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CORROSION OF METALS

AND ALLOYS

CHE 431

2 units

Course Instructors : Dr. Odunlami O .&

Mr. Ogunbiyi A . T.

Mode of Assessment

Test 1 Test 2

=10 % = 10 %

Grp. Assig . = 10 %

of Assessment Test 1 Test 2 =10 % = 10 % Grp. Assig . = 10

Cont. Ass . Exam . Total

30 %

70 %

2 =10 % = 10 % Grp. Assig . = 10 % Cont. Ass . Exam

100 %

2 =10 % = 10 % Grp. Assig . = 10 % Cont. Ass . Exam

MODULES

Corrosion Control by Materials Selection

Corrosion Control by Protective Coating and Use of Inhibitors

Corrosion Control by Anodic & Cathodic Protection

Corrosion in automobile, chemical and petroleum industry

MODULES

Introduction Principles of Corrosion Forms of Corrosion Corrosion Testing

What

is

Corrosion?

Corrosion can be defined as the destructive attack of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment .

Why Metals corrode

Metals corrode because we use them in environments where they are chemically unstable.

Only copper and the precious metals (gold,

silver, platinum, etc. ) are found in nature in their metallic state. All other metals, to include iron- the metal most commonly used- are processed from minerals or ores into metals which are inherently unstable in their environments .

Corrosion process

(1) Ions are involved and need a medium to move in (usually water) (2) Oxygen is involved and needs to be supplied

(3) The metal has to be willing to give up electrons to start the process (4) A new material is formed and this may react again or

could be protective of the original metal (5) A series of simple steps are involved and a driving

force is needed to achieve them . The most important fact is that interfering with the steps allows the corrosion reaction to be stopped or slowed to a manageable rate.

Forms of Corrosion

Uniform or General Corrosion

Pitting Corrosion

Crevice Corrosion

Galvanic Corrosion

Erosion Corrosion

Inter-granular Corrosion

Stress Corrosion Cracking

CO 2 corrosion

H 2 S Corrosion

Strong acids Corrosion

Measurement of Corrosion Rate

[A] WEIGHT LOSS METHOD

[B] MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION

[C] MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL

RESISTANCE

Corrosion Control

Select a material that is resistant to the corrosive environment . Give metal a protective coating. Change the service conditions, such as temperature, pressure, or velocity. Change environment chemistry, such as pH, concentration, aeration, or impurities .

Corrosion Control Continued

Add a corrosion inhibitor . Shift the electrical potential of the metal by cathodic or anodic protection. Modify the design of the equipment or system . Let it corrode and replace it (often a viable alternative!).

Types of materials

Non metallic materials Metallic materials

Non metallic materials

Plastics

Ceramics

Concrete

Wood

Metallic materials

Carbon Steels Stainless Steels Aluminum Copper Alloys Titanium

Materials Selection

Iron

second most abundant metal element in the earth’s crust

primarily used to produce steel

one of the most important structural materials in the world.

Steel

an alloy of iron and various other metals,

used to enhance the properties (strength, resistance to corrosion, tolerance to heat etc) of iron.

Changing the type and amount of the elements alloyed with iron can produce different types of steel .

Materials Selection Continued

The most common steels are:

1. Carbon steels,

contain between 0. 5-1. 5% carbon.

most large metal structures are made from carbon steel

the world's most useful structural material .

inexpensive, readily available in a variety of forms,

can be machined, welded, and formed into many

shapes .

unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture .

iron oxide film (the rust) is active and accelerates

corrosion by forming more iron oxide

Materials Selection Continued

Low alloy steels,

contain between 1- 5% other metals (often nickel or tungsten) .

Nickel steel is able to withstand high level of tension (for bridges)

Tungsten steels keep their shape and

high temperature

strength

in

environments

Materials Selection Continued

High alloy steels,

contain 12 -18 % of other metals

are

only

used

in

specialty

applications due to their high cost .

very strong and highly resistant to corrosion .

Stainless steel is an example of a high alloy steel

Stainless steels

A stainless steel is defined as a ferrous alloy containing enough chromium to passivate in some environment, such as air and water. At least 10% Cr (but usually ~12%), is required to form a passive film (mainly Cr 2 O 3 ). Stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to form a passive film of chromium oxide, which

prevents further surface corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and blocks corrosion from spreading into the metal's internal structure.

Stainless steels continued

First choice for a “probably corrosive” environment with unknown properties,

resistant to a wide range of oxidizers,

cannot withstand strong reducing solutions, such as hydrochloric acid.

They can be corroded, despite their name.

Stainless steel is 100% recyclable .

Classification of stainless steels

The stainless steels are classified into five general groups :

i.

Austentic

ii.

Ferritic

iii.

Martensitic

iv.

Duplex

v.

Precipitation Hardening

Austentic stainless steels

The austenitic grades are the largest type of stainless

steels, and can be divided into five sub-groups :

Cr -Mn grades also referred to as 200- series grades have some of the nickel replaced with manganese and nitrogen Cr - Ni grades general - purpose grades mainly alloyed with chromium and nickel, but with no molybdenum

Austentic stainless steels continued

Cr- Ni - Mo grades also general - purpose grades, but with increased corrosion resistance due to alloying with molybdenum High - performance grades high alloying

very demanding

content

for

in

use

environments

High - temperature grades high chromium and nickel content, but no molybdenum, for use

at temperatures exceeding 550 °C

Austentic stainless steels continued

Good to excellent corrosion resistance

Good

formability Non - magnetic

and

weldability

Ferritic stainless steel

Chromium (11 . 2 19 % ) Low carbon and nickel content Good corrosion resistance Good weldability and toughness Magnetic Not expensive because of the low nickel content

Martensitic stainless steels

Smallest group of stainless steels .

High strength (high carbon and nitrogen content)

High wear resistance

Limited corrosion resistance

Magnetic

Duplex stainless steels

Very good corrosion resistance

Good weldability

Light weight

Magnetic

Approximately 50 % ferritic and 50% austenitic .

Higher strength than either ferritic or austenitic steels .

Precipitation Hardening stainless steels

High strength High wear resistance Limited corrosion resistance Magnetic