamazepine
Nitrazepam
Valproic acid
Lamotridgine
II order these drugs are associated with I order drugs
Diazepam
Bromides
Acetazolamides

Antiparkinsonian Drugs
1.Remedies that activated dopaminergic system
1) predecessors of dopamine
Levodopa (L Dopa)
Levodopa adjunct (mixed drugs)
- Sinement
- Nacom
- Madopar
- Entancapone
2) dopaminimimetics
- Bromocriptine
3) MAO inhibitor
- Selegeline
2. Remedies that inhibits glutamatergic system
- Amantadine
3. Remedies that inhibits cholinergic system
- Trihexyphenidyl
- Difenyltropine
- Benztropine mesilate
- Triperidine

Psychopharmacologicals
Psychotropic drugs the drugs with the action on the CNS
Classification of Psychotropic drugs
1) Psycholeptics ( inhibit CNS)
- Neuroleptics
- Sedatives
- Tranquilisators
- Lithium
2) Psychoanaleptics (activate CNS)
- Antidepressants
- Nootropes
- Psychostimulants
- Tonisants
- Adaptogenes
3) Psychodyslepics Psychosomimetics

Neuroleptics (antipsychotics)
Typical antipsychotics ( Cause unwanted motor side-effects)
A. Phenothiazines - chlorpromazine
- levomepromazine
- Fluphenazine
- perphenazine
B. Butyrophenones - haloperidol
- trifluperidol
- droperidol
C. Thioxanthenes
- chlothixen
- thiothixene
D. Dyphenylbutylpiperidines
- Fluspirilen
- pimozid
- fenfluridol
Atypical antipsychotics
A Dybenzodiazepines
- clozapin
B Benzamides
- sulpiride
C Alkaloids of Rauwolfia
- rezerpine

Tranquilisators
I .. Major
A Benzodiazepines:
-

Diazepam
Fenazepam
Oxazepam
Nitrazepam

benzoclidine
trimetozine
lonetyl

amixid
librax
antares 120

alrazolam
opipramol

B. Non benzodiazepines

II Minor
proroxane
fenybut
propranolol
mebicar
meprobamat
pyracetam

C Compound drugs

D. Antidepressants

Sedatives drugs
Drugs used to inhibit agitation, stress, and insomnia
Classification:
1) Natural drugs: T-rae Valerian
T-rae Leonur
2) Synthetics
Bromides (Na, K)
3) Barbiturates
Phenobarbital, pentobarbital
4) Compound
Corvalol

Antidepressants
According to the mechanism of action :
A. Amine reuptake blocking drugs
a. nonselective: imipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine
b. selective:
1) selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors
fluoxetine,
paroxetine
sertraline
2) selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors
maprotiline
desipramine
B. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
a. unreversible drugs
phenelzine
tranylcypromide
nialamide
b. reversible drugs
moclobemide
pirlindol
C. The drugs from various groups with undefined mechanism of action
alprasolam
mianserin
feprozidine
Nootropes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Pirolidones : Pyracetam (nootropil)


Vitamins derivates : Pirithinol, Pantogam, Picamilone
GABA derivates: GAMA-aminobutiric acid, Fenibut
Dimetylaminoethanol: Meclofenoxat
Various groups: Vinpocetine, Cinarizine, Nicergoline, Pentoxipylline
Psychostimulants:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fenilachilamines- Amphetamine, Methamphetamine


Piperidines: Methylfenidat, Piridrol
Sydninimines: Mesocarb
Methylxanthines: Caffeine

Analeptics
1. Medullar stimulants
- Strychnine,Securenine
2. Bulbs stimulants
- Bemegrid, Niketamine, Pentetrazol
- Camphor, Sulphocomphocaine, Ethimizol
3. General tonizants and adaptogenes
A. Vegetal tonizants: Schizandra, Streculia, Lecozeea,
Echinopanax, Panttocrina, Rantarina
B.Vegetal adaptogens: Panax (Ginseng), Bioginseng,
Eleuterococcus, Rodiola